WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning occurs incrementally

  1. Teraflop-scale Incremental Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Özkural, Eray

    2011-01-01

    We propose a long-term memory design for artificial general intelligence based on Solomonoff's incremental machine learning methods. We use R5RS Scheme and its standard library with a few omissions as the reference machine. We introduce a Levin Search variant based on Stochastic Context Free Grammar together with four synergistic update algorithms that use the same grammar as a guiding probability distribution of programs. The update algorithms include adjusting production probabilities, re-u...

  2. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  3. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilico, Justin Derrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dixon, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nathaniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wendt, Jeremy Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  4. Incremental Learning for Place Recognition in Dynamic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jie; Pronobis, Andrzej; Caputo, Barbara; Jensfelt, Patric

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a discriminative approach to template-based Vision-based place recognition is a desirable feature for an autonomous mobile system. In order to work in realistic scenarios, visual recognition algorithms should be adaptive, i.e. should be able to learn from experience and adapt continuously to changes in the environment. This paper presents a discriminative incremental learning approach to place recognition. We use a recently introduced version of the incremental SVM, which ...

  5. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  6. Incremental Inductive Learning in a Constructivist Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, Filipo Studzinski; Älvares, Luís Otávio

    The constructivist paradigm in Artificial Intelligence has been definitively inaugurated in the earlier 1990's by Drescher's pioneer work [10]. He faces the challenge of design an alternative model for machine learning, founded in the human cognitive developmental process described by Piaget [x]. His effort has inspired many other researchers.

  7. Support vector machine incremental learning triggered by wrongly predicted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting-long; Guan, Qiu; Wu, Yi-rong

    2018-05-01

    According to the classic Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) theorem, at every step of incremental support vector machine (SVM) learning, the newly adding sample which violates the KKT conditions will be a new support vector (SV) and migrate the old samples between SV set and non-support vector (NSV) set, and at the same time the learning model should be updated based on the SVs. However, it is not exactly clear at this moment that which of the old samples would change between SVs and NSVs. Additionally, the learning model will be unnecessarily updated, which will not greatly increase its accuracy but decrease the training speed. Therefore, how to choose the new SVs from old sets during the incremental stages and when to process incremental steps will greatly influence the accuracy and efficiency of incremental SVM learning. In this work, a new algorithm is proposed to select candidate SVs and use the wrongly predicted sample to trigger the incremental processing simultaneously. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve good performance with high efficiency, high speed and good accuracy.

  8. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  9. A parallel ILP algorithm that incorporates incremental batch learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Fonseca; Rui Camacho; Fernado Silva

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problems of eciency and scala-bility faced by Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) systems. We proposethe use of parallelism to improve eciency and the use of an incrementalbatch learning to address the scalability problem. We describe a novelparallel algorithm that incorporates into ILP the method of incremen-tal batch learning. The theoretical complexity of the algorithm indicatesthat a linear speedup can be achieved.

  10. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  12. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  13. An Incremental Type-2 Meta-Cognitive Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mahardhika; Zhang, Guangquan; Er, Meng Joo; Anavatti, Sreenatha

    2017-02-01

    Existing extreme learning algorithm have not taken into account four issues: 1) complexity; 2) uncertainty; 3) concept drift; and 4) high dimensionality. A novel incremental type-2 meta-cognitive extreme learning machine (ELM) called evolving type-2 ELM (eT2ELM) is proposed to cope with the four issues in this paper. The eT2ELM presents three main pillars of human meta-cognition: 1) what-to-learn; 2) how-to-learn; and 3) when-to-learn. The what-to-learn component selects important training samples for model updates by virtue of the online certainty-based active learning method, which renders eT2ELM as a semi-supervised classifier. The how-to-learn element develops a synergy between extreme learning theory and the evolving concept, whereby the hidden nodes can be generated and pruned automatically from data streams with no tuning of hidden nodes. The when-to-learn constituent makes use of the standard sample reserved strategy. A generalized interval type-2 fuzzy neural network is also put forward as a cognitive component, in which a hidden node is built upon the interval type-2 multivariate Gaussian function while exploiting a subset of Chebyshev series in the output node. The efficacy of the proposed eT2ELM is numerically validated in 12 data streams containing various concept drifts. The numerical results are confirmed by thorough statistical tests, where the eT2ELM demonstrates the most encouraging numerical results in delivering reliable prediction, while sustaining low complexity.

  14. Incremental and developmental perspectives for general-purpose learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Plumed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stupefying success of Articial Intelligence (AI for specic problems, from recommender systems to self-driving cars, has not yet been matched with a similar progress in general AI systems, coping with a variety of (dierent problems. This dissertation deals with the long-standing problem of creating more general AI systems, through the analysis of their development and the evaluation of their cognitive abilities. It presents a declarative general-purpose learning system and a developmental and lifelong approach for knowledge acquisition, consolidation and forgetting. It also analyses the use of the use of more ability-oriented evaluation techniques for AI evaluation and provides further insight for the understanding of the concepts of development and incremental learning in AI systems.

  15. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2018-01-01

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  16. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraldi, Piero, E-mail: piero.baraldi@polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Razavi-Far, Roozbeh [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris-Supelec, Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  17. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh; Zio, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  18. Incremental online object learning in a vehicular radar-vision fusion framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhengping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weng, Juyang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luciw, Matthew [IEEE; Zeng, Shuqing [IEEE

    2010-10-19

    In this paper, we propose an object learning system that incorporates sensory information from an automotive radar system and a video camera. The radar system provides a coarse attention for the focus of visual analysis on relatively small areas within the image plane. The attended visual areas are coded and learned by a 3-layer neural network utilizing what is called in-place learning, where every neuron is responsible for the learning of its own signal processing characteristics within its connected network environment, through inhibitory and excitatory connections with other neurons. The modeled bottom-up, lateral, and top-down connections in the network enable sensory sparse coding, unsupervised learning and supervised learning to occur concurrently. The presented work is applied to learn two types of encountered objects in multiple outdoor driving settings. Cross validation results show the overall recognition accuracy above 95% for the radar-attended window images. In comparison with the uncoded representation and purely unsupervised learning (without top-down connection), the proposed network improves the recognition rate by 15.93% and 6.35% respectively. The proposed system is also compared with other learning algorithms favorably. The result indicates that our learning system is the only one to fit all the challenging criteria for the development of an incremental and online object learning system.

  19. Incremental Learning of Perceptual Categories for Open-Domain Sketch Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovett, Andrew; Dehghani, Morteza; Forbus, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper describes an incremental learning technique for opendomain recognition. Our system builds generalizations for categories of objects based upon previous sketches of those objects and uses those generalizations to classify new sketches...

  20. A Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network based on local distribution learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Youlu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Shen, Furao; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Jinxi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an unsupervised incremental learning neural network based on local distribution learning, which is called Local Distribution Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network (LD-SOINN). The LD-SOINN combines the advantages of incremental learning and matrix learning. It can automatically discover suitable nodes to fit the learning data in an incremental way without a priori knowledge such as the structure of the network. The nodes of the network store rich local information regarding the learning data. The adaptive vigilance parameter guarantees that LD-SOINN is able to add new nodes for new knowledge automatically and the number of nodes will not grow unlimitedly. While the learning process continues, nodes that are close to each other and have similar principal components are merged to obtain a concise local representation, which we call a relaxation data representation. A denoising process based on density is designed to reduce the influence of noise. Experiments show that the LD-SOINN performs well on both artificial and real-word data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SupportNet: a novel incremental learning framework through deep learning and support data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu; Li, Zhongxiao; Ding, Lizhong; Hu, Yuhui; Chen, Wei; Gao, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Motivation: In most biological data sets, the amount of data is regularly growing and the number of classes is continuously increasing. To deal with the new data from the new classes, one approach is to train a classification model, e.g., a deep learning model, from scratch based on both old and new data. This approach is highly computationally costly and the extracted features are likely very different from the ones extracted by the model trained on the old data alone, which leads to poor model robustness. Another approach is to fine tune the trained model from the old data on the new data. However, this approach often does not have the ability to learn new knowledge without forgetting the previously learned knowledge, which is known as the catastrophic forgetting problem. To our knowledge, this problem has not been studied in the field of bioinformatics despite its existence in many bioinformatic problems. Results: Here we propose a novel method, SupportNet, to solve the catastrophic forgetting problem efficiently and effectively. SupportNet combines the strength of deep learning and support vector machine (SVM), where SVM is used to identify the support data from the old data, which are fed to the deep learning model together with the new data for further training so that the model can review the essential information of the old data when learning the new information. Two powerful consolidation regularizers are applied to ensure the robustness of the learned model. Comprehensive experiments on various tasks, including enzyme function prediction, subcellular structure classification and breast tumor classification, show that SupportNet drastically outperforms the state-of-the-art incremental learning methods and reaches similar performance as the deep learning model trained from scratch on both old and new data. Availability: Our program is accessible at: \\url{https://github.com/lykaust15/SupportNet}.

  2. SupportNet: a novel incremental learning framework through deep learning and support data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2018-05-08

    Motivation: In most biological data sets, the amount of data is regularly growing and the number of classes is continuously increasing. To deal with the new data from the new classes, one approach is to train a classification model, e.g., a deep learning model, from scratch based on both old and new data. This approach is highly computationally costly and the extracted features are likely very different from the ones extracted by the model trained on the old data alone, which leads to poor model robustness. Another approach is to fine tune the trained model from the old data on the new data. However, this approach often does not have the ability to learn new knowledge without forgetting the previously learned knowledge, which is known as the catastrophic forgetting problem. To our knowledge, this problem has not been studied in the field of bioinformatics despite its existence in many bioinformatic problems. Results: Here we propose a novel method, SupportNet, to solve the catastrophic forgetting problem efficiently and effectively. SupportNet combines the strength of deep learning and support vector machine (SVM), where SVM is used to identify the support data from the old data, which are fed to the deep learning model together with the new data for further training so that the model can review the essential information of the old data when learning the new information. Two powerful consolidation regularizers are applied to ensure the robustness of the learned model. Comprehensive experiments on various tasks, including enzyme function prediction, subcellular structure classification and breast tumor classification, show that SupportNet drastically outperforms the state-of-the-art incremental learning methods and reaches similar performance as the deep learning model trained from scratch on both old and new data. Availability: Our program is accessible at: \\\\url{https://github.com/lykaust15/SupportNet}.

  3. StreamAR: incremental and active learning with evolving sensory data for activity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Z.; Gaber, M.; Srinivasan, B.; Krishnaswamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Activity recognition focuses on inferring current user activities by leveraging sensory data available on today’s sensor rich environment. Supervised learning has been applied pervasively for activity recognition. Typical activity recognition techniques process sensory data based on point-by-point approaches. In this paper, we propose a novel cluster-based classification for activity recognition Systems, termed StreamAR. The system incorporates incremental and active learning for mining user ...

  4. Learning in Different Modes: The Interaction Between Incremental and Radical Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Hedegaard; Boer, Harry; Gertsen, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study presented in this article is to contribute to the development of theory on continuous innovation, i.e. the combination of operationally effective exploitation and strategically flexible exploration. A longitudinal case study is presented of the interaction between...... incremental and radical change in Danish company, observed through the lens of organizational learning. The radical change process is described in five phases, each of which had its own effects on incremental change initiatives in the company. The research identified four factors explaining these effects, all...

  5. Learning by investing: evidence from a naturally occurring auction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2011), s. 125-149 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : learning * naturally occurring auction * stock market Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2011

  6. Indexing Density Models for Incremental Learning and Anytime Classification on Data Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidl, Thomas; Assent, Ira; Kranen, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Classification of streaming data faces three basic challenges: it has to deal with huge amounts of data, the varying time between two stream data items must be used best possible (anytime classification) and additional training data must be incrementally learned (anytime learning) for applying...... to the individual object to be classified) a hierarchy of mixture densities that represent kernel density estimators at successively coarser levels. Our probability density queries together with novel classification improvement strategies provide the necessary information for very effective classification at any...... point of interruption. Moreover, we propose a novel evaluation method for anytime classification using Poisson streams and demonstrate the anytime learning performance of the Bayes tree....

  7. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  8. Incremental learning of perceptual and conceptual representations and the puzzle of neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Incremental learning models of long-term perceptual and conceptual knowledge hold that neural representations are gradually acquired over many individual experiences via Hebbian-like activity-dependent synaptic plasticity across cortical connections of the brain. In such models, variation in task relevance of information, anatomic constraints, and the statistics of sensory inputs and motor outputs lead to qualitative alterations in the nature of representations that are acquired. Here, the proposal that behavioral repetition priming and neural repetition suppression effects are empirical markers of incremental learning in the cortex is discussed, and research results that both support and challenge this position are reviewed. Discussion is focused on a recent fMRI-adaptation study from our laboratory that shows decoupling of experience-dependent changes in neural tuning, priming, and repetition suppression, with representational changes that appear to work counter to the explicit task demands. Finally, critical experiments that may help to clarify and resolve current challenges are outlined.

  9. Pornographic image recognition and filtering using incremental learning in compressed domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chao; Zhuo, Li; Geng, Wenhao

    2015-11-01

    With the rapid development and popularity of the network, the openness, anonymity, and interactivity of networks have led to the spread and proliferation of pornographic images on the Internet, which have done great harm to adolescents' physical and mental health. With the establishment of image compression standards, pornographic images are mainly stored with compressed formats. Therefore, how to efficiently filter pornographic images is one of the challenging issues for information security. A pornographic image recognition and filtering method in the compressed domain is proposed by using incremental learning, which includes the following steps: (1) low-resolution (LR) images are first reconstructed from the compressed stream of pornographic images, (2) visual words are created from the LR image to represent the pornographic image, and (3) incremental learning is adopted to continuously adjust the classification rules to recognize the new pornographic image samples after the covering algorithm is utilized to train and recognize the visual words in order to build the initial classification model of pornographic images. The experimental results show that the proposed pornographic image recognition method using incremental learning has a higher recognition rate as well as costing less recognition time in the compressed domain.

  10. Statistical Discriminability Estimation for Pattern Classification Based on Neural Incremental Attribute Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ting; Guan, Sheng-Uei; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2014-01-01

    Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based...... estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)-based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches...

  11. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  12. The more you learn, the less you store : Memory-controlled incremental SVM for visual place recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pronobis, Andrzej; Jie, Luo; Caputo, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The capability to learn from experience is a key property for autonomous cognitive systems working in realistic settings. To this end, this paper presents an SVM-based algorithm, capable of learning model representations incrementally while keeping under control memory requirements. We combine an incremental extension of SVMs [43] with a method reducing the number of support vectors needed to build the decision function without any loss in performance [15] introducing a parameter which permit...

  13. An Intrinsic Value System for Developing Multiple Invariant Representations with Incremental Slowness Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Luciw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity Driven Modular Incremental Slow Feature Analysis (CD-MISFA;~cite{cdmisfa} is a recently introduced model of intrinsically-motivated invariance learning, which shows how curiosity enables the orderly formation of multiple stable sensory representations, through which the agent can simplify its complex sensory input. Here, we first discuss the computational properties of the CD-MISFA model itself, followed by a discussion of neurophysiological analogs fulfilling similar functional roles. CD-MISFA combines 1. unsupervised representation learning through the slowness principle, 2. generation of an intrinsic reward signal through the learning progress of the developing features, and 3. balancing of exploration and exploitation in order to maximize learning progress and quickly learn multiple feature sets for perceptual simplification. Experimental results on synthetic observations and on the iCub robot show that the intrinsic value system is an essential component to representation learning, further, the model explores such that the representations are typically learned in order from least to most costly, as predicted by the theory of Artificial Curiosity.

  14. Stable Myoelectric Control of a Hand Prosthesis using Non-Linear Incremental Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan eGijsberts

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable myoelectric control of hand prostheses remains an open problem. The only successful human-machine interface is surface electromyography, typically allowing control of a few degrees of freedom. Machine learning techniques may have the potential to remove these limitations, but their performance is thus far inadequate: myoelectric signals change over time under the influence of various factors, deteriorating control performance. It is therefore necessary, in the standard approach, to regularly retrain a new model from scratch.We hereby propose a non-linear incremental learning method in which occasional updates with a modest amount of novel training data allow continual adaptation to the changes in the signals. In particular, Incremental Ridge Regression and an approximation of the Gaussian Kernel known as Random Fourier Features are combined to predict finger forces from myoelectric signals, both finger-by-finger and grouped in grasping patterns.We show that the approach is effective and practically applicable to this problem by first analyzing its performance while predicting single-finger forces. Surface electromyography and finger forces were collected from 10 intact subjects during four sessions spread over two different days; the results of the analysis show that small incremental updates are indeed effective to maintain a stable level of performance.Subsequently, we employed the same method on-line to teleoperate a humanoid robotic arm equipped with a state-of-the-art commercial prosthetic hand. The subject could reliably grasp, carry and release everyday-life objects, enforcing stable grasping irrespective of the signal changes, hand/arm movements and wrist pronation and supination.

  15. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  16. USING THE POPULATION-BASED INCREMENTAL LEARNING ALGORITHM WITH COMPUTER SIMULATION: SOME APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bekker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The integration of the population-based incremental learning (PBIL algorithm with computer simulation shows how this particular combination can be applied to find good solutions to combinatorial optimisation problems. Two illustrative examples are used: the classical inventory problem of finding a reorder point and reorder quantity that minimises costs while achieving a required service level (a stochastic problem; and the signal timing of a complex traffic intersection. Any traffic control system must be designed to minimise the duration of interruptions at intersections while maximising traffic throughput. The duration of the phases of traffic lights is of primary importance in this regard.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die integrasie van die population-based incremental learning (PBIL algoritme met rekenaarsimulasie word bespreek, en daar word getoon hoe hierdie spesifieke kombinasie aangewend kan word om goeie oplossings vir kombinatoriese optimeringsprobleme te vind. Twee voorbeelde dien as illustrasie: die klassieke voorraadprobleem waarin ’n herbestelvlak en herbestelhoeveelheid bepaal moet word om koste te minimeer maar nogtans ’n vasgestelde diensvlak te handhaaf (’n stochastiese probleem; en die bepaling van die seintye van ’n komplekse verkeerskruising. Enige verkeerbeheerstelsel moet ontwerp word om die duur van die vloeionderbrekings by verkeerskruisings te minimeer en verkeerdeurset te maksimeer. Die tydsduur van die fases van verkeersligte is dus baie belangrik.

  17. An Improved Incremental Learning Approach for KPI Prognosis of Dynamic Fuel Cell System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shen; Xie, Xiaochen; Lam, James; Cheung, Kie Chung; Gao, Huijun

    2016-12-01

    The key performance indicator (KPI) has an important practical value with respect to the product quality and economic benefits for modern industry. To cope with the KPI prognosis issue under nonlinear conditions, this paper presents an improved incremental learning approach based on available process measurements. The proposed approach takes advantage of the algorithm overlapping of locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) and partial least squares (PLS), implementing the PLS-based prognosis in each locally linear model produced by the incremental learning process of LWPR. The global prognosis results including KPI prediction and process monitoring are obtained from the corresponding normalized weighted means of all the local models. The statistical indicators for prognosis are enhanced as well by the design of novel KPI-related and KPI-unrelated statistics with suitable control limits for non-Gaussian data. For application-oriented purpose, the process measurements from real datasets of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of KPI prognosis. The proposed approach is finally extended to a long-term voltage prediction for potential reference of further fuel cell applications.

  18. Incremental Structured Dictionary Learning for Video Sensor-Based Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Shibao; Zhou, Yi; Yu, Zhenghua

    2014-01-01

    To tackle robust object tracking for video sensor-based applications, an online discriminative algorithm based on incremental discriminative structured dictionary learning (IDSDL-VT) is presented. In our framework, a discriminative dictionary combining both positive, negative and trivial patches is designed to sparsely represent the overlapped target patches. Then, a local update (LU) strategy is proposed for sparse coefficient learning. To formulate the training and classification process, a multiple linear classifier group based on a K-combined voting (KCV) function is proposed. As the dictionary evolves, the models are also trained to timely adapt the target appearance variation. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging image sequences compared with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm achieves a more favorable performance. We also illustrate its relay application in visual sensor networks. PMID:24549252

  19. Incremental Structured Dictionary Learning for Video Sensor-Based Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To tackle robust object tracking for video sensor-based applications, an online discriminative algorithm based on incremental discriminative structured dictionary learning (IDSDL-VT is presented. In our framework, a discriminative dictionary combining both positive, negative and trivial patches is designed to sparsely represent the overlapped target patches. Then, a local update (LU strategy is proposed for sparse coefficient learning. To formulate the training and classification process, a multiple linear classifier group based on a K-combined voting (KCV function is proposed. As the dictionary evolves, the models are also trained to timely adapt the target appearance variation. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging image sequences compared with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm achieves a more favorable performance. We also illustrate its relay application in visual sensor networks.

  20. An incremental procedure model for e-learning projects at universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahlke, Friedrich

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning projects at universities are produced under different conditions than in industry. The main characteristic of many university projects is that these are realized quasi in a solo effort. In contrast, in private industry the different, interdisciplinary skills that are necessary for the development of e-learning are typically supplied by a multimedia agency.A specific procedure tailored for the use at universities is therefore required to facilitate mastering the amount and complexity of the tasks.In this paper an incremental procedure model is presented, which describes the proceeding in every phase of the project. It allows a high degree of flexibility and emphasizes the didactical concept – instead of the technical implementation. In the second part, we illustrate the practical use of the theoretical procedure model based on the project “Online training in Genetic Epidemiology”.

  1. Associative memory for online learning in noisy environments using self-organizing incremental neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Akihito; Sato, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Osamu

    2009-06-01

    Associative memory operating in a real environment must perform well in online incremental learning and be robust to noisy data because noisy associative patterns are presented sequentially in a real environment. We propose a novel associative memory that satisfies these requirements. Using the proposed method, new associative pairs that are presented sequentially can be learned accurately without forgetting previously learned patterns. The memory size of the proposed method increases adaptively with learning patterns. Therefore, it suffers neither redundancy nor insufficiency of memory size, even in an environment in which the maximum number of associative pairs to be presented is unknown before learning. Noisy inputs in real environments are classifiable into two types: noise-added original patterns and faultily presented random patterns. The proposed method deals with two types of noise. To our knowledge, no conventional associative memory addresses noise of both types. The proposed associative memory performs as a bidirectional one-to-many or many-to-one associative memory and deals not only with bipolar data, but also with real-valued data. Results demonstrate that the proposed method's features are important for application to an intelligent robot operating in a real environment. The originality of our work consists of two points: employing a growing self-organizing network for an associative memory, and discussing what features are necessary for an associative memory for an intelligent robot and proposing an associative memory that satisfies those requirements.

  2. DYNAMIC AND INCREMENTAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY IN FUSION ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY FOR ONLINE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhitama Subagdja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges in reinforcement learning is to setup a proper balance between exploration and exploitation to obtain the maximum cummulative reward in the long run. Most protocols for exploration bound the overall values to a convergent level of performance. If new knowledge is inserted or the environment is suddenly changed, the issue becomes more intricate as the exploration must compromise the pre-existing knowledge. This paper presents a type of multi-channel adaptive resonance theory (ART neural network model called fusion ART which serves as a fuzzy approximator for reinforcement learning with inherent features that can regulate the exploration strategy. This intrinsic regulation is driven by the condition of the knowledge learnt so far by the agent. The model offers a stable but incremental reinforcement learning that can involve prior rules as bootstrap knowledge for guiding the agent to select the right action. Experiments in obstacle avoidance and navigation tasks demonstrate that in the configuration of learning wherein the agent learns from scratch, the inherent exploration model in fusion ART model is comparable to the basic E-greedy policy. On the other hand, the model is demonstrated to deal with prior knowledge and strike a balance between exploration and exploitation.

  3. SAIL: Summation-bAsed Incremental Learning for Information-Theoretic Text Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Wu, Zhiang; Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Hui

    2013-04-01

    Information-theoretic clustering aims to exploit information-theoretic measures as the clustering criteria. A common practice on this topic is the so-called Info-Kmeans, which performs K-means clustering with KL-divergence as the proximity function. While expert efforts on Info-Kmeans have shown promising results, a remaining challenge is to deal with high-dimensional sparse data such as text corpora. Indeed, it is possible that the centroids contain many zero-value features for high-dimensional text vectors, which leads to infinite KL-divergence values and creates a dilemma in assigning objects to centroids during the iteration process of Info-Kmeans. To meet this challenge, in this paper, we propose a Summation-bAsed Incremental Learning (SAIL) algorithm for Info-Kmeans clustering. Specifically, by using an equivalent objective function, SAIL replaces the computation of KL-divergence by the incremental computation of Shannon entropy. This can avoid the zero-feature dilemma caused by the use of KL-divergence. To improve the clustering quality, we further introduce the variable neighborhood search scheme and propose the V-SAIL algorithm, which is then accelerated by a multithreaded scheme in PV-SAIL. Our experimental results on various real-world text collections have shown that, with SAIL as a booster, the clustering performance of Info-Kmeans can be significantly improved. Also, V-SAIL and PV-SAIL indeed help improve the clustering quality at a lower cost of computation.

  4. An approach to robot SLAM based on incremental appearance learning with omnidirectional vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Qin, Shi-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Localisation and mapping with an omnidirectional camera becomes more difficult as the landmark appearances change dramatically in the omnidirectional image. With conventional techniques, it is difficult to match the features of the landmark with the template. We present a novel robot simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) algorithm with an omnidirectional camera, which uses incremental landmark appearance learning to provide posterior probability distribution for estimating the robot pose under a particle filtering framework. The major contribution of our work is to represent the posterior estimation of the robot pose by incremental probabilistic principal component analysis, which can be naturally incorporated into the particle filtering algorithm for robot SLAM. Moreover, the innovative method of this article allows the adoption of the severe distorted landmark appearances viewed with omnidirectional camera for robot SLAM. The experimental results demonstrate that the localisation error is less than 1 cm in an indoor environment using five landmarks, and the location of the landmark appearances can be estimated within 5 pixels deviation from the ground truth in the omnidirectional image at a fairly fast speed.

  5. Contribution diversity and incremental learning promote cooperation in public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Penghui; Liu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the evolution of cooperation in nature has long been a challenge and how to promote cooperation in public goods games (PGG) has attracted lots of attention recently. Social diversity has been found helpful to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of reputation and punishment. However, further refinement on how individuals reallocate their contribution to each PGG remains an open question. Moreover, individuals in existing works mostly teach or learn from neighbors according to their payoff in the last generation only. However, individuals in reality are preferred to learn from others with a long-term good performance. Therefore, in this paper, a new contribution diversity (CD) is designed and incremental learning (IL) is introduced. We investigate how these two may influence the evolution of cooperation in PGG. Based on the simulation results, we found that both the CD and IL can promote the cooperation in PGGs. Moreover, when cooperators are shaken in their strategy, CD may fail in reallocating contribution of individuals properly. However, IL is found effective to stabilize faith of cooperators and cooperators under IL reflect a long-term advantage over defectors in terms of benefits. Therefore, we further find IL and CD can mutually benefit each other in promoting cooperation, as CD can reasonably adjust the investment of cooperators while IL can provide more information to CD.

  6. EEG Eye State Identification Using Incremental Attribute Learning with Time-Series Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye state identification is a kind of common time-series classification problem which is also a hot spot in recent research. Electroencephalography (EEG is widely used in eye state classification to detect human's cognition state. Previous research has validated the feasibility of machine learning and statistical approaches for EEG eye state classification. This paper aims to propose a novel approach for EEG eye state identification using incremental attribute learning (IAL based on neural networks. IAL is a novel machine learning strategy which gradually imports and trains features one by one. Previous studies have verified that such an approach is applicable for solving a number of pattern recognition problems. However, in these previous works, little research on IAL focused on its application to time-series problems. Therefore, it is still unknown whether IAL can be employed to cope with time-series problems like EEG eye state classification. Experimental results in this study demonstrates that, with proper feature extraction and feature ordering, IAL can not only efficiently cope with time-series classification problems, but also exhibit better classification performance in terms of classification error rates in comparison with conventional and some other approaches.

  7. An Iterative and Incremental Approach for E-Learning Ontology Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Rohitha Heiyanthuduwage

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - There is a boost in the interest on ontology with the developments in Semantic Web technologies. Ontologies play a vital role in semantic web. Even though there is lot of work done on ontology, still a standard framework for ontology engineering has not been defined. Even though current ontology engineering methodologies are available they need improvements. The effort of our work is to integrate various methods, techniques, tools and etc to different stages of proposed ontology engineering life cycle to create a comprehensive framework for ontology engineering. Current methodologies discuss ontology engineering stages and collaborative environments with user collaboration. However, discussion on increasing effectiveness and correct inference has been given less attention. More over, these methodologies provide little discussion on usability of domain ontologies. We consider these aspects as more important in our work. Also, ontology engineering has been done for various domains and for various purposes. Our effort is to propose an iterative and incremental approach for ontology engineering especially for e-learning domain with the intention of achieving a higher usability and effectiveness of e-learning systems. This paper introduces different aspects of the proposed ontology engineering framework and evaluation of it.

  8. An efficient incremental learning mechanism for tracking concept drift in spam filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jian Sheu

    Full Text Available This research manages in-depth analysis on the knowledge about spams and expects to propose an efficient spam filtering method with the ability of adapting to the dynamic environment. We focus on the analysis of email's header and apply decision tree data mining technique to look for the association rules about spams. Then, we propose an efficient systematic filtering method based on these association rules. Our systematic method has the following major advantages: (1 Checking only the header sections of emails, which is different from those spam filtering methods at present that have to analyze fully the email's content. Meanwhile, the email filtering accuracy is expected to be enhanced. (2 Regarding the solution to the problem of concept drift, we propose a window-based technique to estimate for the condition of concept drift for each unknown email, which will help our filtering method in recognizing the occurrence of spam. (3 We propose an incremental learning mechanism for our filtering method to strengthen the ability of adapting to the dynamic environment.

  9. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  10. Mobile Learning Via SMS Among Distance Learners: Does Learning Transfer Occur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznarahayu Ramli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether learners are willing to transfer learning in this mobile learning environment via SMS. The reason for this is to measure the effectiveness of the new method used in learning and education especially in distance education field. For this reason, students’ responses are gathered which looked at three factors namely learner characteristic, learning design and learning environment. The data are gathered through a survey research design with questionnaires using five-point likert scale. The questionnaires was administered for 105 distance education students from four courses including Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Social Science and Bachelor of Management. The Rasch Model Analysis was used to measure these dimensions. Rasch Model is a one-parameter logistic model within item response theory (IRT whereby the amount of a given latent trait in a person and the amount of that same latent trait reflected in various items can be estimated independently yet still compared explicitly to one another. The result of the study showed that learning transfer occurred and being influenced most by learner’s characteristics especially in term of their motivation as well as their perceive utility/value of the SMS learning to their job and academic performances.

  11. Abnormal Gait Behavior Detection for Elderly Based on Enhanced Wigner-Ville Analysis and Cloud Incremental SVM Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cloud based health care system is proposed in this paper for the elderly by providing abnormal gait behavior detection, classification, online diagnosis, and remote aid service. Intelligent mobile terminals with triaxial acceleration sensor embedded are used to capture the movement and ambulation information of elderly. The collected signals are first enhanced by a Kalman filter. And the magnitude of signal vector features is then extracted and decomposed into a linear combination of enhanced Gabor atoms. The Wigner-Ville analysis method is introduced and the problem is studied by joint time-frequency analysis. In order to solve the large-scale abnormal behavior data lacking problem in training process, a cloud based incremental SVM (CI-SVM learning method is proposed. The original abnormal behavior data are first used to get the initial SVM classifier. And the larger abnormal behavior data of elderly collected by mobile devices are then gathered in cloud platform to conduct incremental training and get the new SVM classifier. By the CI-SVM learning method, the knowledge of SVM classifier could be accumulated due to the dynamic incremental learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and can be applied to aged care, emergency aid, and related fields.

  12. Scalable, incremental learning with MapReduce parallelization for cell detection in high-resolution 3D microscopy data

    KAUST Repository

    Sung, Chul

    2013-08-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal count and distribution is central to the understanding of the organization and layout of cortical maps in the brain, and changes in the cell population induced by brain disorders. High-throughput 3D microscopy techniques such as Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM) are enabling whole-brain survey of neuronal distributions. Data from such techniques pose serious challenges to quantitative analysis due to the massive, growing, and sparsely labeled nature of the data. In this paper, we present a scalable, incremental learning algorithm for cell body detection that can address these issues. Our algorithm is computationally efficient (linear mapping, non-iterative) and does not require retraining (unlike gradient-based approaches) or retention of old raw data (unlike instance-based learning). We tested our algorithm on our rat brain Nissl data set, showing superior performance compared to an artificial neural network-based benchmark, and also demonstrated robust performance in a scenario where the data set is rapidly growing in size. Our algorithm is also highly parallelizable due to its incremental nature, and we demonstrated this empirically using a MapReduce-based implementation of the algorithm. We expect our scalable, incremental learning approach to be widely applicable to medical imaging domains where there is a constant flux of new data. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  14. Incremental Impact of Time on Students' Use of E-Learning via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Salarzadeh Janatabadi, Hashem

    2018-01-01

    The majority of studies utilised the cross-sectional method to measure students' intention to learn and investigate their corresponding learning behaviours. Only a few studies have measured the process of change in students' learning behaviour in the context of time. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effects of using a Facebook…

  15. Morphing Wing Structural Optimization Using Opposite-Based Population-Based Incremental Learning and Multigrid Ground Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sleesongsom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has twin aims. Firstly, a multigrid design approach for optimization of an unconventional morphing wing is proposed. The structural design problem is assigned to optimize wing mass, lift effectiveness, and buckling factor subject to structural safety requirements. Design variables consist of partial topology, nodal positions, and component sizes of a wing internal structure. Such a design process can be accomplished by using multiple resolutions of ground elements, which is called a multigrid approach. Secondly, an opposite-based multiobjective population-based incremental learning (OMPBIL is proposed for comparison with the original multiobjective population-based incremental learning (MPBIL. Multiobjective design problems with single-grid and multigrid design variables are then posed and tackled by OMPBIL and MPBIL. The results show that using OMPBIL in combination with a multigrid design approach is the best design strategy. OMPBIL is superior to MPBIL since the former provides better population diversity. Aeroelastic trim for an elastic morphing wing is also presented.

  16. The island model for parallel implementation of evolutionary algorithm of Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alan M.M. de; Schirru, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are biologically motivated adaptive systems which have been used, with good results, for function optimization. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new parallelization method to be applied to the Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm. PBIL combines standard genetic algorithm mechanisms with simple competitive learning and has ben successfully used in combinatorial optimization problems. The development of this algorithm aims its application to the reload optimization of PWR nuclear reactors. Tests have been performed with combinatorial optimization problems similar to the reload problem. Results are compared to the serial PBIL ones, showing the new method's superiority and its viability as a tool for the nuclear core reload problem solution. (author)

  17. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  18. Different strategy of hand choice after learning of constant and incremental dynamical perturbation in arm reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eHabagishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they moved a specified hand to reach a target on a virtual reality display. During the task, a resistive viscous force field was abruptly applied to only the dominant hand. To evaluate changes in hand choice caused by this perturbation, participants performed an interleaved choice test in which they could freely choose either hand for reaching. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of temporal changes on arm dynamics and hand choice, we exposed the same participants to another condition in which the force field was introduced gradually. When the abrupt force was applied, use of the perturbed hand significantly decreased and not changed during the training. In contrast, when the incremental force was applied, use of the perturbed hand gradually decreased as force increased. Surprisingly, even though the final amount of force was identical between the two conditions, hand choice was significantly biased toward the unperturbed hand in the gradual condition. These results suggest that time-varying changes in arm dynamics may have a greater influence on hand choice than the amplitude of the resistant force itself.

  19. Localised and Learnt Applications of Machine Learning for Robotic Incremental Sheet Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Sheet Forming (ISF) and exemplified in the fabrication of a bridge structure. The methods we describe compensate for springback and improve forming tolerance by using localised in-process distance sensing to adapt tool-paths, and by using pre-process supervised machine learning to predict stringback...

  20. Fast phonetic learning occurs already in 2-to-3-month old infants. An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, K.; Boersma, P.; van Zuijen, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    An important mechanism for learning speech sounds in the first year of life is ‘distributional learning’, i.e., learning by simply listening to the frequency distributions of the speech sounds in the environment. In the lab, fast distributional learning has been reported for infants in the second

  1. Flavour-flavour learning occurs automatically and only in hungry participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Fletcher, Hollie Z

    2008-01-28

    A novel flavour may become liked if it is presented repeatedly and in combination with a second flavour that is already liked. Conceptually, this 'flavour-flavour learning' is important, because it can account for many of our everyday food and flavour preferences. However, relatively little is known about the underlying process because learning paradigms have lacked reliability. Based on previous research we explored whether learning is determined by three variables; i) hunger state, ii) demand and contingency awareness, and iii) dietary restraint. Participants (male n=15/female n=15) consumed three different and novel-tasting fruit teas. One of the teas had a non-caloric sweetener added (CS+) and two were unsweetened (CS-). Before and after this training the participants ranked their preference for unsweetened versions of the three teas. We found that the training increased preference for the CS+ relative to the CS- teas. However, this effect was only found in hungry participants. We also found little evidence that learning was related to whether the participants could identify (recognition test) the specific tea that had been sweetened during training, suggesting that the underlying process is automatic and it operates outside conscious awareness. Learning was not predicted by dietary restraint (measured using the DEBQ-R scale). Together, these findings provide further evidence for a linkage between flavour-flavour learning and flavour-nutrient learning.

  2. Does phonological recoding occur during silent reading and is it necessary for orthographic learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.F.; Bitter, D.J.L.; van Setten, M.; Marinus, E.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the central claim of the self-teaching hypothesis (i.e., phonological recoding is necessary for orthographic learning) in silent reading. The first study aimed to demonstrate the use of phonological recoding during silent reading. Texts containing pseudowords were

  3. The effect of incremental changes in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Maekawa, Junko; Lee, Su-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Phonotactic probability or neighborhood density have predominately been defined using gross distinctions (i.e., low vs. high). The current studies examined the influence of finer changes in probability (Experiment 1) and density (Experiment 2) on word learning. Method The full range of probability or density was examined by sampling five nonwords from each of four quartiles. Three- and 5-year-old children received training on nonword-nonobject pairs. Learning was measured in a picture-naming task immediately following training and 1-week after training. Results were analyzed using multi-level modeling. Results A linear spline model best captured nonlinearities in phonotactic probability. Specifically word learning improved as probability increased in the lowest quartile, worsened as probability increased in the midlow quartile, and then remained stable and poor in the two highest quartiles. An ordinary linear model sufficiently described neighborhood density. Here, word learning improved as density increased across all quartiles. Conclusion Given these different patterns, phonotactic probability and neighborhood density appear to influence different word learning processes. Specifically, phonotactic probability may affect recognition that a sound sequence is an acceptable word in the language and is a novel word for the child, whereas neighborhood density may influence creation of a new representation in long-term memory. PMID:23882005

  4. Fast phonetic learning occurs already in 2-to-3-month old infants: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eWanrooij

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important mechanism for learning speech sounds in the first year of life is ‘distributional learning’, i.e., learning by simply listening to the frequency distributions of the speech sounds in the environment. In the lab, fast distributional learning has been reported for infants in the second half of the first year; the present study examined whether it can also be demonstrated at a much younger age, long before the onset of language-specific speech perception (which roughly emerges between 6 and 12 months. To investigate this, Dutch infants aged 2 to 3 months were presented with either a unimodal or a bimodal vowel distribution based on the English /æ/~/ε/ contrast, for only twelve minutes. Subsequently, mismatch responses (MMRs were measured in an oddball paradigm, where one half of the infants in each group heard a representative [æ] as the standard and a representative [ε] as the deviant, and the other half heard the same reversed. The results (from the combined MMRs during wakefulness and active sleep disclosed a larger MMR, implying better discrimination of [æ] and [ε], for bimodally than unimodally trained infants, thus extending an effect of distributional training found in previous behavioral research to a much younger age when speech perception is still universal rather than language-specific, and to a new method (ERP. Moreover, the analysis revealed a robust interaction between the distribution (unimodal vs. bimodal and the identity of the standard stimulus ([æ] vs. [ε], which provides evidence for an interplay between a perceptual asymmetry and distributional learning. The outcomes show that distributional learning can affect vowel perception already in the first months of life.

  5. The Effect of Incremental Changes in Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Maekawa, Junko; Lee, Su-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Phonotactic probability or neighborhood density has predominately been defined through the use of gross distinctions (i.e., low vs. high). In the current studies, the authors examined the influence of finer changes in probability (Experiment 1) and density (Experiment 2) on word learning. Method: The authors examined the full range of…

  6. Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2016-05-20

    Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.

  7. Learning from losing: ethical, psychoanalytic, and spiritual perspectives on managing the incremental losses of the distributed self in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, James W

    2011-01-01

    The author describes his experiences making decisions about the care of his mother, who was suffering from dementia, and the profound effect this process had on him as a psychotherapist. As background, he first presents an overview of writings from Jerry M. Lewis, George Pollock, and George Vaillant on issues related to attachment, death, loss, and mourning. The author equates his experiences caring for his mother with a type of involuntary "continuing education" and describes the lessons he learned as he was faced with decisions about his mother's level of care and as he mourned the slow, piecemeal loss of her distributed self. A case vignette is presented to illustrate how the author applied the lessons he had learned in psychotherapy with a distressed patient caring for her aging mother. The article concludes with a summary of the clinical and ethical questions raised by this case and the author's experience with his mother and a discussion of principles that can help psychotherapists provide treatment for patients who are caring for family members with dementia. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2011;17:41-48).

  8. APPLICATION OF ROUGH SET THEORY TO MAINTENANCE LEVEL DECISION-MAKING FOR AERO-ENGINE MODULES BASED ON INCREMENTAL KNOWLEDGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓华; 左洪福; 蔡景

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of an aero-engine usually includes three levels ,and the maintenance cost and period greatly differ depending on the different maintenance levels .To plan a reasonable maintenance budget program , airlines would like to predict the maintenance level of aero-engine before repairing in terms of performance parame-ters ,which can provide more economic benefits .The maintenance level decision rules are mined using the histori-cal maintenance data of a civil aero-engine based on the rough set theory ,and a variety of possible models of upda-ting rules produced by newly increased maintenance cases added to the historical maintenance case database are in-vestigated by the means of incremental machine learning .The continuously updated rules can provide reasonable guidance suggestions for engineers and decision support for planning a maintenance budget program before repai-ring .The results of an example show that the decision rules become more typical and robust ,and they are more accurate to predict the maintenance level of an aero-engine module as the maintenance data increase ,which illus-trates the feasibility of the represented method .

  9. Anticipation of delayed action-effects: learning when an effect occurs, without knowing what this effect will be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Janczyk, Markus

    2017-09-01

    According to the ideomotor principle, behavior is controlled via a retrieval of the sensory consequences that will follow from the respective movement ("action-effects"). These consequences include not only what will happen, but also when something will happen. In fact, recollecting the temporal duration between response and effect takes time and prolongs the initiation of the response. We investigated the associative structure of action-effect learning with delayed effects and asked whether participants acquire integrated action-time-effect episodes that comprise a compound of all three elements or whether they acquire separate traces that connect actions to the time until an effect occurs and actions to the effects that follow them. In three experiments, results showed that participants retrieve temporal intervals that follow from their actions even when the identity of the effect could not be learned. Furthermore, retrieval of temporal intervals in isolation was not inferior to retrieval of temporal intervals that were consistently followed by predictable action-effects. More specifically, when tested under extinction, retrieval of action-time and action-identity associations seems to compete against each other, similar to overshadowing effects reported for stimulus-response conditioning. Together, these results suggest that people anticipate when the consequences of their action will occur, independently from what the consequences will be.

  10. Planning Through Incrementalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Ph.

    1974-01-01

    An incremental model of decisionmaking is discussed and compared with the Comprehensive Rational Approach. A model of reconciliation between the two approaches is proposed, and examples are given in the field of economic development and educational planning. (Author/DN)

  11. The Cognitive Underpinnings of Incremental Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Schleisman, Katrina B.

    2014-01-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard technique that has been developed and evaluated by school psychologists. We discuss potential learning and memory effects from cognitive psychology that may explain the observed superiority of IR over other flashcard techniques. First, we propose that IR is a form of "spaced practice" that…

  12. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  13. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  14. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  16. Incremental deformation: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasulea Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the customer requirements are in permanent changing and according with them the tendencies in the modern industry is to implement flexible manufacturing processes. In the last decades, metal forming gained attention of the researchers and considerable changes has occurred. Because for a small number of parts, the conventional metal forming processes are expensive and time-consuming in terms of designing and manufacturing preparation, the manufacturers and researchers became interested in flexible processes. One of the most investigated flexible processes in metal forming is incremental sheet forming (ISF. ISF is an advanced flexible manufacturing process which allows to manufacture complex 3D products without expensive dedicated tools. In most of the cases it is needed for an ISF process the following: a simple tool, a fixing device for sheet metal blank and a universal CNC machine. Using this process it can be manufactured axis-symmetric parts, usually using a CNC lathe but also complex asymmetrical parts using CNC milling machines, robots or dedicated equipment. This paper aim to present the current status of incremental sheet forming technologies in terms of process parameters and their influences, wall thickness distribution, springback effect, formability, surface quality and the current main research directions.

  17. Dynamics of the anatomical changes that occur in the brains of schoolchildren as they learn to read.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Simon

    Full Text Available Although the functional brain network involved in reading for adults and children is now well documented, a critical lack of knowledge still exists about the structural development of these brain areas. To provide a better overview of the structural dynamics of the brain that sustain reading acquisition, we acquired anatomical MRI brain images from 55 children that were divided into two groups: one prior to the formal learning of reading (n = 33, 5-6 years old and the second a few years after formal learning (n = 22, 9-10 years old. Reading performances were collected based on the "Alouette-R" test, a standardized test for reading text in French. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter showed that only the right insula volume was different between the two groups. Moreover, the reading group showed that the volumes of the left fusiform gyrus (corresponding to the well-known visual word form area, VWFA, the anterior part of the left inferior occipital gyrus and the left thalamus were significantly modulated by reading performance. This study reinforces the crucial role of the Visual Word Form Area in reading and correlation analyses performed between ROIs volumes suggesting that the VWFA is fully connected with the traditional left-hemispheric language brain network.

  18. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  19. Optimization of the p-xylene oxidation process by a multi-objective differential evolution algorithm with adaptive parameters co-derived with the population-based incremental learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhan; Yan, Xuefeng

    2018-04-01

    Different operating conditions of p-xylene oxidation have different influences on the product, purified terephthalic acid. It is necessary to obtain the optimal combination of reaction conditions to ensure the quality of the products, cut down on consumption and increase revenues. A multi-objective differential evolution (MODE) algorithm co-evolved with the population-based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm, called PBMODE, is proposed. The PBMODE algorithm was designed as a co-evolutionary system. Each individual has its own parameter individual, which is co-evolved by PBIL. PBIL uses statistical analysis to build a model based on the corresponding symbiotic individuals of the superior original individuals during the main evolutionary process. The results of simulations and statistical analysis indicate that the overall performance of the PBMODE algorithm is better than that of the compared algorithms and it can be used to optimize the operating conditions of the p-xylene oxidation process effectively and efficiently.

  20. RoLo: A Dictionary Interface that Minimizes Extraneous Cognitive Load of Lookup and Supports Incidental and Incremental Learning of Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thanh-Dung; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Dang, Giao; Li, Liang-Yi; Nurkhamid

    2013-01-01

    Dictionary use can improve reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning. Nevertheless, great extraneous cognitive load imposed by the search process may reduce or even prevent the improvement. With the help of technology, dictionary users can now instantly access the meaning list of a searched word using a mouse click. However, they…

  1. Beta-adrenergic receptors support attention to extinction learning that occurs in the absence, but not the presence, of a context change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Emma André

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The noradrenergic (NA-system is an important regulator of cognitive function. It contributes to extinction learning(EL, and in disorders where EL is impaired NA-dysfunction has been postulated. We explored whether NA acting on beta-adrenergic-receptors (β-AR, regulates EL that depends on context, but is not fear-associated. We assessed behaviour in an ‘AAA’ or ‘ABA’ paradigm: rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze(context-A to learn that a reward is consistently found in the goal arm, despite low reward probability. This was followed on day 4 by EL(unrewarded, whereby in the ABA-paradigm, EL was reinforced by a context change (B, and in the AAA-paradigm, no context change occurred. On day 5, re-exposure to the A-context (unrewarded occurred. Typically, in control ‘AAA’ animals EL occurred on day 4 that progressed further on day 5. In control ‘ABA’ animals, EL also occurred on day 4, followed by renewal of the previously learned (A behavior on day 5, that was followed (in day 5 by extinction of this behavior, as the animals realised that no food reward would be given.Treatment with the β-AR-antagonist, propranolol, prior to EL on day 4, impaired EL in the AAA-paradigm. In the ‘ABA’ paradigm, antagonist treatment on day 4, had no effect on extinction that was reinforced by a context change (B. Furthermore, β-AR-antagonism prior to renewal testing (on day 5 in the ABA-paradigm, resulted in normal renewal behavior, although subsequent extinction of responses during day 5 was prevented by the antagonist. Thus, under both treatment conditions, β-AR-antagonism prevented extinction of the behavior learned in the ‘A’ context.β-AR-blockade during an overt context change did not prevent EL, whereas β-AR were required for EL in an unchanging context. These data suggest that β-AR may support EL by reinforcing attention towards relevant changes in the previously learned experience, and that this process supports extinction

  2. Beta-adrenergic receptors support attention to extinction learning that occurs in the absence, but not the presence, of a context change

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion Agnès Emma; Wolf, Oliver T.; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The noradrenergic (NA)-system is an important regulator of cognitive function. It contributes to extinction learning (EL), and in disorders where EL is impaired NA-dysfunction has been postulated. We explored whether NA acting on beta-adrenergic-receptors (β-AR), regulates EL that depends on context, but is not fear-associated. We assessed behavior in an “AAA” or “ABA” paradigm: rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze (context-A) to learn that a reward is consistently found in the goal arm, despite low reward probability. This was followed on day 4 by EL (unrewarded), whereby in the ABA-paradigm, EL was reinforced by a context change (B), and in the AAA-paradigm, no context change occurred. On day 5, re-exposure to the A-context (unrewarded) occurred. Typically, in control “AAA” animals EL occurred on day 4 that progressed further on day 5. In control “ABA” animals, EL also occurred on day 4, followed by renewal of the previously learned (A) behavior on day 5, that was succeeded (on day 5) by extinction of this behavior, as the animals realised that no food reward would be given. Treatment with the β-AR-antagonist, propranolol, prior to EL on day 4, impaired EL in the AAA-paradigm. In the “ABA” paradigm, antagonist treatment on day 4, had no effect on extinction that was reinforced by a context change (B). Furthermore, β-AR-antagonism prior to renewal testing (on day 5) in the ABA-paradigm, resulted in normal renewal behavior, although subsequent extinction of responses during day 5 was prevented by the antagonist. Thus, under both treatment conditions, β-AR-antagonism prevented extinction of the behavior learned in the “A” context. β-AR-blockade during an overt context change did not prevent EL, whereas β-AR were required for EL in an unchanging context. These data suggest that β-AR may support EL by reinforcing attention towards relevant changes in the previously learned experience, and that this process supports extinction

  3. Learned lessons of the radiological accident occurred in La Ciudadela of El Cementerio, Gran Caracas. September 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, D.; Cubillan, Y.; Figuera, J.L.; Mora, G.; Pacheco, J.; Yanez, H.; Carrizales, L.

    2006-01-01

    On September 20, 2005 when a mission conformed by five (05) officials: two (02) belonging to the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEP) and three (03) of the Ministry of Health (MS) it was prepared to carry out a routine inspection in the one temporary warehouse of sources in disuse located in La Ciudadela of El Cementerio, identified administratively as Warehouse Number 5 (MS) Area X, noticed that those armor-plating that kept the radioactive sources of Cs-137 had been violated. Those people that entered to the warehouse were able to extract the armor-plating in whose interior its were found an important number of sources of Cs-137 in disuse, used in the decade of 70 and 80 in treatment of cancer of the uterine neck, by means of the Brachytherapy technique of Differed charge manual, low dose rate, as well as, lead sheets with the apparent intention of selling them as junk. The intruders extracted a total of 58 radioactive sources of Cs-137 of its armor-plating for then to disperse them inside warehouse and in the external areas to this. An important number of the dispersed sources its had lost it integrity what gave place to a combined scenario of exposed dispersed sources in a public area with the danger of radioactive contamination by Cs-137. A task force conformed by the following institutions: Ministry of Health (MS), Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET), Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Investigations (IVIC), Unit of Dangerous Materials of the Metropolitan Firemen under the coordination of Civil Protection (PC) it was the one in charge of responding to the radiological accident, of conformity to the National Plan for the Answer to Radiological Accidents. All the radioactive sources dispersed in La Ciudadela achieved to be recovered. The experience of the accident and as learned lesson it was the importance of harmonizing the Generic Procedures for the Evaluation and Answer during Radiological Emergencies, IAEA-TECDOC-1162 technical document, Vienna, August

  4. Early age-dependent impairments of context-dependent extinction learning, object recognition, and object-place learning occur in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholleck, Valentina; Emma André, Marion Agnès; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging. Young (7-8 week old) and older (7-8 month old) Wistar rats were used. For the extinction study, animals learned that a particular floor context indicated that they should turn into one specific arm (e.g., left) to receive a food reward. On the day after reaching the learning criterion of 80% correct choices, the floor context was changed, no reward was given and animals were expected to extinguish the learned response. Both, young and older rats managed this first extinction trial in the new context with older rats showing a faster extinction performance. One day later, animals were returned to the T-maze with the original floor context and renewal effects were assessed. In this case, only young but not older rats showed the expected renewal effect (lower extinction ratio as compared to the day before). To assess general memory abilities, animals were tested in the standard object recognition and object-place memory tasks. Evaluations were made at 5 min, 1 h and 7 day intervals. Object recognition memory was poor at short-term and intermediate time-points in older but not young rats. Object-place memory performance was unaffected at 5 min, but impaired at 1 h in older but not young rats. Both groups were impaired at 7 days. These findings support that not only aspects of general memory, but also context-dependent extinction learning, are affected by moderate aging. This may reflect less flexibility in

  5. Incremental Tensor Principal Component Analysis for Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.

  6. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2007-01-01

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant

  7. FDTD Stability: Critical Time Increment

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Skvor; L. Pauk

    2003-01-01

    A new approach suitable for determination of the maximal stable time increment for the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) algorithm in common curvilinear coordinates, for general mesh shapes and certain types of boundaries is presented. The maximal time increment corresponds to a characteristic value of a Helmholz equation that is solved by a finite-difference (FD) method. If this method uses exactly the same discretization as the given FDTD method (same mesh, boundary conditions, order of ...

  8. 基于AdaBoost与BP神经网络增量学习的手机用户分类预测%Mobile Phone Users Classification Forecast Based on AdaBoost and BP Neural Network Incremental Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冉

    2011-01-01

    随着3G网络的全面普及,手机广告目前已逐渐成为商家抢占市场的一种营销手段,但手机广告投放的精准性是目前比较突出的一个问题。本文介绍了BP神经网络以及AdaBoost算法的基本原理,研究了应用AdaBoost结合BP神经网络算法的增量学习模型,该模型基于用户历史点击记录来预测手机用户感兴趣的广告类别,以提高手机广告投放的精准度。%With the overall popularity of 3G networks,mobile advertising business has become a marketing tool to seize the market,but the precise nature of mobile advertising is a more prominent issue.This article describes the BP neural network and the basic principles of AdaBoost algorithm to study the application of BP neural network algorithm AdaBoost with incremental learning model that records based on user click history to predict the mobile phone users are interested in advertising categories,in order to improve the mobile advertising the accuracy.

  9. Shakedown analysis by finite element incremental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, A.; Kleiber, M.

    1979-01-01

    It is a common occurence in many practical problems that external loads are variable and the exact time-dependent history of loading is unknown. Instead of it load is characterized by a given loading domain: a convex polyhedron in the n-dimensional space of load parameters. The problem is then to check whether a structure shakes down, i.e. responds elastically after a few elasto-plastic cycles, or not to a variable loading as defined above. Such check can be performed by an incremental procedure. One should reproduce incrementally a simple cyclic process which consists of proportional load paths that connect the origin of the load space with the corners of the loading domain. It was proved that if a structure shakes down to such loading history then it is able to adopt itself to an arbitrary load path contained in the loading domain. The main advantage of such approach is the possibility to use existing incremental finite-element computer codes. (orig.)

  10. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  11. Incremental Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is a promising approach for local feature extraction in face recognition tasks. However, there are two major drawbacks in almost all existing NMF-based methods. One shortcoming is that the computational cost is expensive for large matrix decomposition. The other is that it must conduct repetitive learning, when the training samples or classes are updated. To overcome these two limitations, this paper proposes a novel incremental nonnegative matrix factorization (INMF for face representation and recognition. The proposed INMF approach is based on a novel constraint criterion and our previous block strategy. It thus has some good properties, such as low computational complexity, sparse coefficient matrix. Also, the coefficient column vectors between different classes are orthogonal. In particular, it can be applied to incremental learning. Two face databases, namely FERET and CMU PIE face databases, are selected for evaluation. Compared with PCA and some state-of-the-art NMF-based methods, our INMF approach gives the best performance.

  12. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  13. Convergent systems vs. incremental stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüffer, B.S.; Wouw, van de N.; Mueller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two similar stability notions are considered; one is the long established notion of convergent systems, the other is the younger notion of incremental stability. Both notions require that any two solutions of a system converge to each other. Yet these stability concepts are different, in the sense

  14. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs , and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries ; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  15. Incremental Support Vector Machine Framework for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Motai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the emerging requirements of surveillance networks, we present in this paper an incremental multiclassification support vector machine (SVM technique as a new framework for action classification based on real-time multivideo collected by homogeneous sites. The technique is based on an adaptation of least square SVM (LS-SVM formulation but extends beyond the static image-based learning of current SVM methodologies. In applying the technique, an initial supervised offline learning phase is followed by a visual behavior data acquisition and an online learning phase during which the cluster head performs an ensemble of model aggregations based on the sensor nodes inputs. The cluster head then selectively switches on designated sensor nodes for future incremental learning. Combining sensor data offers an improvement over single camera sensing especially when the latter has an occluded view of the target object. The optimization involved alleviates the burdens of power consumption and communication bandwidth requirements. The resulting misclassification error rate, the iterative error reduction rate of the proposed incremental learning, and the decision fusion technique prove its validity when applied to visual sensor networks. Furthermore, the enabled online learning allows an adaptive domain knowledge insertion and offers the advantage of reducing both the model training time and the information storage requirements of the overall system which makes it even more attractive for distributed sensor networks communication.

  16. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH Thomas Driscoll, Lieutenant...UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH ABSTRACT The purpose of this MBA report is to explore and understand the issues

  17. Three routes forward for biofuels: Incremental, leapfrog, and transitional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Geoff M.; Witcover, Julie; Parker, Nathan C.; Fulton, Lew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines three technology routes for lowering the carbon intensity of biofuels: (1) a leapfrog route that focuses on major technological breakthroughs in lignocellulosic pathways at new, stand-alone biorefineries; (2) an incremental route in which improvements are made to existing U.S. corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel biorefineries; and (3) a transitional route in which biotechnology firms gain experience growing, handling, or chemically converting lignocellulosic biomass in a lower-risk fashion than leapfrog biorefineries by leveraging existing capital stock. We find the incremental route is likely to involve the largest production volumes and greenhouse gas benefits until at least the mid-2020s, but transitional and leapfrog biofuels together have far greater long-term potential. We estimate that the Renewable Fuel Standard, California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard, and federal tax credits provided an incentive of roughly $1.5–2.5 per gallon of leapfrog biofuel between 2012 and 2015, but that regulatory elements in these policies mostly incentivize lower-risk incremental investments. Adjustments in policy may be necessary to bring a greater focus on transitional technologies that provide targeted learning and cost reduction opportunities for leapfrog biofuels. - Highlights: • Three technological pathways are compared that lower carbon intensity of biofuels. • Incremental changes lead to faster greenhouse gas reductions. • Leapfrog changes lead to greatest long-term potential. • Two main biofuel policies (RFS and LCFS) are largely incremental in nature. • Transitional biofuels offer medium-risk, medium reward pathway.

  18. FDTD Stability: Critical Time Increment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Skvor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach suitable for determination of the maximal stable timeincrement for the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD algorithm incommon curvilinear coordinates, for general mesh shapes and certaintypes of boundaries is presented. The maximal time incrementcorresponds to a characteristic value of a Helmholz equation that issolved by a finite-difference (FD method. If this method uses exactlythe same discretization as the given FDTD method (same mesh, boundaryconditions, order of precision etc., the maximal stable time incrementis obtained from the highest characteristic value. The FD system issolved by an iterative method, which uses only slightly alteredoriginal FDTD formulae. The Courant condition yields a stable timeincrement, but in certain cases the maximum increment is slightlygreater [2].

  19. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave...... or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  20. Taking PROs and patient-centered care seriously: incremental and disruptive ideas for incorporating PROs in oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Molla Sloane

    2008-12-01

    Using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical practice poses challenges for health care teams and organizations to respond to individual patient needs in a timely fashion. Well-validated tools and feasibility studies are available, but successful spread will require knowledge of effective technology dissemination in complex health delivery systems. Given what has been learned about effective implementation, it is reasonable to ask whether the broad adoption of PROs can occur incrementally using current models of care to apply PRO technology. Another approach is to start with patient needs and focus on how to meet those needs most effectively using PROs in new ways of organizing health care.

  1. On excursion increments in heartbeat dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2013-01-01

    We study correlation properties of excursion increments of heartbeat time series from healthy subjects and heart failure patients. We construct the excursion time based on the original heartbeat time series, representing the time employed by the walker to return to the local mean value. Next, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the fractal dimension method are applied to the magnitude and sign of the increments in the time excursions between successive excursions for the mentioned groups. Our results show that for magnitude series of excursion increments both groups display long-range correlations with similar correlation exponents, indicating that large (small) increments (decrements) are more likely to be followed by large (small) increments (decrements). For sign sequences and for both groups, we find that increments are short-range anti-correlated, which is noticeable under heart failure conditions

  2. Increment memory module for spectrometric data recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, A.A.; Myagkikh, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Incremental memory unit designed to input differential energy spectra of nuclear radiation is described. ROM application as incremental device has allowed to reduce the number of elements and do simplify information readout from the unit. 12-bit 2048 channels present memory unit organization. The device is connected directly with the bus of microprocessor systems similar to KR 580. Incrementation maximal time constitutes 3 mks. It is possible to use this unit in multichannel counting mode

  3. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  4. Context-dependent incremental timing cells in the primate hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, John J; Naya, Yuji; Wirth, Sylvia; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2014-12-23

    We examined timing-related signals in primate hippocampal cells as animals performed an object-place (OP) associative learning task. We found hippocampal cells with firing rates that incrementally increased or decreased across the memory delay interval of the task, which we refer to as incremental timing cells (ITCs). Three distinct categories of ITCs were identified. Agnostic ITCs did not distinguish between different trial types. The remaining two categories of cells signaled time and trial context together: One category of cells tracked time depending on the behavioral action required for a correct response (i.e., early vs. late release), whereas the other category of cells tracked time only for those trials cued with a specific OP combination. The context-sensitive ITCs were observed more often during sessions where behavioral learning was observed and exhibited reduced incremental firing on incorrect trials. Thus, single primate hippocampal cells signal information about trial timing, which can be linked with trial type/context in a learning-dependent manner.

  5. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  6. The metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5, is required for extinction learning that occurs in the absence of a context change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion Agnes Emma; Güntürkün, Onur; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-02-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and, in particular, mGlu5 are crucially involved in multiple forms of synaptic plasticity that are believed to underlie explicit memory. MGlu5 is also required for information transfer through neuronal oscillations and for spatial memory. Furthermore, mGlu5 is involved in extinction of implicit forms of learning. This places this receptor in a unique position with regard to information encoding. Here, we explored the role of this receptor in context-dependent extinction learning under constant, or changed, contextual conditions. Animals were trained over 3 days to take a left turn under 25% reward probability in a T-maze with a distinct floor pattern (Context A). On Day 4, they experienced either a floor pattern change (Context B) or the same floor pattern (Context A) in the absence of reward. After acquisition of the task, the animals were returned to the maze once more on Day 5 (Context A, no reward). Treatment with the mGlu5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine, before maze exposure on Day 4 completely inhibited extinction learning in the AAA paradigm but had no effect in the ABA paradigm. A subsequent return to the original context (A, on Day 5) revealed successful extinction in the AAA paradigm, but impairment of extinction in the ABA paradigm. These data support that although extinction learning in a new context is unaffected by mGlu5 antagonism, extinction of the consolidated context is impaired. This suggests that mGlu5 is intrinsically involved in enabling learning that once-relevant information is no longer valid. © 2014 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  8. Social Learning in the Real-World: 'Over-Imitation' Occurs in Both Children and Adults Unaware of Participation in an Experiment and Independently of Social Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whiten

    Full Text Available The current study avoided the typical laboratory context to determine instead whether over-imitation-the disposition to copy even visibly, causally unnecessary actions-occurs in a real-world context in which participants are unaware of being in an experiment. We disguised a puzzle-box task as an interactive item available to the public within a science engagement zone of Edinburgh Zoo. As a member of the public approached, a confederate acting as a zoo visitor retrieved a reward from the box using a sequence of actions containing both causally relevant and irrelevant elements. Despite the absence of intentional demonstration, or social pressure to copy, a majority of both child and even adult observers included all causally irrelevant actions in their reproduction. This occurred even though causal irrelevance appeared manifest because of the transparency of the puzzle-box. That over-imitation occurred so readily in a naturalistic context, devoid of social interaction and pressure, suggests that humans are opportunistic social learners throughout the lifespan, copying the actions of other individuals even when these actions are not intentionally demonstrated, and their causal significance is not readily apparent. The disposition to copy comprehensively, even when a mere onlooker, likely provides humans, irrespective of their age, with a powerful mechanism to extract maximal information from the social environment.

  9. Product Quality Modelling Based on Incremental Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Zhang, W; Qin, B; Shi, W

    2012-01-01

    Incremental Support vector machine (ISVM) is a new learning method developed in recent years based on the foundations of statistical learning theory. It is suitable for the problem of sequentially arriving field data and has been widely used for product quality prediction and production process optimization. However, the traditional ISVM learning does not consider the quality of the incremental data which may contain noise and redundant data; it will affect the learning speed and accuracy to a great extent. In order to improve SVM training speed and accuracy, a modified incremental support vector machine (MISVM) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the margin vectors are extracted according to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition; then the distance from the margin vectors to the final decision hyperplane is calculated to evaluate the importance of margin vectors, where the margin vectors are removed while their distance exceed the specified value; finally, the original SVs and remaining margin vectors are used to update the SVM. The proposed MISVM can not only eliminate the unimportant samples such as noise samples, but also can preserve the important samples. The MISVM has been experimented on two public data and one field data of zinc coating weight in strip hot-dip galvanizing, and the results shows that the proposed method can improve the prediction accuracy and the training speed effectively. Furthermore, it can provide the necessary decision supports and analysis tools for auto control of product quality, and also can extend to other process industries, such as chemical process and manufacturing process.

  10. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  11. Conservation of wildlife populations: factoring in incremental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Abbie; Komers, Petr E

    2017-06-01

    Progressive anthropogenic disturbance can alter ecosystem organization potentially causing shifts from one stable state to another. This potential for ecosystem shifts must be considered when establishing targets and objectives for conservation. We ask whether a predator-prey system response to incremental anthropogenic disturbance might shift along a disturbance gradient and, if it does, whether any disturbance thresholds are evident for this system. Development of linear corridors in forested areas increases wolf predation effectiveness, while high density of development provides a safe-haven for their prey. If wolves limit moose population growth, then wolves and moose should respond inversely to land cover disturbance. Using general linear model analysis, we test how the rate of change in moose ( Alces alces ) density and wolf ( Canis lupus ) harvest density are influenced by the rate of change in land cover and proportion of land cover disturbed within a 300,000 km 2 area in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using logistic regression, we test how the direction of change in moose density is influenced by measures of land cover change. In response to incremental land cover disturbance, moose declines occurred where 43% of land cover was disturbed and wolf density declined. Wolves and moose appeared to respond inversely to incremental disturbance with the balance between moose decline and wolf increase shifting at about 43% of land cover disturbed. Conservation decisions require quantification of disturbance rates and their relationships to predator-prey systems because ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance shift across disturbance gradients.

  12. Growth increments in teeth of Diictodon (Therapsida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francis Thackeray

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth increments circa 0.02 mm in width have been observed in sectioned tusks of Diictodon from the Late Permian lower Beaufort succession of the South African Karoo, dated between about 260 and 245 million years ago. Mean growth increments show a decline from relatively high values in the Tropidostoma/Endothiodon Assemblage Zone, to lower values in the Aulacephalodon/Cistecephaluszone, declining still further in the Dicynodon lacerficeps/Whaitsia zone at the end of the Permian. These changes coincide with gradual changes in carbon isotope ratios measured from Diictodon tooth apatite. It is suggested that the decline in growth increments is related to environmental changes associated with a decline in primary production which contributed to the decline in abundance and ultimate extinction of Diictodon.

  13. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in-plan......-plane contact friction and is focused on the extreme modes of deformation that are likely to be found in single point incremental forming processes. The overall investigation is supported by experimental work performed by the authors and data retrieved from the literature.......This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in...

  14. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  15. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    Integrity checking is an essential means for the preservation of the intended semantics of a deductive database. Incrementality is the only feasible approach to checking and can be obtained with respect to given update patterns by exploiting query optimization techniques. By reducing the problem...... to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  16. History Matters: Incremental Ontology Reasoning Using Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Grau, Bernardo; Halaschek-Wiener, Christian; Kazakov, Yevgeny

    The development of ontologies involves continuous but relatively small modifications. Existing ontology reasoners, however, do not take advantage of the similarities between different versions of an ontology. In this paper, we propose a technique for incremental reasoning—that is, reasoning that reuses information obtained from previous versions of an ontology—based on the notion of a module. Our technique does not depend on a particular reasoning calculus and thus can be used in combination with any reasoner. We have applied our results to incremental classification of OWL DL ontologies and found significant improvement over regular classification time on a set of real-world ontologies.

  17. Failure mechanisms in single-point incremental forming of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria B.; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The last years saw the development of two different views on how failure develops in single-point incremental forming (SPIF). Today, researchers are split between those claiming that fracture is always preceded by necking and those considering that fracture occurs with suppression of necking. Each...... on formability limits and development of fracture. The unified view conciliates the aforementioned different explanations on the role of necking in fracture and is consistent with the experimental observations that have been reported in the past years. The work is performed on aluminium AA1050-H111 sheets...

  18. Design of methodology for incremental compiler construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Haluza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of the incremental compiler construction. It represents the compiler construction possibilities for languages with a fixed set of lexical units and for languages with a variable set of lexical units, too. The methodology design for the incremental compiler construction is based on the known algorithms for standard compiler construction and derived for both groups of languages. Under the group of languages with a fixed set of lexical units there belong languages, where each lexical unit has its constant meaning, e.g., common programming languages. For this group of languages the paper tries to solve the problem of the incremental semantic analysis, which is based on incremental parsing. In the group of languages with a variable set of lexical units (e.g., professional typographic system TEX, it is possible to change arbitrarily the meaning of each character on the input file at any time during processing. The change takes effect immediately and its validity can be somehow limited or is given by the end of the input. For this group of languages this paper tries to solve the problem case when we use macros temporarily changing the category of arbitrary characters.

  19. Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…

  20. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  1. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments. Copyright © 2017

  2. Statistics of wind direction and its increments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorn, Eric van; Dhruva, Brindesh; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Cassella, Victor

    2000-01-01

    We study some elementary statistics of wind direction fluctuations in the atmosphere for a wide range of time scales (10 -4 sec to 1 h), and in both vertical and horizontal planes. In the plane parallel to the ground surface, the direction time series consists of two parts: a constant drift due to large weather systems moving with the mean wind speed, and fluctuations about this drift. The statistics of the direction fluctuations show a rough similarity to Brownian motion but depend, in detail, on the wind speed. This dependence manifests itself quite clearly in the statistics of wind-direction increments over various intervals of time. These increments are intermittent during periods of low wind speeds but Gaussian-like during periods of high wind speeds. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. Evolving effective incremental SAT solvers with GP

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.

  4. Simulation and comparison of perturb and observe and incremental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perturb and Observe (P & O) algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. ... Keywords. Solar array; insolation; MPPT; modelling, P & O; incremental conductance. 1. .... voltage level. It is also ..... Int. J. Advances in Eng. Technol. 133–148.

  5. An Incremental Time-delay Neural Network for Dynamical Recurrent Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An incremental time-delay neural network based on synapse growth, which is suitable for dynamic control and learning of autonomous robots, is proposed to improve the learning and retrieving performance of dynamical recurrent associative memory architecture. The model allows steady and continuous establishment of associative memory for spatio-temporal regularities and time series in discrete sequence of inputs. The inserted hidden units can be taken as the long-term memories that expand the capacity of network and sometimes may fade away under certain condition. Preliminary experiment has shown that this incremental network may be a promising approach to endow autonomous robots with the ability of adapting to new data without destroying the learned patterns. The system also benefits from its potential chaos character for emergence.

  6. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for incremental funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION..., Incremental Funding, in a solicitation if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is...

  7. Two models of minimalist, incremental syntactic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Edward P

    2013-07-01

    Minimalist grammars (MGs) and multiple context-free grammars (MCFGs) are weakly equivalent in the sense that they define the same languages, a large mildly context-sensitive class that properly includes context-free languages. But in addition, for each MG, there is an MCFG which is strongly equivalent in the sense that it defines the same language with isomorphic derivations. However, the structure-building rules of MGs but not MCFGs are defined in a way that generalizes across categories. Consequently, MGs can be exponentially more succinct than their MCFG equivalents, and this difference shows in parsing models too. An incremental, top-down beam parser for MGs is defined here, sound and complete for all MGs, and hence also capable of parsing all MCFG languages. But since the parser represents its grammar transparently, the relative succinctness of MGs is again evident. Although the determinants of MG structure are narrowly and discretely defined, probabilistic influences from a much broader domain can influence even the earliest analytic steps, allowing frequency and context effects to come early and from almost anywhere, as expected in incremental models. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. [Incremental cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, N; Dick, H B; Krummenauer, F

    2007-02-01

    Supplementation of cataract patients with multifocal intraocular lenses involves an additional financial investment when compared to the corresponding monofocal supplementation, which usually is not funded by German health care insurers. In the context of recent resource allocation discussions, however, the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery could become an important rationale. Therefore an evidence-based estimation of its cost effectiveness was carried out. Three independent meta-analyses were implemented to estimate the gain in uncorrected near visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity (vision lines) as well as the predictability (fraction of patients without need for reading aids) of multifocal supplementation. Study reports published between 1995 and 2004 (English or German language) were screened for appropriate key words. Meta effects in visual gain and predictability were estimated by means and standard deviations of the reported effect measures. Cost data were estimated by German DRG rates and individual lens costs; the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery was then computed in terms of its marginal cost effectiveness ratio (MCER) for each clinical benefit endpoint; the incremental costs of multifocal versus monofocal cataract surgery were further estimated by means of their respective incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). An independent meta-analysis estimated the complication profiles to be expected after monofocal and multifocal cataract surgery in order to evaluate expectable complication-associated additional costs of both procedures; the marginal and incremental cost effectiveness estimates were adjusted accordingly. A sensitivity analysis comprised cost variations of +/- 10 % and utility variations alongside the meta effect estimate's 95 % confidence intervals. Total direct costs from the health care insurer's perspective were estimated 3363 euro, associated with a visual meta benefit in best corrected visual

  9. Incremental active learning of sensorimotor models in developmental robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Sanz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    La rápida evolución de la robótica esta promoviendo que emerjan nuevos campos relacionados con la robótica. Inspirándose en ideas provinientes de la psicología del desarrollo, la robótica del desarrollo es un nuevo campo que pretende proveer a los robots de capacidades que les permiten aprender de una manera abierta durante toda su vida. Hay situaciones donde los ingenieros o los diseñadores no pueden prever todos los posibles problemas que un robot pueda encontrar. Tal como el número de tare...

  10. Incremental fold tests of remagnetized carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Voo, R.; van der Pluijm, B.

    2017-12-01

    Many unmetamorphosed carbonates all over the world are demonstrably remagnetized, with the age of the secondary magnetizations typically close to that of the nearest orogeny in space and time. This observation did not become compelling until the mid-1980's, when the incremental fold test revealed the Appalachian carbonates to carry a syn-deformational remanence of likely Permian age (Scotese et al., 1982, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., v. 30, p. 385-395; Cederquist et al., 2006, Tectonophysics v. 422, p. 41-54). Since that time scores of Appalachian and Rocky Mountain carbonate rocks have added results to the growing database of paleopoles representing remagnetizations. Late Paleozoic remagnetizations form a cloud of results surrounding the reference poles of the Laurentian APWP. Remagnetizations in other locales and with inferred ages coeval with regional orogenies (e.g., Taconic, Sevier/Laramide, Variscan, Indosinian) are also ubiquitous. To be able to transform this cornucopia into valuable anchor-points on the APWP would be highly desirable. This may indeed become feasible, as will be explained next. Recent studies of faulted and folded carbonate-shale sequences have shown that this deformation enhances the illitization of smectite (Haines & van der Pluijm, 2008, Jour. Struct. Geol., v. 30, p. 525-538; Fitz-Diaz et al., 2014, International Geol. Review, v. 56, p. 734-755). 39Ar-40Ar dating of the authigenic illite (neutralizing any detrital illite contribution by taking the intercept of a mixing line) yields, therefore, the age of the deformation. We know that this date is also the age of the syndeformational remanence; thus we have the age of the corresponding paleopole. Results so far are obtained for the Canadian and U.S. Rocky Mountains and for the Spanish Cantabrian carbonates (Tohver et al., 2008, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 274, p. 524-530) and make good sense in accord with geological knowledge. Incremental fold tests are the tools used for this

  11. Incremental passivity and output regulation for switched nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongbo; Zhao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies incremental passivity and global output regulation for switched nonlinear systems, whose subsystems are not required to be incrementally passive. A concept of incremental passivity for switched systems is put forward. First, a switched system is rendered incrementally passive by the design of a state-dependent switching law. Second, the feedback incremental passification is achieved by the design of a state-dependent switching law and a set of state feedback controllers. Finally, we show that once the incremental passivity for switched nonlinear systems is assured, the output regulation problem is solved by the design of global nonlinear regulator controllers comprising two components: the steady-state control and the linear output feedback stabilising controllers, even though the problem for none of subsystems is solvable. Two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Incremental K-means Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Sanjay; Nagwani, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    The incremental K-means clustering algorithm has already been proposed and analysed in paper [Chakraborty and Nagwani, 2011]. It is a very innovative approach which is applicable in periodically incremental environment and dealing with a bulk of updates. In this paper the performance evaluation is done for this incremental K-means clustering algorithm using air pollution database. This paper also describes the comparison on the performance evaluations between existing K-means clustering and i...

  13. Towards a multiconfigurational method of increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertitta, E.; Koch, D.; Paulus, B.; Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö.

    2018-06-01

    The method of increments (MoI) allows one to successfully calculate cohesive energies of bulk materials with high accuracy, but it encounters difficulties when calculating dissociation curves. The reason is that its standard formalism is based on a single Hartree-Fock (HF) configuration whose orbitals are localised and used for the many-body expansion. In situations where HF does not allow a size-consistent description of the dissociation, the MoI cannot be guaranteed to yield proper results either. Herein, we address the problem by employing a size-consistent multiconfigurational reference for the MoI formalism. This leads to a matrix equation where a coupling derived by the reference itself is employed. In principle, such an approach allows one to evaluate approximate values for the ground as well as excited states energies. While the latter are accurate close to the avoided crossing only, the ground state results are very promising for the whole dissociation curve, as shown by the comparison with density matrix renormalisation group benchmarks. We tested this two-state constant-coupling MoI on beryllium rings of different sizes and studied the error introduced by the constant coupling.

  14. Natural Gas pipelines: economics of incremental capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.

    2000-01-01

    A number of gas transmission pipeline systems in Australia exhibit capacity constraints, and yet there is little evidence of creative or innovative processes from either the service provides of the regulators which might provide a market-based response to these constraints. There is no provision in the Code in its current form to allow it to accommodate these processes. This aspect is one of many that require review to make the Code work. It is unlikely that the current members of the National Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (NGPAC) or its advisers have sufficient understanding of the analysis of risk and the consequential commercial drivers to implement the necessary changes. As a result, the Code will increasingly lose touch with the commercial realities of the energy market and will continue to inhibit investment in new and expanded infrastructure where market risk is present. The recent report prepared for the Business Council of Australia indicates a need to re-vitalise the energy reform process. It is important for the Australian energy industry to provide leadership and advice to governments to continue the process of reform, and, in particular, to amend the Code to make it more relevant. These amendments must include a mechanism by which price signals can be generated to provide timely and effective information for existing service providers or new entrants to install incremental pipeline capacity

  15. Power variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, J.M.; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path of the pr......We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path...... a chaos representation....

  16. An incremental anomaly detection model for virtual machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hancui; Chen, Shuyu; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Zhen; Wu, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm as an unsupervised learning method has been applied in anomaly detection due to its capabilities of self-organizing and automatic anomaly prediction. However, because of the algorithm is initialized in random, it takes a long time to train a detection model. Besides, the Cloud platforms with large scale virtual machines are prone to performance anomalies due to their high dynamic and resource sharing characters, which makes the algorithm present a low accuracy and a low scalability. To address these problems, an Improved Incremental Self-Organizing Map (IISOM) model is proposed for anomaly detection of virtual machines. In this model, a heuristic-based initialization algorithm and a Weighted Euclidean Distance (WED) algorithm are introduced into SOM to speed up the training process and improve model quality. Meanwhile, a neighborhood-based searching algorithm is presented to accelerate the detection time by taking into account the large scale and high dynamic features of virtual machines on cloud platform. To demonstrate the effectiveness, experiments on a common benchmark KDD Cup dataset and a real dataset have been performed. Results suggest that IISOM has advantages in accuracy and convergence velocity of anomaly detection for virtual machines on cloud platform. PMID:29117245

  17. An incremental anomaly detection model for virtual machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancui Zhang

    Full Text Available Self-Organizing Map (SOM algorithm as an unsupervised learning method has been applied in anomaly detection due to its capabilities of self-organizing and automatic anomaly prediction. However, because of the algorithm is initialized in random, it takes a long time to train a detection model. Besides, the Cloud platforms with large scale virtual machines are prone to performance anomalies due to their high dynamic and resource sharing characters, which makes the algorithm present a low accuracy and a low scalability. To address these problems, an Improved Incremental Self-Organizing Map (IISOM model is proposed for anomaly detection of virtual machines. In this model, a heuristic-based initialization algorithm and a Weighted Euclidean Distance (WED algorithm are introduced into SOM to speed up the training process and improve model quality. Meanwhile, a neighborhood-based searching algorithm is presented to accelerate the detection time by taking into account the large scale and high dynamic features of virtual machines on cloud platform. To demonstrate the effectiveness, experiments on a common benchmark KDD Cup dataset and a real dataset have been performed. Results suggest that IISOM has advantages in accuracy and convergence velocity of anomaly detection for virtual machines on cloud platform.

  18. Robust, Causal, and Incremental Approaches to Investigating Linguistic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the maximum robustness approach for studying cases of adaptation in language. We live in an age where we have more data on more languages than ever before, and more data to link it with from other domains. This should make it easier to test hypotheses involving adaptation, and also to spot new patterns that might be explained by adaptation. However, there is not much discussion of the overall approach to research in this area. There are outstanding questions about how to formalize theories, what the criteria are for directing research and how to integrate results from different methods into a clear assessment of a hypothesis. This paper addresses some of those issues by suggesting an approach which is causal, incremental and robust. It illustrates the approach with reference to a recent claim that dry environments select against the use of precise contrasts in pitch. Study 1 replicates a previous analysis of the link between humidity and lexical tone with an alternative dataset and finds that it is not robust. Study 2 performs an analysis with a continuous measure of tone and finds no significant correlation. Study 3 addresses a more recent analysis of the link between humidity and vowel use and finds that it is robust, though the effect size is small and the robustness of the measurement of vowel use is low. Methodological robustness of the general theory is addressed by suggesting additional approaches including iterated learning, a historical case study, corpus studies, and studying individual speech. PMID:29515487

  19. Top-down attention based on object representation and incremental memory for knowledge building and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ban, Sang-Woo; Lee, Minho

    2013-10-01

    Humans can efficiently perceive arbitrary visual objects based on an incremental learning mechanism with selective attention. This paper proposes a new task specific top-down attention model to locate a target object based on its form and color representation along with a bottom-up saliency based on relativity of primitive visual features and some memory modules. In the proposed model top-down bias signals corresponding to the target form and color features are generated, which draw the preferential attention to the desired object by the proposed selective attention model in concomitance with the bottom-up saliency process. The object form and color representation and memory modules have an incremental learning mechanism together with a proper object feature representation scheme. The proposed model includes a Growing Fuzzy Topology Adaptive Resonance Theory (GFTART) network which plays two important roles in object color and form biased attention; one is to incrementally learn and memorize color and form features of various objects, and the other is to generate a top-down bias signal to localize a target object by focusing on the candidate local areas. Moreover, the GFTART network can be utilized for knowledge inference which enables the perception of new unknown objects on the basis of the object form and color features stored in the memory during training. Experimental results show that the proposed model is successful in focusing on the specified target objects, in addition to the incremental representation and memorization of various objects in natural scenes. In addition, the proposed model properly infers new unknown objects based on the form and color features of previously trained objects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quasi-static incremental behavior of granular materials: Elastic-plastic coupling and micro-scale dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matthew R.; Daouadji, Ali

    2018-05-01

    The paper addresses a common assumption of elastoplastic modeling: that the recoverable, elastic strain increment is unaffected by alterations of the elastic moduli that accompany loading. This assumption is found to be false for a granular material, and discrete element (DEM) simulations demonstrate that granular materials are coupled materials at both micro- and macro-scales. Elasto-plastic coupling at the macro-scale is placed in the context of thermomechanics framework of Tomasz Hueckel and Hans Ziegler, in which the elastic moduli are altered by irreversible processes during loading. This complex behavior is explored for multi-directional loading probes that follow an initial monotonic loading. An advanced DEM model is used in the study, with non-convex non-spherical particles and two different contact models: a conventional linear-frictional model and an exact implementation of the Hertz-like Cattaneo-Mindlin model. Orthotropic true-triaxial probes were used in the study (i.e., no direct shear strain), with tiny strain increments of 2 ×10-6 . At the micro-scale, contact movements were monitored during small increments of loading and load-reversal, and results show that these movements are not reversed by a reversal of strain direction, and some contacts that were sliding during a loading increment continue to slide during reversal. The probes show that the coupled part of a strain increment, the difference between the recoverable (elastic) increment and its reversible part, must be considered when partitioning strain increments into elastic and plastic parts. Small increments of irreversible (and plastic) strain and contact slipping and frictional dissipation occur for all directions of loading, and an elastic domain, if it exists at all, is smaller than the strain increment used in the simulations.

  1. A Novel Classification Algorithm Based on Incremental Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    Full Text Available For current computational intelligence techniques, a major challenge is how to learn new concepts in changing environment. Traditional learning schemes could not adequately address this problem due to a lack of dynamic data selection mechanism. In this paper, inspired by human learning process, a novel classification algorithm based on incremental semi-supervised support vector machine (SVM is proposed. Through the analysis of prediction confidence of samples and data distribution in a changing environment, a "soft-start" approach, a data selection mechanism and a data cleaning mechanism are designed, which complete the construction of our incremental semi-supervised learning system. Noticeably, with the ingenious design procedure of our proposed algorithm, the computation complexity is reduced effectively. In addition, for the possible appearance of some new labeled samples in the learning process, a detailed analysis is also carried out. The results show that our algorithm does not rely on the model of sample distribution, has an extremely low rate of introducing wrong semi-labeled samples and can effectively make use of the unlabeled samples to enrich the knowledge system of classifier and improve the accuracy rate. Moreover, our method also has outstanding generalization performance and the ability to overcome the concept drift in a changing environment.

  2. One Step at a Time: SBM as an Incremental Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Discusses incremental SBM budgeting and answers questions regarding resource equity, bookkeeping requirements, accountability, decision-making processes, and purchasing. Approaching site-based management as an incremental process recognizes that every school system engages in some level of site-based decisions. Implementation can be gradual and…

  3. Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    module. In an ADM dated September 23, 2013, the MDA established Increment 2 as a MAIS program to include budget formulation; grants financial...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then

  4. Incrementality in naming and reading complex numerals: Evidence from eyetracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korvorst, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals speak incrementally when they interleave planning and articulation. Eyetracking, along with the measurement of speech onset latencies, can be used to gain more insight into the degree of incrementality adopted by speakers. In the current article, two eyetracking experiments are reported

  5. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung

  6. Finance for incremental housing: current status and prospects for expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, B.; Smets, P.G.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate finance can greatly increase the speed and lower the cost of incremental housing - the process used by much of the low/moderate-income majority of most developing countries to acquire shelter. Informal finance continues to dominate the funding of incremental housing. However, new sources

  7. Validation of the periodicity of growth increment deposition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validation of the periodicity of growth increment deposition in otoliths from the larval and early juvenile stages of two cyprinids from the Orange–Vaal river ... Linear regression models were fitted to the known age post-fertilisation and the age estimated using increment counts to test the correspondence between the two for ...

  8. 76 FR 73475 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I, 76 FR 53764 (Aug. 29, 2011). The final rule removed form... [CIS No. 2481-09; Docket No. USCIS-2009-0022] RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Final...

  9. 76 FR 53763 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., 100, et al. Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS... USCIS is engaged in an enterprise-wide transformation effort to implement new business processes and to...

  10. The Time Course of Incremental Word Processing during Chinese Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junyi; Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Taft, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we report two eye movement experiments investigating how Chinese readers process incremental words during reading. These are words where some of the component characters constitute another word (an embedded word). In two experiments, eye movements were monitored while the participants read sentences with incremental words…

  11. Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...

  12. On conditional scalar increment and joint velocity-scalar increment statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hengbin; Wang Danhong; Tong Chenning

    2004-01-01

    Conditional velocity and scalar increment statistics are usually studied in the context of Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses and are considered universal (quasi-Gaussian) for inertial-range separations. In such analyses the locally averaged energy and scalar dissipation rates are used as conditioning variables. Recent studies have shown that certain local turbulence structures can be captured when the local scalar variance (φ 2 ) r and the local kinetic energy k r are used as the conditioning variables. We study the conditional increments using these conditioning variables, which also provide the local turbulence scales. Experimental data obtained in the fully developed region of an axisymmetric turbulent jet are used to compute the statistics. The conditional scalar increment probability density function (PDF) conditional on (φ 2 ) r is found to be close to Gaussian for (φ 2 ) r small compared with its mean and is sub-Gaussian and bimodal for large (φ 2 ) r , and therefore is not universal. We find that the different shapes of the conditional PDFs are related to the instantaneous degree of non-equilibrium (production larger than dissipation) of the local scalar. There is further evidence of this from the conditional PDF conditional on both (φ 2 ) r and χ r , which is largely a function of (φ 2 ) r /χ r , a measure of the degree of non-equilibrium. The velocity-scalar increment joint PDF is close to joint Gaussian and quad-modal for equilibrium and non-equilibrium local velocity and scalar, respectively. The latter shape is associated with a combination of the ramp-cliff and plane strain structures. Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses also predict a dependence of the conditional PDF on the degree of non-equilibrium. Therefore, the quasi-Gaussian (joint) PDF, previously observed in the context of Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses, is only one of the conditional PDF shapes of inertial range turbulence. The present study suggests that

  13. Validation of daily increments periodicity in otoliths of spotted gar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.; Frenette, Bryan D.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate age and growth information is essential in successful management of fish populations and for understanding early life history. We validated daily increment deposition, including the timing of first ring formation, for spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) through 127 days post hatch. Fry were produced from hatchery-spawned specimens, and up to 10 individuals per week were sacrificed and their otoliths (sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus) removed for daily age estimation. Daily age estimates for all three otolith pairs were significantly related to known age. The strongest relationships existed for measurements from the sagitta (r2 = 0.98) and the lapillus (r2 = 0.99) with asteriscus (r2 = 0.95) the lowest. All age prediction models resulted in a slope near unity, indicating that ring deposition occurred approximately daily. Initiation of ring formation varied among otolith types, with deposition beginning 3, 7, and 9 days for the sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus, respectively. Results of this study suggested that otoliths are useful to estimate daily age of spotted gar juveniles; these data may be used to back calculate hatch dates, estimate early growth rates, and correlate with environmental factor that influence spawning in wild populations. is early life history information will be valuable in better understanding the ecology of this species. 

  14. Distribution of incremental static stress caused by earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kagan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations, simulations and measurements of rotation of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest that the stress in earthquake focal zones follows the Cauchy distribution which is one of the stable probability distributions (with the value of the exponent α equal to 1. We review the properties of the stable distributions and show that the Cauchy distribution is expected to approximate the stress caused by earthquakes occurring over geologically long intervals of a fault zone development. However, the stress caused by recent earthquakes recorded in instrumental catalogues, should follow symmetric stable distributions with the value of α significantly less than one. This is explained by a fractal distribution of earthquake hypocentres: the dimension of a hypocentre set, ��, is close to zero for short-term earthquake catalogues and asymptotically approaches 2¼ for long-time intervals. We use the Harvard catalogue of seismic moment tensor solutions to investigate the distribution of incremental static stress caused by earthquakes. The stress measured in the focal zone of each event is approximated by stable distributions. In agreement with theoretical considerations, the exponent value of the distribution approaches zero as the time span of an earthquake catalogue (ΔT decreases. For large stress values α increases. We surmise that it is caused by the δ increase for small inter-earthquake distances due to location errors.

  15. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faíña, Andrés; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics is challenged with some key problems that must be solved, or at least mitigated extensively, before it can fulfill some of its promises to deliver highly autonomous and adaptive robots. The reality gap and the ability to transfer phenotypes from simulation to reality constitute one such problem. Another lies in the embodiment of the evolutionary processes, which links to the first, but focuses on how evolution can act on real agents and occur independently from simulation, that is, going from being, as Eiben, Kernbach, & Haasdijk [2012, p. 261] put it, "the evolution of things, rather than just the evolution of digital objects.…" The work presented here investigates how fully autonomous evolution of robot controllers can be realized in hardware, using an industrial robot and a marker-based computer vision system. In particular, this article presents an approach to automate the reconfiguration of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range of problems amenable to embodied evolution.

  16. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  17. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  18. A user-friendly tool for incremental haemodialysis prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Basile, Carlo

    2018-01-05

    There is a recently heightened interest in incremental haemodialysis (IHD), the main advantage of which could likely be a better preservation of the residual kidney function of the patients. The implementation of IHD, however, is hindered by many factors, among them, the mathematical complexity of its prescription. The aim of our study was to design a user-friendly tool for IHD prescription, consisting of only a few rows of a common spreadsheet. The keystone of our spreadsheet was the following fundamental concept: the dialysis dose to be prescribed in IHD depends only on the normalized urea clearance provided by the native kidneys (KRUn) of the patient for each frequency of treatment, according to the variable target model recently proposed by Casino and Basile (The variable target model: a paradigm shift in the incremental haemodialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017; 32: 182-190). The first step was to put in sequence a series of equations in order to calculate, firstly, KRUn and, then, the key parameters to be prescribed for an adequate IHD; the second step was to compare KRUn values obtained with our spreadsheet with KRUn values obtainable with the gold standard Solute-solver (Daugirdas JT et al., Solute-solver: a web-based tool for modeling urea kinetics for a broad range of hemodialysis schedules in multiple patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 798-809) in a sample of 40 incident haemodialysis patients. Our spreadsheet provided excellent results. The differences with Solute-solver were clinically negligible. This was confirmed by the Bland-Altman plot built to analyse the agreement between KRUn values obtained with the two methods: the difference was 0.07 ± 0.05 mL/min/35 L. Our spreadsheet is a user-friendly tool able to provide clinically acceptable results in IHD prescription. Two immediate consequences could derive: (i) a larger dissemination of IHD might occur; and (ii) our spreadsheet could represent a useful tool for an ineludibly

  19. Parallel Algorithm for Incremental Betweenness Centrality on Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Jamour, Fuad Tarek; Skiadopoulos, Spiros; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    : they either require excessive memory (i.e., quadratic to the size of the input graph) or perform unnecessary computations rendering them prohibitively slow. We propose iCentral; a novel incremental algorithm for computing betweenness centrality in evolving

  20. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab; Canim, Mustafa; Sadoghi, Mohammad; Bhatta, Bishwaranjan; Chang, Yuan-Chi; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    , such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem

  1. Increment and mortality in a virgin Douglas-fir forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Steele; Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    Is there any basis to the forester's rule of thumb that virgin forests eventually reach an equilibrium where increment and mortality approximately balance? Are we wasting potential timber volume by failing to salvage mortality in old-growth stands?

  2. Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5) Defense Acquisition Management Information...President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...Phone: 845-9625 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: May 19, 2014 Program Information Program Name Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5) DoD

  3. Shredder: GPU-Accelerated Incremental Storage and Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatotia, Pramod; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Verma, Akshat

    2012-01-01

    Redundancy elimination using data deduplication and incremental data processing has emerged as an important technique to minimize storage and computation requirements in data center computing. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of Shredder, a high performance content-based chunking framework for supporting incremental storage and computation systems. Shredder exploits the massively parallel processing power of GPUs to overcome the CPU bottlenecks of content-ba...

  4. On the instability increments of a stationary pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained

  5. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    modal biometrics submissions to include iris, face, palm and finger prints from biometrics collection devices, which will support the Warfighter in...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management...Phone: 227-3119 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 15, 2015 Program Information Program Name Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) DoD

  6. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution err...

  7. A Syntactic-Semantic Approach to Incremental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bianculli, Domenico; Filieri, Antonio; Ghezzi, Carlo; Mandrioli, Dino

    2013-01-01

    Software verification of evolving systems is challenging mainstream methodologies and tools. Formal verification techniques often conflict with the time constraints imposed by change management practices for evolving systems. Since changes in these systems are often local to restricted parts, an incremental verification approach could be beneficial. This paper introduces SiDECAR, a general framework for the definition of verification procedures, which are made incremental by the framework...

  8. Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Sections 3 and 4 of the LMP Increment 2 Business Case, ADM), key functional requirements, Critical Design Review (CDR) Reports, and Economic ...from the 2013 version of the LMP Increment 2 Economic Analysis and replace it with references to the Economic Analysis that will be completed...of ( inbound /outbound) IDOCs into the system. LMP must be able to successfully process 95% of ( inbound /outbound) IDOCs into the system. Will meet

  9. Organization Strategy and Structural Differences for Radical Versus Incremental Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Ettlie; William P. Bridges; Robert D. O'Keefe

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of the organizational innovation process that suggests that the strategy-structure causal sequence is differentiated by radical versus incremental innovation. That is, unique strategy and structure will be required for radical innovation, especially process adoption, while more traditional strategy and structure arrangements tend to support new product introduction and incremental process adoption. This differentiated theory is strongly supported ...

  10. MRI: Modular reasoning about interference in incremental programming

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno C. D. S; Schrijvers, Tom; Cook, William R

    2012-01-01

    Incremental Programming (IP) is a programming style in which new program components are defined as increments of other components. Examples of IP mechanisms include: Object-oriented programming (OOP) inheritance, aspect-oriented programming (AOP) advice and feature-oriented programming (FOP). A characteristic of IP mechanisms is that, while individual components can be independently defined, the composition of components makes those components become tightly coupled, sh...

  11. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M.; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients? residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. Case presentation From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an ...

  12. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data - the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely-sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (> 0.5), low correlation, and high negative correlation (Forecast(ECMWF) suggests that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity, and downward (upward) airflow. These facts indicate an interaction between dust-forced heating /cooling and atmospheric circulation. The April correlation results are supported by the analysis of vertical distribution of dust concentration, derived from the 24-hour dust prediction system at Tel Aviv University (website: http://earth.nasa.proj.ac.il/dust/current/). For other months the analysis is more complicated because of the essential increasing of humidity along with the northward progress of the ITCZ and the significant impact on the increments.

  13. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  15. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training)

  16. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  17. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  18. Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrutin, V; Granados, A; Schanz, M

    2011-01-01

    Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs

  19. Optimization of the single point incremental forming process for titanium sheets by using response surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Badreddine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The single point incremental forming process is well-known to be perfectly suited for prototyping and small series. One of its fields of applicability is the medicine area for the forming of titanium prostheses or titanium medical implants. However this process is not yet very industrialized, mainly due its geometrical inaccuracy, its not homogeneous thickness distribution& Moreover considerable forces can occur. They must be controlled in order to preserve the tooling. In this paper, a numerical approach is proposed in order to minimize the maximum force achieved during the incremental forming of titanium sheets and to maximize the minimal thickness. A surface response methodology is used to find the optimal values of two input parameters of the process, the punch diameter and the vertical step size of the tool path.

  20. Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrutin, V.; Granados, A.; Schanz, M.

    2011-09-01

    Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs.

  1. Incremental Knowledge Acquisition for WSD: A Rough Set and IL based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Word sense disambiguation (WSD is one of tricky tasks in natural language processing (NLP as it needs to take into full account all the complexities of language. Because WSD involves in discovering semantic structures from unstructured text, automatic knowledge acquisition of word sense is profoundly difficult. To acquire knowledge about Chinese multi-sense verbs, we introduce an incremental machine learning method which combines rough set method and instance based learning. First, context of a multi-sense verb is extracted into a table; its sense is annotated by a skilled human and stored in the same table. By this way, decision table is formed, and then rules can be extracted within the framework of attributive value reduction of rough set. Instances not entailed by any rule are treated as outliers. When new instances are added to decision table, only the new added and outliers need to be learned further, thus incremental leaning is fulfilled. Experiments show the scale of decision table can be reduced dramatically by this method without performance decline.

  2. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  3. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W V

    1960-12-01

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong.

  4. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  5. What occurred in the reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Described is what occurred in the reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) from the aspect of engineering science. The tsunami attacked the Plant 1 hr after the quake. The Plant had reactors in buildings no.1-4 at 10 m height from the normal sea level which was flooded by 1.5-5.5 m high wave. All reactors in no.1-6 in the Plant were the boiling water type, and their core nuclear reactions were stopped within 3 sec due to the first quake by control rods inserted automatically. Reactors in no.1-5 lost their external AC power sources by the breakdown and subsequent submergence (no.1-4) of various equipments and in no.1, 2 and 4, the secondary DC power was then lost by the battery death. Although the isolation condenser started to cool the reactor in no.1 after DC cut, its valve was then kept closed to heat up the reactor, leading to the reaction of heated Zr in the fuel tube and water to yield H 2 which was accumulated in the building: the cause of hydrogen explosion on 12th. The reactor in no.2 had the reactor core isolation cooling system (RCIC) which operated normally for few hrs, then probably stopped to heat up the reactor, resulting in meltdown of the core but no explosion occurred because of the opened door of the blowout panel on the wall by the blast of no.1 explosion. The reactor in no.3 had RCIC and high pressure coolant injection system, but their works stopped to result in the core damage and H 2 accumulation leading to the explosion on 14th. The reactor in no.4 had not been operated because of its periodical annual examination, but was explored on 15th, of which cause was thought to be due to backward flow of H 2 from no.3. Finally, the author discusses about this accident from the industrial aspect of the design of safety level (defense in depth) on international views, and problems and tasks given. (T.T.)

  6. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  7. Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.

  8. Single point incremental forming: Formability of PC sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L.; Lambiase, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece

    2018-05-01

    Recent research on Single Point Incremental Forming of polymers has slightly covered the possibility of expanding the materials capability window of this flexible forming process beyond metals, by demonstrating the workability of thermoplastic polymers at room temperature. Given the different behaviour of polymers compared to metals, different aspects need to be deepened to better understand the behaviour of these materials when incrementally formed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the formability of incrementally formed polycarbonate thin sheets. To this end, an experimental investigation at room temperature was conducted involving formability tests; varying wall angle cone and pyramid frusta were manufactured by processing polycarbonate sheets with different thicknesses and using tools with different diameters, in order to draw conclusions on the formability of polymer sheets through the evaluation of the forming angles and the observation of the failure mechanisms.

  9. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  10. Does overtraining occur in triathletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Margaritis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objective: Long distance triathlon training is characterized by considerably high volume training loads. This volume can provoke an overtraining state. The aim of the study was to determine whether overtraining occurs in well-trained male triathletes in relation with their volume training loads. 2. Experimental design: A questionnaire investigation was completed two days before the Nice long-distance triathlon (October 1995: 4-km swim, 120-km bike ride and 30-km run. 3. Participants: Ninety-three well-trained male triathletes who took part in the triathlon race. 4. Measures: A questionnaire to relate clinical symptoms, which are known to appear in case of overtraining, was collected. 5. Results: 39.8% of the questioned triathletes reported a decrease in triathlon performances within the last month preceding the race. Moreover, these triathletes exhibited significantly more overtraining-relied symptoms than the others (5.9±3.8 vs 3.4±2.6, P<0.05. Surprisingly, the occurrence of overtraining in triathletes appears not to depend on the volume training loads. 6. Conclusions: These results suggest that overtraining has to be considered in the case of triathletes. This preliminary study evidences the need for further investigation in order to monitor triathletes training respond and prevent overtraining.

  11. Motion-Induced Blindness Using Increments and Decrements of Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Wm Wren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness describes the disappearance of stationary elements of a scene when other, perhaps non-overlapping, elements of the scene are in motion. We measured the effects of increment (200.0 cd/m2 and decrement targets (15.0 cd/m2 and masks presented on a grey background (108.0 cd/m2, tapping into putative ON- and OFF-channels, on the rate of target disappearance psychophysically. We presented two-frame motion, which has coherent motion energy, and dynamic Glass patterns and dynamic anti-Glass patterns, which do not have coherent motion energy. Using the method of constant stimuli, participants viewed stimuli of varying durations (3.1 s, 4.6 s, 7.0 s, 11 s, or 16 s in a given trial and then indicated whether or not the targets vanished during that trial. Psychometric function midpoints were used to define absolute threshold mask duration for the disappearance of the target. 95% confidence intervals for threshold disappearance times were estimated using a bootstrap technique for each of the participants across two experiments. Decrement masks were more effective than increment masks with increment targets. Increment targets were easier to mask than decrement targets. Distinct mask pattern types had no effect, suggesting that perceived coherence contributes to the effectiveness of the mask. The ON/OFF dichotomy clearly carries its influence to the level of perceived motion coherence. Further, the asymmetry in the effects of increment and decrement masks on increment and decrement targets might lead one to speculate that they reflect the ‘importance’ of detecting decrements in the environment.

  12. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  13. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwen Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE, rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2–4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  14. Toward translational incremental similarity-based reasoning in breast cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutac, Adina E.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Leow, Wee-Keng; Müller, Henning; Putti, Thomas; Cretu, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    One of the fundamental issues in bridging the gap between the proliferation of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems in the scientific literature and the deficiency of their usage in medical community is based on the characteristic of CBIR to access information by images or/and text only. Yet, the way physicians are reasoning about patients leads intuitively to a case representation. Hence, a proper solution to overcome this gap is to consider a CBIR approach inspired by Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), which naturally introduces medical knowledge structured by cases. Moreover, in a CBR system, the knowledge is incrementally added and learned. The purpose of this study is to initiate a translational solution from CBIR algorithms to clinical practice, using a CBIR/CBR hybrid approach. Therefore, we advance the idea of a translational incremental similarity-based reasoning (TISBR), using combined CBIR and CBR characteristics: incremental learning of medical knowledge, medical case-based structure of the knowledge (CBR), image usage to retrieve similar cases (CBIR), similarity concept (central for both paradigms). For this purpose, three major axes are explored: the indexing, the cases retrieval and the search refinement, applied to Breast Cancer Grading (BCG), a powerful breast cancer prognosis exam. The effectiveness of this strategy is currently evaluated over cases provided by the Pathology Department of Singapore National University Hospital, for the indexing. With its current accuracy, TISBR launches interesting perspectives for complex reasoning in future medical research, opening the way to a better knowledge traceability and a better acceptance rate of computer-aided diagnosis assistance among practitioners.

  15. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Friedrich, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic updates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated...... experimentally on random DAGs. We present the first average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering algorithms. We prove an expected runtime of under insertion of the edges of a complete DAG in a random order for the algorithms of Alpern et al. (1990) [4], Katriel and Bodlaender (2006) [18], and Pearce...

  16. Apparatus for electrical-assisted incremental forming and process thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2018-04-24

    A process and apparatus for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component. The process can include providing an incremental forming machine, the machine having at least one arcuate tipped tool and at least electrode spaced a predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is operable to perform a plurality of incremental deformations on the sheet metal component using the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is also operable to apply an electric direct current through the electrode into the sheet metal component at the predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool while the machine is forming the sheet metal component.

  17. Single-point incremental forming and formability-failure diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Atkins, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent work [1], the authors constructed a closed-form analytical model that is capable of dealing with the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results published in the literature over the past couple of years. The model is based...... of deformation that are commonly found in general single point incremental forming processes; and (ii) to investigate the formability limits of SPIF in terms of ductile damage mechanics and the question of whether necking does, or does not, precede fracture. Experimentation by the authors together with data...

  18. Short-term load forecasting with increment regression tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jingfei; Stenzel, Juergen [Darmstadt University of Techonology, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents a new regression tree method for short-term load forecasting. Both increment and non-increment tree are built according to the historical data to provide the data space partition and input variable selection. Support vector machine is employed to the samples of regression tree nodes for further fine regression. Results of different tree nodes are integrated through weighted average method to obtain the comprehensive forecasting result. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through its application to an actual system. (author)

  19. Learned lessons of the radiological accident occurred in La Ciudadela of El Cementerio, Gran Caracas. September 2005; Lecciones aprendidas del accidente radiologico ocurrido en La Ciudadela de El Cementerio, Gran Caracas. Septiembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, D.; Cubillan, Y.; Figuera, J.L.; Mora, G.; Pacheco, J.; Yanez, H.; Carrizales, L. [Servicio de Radiofisica Sanitaria (RFS), Unidad de Tecnologia Nuclear, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Altos del Pipe, Caracas (Venezuela)]. e-mail: dlea@ivic.ve

    2006-07-01

    On September 20, 2005 when a mission conformed by five (05) officials: two (02) belonging to the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEP) and three (03) of the Ministry of Health (MS) it was prepared to carry out a routine inspection in the one temporary warehouse of sources in disuse located in La Ciudadela of El Cementerio, identified administratively as Warehouse Number 5 (MS) Area X, noticed that those armor-plating that kept the radioactive sources of Cs-137 had been violated. Those people that entered to the warehouse were able to extract the armor-plating in whose interior its were found an important number of sources of Cs-137 in disuse, used in the decade of 70 and 80 in treatment of cancer of the uterine neck, by means of the Brachytherapy technique of Differed charge manual, low dose rate, as well as, lead sheets with the apparent intention of selling them as junk. The intruders extracted a total of 58 radioactive sources of Cs-137 of its armor-plating for then to disperse them inside warehouse and in the external areas to this. An important number of the dispersed sources its had lost it integrity what gave place to a combined scenario of exposed dispersed sources in a public area with the danger of radioactive contamination by Cs-137. A task force conformed by the following institutions: Ministry of Health (MS), Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET), Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Investigations (IVIC), Unit of Dangerous Materials of the Metropolitan Firemen under the coordination of Civil Protection (PC) it was the one in charge of responding to the radiological accident, of conformity to the National Plan for the Answer to Radiological Accidents. All the radioactive sources dispersed in La Ciudadela achieved to be recovered. The experience of the accident and as learned lesson it was the importance of harmonizing the Generic Procedures for the Evaluation and Answer during Radiological Emergencies, IAEA-TECDOC-1162 technical document, Vienna, August

  20. Neural Computations Mediating One-Shot Learning in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Wan; O’Doherty, John P.; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Incremental learning, in which new knowledge is acquired gradually through trial and error, can be distinguished from one-shot learning, in which the brain learns rapidly from only a single pairing of a stimulus and a consequence. Very little is known about how the brain transitions between these two fundamentally different forms of learning. Here we test a computational hypothesis that uncertainty about the causal relationship between a stimulus and an outcome induces rapid changes in the rate of learning, which in turn mediates the transition between incremental and one-shot learning. By using a novel behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from human volunteers, we found evidence implicating the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in this process. The hippocampus was selectively “switched” on when one-shot learning was predicted to occur, while the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was found to encode uncertainty about the causal association, exhibiting increased coupling with the hippocampus for high-learning rates, suggesting this region may act as a “switch,” turning on and off one-shot learning as required. PMID:25919291

  1. Neural computations mediating one-shot learning in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Incremental learning, in which new knowledge is acquired gradually through trial and error, can be distinguished from one-shot learning, in which the brain learns rapidly from only a single pairing of a stimulus and a consequence. Very little is known about how the brain transitions between these two fundamentally different forms of learning. Here we test a computational hypothesis that uncertainty about the causal relationship between a stimulus and an outcome induces rapid changes in the rate of learning, which in turn mediates the transition between incremental and one-shot learning. By using a novel behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from human volunteers, we found evidence implicating the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in this process. The hippocampus was selectively "switched" on when one-shot learning was predicted to occur, while the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was found to encode uncertainty about the causal association, exhibiting increased coupling with the hippocampus for high-learning rates, suggesting this region may act as a "switch," turning on and off one-shot learning as required.

  2. Volatilities, Traded Volumes, and Price Increments in Derivative Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Soo Yong; Scalas, Enrico

    2007-03-01

    We apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the statistics of the Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. For our case, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to the inherent higher-order correlation not detected by applying directly the DFA to logarithmic increments of the KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of futures prices and to generate the geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It is really shown from comparing the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments makes the volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes may be supported the hypothesis of price changes.

  3. Playing by the rules? Analysing incremental urban developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karnenbeek, van Lilian; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie

    2018-01-01

    Current urban developments are often considered outdated and static, and the argument follows that they should become more adaptive. In this paper, we argue that existing urban development are already adaptive and incremental. Given this flexibility in urban development, understanding changes in the

  4. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  5. The National Institute of Education and Incremental Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1979-01-01

    The National Institute of Education's (NIE) history demonstrates that the relevant criteria for characterizing budgeting as incremental are not the predictability and stability of appropriations but the conditions of complexity, limited information, multiple factors, and imperfect agreement on ends; NIE's appropriations were dominated by political…

  6. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  7. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  8. Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...

  9. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu; Liu, Chuang; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt

  10. Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Beatriz; Skjødt, Martin; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the physics behind the fracture of material at the transition between the inclined wall and the corner radius of the sheet is of great importance for understanding the fundamentals of single point incremental forming (SPIF). How the material fractures, what is the state of strain...

  11. Some theoretical aspects of capacity increment in gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, J. H.; Guais, J. C.; Lamorlette, G.

    1975-09-01

    Facing to the sharply growing needs of enrichment services, the problem of implementing new capacities must be included in an optimized scheme spread out in time. In this paper the alternative solutions will be studied first for an unique increment decision, and then in an optimum schedule. The limits of the analysis will be discussed.

  12. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  13. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  14. Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.

    We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...

  15. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory gas collection system. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Industrial- type mask wear is thought to impair exercise performance through increased respiratory dead space, flow ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. 78 FR 22770 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ...-2009-0022] RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY...: Background On August 29, 2011, DHS issued a final rule titled, Immigration Benefits Business Transformation... business processes. In this notice, we are correcting three technical errors. DATES: The effective date of...

  17. Minimizing System Modification in an Incremental Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at minimizing the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing sys-tem running a set of applications. We...

  18. Incremental cryptography and security of public hash functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of incremental algorithms for crytographic functions was initiated. The problem, for collision-free hashing, is to design a scheme for which there exists an efficient “update” algorithm: this algorithm is given the hash function H, the hash h = H(M) of message M and the “replacement request” (j, m), and outputs ...

  19. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  20. Evidence combination for incremental decision-making processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrada, Ghita; van Keulen, Maurice; de Keijzer, Ander

    The establishment of a medical diagnosis is an incremental process highly fraught with uncertainty. At each step of this painstaking process, it may be beneficial to be able to quantify the uncertainty linked to the diagnosis and steadily update the uncertainty estimation using available sources of

  1. Geometry of finite deformations and time-incremental analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, May (2016), s. 230-244 ISSN 0020-7462 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : solid mechanics * finite deformations * time-incremental analysis * Lagrangian system * evolution equation of Lie type Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.074, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020746216000330

  2. Human simulations of vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, J; Gleitman, H; Gleitman, L; Lederer, A

    1999-12-07

    The work reported here experimentally investigates a striking generalization about vocabulary acquisition: Noun learning is superior to verb learning in the earliest moments of child language development. The dominant explanation of this phenomenon in the literature invokes differing conceptual requirements for items in these lexical categories: Verbs are cognitively more complex than nouns and so their acquisition must await certain mental developments in the infant. In the present work, we investigate an alternative hypothesis; namely, that it is the information requirements of verb learning, not the conceptual requirements, that crucially determine the acquisition order. Efficient verb learning requires access to structural features of the exposure language and thus cannot take place until a scaffolding of noun knowledge enables the acquisition of clause-level syntax. More generally, we experimentally investigate the hypothesis that vocabulary acquisition takes place via an incremental constraint-satisfaction procedure that bootstraps itself into successively more sophisticated linguistic representations which, in turn, enable new kinds of vocabulary learning. If the experimental subjects were young children, it would be difficult to distinguish between this information-centered hypothesis and the conceptual change hypothesis. Therefore the experimental "learners" are adults. The items to be "acquired" in the experiments were the 24 most frequent nouns and 24 most frequent verbs from a sample of maternal speech to 18-24-month-old infants. The various experiments ask about the kinds of information that will support identification of these words as they occur in mother-to-child discourse. Both the proportion correctly identified and the type of word that is identifiable changes significantly as a function of information type. We discuss these results as consistent with the incremental construction of a highly lexicalized grammar by cognitively and pragmatically

  3. Radial-rotation profile forming: A new processing technology of incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Robert; Härtel, Sebastian; Awiszus, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    Incremental forming processes (i.e., spinning) of sheet metal blanks into cylindrical cups are suitable for lower lot sizes. The produced cups were frequently used as preforms to produce workpieces in further forming steps with additional functions like profiled hollow parts [1]. The incremental forming process radial-rotation profile forming has been developed to enable the production of profiled hollow parts with low sheet thinning and good geometrical accuracy. The two principal forming steps are the production of the preform by rotational swing-folding [2] and the subsequent radial profiling of the hollow part in one clamping position. The rotational swing-folding process is based on a combination of conventional spinning and swing-folding. Therefore, a round blank rotates on a profiled mandrel and due to the swinging of a cylindrical forming tool, the blank is formed to a cup with low sheet thinning. In addition, thickening results at the edge of the blank and wrinkling occurs. However, the wrinkles are formed into the indentation of the profiled mandrel and can be reshaped as an advantage in the second process step, the radial profiling. Due to the rotation and continuous radial feed of a profiled forming tool to the profiled mandrel, the axial profile is formed in the second process step. Because of the minor relative movement in axial direction between tool and blank, low sheet thinning occurs. This is an advantage of the principle of the process.

  4. Learning to Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Maggie; Laursen, Keld; Atuahene-Gima, Kwaku

    and balance) affect firms? incremental and radical innovation capabilities. Based on organizational learning theory and the dominant logic literature, we develop the theoretical arguments that the synergy of ambidexterity drives incremental innovation capability and the balance dimension of ambidexterity...... influences radical innovation capability. We conjecture that also there is an interaction effect between synergy and balance on both radical and incremental innovation capabilities. We base our empirical analysis on a survey of a wide range of high-tech firms in China. We find broad support for our...... theoretical arguments....

  5. Concept formation knowledge and experience in unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Douglas H; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Concept Formation: Knowledge and Experience in Unsupervised Learning presents the interdisciplinary interaction between machine learning and cognitive psychology on unsupervised incremental methods. This book focuses on measures of similarity, strategies for robust incremental learning, and the psychological consistency of various approaches.Organized into three parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of inductive concept learning in machine learning and psychology, with emphasis on issues that distinguish concept formation from more prevalent supervised methods and f

  6. Incremental projection approach of regularization for inverse problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souopgui, Innocent, E-mail: innocent.souopgui@usm.edu [The University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Marine Science (United States); Ngodock, Hans E., E-mail: hans.ngodock@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Vidard, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.vidard@imag.fr; Le Dimet, François-Xavier, E-mail: ledimet@imag.fr [Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann (France)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an alternative approach to the regularized least squares solution of ill-posed inverse problems. Instead of solving a minimization problem with an objective function composed of a data term and a regularization term, the regularization information is used to define a projection onto a convex subspace of regularized candidate solutions. The objective function is modified to include the projection of each iterate in the place of the regularization. Numerical experiments based on the problem of motion estimation for geophysical fluid images, show the improvement of the proposed method compared with regularization methods. For the presented test case, the incremental projection method uses 7 times less computation time than the regularization method, to reach the same error target. Moreover, at convergence, the incremental projection is two order of magnitude more accurate than the regularization method.

  7. Will Incremental Hemodialysis Preserve Residual Function and Improve Patient Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The progressive loss of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with increased mortality. It has been suggested that incremental dialysis may help preserve residual renal function and improve patient survival. Residual renal function depends upon both patient related and dialysis associated factors. Maintaining patients in an over-hydrated state may be associated with better preservation of residual renal function but any benefit comes with a significant risk of cardiovascular consequences. Notably, it is only observational studies that have reported an association between dialysis patient survival and residual renal function; causality has not been established for dialysis patient survival. The tenuous connections between residual renal function and outcomes and between incremental hemodialysis and residual renal function should temper our enthusiasm for interventions in this area. PMID:25385441

  8. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  9. Table incremental slow injection CE-CT in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Morita, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor enhancement in lung cancer under the table incremental study with slow injection of contrast media. The early serial 8 sliced images during the slow injection (1.5 ml/sec) of contrant media were obtained. Following the early images, delayed 8 same sliced images were taken in 2 minutes later. Chacteristic enhanced patterns of the primary cancer and metastatic mediastinal lymphnode were recognized in this study. Enhancement of the primary lesion was classified in 4 patterns, irregular geographic pattern, heterogeneous pattern, homogeneous pattern and rim-enhanced pattern. In mediastinal metastatic lymphadenopathy, three enhanced patterns were obtained, heterogeneous, homogeneous and ring enhanced pattern. Some characteristic enhancement patterns according to the histopathological finding of the lung cancer were obtained. With using this incremental slow injection CE-CT, precise information about the relationship between lung cancer and adjacent mediastinal structure, and obvious staining patterns of the tumor and mediastinal lymphnode were recognized. (author)

  10. Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Building 332, Increment III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B. N.; Toy, Jr., A. J.

    1977-08-31

    This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) supplements the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), dated January 18, 1974, for Building 332, Increment III of the Plutonium Materials Engineering Facility located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). The FSAR, in conjunction with the PSAR, shows that the completed increment provides facilities for safely conducting the operations as described. These documents satisfy the requirements of ERDA Manual Appendix 6101, Annex C, dated April 8, 1971. The format and content of this FSAR complies with the basic requirements of the letter of request from ERDA San to LLL, dated March 10, 1972. Included as appendices in support of th FSAR are the Building 332 Operational Safety Procedure and the LLL Disaster Control Plan.

  11. Decoupled Simulation Method For Incremental Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastiani, G.; Brosius, A.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of this article a decoupling algorithm to reduce computing time in Finite Element Analyses of incremental forming processes will be investigated. Based on the given position of the small forming zone, the presented algorithm aims at separating a Finite Element Model in an elastic and an elasto-plastic deformation zone. Including the elastic response of the structure by means of model simplifications, the costly iteration in the elasto-plastic zone can be restricted to the small forming zone and to few supporting elements in order to reduce computation time. Since the forming zone moves along the specimen, an update of both, forming zone with elastic boundary and supporting structure, is needed after several increments.The presented paper discusses the algorithmic implementation of the approach and introduces several strategies to implement the denoted elastic boundary condition at the boundary of the plastic forming zone

  12. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  13. Thermomechanical simulations and experimental validation for high speed incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogio, Giuseppina; Gagliardi, Francesco; Filice, Luigino; Romero, Natalia

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. The drawback of this process is its slowness. In this study, a high speed variant has been investigated from both numerical and experimental points of view. The aim has been the design of a FEM model able to perform the material behavior during the high speed process by defining a thermomechanical model. An experimental campaign has been performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility. The first results have shown how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed ISF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature increment. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process confirming substantially experimental evidence.

  14. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  15. On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt

  16. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  17. Fault-tolerant incremental diagnosis with limited historical data

    OpenAIRE

    Gillblad, Daniel; Holst, Anders; Steinert, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In many diagnosis situations it is desirable to perform a classification in an iterative and interactive manner. All relevant information may not be available initially and must be acquired manually or at a cost. The matter is often complicated by very limited amounts of knowledge and examples when a new system to be diagnosed is initially brought into use. Here, we will describe how to create an incremental classification system based on a statistical model that is trained from empirical dat...

  18. Diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma by incremental dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masafumi; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Edamitsu, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    Thirty cases of pathologically confirmed small hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by Incremental Dynamic CT (ICT). ICT scanned the whole liver with single-breath-hold technique; therefore, effective early contrast enhancement could be obtained for diagnosis. Among the 30 tumors, 26 were detected. The detection rate was 87%. A high detection rate was obtained in tumors more than 20 mm in diameter. Twenty-two of 26 tumors could be diagnosed correctly. ICT examination was useful for detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  19. Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    across the Global Information Grid (GIG) and at rest. Using authoritative data, obtained via face-to-face identity proofing, PKI creates a credential ...operating on a network by provision of assured PKI-based credentials for any device on that network. ​​​​PKI Increment One made significant...provide assured/secure validation of revocation of an electronic/ digital credential . 2.DoD PKI shall support assured revocation status requests of

  20. The intermetallic ThRh5: microstructure and enthalpy increments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Joshi, A.R.; Kaity, Santu; Mishra, R.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Actinide intermetallics are one of the most interesting and important series of compounds. Thermochemistry of these compounds play significant role in understand the nature of bonding in alloys and nuclear fuel performance. In the present paper we report synthesis and characterization of thorium based intermetallic compound ThRh 5 (s) by SEM/EDX technique. The mechanical properties and enthalpy increment as a function of temperature of the alloy has been measured. (author)

  1. Systematic Luby Transform codes as incremental redundancy scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transform Codes as Incremental Redundancy Scheme T. L. Grobler y, E. R. Ackermann y, J. C. Olivier y and A. J. van Zylz Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Email: trienkog...@gmail.com, etienne.ackermann@ieee.org yDefence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001, South Africa zDepartment of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South...

  2. Efficient Incremental Garbage Collection for Workstation/Server Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amsaleg , Laurent; Gruber , Olivier; Franklin , Michael

    1994-01-01

    Projet RODIN; We describe an efficient server-based algorithm for garbage collecting object-oriented databases in a workstation/server environment. The algorithm is incremental and runs concurrently with client transactions, however, it does not hold any locks on data and does not require callbacks to clients. It is fault tolerant, but performs very little logging. The algorithm has been designed to be integrated into existing OODB systems, and therefore it works with standard implementation ...

  3. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Vilavuo, Toivo; Finni, Taija; Hu, Min; Cheng, Sulin; Tolvanen, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (V T2 ) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO 2max test (3 min ramps, 1 km ⋅ h −1 increments). V T2 , onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMG T ) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , V T2 occurred at 59 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , and EMG T at 62 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , V T2 occurred at 43 ± 7 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , and EMG T at 41 ± 9 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMG T and V T2 was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMG T and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMG T and V T2 were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of V T2 using EMG T in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near V T2 . (paper)

  4. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Hu, Min; Vilavuo, Toivo; Tolvanen, Pekka; Cheng, Sulin; Finni, Taija

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (V(T2)) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO(2max) test (3 min ramps, 1 km·h(-1) increments). V(T)(2), onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMG(T)) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), V(T2) occurred at 59 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and EMG(T) at 62 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), V(T2) occurred at 43 ± 7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and EMG(T) at 41 ± 9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMG(T) and V(T2) was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMG(T) and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMG(T) and V(T2) were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of V(T2) using EMG(T) in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near V(T2). © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine

  5. Health level seven interoperability strategy: big data, incrementally structured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, R H; Rogers, B; Jaffe, C

    2015-01-01

    Describe how the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a foundational standard in US Meaningful Use, contributes to a "big data, incrementally structured" interoperability strategy, whereby data structured incrementally gets large amounts of data flowing faster. We present cases showing how this approach is leveraged for big data analysis. To support the assertion that semi-structured narrative in CDA format can be a useful adjunct in an overall big data analytic approach, we present two case studies. The first assesses an organization's ability to generate clinical quality reports using coded data alone vs. coded data supplemented by CDA narrative. The second leverages CDA to construct a network model for referral management, from which additional observations can be gleaned. The first case shows that coded data supplemented by CDA narrative resulted in significant variances in calculated performance scores. In the second case, we found that the constructed network model enables the identification of differences in patient characteristics among different referral work flows. The CDA approach goes after data indirectly, by focusing first on the flow of narrative, which is then incrementally structured. A quantitative assessment of whether this approach will lead to a greater flow of data and ultimately a greater flow of structured data vs. other approaches is planned as a future exercise. Along with growing adoption of CDA, we are now seeing the big data community explore the standard, particularly given its potential to supply analytic en- gines with volumes of data previously not possible.

  6. Parallel Algorithm for Incremental Betweenness Centrality on Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Jamour, Fuad Tarek

    2017-10-17

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the importance of nodes in a graph in many applications, including network analysis, community detection and identification of influential users. Typically, graphs in such applications evolve over time. Thus, the computation of betweenness centrality should be performed incrementally. This is challenging because updating even a single edge may trigger the computation of all-pairs shortest paths in the entire graph. Existing approaches cannot scale to large graphs: they either require excessive memory (i.e., quadratic to the size of the input graph) or perform unnecessary computations rendering them prohibitively slow. We propose iCentral; a novel incremental algorithm for computing betweenness centrality in evolving graphs. We decompose the graph into biconnected components and prove that processing can be localized within the affected components. iCentral is the first algorithm to support incremental betweeness centrality computation within a graph component. This is done efficiently, in linear space; consequently, iCentral scales to large graphs. We demonstrate with real datasets that the serial implementation of iCentral is up to 3.7 times faster than existing serial methods. Our parallel implementation that scales to large graphs, is an order of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm, while using an order of magnitude less computational resources.

  7. Tracking and recognition face in videos with incremental local sparse representation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhaoxiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of tracking and recognizing faces via incremental local sparse representation. First a robust face tracking algorithm is proposed via employing local sparse appearance and covariance pooling method. In the following face recognition stage, with the employment of a novel template update strategy, which combines incremental subspace learning, our recognition algorithm adapts the template to appearance changes and reduces the influence of occlusion and illumination variation. This leads to a robust video-based face tracking and recognition with desirable performance. In the experiments, we test the quality of face recognition in real-world noisy videos on YouTube database, which includes 47 celebrities. Our proposed method produces a high face recognition rate at 95% of all videos. The proposed face tracking and recognition algorithms are also tested on a set of noisy videos under heavy occlusion and illumination variation. The tracking results on challenging benchmark videos demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. In the case of the challenging dataset in which faces undergo occlusion and illumination variation, and tracking and recognition experiments under significant pose variation on the University of California, San Diego (Honda/UCSD) database, our proposed method also consistently demonstrates a high recognition rate.

  8. Demonstration/Validation of Incremental Sampling at Two Diverse Military Ranges and Development of an Incremental Sampling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Sampling (MIS)? • Technique of combining many increments of soil from a number of points within exposure area • Developed by Enviro Stat (Trademarked...Demonstrating a reliable soil sampling strategy to accurately characterize contaminant concentrations in spatially extreme and heterogeneous...into a set of decision (exposure) units • One or several discrete or small- scale composite soil samples collected to represent each decision unit

  9. Patterns of oxygen consumption during simultaneously occurring elevated metabolic states in the viviparous snake Thamnophis marcianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alexander G S; Leu, Szu-Yun; Ford, Neil B; Hicks, James W

    2015-11-01

    Snakes exhibit large factorial increments in oxygen consumption during digestion and physical activity, and long-lasting sub-maximal increments during reproduction. Under natural conditions, all three physiological states may occur simultaneously, but the integrated response is not well understood. Adult male and female checkered gartersnakes (Thamnophis marcianus) were used to examine increments in oxygen consumption (i.e. V̇(O2)) and carbon dioxide production (i.e. V̇(CO2)) associated with activity (Act), digestion (Dig) and post-prandial activity (Act+Dig). For females, we carried out these trials in the non-reproductive state, and also during the vitellogenic (V) and embryogenic (E) phases of a reproductive cycle. Endurance time (i.e. time to exhaustion, TTE) was recorded for all groups during Act and Act+Dig trials. Our results indicate that male and non-reproductive female T. marcianus exhibit significant increments in V̇(O2) during digestion (∼5-fold) and activity (∼9-fold), and that Act+Dig results in a similar increment in V̇(O2) (∼9- to 10-fold). During reproduction, resting V̇(O2) increased by 1.6- to 1.7-fold, and peak increments during digestion were elevated by 30-50% above non-reproductive values, but values associated with Act and Act+Dig were not significantly different from non-reproductive values. During Act+Dig, endurance time remained similar for all of the groups in the present study. Overall, our results indicate that prioritization is the primary pattern of interaction in oxygen delivery exhibited by this species. We propose that the metabolic processes associated with digestion, and perhaps reproduction, are temporarily compromised during activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Storage capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2001-01-01

    The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida rule leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered

  11. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  12. Individualized 6-mercaptopurine increments in consolidation treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Morten; Frandsen, Thomas L; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    increments of additional 25 mg/m2 /day beginning on days 50 and/or 71 unless dose-limiting myelosuppression had occurred. RESULTS: In the experimental arm, 166 patients (42%) received one dose increment, and 62 (16%) received two. Fifty-seven of 387 (15%) patients in the experimental arm were MRD positive...... minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity and event-free survival. METHODS: 392 patients were randomized to experimental and 396 to standard therapy. Patients allocated to standard therapy received oral 6-mercaptopurine (25 mg/m2 /day) from days 30 to 85, while the experimental arm received stepwise...... at end of consolidation vs 77 of 389 (20%) in the control arm (P = .08). Five-year probability of event-free survival was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93) in the experimental arm vs 0.93 (0.90-0.96) in the control arm (P = .13). The median accumulated length of 6-mercaptopurine treatment interruptions was 7 (IQR...

  13. Evaluation of incremental reactivity and its uncertainty in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Philip T; Harley, Robert A; Milford, Jana B; Russell, Armistead G

    2003-04-15

    The incremental reactivity (IR) and relative incremental reactivity (RIR) of carbon monoxide and 30 individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were estimated for the South Coast Air Basin using two photochemical air quality models: a 3-D, grid-based model and a vertically resolved trajectory model. Both models include an extended version of the SAPRC99 chemical mechanism. For the 3-D modeling, the decoupled direct method (DDM-3D) was used to assess reactivities. The trajectory model was applied to estimate uncertainties in reactivities due to uncertainties in chemical rate parameters, deposition parameters, and emission rates using Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling. For most VOC, RIRs were found to be consistent in rankings with those produced by Carter using a box model. However, 3-D simulations show that coastal regions, upwind of most of the emissions, have comparatively low IR but higher RIR than predicted by box models for C4-C5 alkenes and carbonyls that initiate the production of HOx radicals. Biogenic VOC emissions were found to have a lower RIR than predicted by box model estimates, because emissions of these VOC were mostly downwind of the areas of primary ozone production. Uncertainties in RIR of individual VOC were found to be dominated by uncertainties in the rate parameters of their primary oxidation reactions. The coefficient of variation (COV) of most RIR values ranged from 20% to 30%, whereas the COV of absolute incremental reactivity ranged from about 30% to 40%. In general, uncertainty and variability both decreased when relative rather than absolute reactivity metrics were used.

  14. Incremental Innovation and Competitive Pressure in the Presence of Discrete Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Arghya; Kato, Takao; Morita, Hodaka

    2017-01-01

    Technical progress consists of improvements made upon the existing technology (incremental innovation) and innovative activities aiming at entirely new technology (discrete innovation). Incremental innovation is often of limited relevance to the new technology invented by successful discrete...

  15. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  16. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  17. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...... strategies of functionality so that the already running functionality is not disturbed and there is a good chance that, later, new functionality can easily be mapped on the resulted system. The mapping and scheduling for hard real-time embedded systems are considered the context of a realistic communication...

  18. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...... an integrated approach of all stakeholders involved toward more fundamental and function-based substitution by greener and more sustainable alternatives. Our recommendations finally constitute a starting point for identifying further research needs and for improving current alternatives assessment practice....

  19. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    the evolution of digital objects.…” The work presented here investigates how fully autonomous evolution of robot controllers can be realized in hardware, using an industrial robot and a marker-based computer vision system. In particular, this article presents an approach to automate the reconfiguration...... of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range...

  20. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  1. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  2. Switch-mode High Voltage Drivers for Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) Incremental Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth

    voltage DC-DC converters for driving the DEAP based incremental actuators. The DEAP incremental actuator technology has the potential to be used in various industries, e.g., automotive, space and medicine. The DEAP incremental actuator consists of three electrically isolated and mechanically connected...

  3. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index (SISI...

  4. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  5. Phase retrieval via incremental truncated amplitude flow algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanbing; Wang, Zhifa; Wang, Linjie; Cheng, Shichao

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem of recovering the unknown signal from the given quadratic measurements. A phase retrieval algorithm based on Incremental Truncated Amplitude Flow (ITAF) which combines the ITWF algorithm and the TAF algorithm is proposed. The proposed ITAF algorithm enhances the initialization by performing both of the truncation methods used in ITWF and TAF respectively, and improves the performance in the gradient stage by applying the incremental method proposed in ITWF to the loop stage of TAF. Moreover, the original sampling vector and measurements are preprocessed before initialization according to the variance of the sensing matrix. Simulation experiments verified the feasibility and validity of the proposed ITAF algorithm. The experimental results show that it can obtain higher success rate and faster convergence speed compared with other algorithms. Especially, for the noiseless random Gaussian signals, ITAF can recover any real-valued signal accurately from the magnitude measurements whose number is about 2.5 times of the signal length, which is close to the theoretic limit (about 2 times of the signal length). And it usually converges to the optimal solution within 20 iterations which is much less than the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  6. Adaptive Incremental Genetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling in Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Duan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new commercial model that enables customers to acquire large amounts of virtual resources on demand. Resources including hardware and software can be delivered as services and measured by specific usage of storage, processing, bandwidth, etc. In Cloud computing, task scheduling is a process of mapping cloud tasks to Virtual Machines (VMs. When binding the tasks to VMs, the scheduling strategy has an important influence on the efficiency of datacenter and related energy consumption. Although many traditional scheduling algorithms have been applied in various platforms, they may not work efficiently due to the large number of user requests, the variety of computation resources and complexity of Cloud environment. In this paper, we tackle the task scheduling problem which aims to minimize makespan by Genetic Algorithm (GA. We propose an incremental GA which has adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation. The mutation and crossover rates change according to generations and also vary between individuals. Large numbers of tasks are randomly generated to simulate various scales of task scheduling problem in Cloud environment. Based on the instance types of Amazon EC2, we implemented virtual machines with different computing capacity on CloudSim. We compared the performance of the adaptive incremental GA with that of Standard GA, Min-Min, Max-Min , Simulated Annealing and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in finding the optimal scheme. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve feasible solutions which have acceptable makespan with less computation time.

  7. Incremental support vector machines for fast reliable image recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conformal predictor using SVM as the underlying algorithm was implemented. ► It was applied to image recognition in the TJ–II's Thomson Scattering Diagnostic. ► To improve time efficiency an approach to incremental SVM training has been used. ► Accuracy is similar to the one reached when standard SVM is used. ► Computational time saving is significant for large training sets. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the reliable classification of images in a 5-class problem. To this end, an automatic recognition system, based on conformal predictors and using Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the underlying algorithm has been developed and applied to the recognition of images in the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic of the TJ–II fusion device. Using such conformal predictor based classifier is a computationally intensive task since it implies to train several SVM models to classify a single example and to perform this training from scratch takes a significant amount of time. In order to improve the classification time efficiency, an approach to the incremental training of SVM has been used as the underlying algorithm. Experimental results show that the overall performance of the new classifier is high, comparable to the one corresponding to the use of standard SVM as the underlying algorithm and there is a significant improvement in time efficiency

  8. An Incremental Weighted Least Squares Approach to Surface Lights Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Greg; Lastra, Anselmo

    An Image-Based Rendering (IBR) approach to appearance modelling enables the capture of a wide variety of real physical surfaces with complex reflectance behaviour. The challenges with this approach are handling the large amount of data, rendering the data efficiently, and previewing the model as it is being constructed. In this paper, we introduce the Incremental Weighted Least Squares approach to the representation and rendering of spatially and directionally varying illumination. Each surface patch consists of a set of Weighted Least Squares (WLS) node centers, which are low-degree polynomial representations of the anisotropic exitant radiance. During rendering, the representations are combined in a non-linear fashion to generate a full reconstruction of the exitant radiance. The rendering algorithm is fast, efficient, and implemented entirely on the GPU. The construction algorithm is incremental, which means that images are processed as they arrive instead of in the traditional batch fashion. This human-in-the-loop process enables the user to preview the model as it is being constructed and to adapt to over-sampling and under-sampling of the surface appearance.

  9. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  10. Efficient incremental relaying for packet transmission over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel relaying scheme for packet transmission over fading channels, which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from the destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying (EIR) scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. We compare the performance of the EIR scheme with the threshold-based incremental relaying (TIR) scheme. It is shown that the efficiency of the TIR scheme is better for lower values of the threshold. However, the efficiency of the TIR scheme for higher values of threshold is outperformed by the EIR. In addition, three new threshold-based adaptive EIR are devised to further improve the efficiency of the EIR scheme. We calculate the packet error rate and the efficiency of these new schemes to provide the analytical insight. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Incremental support vector machines for fast reliable image recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L., E-mail: makili_le@yahoo.com [Instituto Superior Politécnico da Universidade Katyavala Bwila, Benguela (Angola); Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S. [Dpto. Informática y Automática – UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A conformal predictor using SVM as the underlying algorithm was implemented. ► It was applied to image recognition in the TJ–II's Thomson Scattering Diagnostic. ► To improve time efficiency an approach to incremental SVM training has been used. ► Accuracy is similar to the one reached when standard SVM is used. ► Computational time saving is significant for large training sets. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the reliable classification of images in a 5-class problem. To this end, an automatic recognition system, based on conformal predictors and using Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the underlying algorithm has been developed and applied to the recognition of images in the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic of the TJ–II fusion device. Using such conformal predictor based classifier is a computationally intensive task since it implies to train several SVM models to classify a single example and to perform this training from scratch takes a significant amount of time. In order to improve the classification time efficiency, an approach to the incremental training of SVM has been used as the underlying algorithm. Experimental results show that the overall performance of the new classifier is high, comparable to the one corresponding to the use of standard SVM as the underlying algorithm and there is a significant improvement in time efficiency.

  12. Incremental first pass technique to measure left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, R.; Gulliford, P.; Hoggard, C.; Critchley, M.

    1980-01-01

    An incremental first pass technique was devised to assess the acute effects of any drug on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with or without a physiological stress. In particular, the effects of the vasodilater isosorbide dinitrate on LVEF before and after exercise were studied in 11 patients who had suffered cardiac failure. This was achieved by recording the passage of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate through the heart at each stage of the study using a gamma camera computer system. Consistent values for four consecutive first pass values without exercise or drug in normal subjects illustrated the reproducibility of the technique. There was no significant difference between LVEF values obtained at rest and exercise before or after oral isosorbide dinitrate with the exception of one patient with gross mitral regurgitation. The advantages of the incremental first pass technique are that the patient need not be in sinus rhythm, the effects of physiological intervention may be studied and tests may also be repeated at various intervals during long term follow-up of patients. A disadvantage of the method is the limitation in the number of sequential measurements which can be carried out due to the amount of radioactivity injected. (U.K.)

  13. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2017-08-02

    Predicting the fast-rising young researchers (the Academic Rising Stars) in the future provides useful guidance to the research community, e.g., offering competitive candidates to university for young faculty hiring as they are expected to have success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt years. We explore a series of factors that can drive an author to be fast-rising and design a novel pairwise citation increment ranking (PCIR) method that leverages those factors to predict the academic rising stars. Experimental results on the large ArnetMiner dataset with over 1.7 million authors demonstrate the effectiveness of PCIR. Specifically, it outperforms all given benchmark methods, with over 8% average improvement. Further analysis demonstrates that temporal features are the best indicators for rising stars prediction, while venue features are less relevant.

  14. Incremental Volumetric Remapping Method: Analysis and Error Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, A. J.; Oliveira, M. C.; Rodrigues, D. M.; Menezes, L. F.; Alves, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the error associated with the remapping problem is analyzed. A range of numerical results that assess the performance of three different remapping strategies, applied to FE meshes that typically are used in sheet metal forming simulation, are evaluated. One of the selected strategies is the previously presented Incremental Volumetric Remapping method (IVR), which was implemented in the in-house code DD3TRIM. The IVR method fundaments consists on the premise that state variables in all points associated to a Gauss volume of a given element are equal to the state variable quantities placed in the correspondent Gauss point. Hence, given a typical remapping procedure between a donor and a target mesh, the variables to be associated to a target Gauss volume (and point) are determined by a weighted average. The weight function is the Gauss volume percentage of each donor element that is located inside the target Gauss volume. The calculus of the intersecting volumes between the donor and target Gauss volumes is attained incrementally, for each target Gauss volume, by means of a discrete approach. The other two remapping strategies selected are based in the interpolation/extrapolation of variables by using the finite element shape functions or moving least square interpolants. The performance of the three different remapping strategies is address with two tests. The first remapping test was taken from a literature work. The test consists in remapping successively a rotating symmetrical mesh, throughout N increments, in an angular span of 90 deg. The second remapping error evaluation test consists of remapping an irregular element shape target mesh from a given regular element shape donor mesh and proceed with the inverse operation. In this second test the computation effort is also measured. The results showed that the error level associated to IVR can be very low and with a stable evolution along the number of remapping procedures when compared with the

  15. Episodic Memory Encoding Interferes with Reward Learning and Decreases Striatal Prediction Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. PMID:25378157

  16. Episodic memory encoding interferes with reward learning and decreases striatal prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2014-11-05

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414901-12$15.00/0.

  17. Why and how Mastering an Incremental and Iterative Software Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, François; Guichoux, Bernard; Cormery, Patrick; Mescam, Jean Christophe

    2004-06-01

    One of the key issues regularly mentioned in the current software crisis of the space domain is related to the software development process that must be performed while the system definition is not yet frozen. This is especially true for complex systems like launchers or space vehicles.Several more or less mature solutions are under study by EADS SPACE Transportation and are going to be presented in this paper. The basic principle is to develop the software through an iterative and incremental process instead of the classical waterfall approach, with the following advantages:- It permits systematic management and incorporation of requirements changes over the development cycle with a minimal cost. As far as possible the most dimensioning requirements are analyzed and developed in priority for validating very early the architecture concept without the details.- A software prototype is very quickly available. It improves the communication between system and software teams, as it enables to check very early and efficiently the common understanding of the system requirements.- It allows the software team to complete a whole development cycle very early, and thus to become quickly familiar with the software development environment (methodology, technology, tools...). This is particularly important when the team is new, or when the environment has changed since the previous development. Anyhow, it improves a lot the learning curve of the software team.These advantages seem very attractive, but mastering efficiently an iterative development process is not so easy and induces a lot of difficulties such as:- How to freeze one configuration of the system definition as a development baseline, while most of thesystem requirements are completely and naturally unstable?- How to distinguish stable/unstable and dimensioning/standard requirements?- How to plan the development of each increment?- How to link classical waterfall development milestones with an iterative approach: when

  18. Rapid Prototyping by Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . The process is incremental forming since plastic deformation takes place in a small local zone underneath the forming tool, i.e. the sheet is formed as a summation of the movement of the local plastic zone. The process is slow and therefore only suited for prototypes or small batch production. On the other...... in the plastic zone. Using these it is demonstrated that the growth rate of accumulated damage in SPIF is small compared to conventional sheet forming processes. This combined with an explanation why necking is suppressed is a new theory stating that SPIF is limited by fracture and not necking. The theory...... SPIF. A multi stage strategy is presented which allows forming of a cup with vertical sides in about half of the depth. It is demonstrated that this results in strain paths which are far from straight, but strains are still limited by a straight fracture line in the principal strain space. The multi...

  19. Scalable Prediction of Energy Consumption using Incremental Time Series Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Noor, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-09

    Time series datasets are a canonical form of high velocity Big Data, and often generated by pervasive sensors, such as found in smart infrastructure. Performing predictive analytics on time series data can be computationally complex, and requires approximation techniques. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We propose an incremental clustering technique, along with a novel affinity score for determining cluster similarity, which help reduce the prediction error for cumulative time series within a cluster. We evaluate this technique, along with optimizations, using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~700,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our techniques in improving the prediction error of time series data within polynomial time.

  20. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process.On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  1. Single Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habraken, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, manufactured pieces can be divided into two groups: mass production and production of low volume number of parts. Within the second group (prototyping or small batch production), an emerging solution relies on Incremental Sheet Forming or ISF. ISF refers to processes where the plastic deformation occurs by repeated contact with a relatively small tool. More specifically, many publications over the past decade investigate Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) where the final shape is determined only by the tool movement. This manufacturing process is characterized by the forming of sheets by means of a CNC controlled generic tool stylus, with the sheets clamped by means of a non-workpiece-specific clamping system and in absence of a partial or a full die. The advantage is no tooling requirements and often enhanced formability, however it poses a challenge in term of process control and accuracy assurance. Note that the most commonly used materials in incremental forming are aluminum and steel alloys however other alloys are also used especially for medical industry applications, such as cobalt and chromium alloys, stainless steel and titanium alloys. Some scientists have applied incremental forming on PVC plates and other on sandwich panels composed of propylene with mild steel and aluminum metallic foams with aluminum sheet metal. Micro incremental forming of thin foils has also been developed. Starting from the scattering of the results of Finite Element (FE) simulations, when one tries to predict the tool force (see SPIF benchmark of 2014 Numisheet conference), we will see how SPIF and even micro SPIF (process applied on thin metallic sheet with a few grains within the thickness) allow investigating the material behavior. This lecture will focus on the identification of constitutive laws, on the SPIF forming mechanisms and formability as well as the failure mechanism. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain SPIF formability, they will be

  2. Single Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habraken, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, manufactured pieces can be divided into two groups: mass production and production of low volume number of parts. Within the second group (prototyping or small batch production), an emerging solution relies on Incremental Sheet Forming or ISF. ISF refers to processes where the plastic deformation occurs by repeated contact with a relatively small tool. More specifically, many publications over the past decade investigate Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) where the final shape is determined only by the tool movement. This manufacturing process is characterized by the forming of sheets by means of a CNC controlled generic tool stylus, with the sheets clamped by means of a non-workpiece-specific clamping system and in absence of a partial or a full die. The advantage is no tooling requirements and often enhanced formability, however it poses a challenge in term of process control and accuracy assurance. Note that the most commonly used materials in incremental forming are aluminum and steel alloys however other alloys are also used especially for medical industry applications, such as cobalt and chromium alloys, stainless steel and titanium alloys. Some scientists have applied incremental forming on PVC plates and other on sandwich panels composed of propylene with mild steel and aluminum metallic foams with aluminum sheet metal. Micro incremental forming of thin foils has also been developed. Starting from the scattering of the results of Finite Element (FE) simulations, when one tries to predict the tool force (see SPIF benchmark of 2014 Numisheet conference), we will see how SPIF and even micro SPIF (process applied on thin metallic sheet with a few grains within the thickness) allow investigating the material behavior. This lecture will focus on the identification of constitutive laws, on the SPIF forming mechanisms and formability as well as the failure mechanism. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain SPIF formability, they will be

  3. Effects of climate variables on intra-annual stem radial increment in Pinus cembra (L.) along the alpine treeline ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2009-08-01

    Within the alpine treeline ecotone tree growth is increasingly restricted by extreme climate conditions. Although intra-annual stem growth recorded by dendrometers can be linked to climate, stem diameter increments in slow-growing subalpine trees are masked by changes in tree water status.We tested the hypothesis that intra-annual radial stem growth in Pinus cembra is influenced by different climate variables along the treeline ecotone in the Austrian Alps. Dendrometer traces were compared with dynamics of xylem cell development to date onset of cambial activity and radial stem growth in spring.Daily fluctuations in stem radius reflected changes in tree water status throughout the treeline ecotone. Extracted daily radial increments were significantly correlated with air temperature at the timberline and treeline only, where budburst, cambial activity and enlargement of first tracheids also occurred quite similarly. A close relationship was detected between radial increment and number of enlarging tracheids throughout the treeline ecotone.We conclude that (i) the relationship between climate and radial stem growth within the treeline ecotone is dependent on a close coupling to atmospheric climate conditions and (ii) initiation of cambial activity and radial growth in spring can be distinguished from stem re-hydration by histological analysis.

  4. Incremental Support Vector Machine Combined with Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy for Rapid Discriminant Analysis of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a new method to overcome the increased training time when a recognition model is updated based on the condition of new features extracted from new samples. As a common complex system, red wine has a rich chemical composition and is used as an object of this research. The novel method based on incremental learning support vector machine (I-SVM combined with ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was applied to discriminant analysis of the brands of red wine for the first time. In this method, new features included in the new training samples were introduced into the recognition model through iterative learning in each iteration, and the recognition model was rapidly updated without significantly increasing the training time. Experimental results show that the recognition model established by this method obtains a good balance between training efficiency and recognition accuracy.

  5. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  6. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  7. Doing learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how learning occurs in a systems development project, using a company developing wind turbine control systems in collaboration with customers as case. Design/methodology/approach: Dewey’s approach to learning is used, emphasising reciprocity between the individual...... learning processes and that the interchanges between materiality and systems developers block the learning processes due to a customer with imprecise demands and unclear system specifications. In the four cases discussed, learning does occur however. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative study...... focusing on individual systems developers gives limited insight into whether the learning processes found would occur in other systems development processes. Practical implications: Managers should ensure that constitutive means, such as specifications, are available, and that they are sufficiently...

  8. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Patrick; Bosch, Frans; Volberda, Henk

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation. In this paper, we use an institutional perspective to investigate why established firms in the financial services industry struggle with their complex incremental product innovation efforts. We ar...

  9. Incremental cost of PACS in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Cleff, Bridget; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Bozzo, Mary T.; Redfern, Regina O.; Brikman, Inna; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose is to determine the incremental costs (or savings) due to the introduction of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Our economic analysis consists of three measurement methods. The first method is an assessment of the direct costs to the radiology department, implemented in a spreadsheet model. The second method consists of a series of brief observational studies to measure potential changes in personnel costs that might not be reflected in administrative claims. The third method (results not reported here) is a multivariate modeling technique which estimates the independent effect of PACS/CR on the cost of care (estimated from administrative claims data), while controlling for clinical case- mix variables. Our direct cost model shows no cost savings to the radiology department after the introduction of PACS in the medical intensive care unit. Savings in film supplies and film library personnel are offset by increases in capital equipment costs and PACS operation personnel. The results of observational studies to date demonstrate significant savings in clinician film-search time, but no significant change in technologist time or lost films. Our model suggests that direct radiology costs will increase after the limited introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU. Our observational studies show a small but significant effect on clinician film search time by the introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU, but no significant effect on other variables. The projected costs of a hospital-wide PACS are currently under study.

  10. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  11. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-08-22

    Frequent subgraph mining is a core graph operation used in many domains, such as graph data management and knowledge exploration, bioinformatics and security. Most existing techniques target static graphs. However, modern applications, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem on a single large evolving graph. We adapt the notion of “fringe” to the graph context, that is the set of subgraphs on the border between frequent and infrequent subgraphs. IncGM+ maintains fringe subgraphs and exploits them to prune the search space. To boost the efficiency, we propose an efficient index structure to maintain selected embeddings with minimal memory overhead. These embeddings are utilized to avoid redundant expensive subgraph isomorphism operations. Moreover, the proposed system supports batch updates. Using large real-world graphs, we experimentally verify that IncGM+ outperforms existing methods by up to three orders of magnitude, scales to much larger graphs and consumes less memory.

  12. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ˜0.3 nrad rms over ˜30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (˜57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube.

  13. VOLATILITAS RELEVANSI NILAI INCREMENTAL DARI LABA DAN NILAI BUKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Linggar Yekti Nugraheni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini dikaji relevansi nilai pola volatilitas pendapatan dan equitas nilai buku. Diprediksi bahwa relevansi nilai volatilitas adalah dikaitkan dengan horizon waktu. Menggunakan model Ohslon, hipotesis yang dikembangkan adalah (1 laba dan nilai buku ekuitas berhubungan positif dengan harga saham, dan (2 ada penurunan atau peningkatan patern relevansi nilai tambahan. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI (Bursa Efek Indonesia selama periode 1998-2007. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa earnings dan nilai buku ekuitas terkait secara positif dengan harga saham dan relevansi nilai laba menurun sementara ekuitas nilai buku ekuitas selama periode pengamatan. This research investigates the value of relevance volatility patern of earnings and book value equity. It is predicted that the volatility of value relevance is associated with the time horizon. Using the Ohslon model, the hypothesis developed are: (1 earnings and book value equity are associated positively with the stock price (2 There is decrease or increase patern of incremental value relevance. The sample used in this research is manufacturing companies listed in ISE (Indonesia Stock Exchange during 1998-2007 periods. The result shows that earnings and book value equity are related positively with stock price and value relevance of earnings is decreasing while book value equity is increasing during the observation periods.

  14. Automated Dimension Determination for NMF-based Incremental Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF based collaborative filtering t e chniques h a ve a c hieved great success in product recommendations. It is well known that in NMF, the dimensions of the factor matrices have to be determined in advance. Moreover, data is growing fast; thus in some cases, the dimensions need to be changed to reduce the approximation error. The recommender systems should be capable of updating new data in a timely manner without sacrificing the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose an NMF based data update approach with automated dimension determination for collaborative filtering purposes. The approach can determine the dimensions of the factor matrices and update them automatically. It exploits the nearest neighborhood based clustering algorithm to cluster users and items according to their auxiliary information, and uses the clusters as the constraints in NMF. The dimensions of the factor matrices are associated with the cluster quantities. When new data becomes available, the incremental clustering algorithm determines whether to increase the number of clusters or merge the existing clusters. Experiments on three different datasets (MovieLens, Sushi, and LibimSeTi were conducted to examine the proposed approach. The results show that our approach can update the data quickly and provide encouraging prediction accuracy.

  15. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Incremental Sheet Forming by Simplified Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamézière, A.; Yu, Y.; Robert, C.; Ayed, L. Ben; Nouari, M.; Batoz, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a process, which can transform a flat metal sheet in a 3D complex part using a hemispherical tool. The final geometry of the product is obtained by the relative movement between this tool and the blank. The main advantage of that process is that the cost of the tool is very low compared to deep drawing with rigid tools. The main disadvantage is the very low velocity of the tool and thus the large amount of time to form the part. Classical contact algorithms give good agreement with experimental results, but are time consuming. A Simplified Approach for the contact management between the tool and the blank in ISF is presented here. The general principle of this approach is to imposed displacement of the nodes in contact with the tool at a given position. On a benchmark part, the CPU time of the present Simplified Approach is significantly reduced compared with a classical simulation performed with Abaqus implicit.

  17. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P; Eskew, Rhea T

    2014-11-12

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L-M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S- thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L-M, L- and M-cone noises than were S- thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S- thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S- detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. © 2014 ARVO.

  18. Business Collaboration in Food Networks: Incremental Solution Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present an approach for an incremental solution development that is based on the usage of the currently developed Internet based FIspace business collaboration platform. Key element is the clear segmentation of infrastructures that are either internal or external to the collaborating business entity in the food network. On the one hand, the approach enables to differentiate between specific centralised as well as decentralised ways for data storage and hosting of IT based functionalities. The selection of specific dataexchange protocols and data models is facilitated. On the other hand, the supported solution design and subsequent development is focusing on reusable “software Apps” that can be used on their own and are incorporating a clear added value for the business actors. It will be outlined on how to push the development and introduction of Apps that do not require basic changes of the existing infrastructure. The paper will present an example that is based on the development of a set of Apps for the exchange of product quality related information in food networks, specifically addressing fresh fruits and vegetables. It combines workflow support for data exchange from farm to retail as well as to provide quality feedback information to facilitate the business process improvement. Finally, the latest status of theFIspace platform development will be outlined. Key features and potential ways for real users and software developers in using the FIspace platform that is initiated by science and industry will be outlined.

  19. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  20. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia, E-mail: aenorilmi@usm.my [School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  1. Escaping Depressions in LRTS Based on Incremental Refinement of Encoded Quad-Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of robot navigation, game AI, and so on, real-time search is extensively used to undertake motion planning. Though it satisfies the requirement of quick response to users’ commands and environmental changes, learning real-time search (LRTS suffers from the heuristic depressions where agents behave irrationally. There have introduced several effective solutions, such as state abstractions. This paper combines LRTS and encoded quad-tree abstraction which represent the search space in multiresolutions. When exploring the environments, agents are enabled to locally repair the quad-tree models and incrementally refine the spatial cognition. By virtue of the idea of state aggregation and heuristic generalization, our EQ LRTS (encoded quad-tree based LRTS possesses the ability of quickly escaping from heuristic depressions with less state revisitations. Experiments and analysis show that (a our encoding principle for quad-trees is a much more memory-efficient method than other data structures expressing quad-trees, (b EQ LRTS differs a lot in several characteristics from classical PR LRTS which represent the space and refine the paths hierarchically, and (c EQ LRTS substantially reduces the planning amount and curtails heuristic updates compared with LRTS on uniform cells.

  2. Big Data Management with Incremental K-Means Trees–GPU-Accelerated Construction and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While big data is revolutionizing scientific research, the tasks of data management and analytics are becoming more challenging than ever. One way to remit the difficulty is to obtain the multilevel hierarchy embedded in the data. Knowing the hierarchy enables not only the revelation of the nature of the data, it is also often the first step in big data analytics. However, current algorithms for learning the hierarchy are typically not scalable to large volumes of data with high dimensionality. To tackle this challenge, in this paper, we propose a new scalable approach for constructing the tree structure from data. Our method builds the tree in a bottom-up manner, with adapted incremental k-means. By referencing the distribution of point distances, one can flexibly control the height of the tree and the branching of each node. Dimension reduction is also conducted as a pre-process, to further boost the computing efficiency. The algorithm takes a parallel design and is implemented with CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture, so that it can be efficiently applied to big data. We test the algorithm with two real-world datasets, and the results are visualized with extended circular dendrograms and other visualization techniques.

  3. Reasoning on the Self-Organizing Incremental Associative Memory for Online Robot Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawewong, Aram; Honda, Yutaro; Tsuboyama, Manabu; Hasegawa, Osamu

    Robot path-planning is one of the important issues in robotic navigation. This paper presents a novel robot path-planning approach based on the associative memory using Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Networks (SOINN). By the proposed method, an environment is first autonomously divided into a set of path-fragments by junctions. Each fragment is represented by a sequence of preliminarily generated common patterns (CPs). In an online manner, a robot regards the current path as the associative path-fragments, each connected by junctions. The reasoning technique is additionally proposed for decision making at each junction to speed up the exploration time. Distinct from other methods, our method does not ignore the important information about the regions between junctions (path-fragments). The resultant number of path-fragments is also less than other method. Evaluation is done via Webots physical 3D-simulated and real robot experiments, where only distance sensors are available. Results show that our method can represent the environment effectively; it enables the robot to solve the goal-oriented navigation problem in only one episode, which is actually less than that necessary for most of the Reinforcement Learning (RL) based methods. The running time is proved finite and scales well with the environment. The resultant number of path-fragments matches well to the environment.

  4. An incremental DPMM-based method for trajectory clustering, modeling, and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Tian, Guodong; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2013-05-01

    Trajectory analysis is the basis for many applications, such as indexing of motion events in videos, activity recognition, and surveillance. In this paper, the Dirichlet process mixture model (DPMM) is applied to trajectory clustering, modeling, and retrieval. We propose an incremental version of a DPMM-based clustering algorithm and apply it to cluster trajectories. An appropriate number of trajectory clusters is determined automatically. When trajectories belonging to new clusters arrive, the new clusters can be identified online and added to the model without any retraining using the previous data. A time-sensitive Dirichlet process mixture model (tDPMM) is applied to each trajectory cluster for learning the trajectory pattern which represents the time-series characteristics of the trajectories in the cluster. Then, a parameterized index is constructed for each cluster. A novel likelihood estimation algorithm for the tDPMM is proposed, and a trajectory-based video retrieval model is developed. The tDPMM-based probabilistic matching method and the DPMM-based model growing method are combined to make the retrieval model scalable and adaptable. Experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  5. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  6. Appropriate use of the increment entropy for electrophysiological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xue; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Aimin

    2018-04-01

    The increment entropy (IncrEn) is a new measure for quantifying the complexity of a time series. There are three critical parameters in the IncrEn calculation: N (length of the time series), m (dimensionality), and q (quantifying precision). However, the question of how to choose the most appropriate combination of IncrEn parameters for short datasets has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this research was to provide guidance on choosing suitable IncrEn parameters for short datasets by exploring the effects of varying the parameter values. We used simulated data, epileptic EEG data and cardiac interbeat (RR) data to investigate the effects of the parameters on the calculated IncrEn values. The results reveal that IncrEn is sensitive to changes in m, q and N for short datasets (N≤500). However, IncrEn reaches stability at a data length of N=1000 with m=2 and q=2, and for short datasets (N=100), it shows better relative consistency with 2≤m≤6 and 2≤q≤8 We suggest that the value of N should be no less than 100. To enable a clear distinction between different classes based on IncrEn, we recommend that m and q should take values between 2 and 4. With appropriate parameters, IncrEn enables the effective detection of complexity variations in physiological time series, suggesting that IncrEn should be useful for the analysis of physiological time series in clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    /current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  8. Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin ...

  9. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...

  10. A naturally occurring trap for antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, J.; Morita, N.; Ito, T.M.

    1993-05-01

    The phenomenon of delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium is the first instance of a naturally occurring trap for antimatter in ordinary matter. Recent studies of this effect at CERN are summarized, and plans are described for laser excitation experiments to test its interpretation in terms of metastable exotic helium atom formation. (author)

  11. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, Arthur W. G.; Gelauff, Jeannette M.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic

  12. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  13. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  14. A new recursive incremental algorithm for building minimal acyclic deterministic finite automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, B.W.; Martin-Vide, C.; Mitrana, V.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a new algorithm for incrementally building minimal acyclic deterministic finite automata. Such minimal automata are a compact representation of a finite set of words (e.g. in a spell checker). The incremental aspect of such algorithms (where the intermediate automaton is

  15. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emara, A E [National Center for radiation Research and Technology Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs.

  16. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  17. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur W. Buijink; Jeannette M. Gelauff; Sandra M. van der Salm; Marina A. Tijssen; Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first descr...

  18. Still to Learn from Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    The term "vicarious learning" was introduced in the 1960s by Bandura, who demonstrated how learning can occur through observing the behaviour of others. Such social learning is effective without the need for the observer to experience feedback directly. More than twenty years later a series of studies on vicarious learning was undertaken…

  19. Quasi-open loop hydraulic ram incremental actuator with power conserving properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, E.T.; Robinson, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An electric stepping motor, operated by command signals from a computer or a microprocessor, rotates a rotary control member of a distributor valve, for sequencing hydraulic pressure and hence flow to the cylinders of an axial piston hydraulic machine. A group of the cylinders are subjected to pressure and flow and the remaining cylinders are vented to a return line. Rotation of the rotary control valve member sequences pressurization by progressively adding a cylinder to the forward edge to the pressurized group and removing a cylinder from the trailing edge of the pressurized group. The double ended pistons of each new pressurized group function to drive a wobble plate into a new position of equilibrium and then hold it in such position until another change in the makeup of the pressurized group. These pistons also displace hydraulic fluid from the opposite cylinder head which serves as the output of a pumping element. An increment of displacement of the wobble plate occurs in direct response to each command pulse that is received by the stepping motor. Wobble plate displacement drives the rotary valve of the hydraulic power transfer unit, causing it to transfer hydraulic fluid from a first expansible chamber on one side of a piston in a hydraulic ram to a second expansible chamber on the opposite side of the piston. Reverse drive of the hydraulic power transfer unit reverses the direction of transfer of hydraulic fluid between the two expansible chambers

  20. A Learning Algorithm based on High School Teaching Wisdom

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Ninan Sajeeth

    2010-01-01

    A learning algorithm based on primary school teaching and learning is presented. The methodology is to continuously evaluate a student and to give them training on the examples for which they repeatedly fail, until, they can correctly answer all types of questions. This incremental learning procedure produces better learning curves by demanding the student to optimally dedicate their learning time on the failed examples. When used in machine learning, the algorithm is found to train a machine...

  1. Incremental Learning of Medical Data for Multi-Step Patient Health Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranen, Philipp; Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    of textile sensors, body sensors and preprocessing techniques as well as the integration and merging of sensor data in electronic health record systems. Emergency detection on multiple levels will show the benefits of multi-step classification and further enhance the scalability of emergency detection...

  2. Integrating incremental learning and episodic memory models of the hippocampal region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Myers, C.E; Gluck, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    By integrating previous computational models of corticohippocampal function, the authors develop and test a unified theory of the neural substrates of familiarity, recollection, and classical conditioning. This approach integrates models from 2 traditions of hippocampal modeling, those of episodic

  3. Evaluasi Sistem Pendeteksi Intrusi Berbasis Anomali dengan N-gram dan Incremental Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Agus Adi Wirawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan teknologi informasi yang terus berkembang dengan pesat menjadikan kebutuhan akan penggunaannya semakin hari semakin meningkat. Transaksi data melalui internet telah menjadi kebutuhan wajib hampir dari semua perangkat lunak yang ada saat ini. Perangkat lunak seperti media social, colud server, online game, aplikasi layanan pemerintah, aplikasi pengontrol suatu tempat secara remote, dsb. Tentu dengan berbagai macam penggunaan internet tersebut dibutuhkan metode untuk mengamankan jaringannya. Sistem pendeteksi intrusi atau yang pada umumnya disebut IDS (Intrusion Detection System merupakan solusi untuk mengamankan suatu jaringan. Sistem ini nantinya bertugas untuk menentukan apakah suatu paket merupakan bentuk serangan atau paket biasa sesuai dengan kondisi tertentu. Saat ini telah banyak dikembangkan aplikasi IDS (Intrusion Detection System, namun sebagian besar yang dikembangkan berbasis signature atau menggunakan rule, dan sebagaian kecil menggunakan anomali. Anomali adalah suatu metode untuk mencari penyimpangan dalam sebuah data. Pada aplikasi ini konsep IDS yang diterapkan adalah IDS berbasis anomali dimana analisis datanya pada infromasi paket data yang dikirimkan. Pada tugas akhir ini menggunakan dua metode, yaitu metode n-gram yang digunakan untuk mengitung distribusi byte karakter pada paket data sedangkan metode mahalanonis distance digunakan untuk menghitung jarak antara paket data normal dan paket data yang berupa intrusi. Metode mahalanobis distance dapat membedakan paket data yang normal dan paket data yang berupa intrusi dengan menghitung rata-rata dan standar deviasi dari paket data.

  4. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, Arthur W G; Gelauff, Jeannette M; van der Salm, Sandra M A; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  5. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W. Buijink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  6. An incremental approach to a secure e-commerce environment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Computer Science) The terms "Electronic Commerce" and "Internet Commerce" are often used interchangeably to mean similar processes. By definition, electronic commerce (e-commerce) means any exchange of information that occurs electronically. There are various types of electronic commerce transactions to name a few; electronic data interchange (EDI), fax, electronic funds transfer, interorganisational systems, technical data and document exchange, customer credit approval systems, in...

  7. Comparing dynamic hyperinflation and associated dyspnea induced by metronome-paced tachypnea versus incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, Gregory L; Raine, Richard I; Bateman, Mary E; Bateman, Eric D; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during exercise is associated with both dyspnea and exercise limitation in COPD. Metronome-paced tachypnoea (MPT) is a simple alternative for studying DH. We compared MPT with exercise testing (XT) as methods of provoking DH, and assessed their relationship with dyspnea. We studied 24 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 59 ± 9% predicted) after inhalation of ipratropium/salbutamol combination or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design. Inspiratory capacity (IC) was measured at baseline and after 30 seconds of MPT with breathing frequencies (fR) of 20, 30 and 40 breaths/min and metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, in random sequence, followed by incremental cycle ergometry with interval determinations of IC. DH was defined as a decline in IC from baseline (∆IC) for both methods. Dyspnea was assessed using a Borg CR-10 scale. ∆IC during MPT was greater with higher fR and I:E ratio of 1:1 versus 1:2, and less when patients were treated with bronchodilator rather than placebo (P = 0.032). DH occurred during 19 (40%) XTs, and during 35 (73%) tests using MPT. Eleven of 18 (61%) non-congruent XTs (where DH occurred on MPT but not XT) terminated before fR of 40 breaths/min was reached. Although greater during XT, the intensity of dyspnea bore no relationship to DH during either MPT and XT. MPT at 40 breaths/min and I:E of 1:1 elicits the greatest ∆IC, and is a more sensitive method for demonstrating DH. The relationship between DH and dyspnea is complex and not determined by DH alone.

  8. Do otolith increments allow correct inferences about age and growth of coral reef fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Otolith increment structure is widely used to estimate age and growth of marine fishes. Here, I test the accuracy of the long-term otolith increment analysis of the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to describe age and growth characteristics. I compare the number of putative annual otolith increments (as a proxy for actual age) and widths of these increments (as proxies for somatic growth) with actual tagged fish-length data, based on a 6-year dataset, the longest time course for a coral reef fish. Estimated age from otoliths corresponded closely with actual age in all cases, confirming annual increment formation. However, otolith increment widths were poor proxies for actual growth in length [linear regression r 2 = 0.44-0.90, n = 6 fish] and were clearly of limited value in estimating annual growth. Up to 60 % of the annual growth variation was missed using otolith increments, suggesting the long-term back calculations of otolith growth characteristics of reef fish populations should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  10. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  11. Scalability of a Methodology for Generating Technical Trading Rules with GAPs Based on Risk-Return Adjustment and Incremental Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Cal, E. A.; Fernández, E. M.; Quiroga, R.; Villar, J. R.; Sedano, J.

    In previous works a methodology was defined, based on the design of a genetic algorithm GAP and an incremental training technique adapted to the learning of series of stock market values. The GAP technique consists in a fusion of GP and GA. The GAP algorithm implements the automatic search for crisp trading rules taking as objectives of the training both the optimization of the return obtained and the minimization of the assumed risk. Applying the proposed methodology, rules have been obtained for a period of eight years of the S&P500 index. The achieved adjustment of the relation return-risk has generated rules with returns very superior in the testing period to those obtained applying habitual methodologies and even clearly superior to Buy&Hold. This work probes that the proposed methodology is valid for different assets in a different market than previous work.

  12. Dental caries increments and related factors in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudikiene, J; Machiulskiene, V; Nyvad, B; Tenovuo, J; Nedzelskiene, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse possible associations between caries increments and selected caries determinants in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls, over 2 years. A total of 63 (10-15 years old) diabetic and non-diabetic pairs were examined for dental caries, oral hygiene and salivary factors. Salivary flow rates, buffer effect, concentrations of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts, total IgA and IgG, protein, albumin, amylase and glucose were analysed. Means of 2-year decayed/missing/filled surface (DMFS) increments were similar in diabetics and their controls. Over the study period, both unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates remained significantly lower in diabetic children compared to controls. No differences were observed in the counts of lactobacilli, mutans streptococci or yeast growth during follow-up, whereas salivary IgA, protein and glucose concentrations were higher in diabetics than in controls throughout the 2-year period. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that children with higher 2-year DMFS increments were older at baseline and had higher salivary glucose concentrations than children with lower 2-year DMFS increments. Likewise, higher 2-year DMFS increments in diabetics versus controls were associated with greater increments in salivary glucose concentrations in diabetics. Higher increments in active caries lesions in diabetics versus controls were associated with greater increments of dental plaque and greater increments of salivary albumin. Our results suggest that, in addition to dental plaque as a common caries risk factor, diabetes-induced changes in salivary glucose and albumin concentrations are indicative of caries development among diabetics. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. On the validity of the incremental approach to estimate the impact of cities on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The question of how much cities are the sources of their own air pollution is not only theoretical as it is critical to the design of effective strategies for urban air quality planning. In this work, we assess the validity of the commonly used incremental approach to estimate the likely impact of cities on their air pollution. With the incremental approach, the city impact (i.e. the concentration change generated by the city emissions) is estimated as the concentration difference between a rural background and an urban background location, also known as the urban increment. We show that the city impact is in reality made up of the urban increment and two additional components and consequently two assumptions need to be fulfilled for the urban increment to be representative of the urban impact. The first assumption is that the rural background location is not influenced by emissions from within the city whereas the second requires that background concentration levels, obtained with zero city emissions, are equal at both locations. Because the urban impact is not measurable, the SHERPA modelling approach, based on a full air quality modelling system, is used in this work to assess the validity of these assumptions for some European cities. Results indicate that for PM2.5, these two assumptions are far from being fulfilled for many large or medium city sizes. For this type of cities, urban increments are largely underestimating city impacts. Although results are in better agreement for NO2, similar issues are met. In many situations the incremental approach is therefore not an adequate estimate of the urban impact on air pollution. This poses issues in terms of interpretation when these increments are used to define strategic options in terms of air quality planning. We finally illustrate the interest of comparing modelled and measured increments to improve our confidence in the model results.

  14. Annual increments, specific gravity and energy of Eucalyptus grandis by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, M.A.; Guerrini, I.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Specific gravity annual increments in volume, mass and energy of Eucalyptus grandis at thirteen years of age were made taking into account measurements of the calorific value for wood. It was observed that the calorific value for wood decrease slightly, while the specific gravity increase significantly with age. The so-called culmination age for the Annual Volume Increment was determined to be around fourth year of growth while for the Annual Mass and Energy Increment was around the eighty year. These results show that a tree in a particular age may not have a significant growth in volume, yet one is mass and energy. (author)

  15. Sustained change blindness to incremental scene rotation: a dissociation between explicit change detection and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Henderson, John M

    2004-07-01

    In a change detection paradigm, the global orientation of a natural scene was incrementally changed in 1 degree intervals. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants demonstrated sustained change blindness to incremental rotation, often coming to consider a significantly different scene viewpoint as an unchanged continuation of the original view. Experiment 3 showed that participants who failed to detect the incremental rotation nevertheless reliably detected a single-step rotation back to the initial view. Together, these results demonstrate an important dissociation between explicit change detection and visual memory. Following a change, visual memory is updated to reflect the changed state of the environment, even if the change was not detected.

  16. Wegener's granulomatosis occurring de novo during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfhaily, F; Watts, R; Leather, A

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rarely diagnosed during the reproductive years and uncommonly manifests for the first time during pregnancy. We report a case of de novo WG presenting at 30 weeks gestation with classical symptoms of WG (ENT, pulmonary). The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological, laboratory, and histological investigations. With a multidisciplinary approach, she had a successful vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. She was treated successfully by a combination of steroids, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin in the active phase of disease for induction of remission and by azathioprine and steroids for maintenance of remission. The significant improvement in her symptoms allowed us to continue her pregnancy to 37 weeks when delivery was electively induced. Transplacental transmission of PR3-ANCA occurred but the neonate remained well. This case of de novo WG during pregnancy highlights the seriousness of this disease and the challenge in management of such patients.

  17. Possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the Western Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bošeľa, Michal; Petráš, Rudolf; Sitková, Zuzana; Priwitzer, Tibor; Pajtík, Jozef; Hlavatá, Helena; Sedmák, Róbert; Tobin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native European tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. This paper aims to investigate the recent climate–growth relationships of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. Long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric SO 2 , NO 3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the Western Carpathians were used. The results provide clear evidence of significant increase of silver fir's radial increment over the entire Western Carpathian area since 1970–1980. The results indicated that the most probable factors behind the rapid recovery of tree radial increment were reductions in emissions of NO 3 and SO 2 , alongside a significant increase in mean June, July and April temperatures. Highlights: • Silver fir radial growth was mostly related to mean month late winter temperatures. • Silver fir growth also responded to summer, especially July temperatures. • Strength of the climate–growth response has gradually increased since 1960–1980. • SO 2 , NO 3 , and recent climate change as major factor of the rapid radial growth recovery. -- Reductions of SO 2 and NO 3 emission along with climate change are the major causes of the recent recovery of Silver fir radial growth

  18. Incremental change in the set of coactive cortical assemblies enables mental continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reser, Jared Edward

    2016-12-01

    This opinion article explores how sustained neural firing in association areas allows high-order mental representations to be coactivated over multiple perception-action cycles, permitting sequential mental states to share overlapping content and thus be recursively interrelated. The term "state-spanning coactivity" (SSC) is introduced to refer to neural nodes that remain coactive as a group over a given period of time. SSC ensures that contextual groupings of goal or motor-relevant representations will demonstrate continuous activity over a delay period. It also allows potentially related representations to accumulate and coactivate despite delays between their initial appearances. The nodes that demonstrate SSC are a subset of the active representations from the previous state, and can act as referents to which newly introduced representations of succeeding states relate. Coactive nodes pool their spreading activity, converging on and activating new nodes, adding these to the remaining nodes from the previous state. Thus, the overall distribution of coactive nodes in cortical networks evolves gradually during contextual updating. The term "incremental change in state-spanning coactivity" (icSSC) is introduced to refer to this gradual evolution. Because a number of associated representations can be sustained continuously, each brain state is embedded recursively in the previous state, amounting to an iterative process that can implement learned algorithms to progress toward a complex result. The longer representations are sustained, the more successive mental states can share related content, exhibit progressive qualities, implement complex algorithms, and carry thematic or narrative continuity. Included is a discussion of the implications that SSC and icSSC may have for understanding working memory, defining consciousness, and constructing AI architectures. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  20. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  1. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  2. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Zedini, Emna; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Barry, John R.; Pä tzold, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum

  3. Performance of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a relay network consisting of a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits a message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears

  4. Robust flight control using incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion and angular acceleration prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieberling, S.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a flight control strategy based on nonlinear dynamic inversion. The approach presented, called incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion, uses properties of general mechanical systems and nonlinear dynamic inversion by feeding back angular accelerations. Theoretically, feedback of

  5. An Environment for Incremental Development of Distributed Extensible Asynchronous Real-time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Charles K.; Burleigh, Scott; Briggs, Hugh C.; Auernheimer, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Incremental parallel development of distributed real-time systems is difficult. Architectural techniques and software tools developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Flight System Testbed make feasible the integration of complex systems in various stages of development.

  6. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  7. Effect of multiple forming tools on geometrical and mechanical properties in incremental sheet forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, S.; Dang, T.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2018-05-01

    The tendency to a higher variety of products requires economical manufacturing processes suitable for the production of prototypes and small batches. In the case of complex hollow-shaped parts, single point incremental forming (SPIF) represents a highly flexible process. The flexibility of this process comes along with a very long process time. To decrease the process time, a new incremental forming approach with multiple forming tools is investigated. The influence of two incremental forming tools on the resulting mechanical and geometrical component properties compared to SPIF is presented. Sheets made of EN AW-1050A were formed to frustums of a pyramid using different tool-path strategies. Furthermore, several variations of the tool-path strategy are analyzed. A time saving between 40% and 60% was observed depending on the tool-path and the radii of the forming tools while the mechanical properties remained unchanged. This knowledge can increase the cost efficiency of incremental forming processes.

  8. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we

  9. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  10. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider Polania, J.

    1980-01-01

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Bioassay of naturally occurring allelochemicals for phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, G R; Einhellig, F A

    1988-10-01

    The bioassay has been one of the most widely used tests to demonstrate allelopathic activity. Often, claims that a particular plant species inhibits the growth of another are based entirely on the seed germination response to solvent extracts of the suspected allelopathic plant; few of these tests are of value in demonstrating allelopathy under natural conditions. The veracity of the bioassay for evaluating naturally occurring compounds for phytotoxicity depends upon the physiological and biochemical response capacity of the bioassay organism and the mechanism(s) of action of the allelochemicals. The possibility that more than one allelochemical, acting in concert at very low concentrations, may be responsible for an observed allelopathic effect makes it imperative that bioassays be extremely sensitive to chemical growth perturbation agents. Among the many measures of phytotoxicity of allelochemicals, the inhibition (or stimulation) of seed germination, radicle elongation, and/or seedling growth have been the parameters of choice for most investigations. Few of these assays have been selected with the view towards the possible mechanism of the allelopathic effect.

  12. Incremental Reconstruction of Urban Environments by Edge-Points Delaunay Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Romanoni, Andrea; Matteucci, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Urban reconstruction from a video captured by a surveying vehicle constitutes a core module of automated mapping. When computational power represents a limited resource and, a detailed map is not the primary goal, the reconstruction can be performed incrementally, from a monocular video, carving a 3D Delaunay triangulation of sparse points; this allows online incremental mapping for tasks such as traversability analysis or obstacle avoidance. To exploit the sharp edges of urban landscape, we ...

  13. The Boundary Between Planning and Incremental Budgeting: Empirical Examination in a Publicly-Owned Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Lioukas; D. J. Chambers

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a study within the field of public budgeting. It focuses on the capital budget, and it attempts to model and analyze the capital budgeting process using a framework previously developed in the literature of incremental budgeting. Within this framework the paper seeks to determine empirically whether the movement of capital expenditure budgets can be represented as the routine application of incremental adjustments over an existing base of allocations and whether further, forward...

  14. Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be...Date Assigned: Program Information Program Name Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) DoD Component Army Responsible

  15. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A...Program Name Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office Program...APB) dated March 9, 2015 DCAPES Inc 2A 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments

  16. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2B (DCAPES Inc 2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2B (DCAPES Inc 2B...Information Program Name Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2B (DCAPES Inc 2B) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office...been established. DCAPES Inc 2B 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments (DCAPES) is

  17. Applying CLSM to increment core surfaces for histometric analyses: A novel advance in quantitative wood anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Liang; Ingo Heinrich; Gerhard Helle; I. Dorado Liñán; T. Heinken

    2013-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to conduct cell structure measurements on increment core samples of conifers. The procedure combines readily available hardware and software equipment. The essential part of the procedure is the application of a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) which captures images directly from increment cores surfaced with the advanced WSL core-microtome. Cell wall and lumen are displayed with a strong contrast due to the monochrome black and green nature of th...

  18. A System to Derive Optimal Tree Diameter Increment Models from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the computer software used by the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach to optimal tree diameter growth modeling. These DOS programs extract qualified tree and plot data from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB), calculate relative tree increment, sort for the highest relative increments by diameter class, and...

  19. Estimation of incremental reactivities for multiple day scenarios: an application to ethane and dimethyoxymethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, William R.; Geiger, Harald; Becker, Karl H.

    Single-day scenarios are used to calculate incremental reactivities by definition (Carter, J. Air Waste Management Assoc. 44 (1994) 881-899.) but even unreactive organic compounds may have a non-negligible effect on ozone concentrations if multiple-day scenarios are considered. The concentration of unreactive compounds and their products may build up over a multiple-day period and the oxidation products may be highly reactive or highly unreactive affecting the overall incremental reactivity of the organic compound. We have developed a method for calculating incremental reactivities for multiple days based on a standard scenario for polluted European conditions. This method was used to estimate maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivities (MOIR) for ethane and dimethyoxymethane for scenarios ranging from 1 to 6 days. It was found that the incremental reactivities increased as the length of the simulation period increased. The MIR of ethane increased faster than the value for dimethyoxymethane as the scenarios became longer. The MOIRs of ethane and dimethyoxymethane increased but the change was more modest for scenarios longer than 3 days. MOIRs of both volatile organic compounds were equal within the uncertainties of their chemical mechanisms by the 5 day scenario. These results show that dimethyoxymethane has an ozone forming potential on a per mass basis that is only somewhat greater than ethane if multiple-day scenarios are considered.

  20. Calculation of the increment reduction in spruce stands by charcoal smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, J

    1954-01-01

    Chronic damage to spruce trees by charcoal smoke, often hardly noticeable from outward appearance but causing marked reductions of wood increment can be determined by means of a calculation by increment cores. Sulfurous acid anhydride causes the closure of the stomates of needles by which the circulation of water is checked. The assimilation and the wood increment are reduced. The cores are taken from uninjured trees belonging to the dominant class. These trees are liable to irregular variations in the trend of growth only by atmospheric influences and disturbances in the circulation of water. The decrease of increment of a stand can be judged by the trend of growth of the basal area of sample trees. Two methods are applied: in the first method, the difference between the mean total increment before the damage has been caused and that after it is calculated by the yield table in deriving the site quality classes from the basal area growth of dominant stems. This is possible by using the mean diameter of each age class and the frequency curve of basal area for each site class. In the other method, the reduction of basal area increment of sample trees is measured directly. The total reduction of a stand can be judged by the share of the dominant class of stem in the total current growth of the basal area of a sound stand and by the percent of reduction of the sample trees.

  1. Analysis of Learning Conceptions Based on Three Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, E. Langston; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

    Three learning modules are described and investigated as they reflect different students' conceptions of and approaches to learning. The Schoolwork Module (SWM) focuses on task performance and involves a passive, incremental, piecemeal, and rote memory method of learning, parallel to what might be implied by the Information Processing model of…

  2. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  3. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  4. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  5. Outage analysis for underlay cognitive networks using incremental regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-02-01

    Cooperative relay technology has recently been introduced into cognitive radio (CR) networks to enhance the network capacity, scalability, and reliability of end-to-end communication. In this paper, we investigate an underlay cognitive network where the quality of service (QoS) of the secondary link is maintained by triggering an opportunistic regenerative relaying once it falls under an unacceptable level. Analysis is conducted for two schemes, referred to as the channel-state information (CSI)-based and fault-tolerant schemes, respectively, where different amounts of CSI were considered. We first provide the exact cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over each hop with colocated relays. Then, the cdf\\'s are used to determine a very accurate closed-form expression for the outage probability for a transmission rate $R$. In a high-SNR region, a floor of the secondary outage probability occurs, and we derive its corresponding expression. We validate our analysis by showing that the simulation results coincide with our analytical results in Rayleigh fading channels. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  6. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    deformation zones is included. The main conclusion is that, despite deep reaching damage potential, in all the load cases studied the currently designed and used reinforcement types and configurations (rock bolts, shotcrete) are capable of handling the dead weight of the damaged rock should this occur, with damage occurring on the shotcrete liner. The long term safety and stability of the repository during its lifetime can be guaranteed by perceiving the reinforcement strategy in two stages. Firstly, by installing the rock reinforcement to sustain the initial stresses and short term increases from the start of deposition with a monitoring programme in place. Secondly, by installing additional reinforcement, if found necessary through monitoring and observation of the underground facilities. In this way, the effect of any time dependent rock stress increase affecting the reinforcement structures can be observed, in addition to creep based damage, thus providing a better level of safety than a single stage design. (orig.)

  7. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    brittle deformation zones is included. The main conclusion is that, despite deep reaching damage potential, in all the load cases studied the currently designed and used reinforcement types and configurations (rock bolts, shotcrete) are capable of handling the dead weight of the damaged rock should this occur, with damage occurring on the shotcrete liner. The long term safety and stability of the repository during its lifetime can be guaranteed by perceiving the reinforcement strategy in two stages. Firstly, by installing the rock reinforcement to sustain the initial stresses and short term increases from the start of deposition with a monitoring programme in place. Secondly, by installing additional reinforcement, if found necessary through monitoring and observation of the underground facilities. In this way, the effect of any time dependent rock stress increase affecting the reinforcement structures can be observed, in addition to creep based damage, thus providing a better level of safety than a single stage design. (orig.)

  8. Learning in innovation networks: Some simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nigel; Ahrweiler, Petra; Pyka, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    According to the organizational learning literature, the greatest competitive advantage a firm has is its ability to learn. In this paper, a framework for modeling learning competence in firms is presented to improve the understanding of managing innovation. Firms with different knowledge stocks attempt to improve their economic performance by engaging in radical or incremental innovation activities and through partnerships and networking with other firms. In trying to vary and/or to stabilize their knowledge stocks by organizational learning, they attempt to adapt to environmental requirements while the market strongly selects on the results. The simulation experiments show the impact of different learning activities, underlining the importance of innovation and learning.

  9. Reliability of an incremental exercise test to evaluate acute blood lactate, heart rate and body temperature responses in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferasin, Luca; Marcora, Samuele

    2009-10-01

    Thirteen healthy Labrador retrievers underwent a 5-stage incremental treadmill exercise test to assess its reliability. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR), and body temperature (BT) were measured at rest, after each stage of exercise, and after a 20-min recovery. Reproducibility was assessed by repeating the test after 7 days. Two-way MANOVAs revealed significant differences between consecutive stages, and between values at rest and after recovery. There was also a significant reduction in physiological strain between the first and second trial (learning effect). Test reliability expressed as typical error (BL = 0.22 mmol/l, HR = 9.81 bpm, BT = 0.22 degrees C), coefficient of variation (BL = 19.3%, HR = 7.9% and BT = 0.6%) and test-retest correlation (BL = 0.89, HR = 0.96, BT = 0.95) was good. Results support test reproducibility although the learning effect needs to be controlled when investigating the exercise-related problems commonly observed in this breed.

  10. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Learning Analytics for Networked Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Srecko; Hatala, Marek; Gaševic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning in networked settings has attracted significant attention recently. The central topic of networked learning research is human-human and human-information interactions occurring within a networked learning environment. The nature of these interactions is highly complex and usually requires a multi-dimensional approach to…

  13. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  14. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis (ERA) temperature increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-09-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in the reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the lack of dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (>0.5), low correlation and high negative correlation (Forecast (ECMWF) suggest that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity and downward (upward) airflow. These findings are associated with the interaction between dust-forced heating/cooling and atmospheric circulation. This paper contributes to a better understanding of dust radiative processes missed in the model.

  15. Numerical simulation of pseudoelastic shape memory alloys using the large time increment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Weihong; Zaki, Wael; Moumni, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents a numerical implementation of the large time increment (LATIN) method for the simulation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in the pseudoelastic range. The method was initially proposed as an alternative to the conventional incremental approach for the integration of nonlinear constitutive models. It is adapted here for the simulation of pseudoelastic SMA behavior using the Zaki-Moumni model and is shown to be especially useful in situations where the phase transformation process presents little or lack of hardening. In these situations, a slight stress variation in a load increment can result in large variations of strain and local state variables, which may lead to difficulties in numerical convergence. In contrast to the conventional incremental method, the LATIN method solve the global equilibrium and local consistency conditions sequentially for the entire loading path. The achieved solution must satisfy the conditions of static and kinematic admissibility and consistency simultaneously after several iterations. 3D numerical implementation is accomplished using an implicit algorithm and is then used for finite element simulation using the software Abaqus. Computational tests demonstrate the ability of this approach to simulate SMAs presenting flat phase transformation plateaus and subjected to complex loading cases, such as the quasi-static behavior of a stent structure. Some numerical results are contrasted to those obtained using step-by-step incremental integration.

  16. The influence of learning in collaborative improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob S.; Boer, Harry; Gertsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative improvement is a purposeful inter-company interactive process that focuses on continuous incremental innovation aimed at enhancing the partnership's overall performance. Considering that in such an environment the capability to learn jointly and individually is crucial, this paper...... takes a learning perspective on collaborative improvement and addresses the question: How do organisational learning and collaboration interplay and affect improvement performance? Based on an analysis of three dyads of the same Extended Manufacturing Enterprise, this paper concludes that a robust...

  17. Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roy; Karousou, Regina; Mackness, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be validated and self-correcting and whether it is possible to link or integrate emergent and prescribed learning. It draws on complexity theory, commu...

  18. Incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion versus 14-fragments prostatic biopsy. A prospective controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, Guilherme C.; Falsarella, Priscila M.; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Queiroz, Marcos R.G.; Lemos, Gustavo C.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI-TRUS) fusion to conventional 14-cores biopsy. Uni-institutional, institutional review board (IRB) approved prospective blinded study comparing TRUS-guided random and targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion, in 100 consecutive men. We included men with clinical-laboratorial suspicious for prostate cancer and Likert score ≥ 3 mp-MRI. Patients previously diagnosed with prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were submitted to 14-cores TRUS-guided biopsy (mpMRI data operator-blinded), followed by targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion. There was an overall increase in cancer detection rate, from 56% with random technique to 62% combining targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion; incremental diagnosis was even more relevant for clinically significant lesions (Gleason ≥ 7), diagnosing 10% more clinically significant lesions with fusion biopsy technique. Diagnosis upgrade occurred in 5 patients that would have negative results in random biopsies and had clinically significant tumours with the combined technique, and in 5 patients who had the diagnosis of significant tumours after fusion biopsy and clinically insignificant tumours in random biopsies(p=0.0010). Targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion has incremental diagnostic value in comparison to conventional random biopsy, better detecting clinically significant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  19. Incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion versus 14-fragments prostatic biopsy. A prospective controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, Guilherme C.; Falsarella, Priscila M.; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Queiroz, Marcos R.G. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Interventional Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lemos, Gustavo C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Urology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo H. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    To compare the incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI-TRUS) fusion to conventional 14-cores biopsy. Uni-institutional, institutional review board (IRB) approved prospective blinded study comparing TRUS-guided random and targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion, in 100 consecutive men. We included men with clinical-laboratorial suspicious for prostate cancer and Likert score ≥ 3 mp-MRI. Patients previously diagnosed with prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were submitted to 14-cores TRUS-guided biopsy (mpMRI data operator-blinded), followed by targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion. There was an overall increase in cancer detection rate, from 56% with random technique to 62% combining targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion; incremental diagnosis was even more relevant for clinically significant lesions (Gleason ≥ 7), diagnosing 10% more clinically significant lesions with fusion biopsy technique. Diagnosis upgrade occurred in 5 patients that would have negative results in random biopsies and had clinically significant tumours with the combined technique, and in 5 patients who had the diagnosis of significant tumours after fusion biopsy and clinically insignificant tumours in random biopsies(p=0.0010). Targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion has incremental diagnostic value in comparison to conventional random biopsy, better detecting clinically significant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  20. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.

  1. Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Sen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy Abstract Innovation in information technology is a primary driver for growth in developed economies. Research indicates that countries go through three stages in the adoption of innovation strategies: buying innovation through global trade, incremental innovation from other countries by enhancing efficiency, and, at the most developed stage, radically innovating independently for competitive advantage. The first two stages of innovation maturity depend more on cross-border trade than the third stage. In this paper, we find that IT professionals in in an emerging economy such as India believe in radical innovation over incremental innovation (adaptation as a growth strategy, even though competitive advantage may rest in adaptation. The results of the study report the preference for innovation strategies among IT professionals in India and its implications for other rapidly growing emerging economies.

  2. Determining frustum depth of 304 stainless steel plates with various diameters and thicknesses by incremental forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Sa' id [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khazaali, Hossain [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays incremental forming is more popular because of its flexibility and cost saving. However, no engineering data is available for manufacturers for forming simple shapes like a frustum by incremental forming, and either expensive experimental tests or finite element analysis (FEA) should be employed to determine the depth of a frustum considering: thickness, material, cone diameter, wall angle, feed rate, tool diameter, etc. In this study, finite element technique, confirmed by experimental study, was employed for developing applicable curves for determining the depth of frustums made from 304 stainless steel (SS304) sheet with various cone angles, thicknesses from 0.3 to 1 mm and major diameters from 50 to 200 mm using incremental forming. Using these curves, the frustum angle and its depth knowing its thickness and major diameter can be predicted. The effects of feed rate, vertical pitch and tool diameter on frustum depth and surface quality were also addressed in this study.

  3. EFFECT OF COST INCREMENT DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF JIT SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Bidiawati J.R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration in supply chain (SC optimisation. This is due to emphasis placed on cost reduction in order to optimise profit. Some researchers use cost as one of their performance measures and others propose ways of accurately calculating cost. As product moves across SC, the product cost also increases. This paper studied the effect of cost increment distribution patterns on the performance of a JIT Supply Chain. In particular, it is necessary to know if inventory allocation across SC needs to be modified to accommodate different cost increment distribution patterns. It was found that funnel is still the best card distribution pattern for JIT-SC regardless the cost increment distribution patterns used.

  4. Incremental Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Traits With Respect to Psychosocial Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Leonard J; Calabrese, William R

    2016-02-01

    Traditional personality disorders (PDs) are associated with significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 Section III includes an alternative hybrid personality disorder (PD) classification approach, with both type and trait elements, but relatively little is known about the impairments associated with Section III traits. Our objective was to study the incremental validity of Section III traits--compared to normal-range traits, traditional PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology--in predicting psychosocial impairment. To that end, 628 current/recent psychiatric patients completed measures of PD traits, normal-range traits, traditional PD criteria, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychosocial impairments. Hierarchical regressions revealed that Section III PD traits incrementally predicted psychosocial impairment over normal-range personality traits, PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology. In contrast, the incremental effects for normal-range traits, PD symptom counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology were substantially smaller than for PD traits. These findings have implications for PD classification and the impairment literature more generally.

  5. The balanced scorecard: an incremental approach model to health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Charles J

    2002-01-01

    The balanced scorecard represents a technique used in strategic management to translate an organization's mission and strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures that provide the framework for implementation of strategic management. This article develops an incremental approach for decision making by formulating a specific balanced scorecard model with an index of nonfinancial as well as financial measures. The incremental approach to costs, including profit contribution analysis and probabilities, allows decisionmakers to assess, for example, how their desire to meet different health care needs will cause changes in service design. This incremental approach to the balanced scorecard may prove to be useful in evaluating the existence of causality relationships between different objective and subjective measures to be included within the balanced scorecard.

  6. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Incremental net social benefit associated with using nuclear-fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maoz, I.

    1976-12-01

    The incremental net social benefit (INSB) resulting from nuclear-fueled, rather than coal-fired, electric power generation is assessed. The INSB is defined as the difference between the 'incremental social benefit' (ISB)--caused by the cheaper technology of electric power generation, and the 'incremental social cost' (ISC)--associated with an increased power production, which is induced by cheaper technology. Section 2 focuses on the theoretical and empirical problems associated with the assessment of the long-run price elasticity of the demand for electricity, and the theoretical-econometric considerations that lead to the reasonable estimates of price elasticities of demand from those provided by recent empirical studies. Section 3 covers the theoretical and empirical difficulties associated with the construction of the long-run social marginal cost curves (LRSMC) of electricity. Sections 4 and 5 discuss the assessment methodology and provide numerical examples for the calculation of the INSB resulting from nuclear-fueled power generation

  8. Incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo for autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposed a new incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo approach for robotic manipulators to capture a non-cooperative target autonomously. The target's pose and motion are estimated by a vision system using integrated photogrammetry and EKF algorithm. Based on the estimated pose and motion of the target, the instantaneous desired position of the end-effector is predicted by inverse kinematics and the robotic manipulator is moved incrementally from its current configuration subject to the joint speed limits. This approach effectively eliminates the multiple solutions in the inverse kinematics and increases the robustness of the control algorithm. The proposed approach is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, where the pose and motion of the non-cooperative target is estimated by a real vision system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed estimation approach for the target and the incremental control strategy for the robotic manipulator.

  9. OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS DURING INCREMENTAL- AND DECREMENTAL-RAMP CYCLE ERGOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadıl Özyener

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 response to incremental-ramp cycle ergometry typically demonstrates lagged-linear first-order kinetics with a slope of ~10-11 ml·min-1·W-1, both above and below the lactate threshold (ӨL, i.e. there is no discernible VO2 slow component (or "excess" VO2 above ӨL. We were interested in determining whether a reverse ramp profile would yield the same response dynamics. Ten healthy males performed a maximum incremental -ramp (15-30 W·min-1, depending on fitness. On another day, the work rate (WR was increased abruptly to the incremental maximum and then decremented at the same rate of 15-30 W.min-1 (step-decremental ramp. Five subjects also performed a sub-maximal ramp-decremental test from 90% of ӨL. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath from continuous monitoring of respired volumes (turbine and gas concentrations (mass spectrometer. The incremental-ramp VO2-WR slope was 10.3 ± 0.7 ml·min-1·W-1, whereas that of the descending limb of the decremental ramp was 14.2 ± 1.1 ml·min-1·W-1 (p < 0.005. The sub-maximal decremental-ramp slope, however, was only 9. 8 ± 0.9 ml·min-1·W-1: not significantly different from that of the incremental-ramp. This suggests that the VO2 response in the supra-ӨL domain of incremental-ramp exercise manifest not actual, but pseudo, first-order kinetics

  10. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  11. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  12. A program for the numerical control of a pulse increment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.C.

    1963-08-21

    This report will describe the important features of the development of magnetic tapes for the numerical control of a pulse-increment system consisting of a modified Gorton lathe and its associated control unit developed by L. E. Foley of Equipment Development Service, Engineering Services, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y. Included is a description of CUPID (Control and Utilization of Pulse Increment Devices), a FORTRAN program for the design of these tapes on the IBM 7090 computer, and instructions for its operation.

  13. Incremental Approach to the Technology of Test Design for Industrial Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Drobintsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to effort reduction in developing test suites for industrial software products based on the incremental technology. The main problems to be solved by the incremental technology are full automation design of test scenarios and significant reducing of test explosion. The proposed approach provides solutions to the mentioned problems through joint co-working of a designer and a customer, through the integration of symbolic verification with the automatic generation of test suites; through the usage of an efficient technology with the toolset VRS/TAT.

  14. Incremental electrohydraulic forming - A new approach for the manufacture of structured multifunctional sheet metal blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djakow, Eugen; Springer, Robert; Homberg, Werner; Piper, Mark; Tran, Julian; Zibart, Alexander; Kenig, Eugeny

    2017-10-01

    Electrohydraulic Forming (EHF) processes permit the production of complex, sharp-edged geometries even when high-strength materials are used. Unfortunately, the forming zone is often limited as compared to other sheet metal forming processes. The use of a special industrial-robot-based tool setup and an incremental process strategy could provide a promising solution for this problem. This paper describes such an innovative approach using an electrohydraulic incremental forming machine, which can be employed to manufacture the large multifunctional and complex part geometries in steel, aluminium, magnesium and reinforced plastic that are employed in lightweight constructions or heating elements.

  15. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  16. Deep Reading and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    structured prediction. In search-based structured prediction, this mapping is constructed incrementally via heuristic search. We adapted several variations ...bad decision ( Goldberg and Elhadad 2010). We call this approach best good vs. best bad (BGBB). One problem with this update is that it ignores the...and Abelson, 1977). Scripts capture a stereotypical sequence of events that typically occur in a given context while allowing for variations . There

  17. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  18. Enthalpy increment measurements of Sr3Zr2O7(s) and Sr4Zr3O10(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Dash, S.; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    1998-01-01

    Enthalpy increment measurements on Sr 3 Zr 2 O 7 (s) and Sr 4 Zr 3 O 10 (s) were carried out using a Calvet micro-calorimeter. The enthalpy increment values were least squares analyzed with the constraints that H 0 (T)-H 0 (298.15 K) at 298.15 K equals to zero and C p 0 (298.15 K) equals to the estimated value. The dependence of enthalpy increment with temperature is given. (orig.)

  19. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Internal Structure, Convergent, Criterion, and Incremental Validity in an Italian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Federica; Smith, Martin M.; Surcinelli, Paola; Baldaro, Bruno; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the structure and validity of the Italian translation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Data were self-reported from 227 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the scale. Hierarchical regressions also demonstrated its incremental validity beyond demographics, the…

  20. One Size Does Not Fit All: Managing Radical and Incremental Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Lucy L.; Lim, Hyoun Sook; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Moye, Neta

    2012-01-01

    This research extends creativity theory by re-conceptualizing creativity as a two-dimensional construct (radical and incremental) and examining the differential effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic rewards, and supportive supervision on perceptions of creativity. We hypothesize and find two distinct types of creativity that are associated…

  1. Relating annual increments of the endangered Blanding's turtle plastron growth to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Monik G; Laroque, Colin P; Herman, Thomas B

    2014-05-01

    This research is the first published study to report a relationship between climate variables and plastron growth increments of turtles, in this case the endangered Nova Scotia Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). We used techniques and software common to the discipline of dendrochronology to successfully cross-date our growth increment data series, to detrend and average our series of 80 immature Blanding's turtles into one common chronology, and to seek correlations between the chronology and environmental temperature and precipitation variables. Our cross-dated chronology had a series intercorrelation of 0.441 (above 99% confidence interval), an average mean sensitivity of 0.293, and an average unfiltered autocorrelation of 0.377. Our master chronology represented increments from 1975 to 2007 (33 years), with index values ranging from a low of 0.688 in 2006 to a high of 1.303 in 1977. Univariate climate response function analysis on mean monthly air temperature and precipitation values revealed a positive correlation with the previous year's May temperature and current year's August temperature; a negative correlation with the previous year's October temperature; and no significant correlation with precipitation. These techniques for determining growth increment response to environmental variables should be applicable to other turtle species and merit further exploration.

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Incremental Capital Structure Decisions Under Managerial Entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Veld, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    We study incremental capital structure decisions of Dutch companies. From 1977 to 1996 these companies have made 110 issues of public and private seasoned equity and 137 public issues of straight debt. Managers of Dutch companies are entrenched. For this reason a discrepancy exists between

  3. Volatilities, traded volumes, and the hypothesis of price increments in derivative securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Scalas, Enrico; Kim, Kyungsik

    2007-08-01

    A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to the statistics of Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. In this study, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of the long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to a inherent higher-order correlation not detected by with the direct application of the DFA to logarithmic increments of KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of future prices and to generate a geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It was found from a comparison of the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments leads to volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes can be supported by the hypothesis of price changes.

  4. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  5. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  6. Software designs of image processing tasks with incremental refinement of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Davide; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2010-08-01

    Software realizations of computationally-demanding image processing tasks (e.g., image transforms and convolution) do not currently provide graceful degradation when their clock-cycles budgets are reduced, e.g., when delay deadlines are imposed in a multitasking environment to meet throughput requirements. This is an important obstacle in the quest for full utilization of modern programmable platforms' capabilities since worst-case considerations must be in place for reasonable quality of results. In this paper, we propose (and make available online) platform-independent software designs performing bitplane-based computation combined with an incremental packing framework in order to realize block transforms, 2-D convolution and frame-by-frame block matching. The proposed framework realizes incremental computation: progressive processing of input-source increments improves the output quality monotonically. Comparisons with the equivalent nonincremental software realization of each algorithm reveal that, for the same precision of the result, the proposed approach can lead to comparable or faster execution, while it can be arbitrarily terminated and provide the result up to the computed precision. Application examples with region-of-interest based incremental computation, task scheduling per frame, and energy-distortion scalability verify that our proposal provides significant performance scalability with graceful degradation.

  7. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.; Iurian, A-R.; Owens, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”

  8. Per tree estimates with n-tree distance sampling: an application to increment core data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Robert F. Wittwer

    2002-01-01

    Per tree estimates using the n trees nearest a point can be obtained by using a ratio of per unit area estimates from n-tree distance sampling. This ratio was used to estimate average age by d.b.h. classes for cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) on the Cimarron National Grassland. Increment...

  9. Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-05-14

    This document summarizes findings from a literature review into the incremental costs associated with low-energy buildings. The goal of this work is to help establish as firm an analytical foundation as possible for the Building Technology Program's cost-effective net-zero energy goal in the year 2025.

  10. Analogical reasoning: An incremental or insightful process? What cognitive and cortical evidence suggests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Alessandro; Balconi, Michela

    2010-06-01

    Abstract The step-by-step, incremental nature of analogical reasoning can be questioned, since analogy making appears to be an insight-like process. This alternative view of analogical thinking can be integrated in Speed's model, even though the alleged role played by dopaminergic subcortical circuits needs further supporting evidence.

  11. A diameter increment model for Red Fir in California and Southern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1992-01-01

    Periodic (10-year) diameter increment of individual red fir trees in Califomia and southern Oregon can be predicted from initial diameter and crown ratio of each tree, site index, percent slope, and aspect of the site. The model actually predicts the natural logarithm ofthe change in squared diameter inside bark between the startand the end of a 10-year growth period....

  12. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  13. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C. [Environmental Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Iurian, A-R. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Owens, P. N. [Environmental Science Program and Quesnel River Research Centre, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”.

  14. Evaluating growth assumptions using diameter or radial increments in natural even-aged longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; Ralph S. Meldahl; Jyoti N. Rayamajhi; John S. Kush

    2010-01-01

    When using increment cores to predict future growth, one often assumes future growth is identical to past growth for individual trees. Once this assumption is accepted, a decision has to be made between which growth estimate should be used, constant diameter growth or constant basal area growth. Often, the assumption of constant diameter growth is used due to the ease...

  15. Diagnostic value of triphasic incremental helical CT in early and progressive gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jianbo; Yan Xuehua; Li Mengtai; Guo Hua; Chen Xuejun; Guan Sheng; Zhang Xiefu; Li Shuxin; Yang Xiaopeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate helical CT enhancement characteristics of gastric carcinoma, and the diagnostic value and preoperative staging of gastric carcinoma with triphasic incremental helical CT of the stomach with water-filling method. Methods: Both double-contrast barium examination and triphasic incremental helical CT of the stomach with water-filling method were performed in 46 patients with gastric carcinoma. Results: (1) Among these patients, normal gastric wall exhibited one layered structure in 18 patients, two or three layered structure in 28 patients in the arterial and portal venous phase. (2) Two cases of early stomach cancer showed marked enhancement in the arterial and portal venous phase and obvious attenuation of enhancement in the equilibrium phase. On the contrary, 32 of the 44 advanced gastric carcinoma was showed marked enhancement in the venous phase compared with the arterial phase ( t = 4.226, P < 0.05). (3) The total accuracy of triphasic incremental helical CT in determining TNM-staging was 81.0%. Conclusion: Different types of gastric carcinoma have different enhancement features. Triphases incremental helical CT is more accurate than conventional CT in the preoperative staging of gastric carcinoma

  16. On the search for an appropriate metric for reaction time to suprathreshold increments and decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Angel; Murzac, Adrian; Zlatkova, Margarita B; Anderson, Roger S

    2009-03-01

    Weber contrast, DeltaL/L, is a widely used contrast metric for aperiodic stimuli. Zele, Cao & Pokorny [Zele, A. J., Cao, D., & Pokorny, J. (2007). Threshold units: A correct metric for reaction time? Vision Research, 47, 608-611] found that neither Weber contrast nor its transform to detection-threshold units equates human reaction times in response to luminance increments and decrements under selective rod stimulation. Here we show that their rod reaction times are equated when plotted against the spatial luminance ratio between the stimulus and its background (L(max)/L(min), the larger and smaller of background and stimulus luminances). Similarly, reaction times to parafoveal S-cone selective increments and decrements from our previous studies [Murzac, A. (2004). A comparative study of the temporal characteristics of processing of S-cone incremental and decremental signals. PhD thesis, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Murzac, A., & Vassilev, A. (2004). Reaction time to S-cone increments and decrements. In: 7th European conference on visual perception, Budapest, August 22-26. Perception, 33, 180 (Abstract).], are better described by the spatial luminance ratio than by Weber contrast. We assume that the type of stimulus detection by temporal (successive) luminance discrimination, by spatial (simultaneous) luminance discrimination or by both [Sperling, G., & Sondhi, M. M. (1968). Model for visual luminance discrimination and flicker detection. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 58, 1133-1145.] determines the appropriateness of one or other contrast metric for reaction time.

  17. Lead 210 and moss-increment dating of two Finnish Sphagnum hummocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison is presented of 210 Pb dating data with mass-increment dates of selected peat material from Finland. The measurements of 210 Pb were carried out by determining the granddaughter product 210 Po by means of the isotope dilution. The ages in 210 Pb yr were calculated using the constant initial concentration and the constant rate of supply models. (U.K.)

  18. Successive 1-Month Weight Increments in Infancy Can Be Used to Screen for Faltering Linear Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Adelheid W; Borghi, Elaine; de Onis, Mercedes; Frongillo, Edward A; Victora, Cesar G; Dewey, Kathryn G; Lartey, Anna; Bhandari, Nita; Baerug, Anne; Garza, Cutberto

    2015-12-01

    Linear growth faltering in the first 2 y contributes greatly to a high stunting burden, and prevention is hampered by the limited capacity in primary health care for timely screening and intervention. This study aimed to determine an approach to predicting long-term stunting from consecutive 1-mo weight increments in the first year of life. By using the reference sample of the WHO velocity standards, the analysis explored patterns of consecutive monthly weight increments among healthy infants. Four candidate screening thresholds of successive increments that could predict stunting were considered, and one was selected for further testing. The selected threshold was applied in a cohort of Bangladeshi infants to assess its predictive value for stunting at ages 12 and 24 mo. Between birth and age 12 mo, 72.6% of infants in the WHO sample tracked within 1 SD of their weight and length. The selected screening criterion ("event") was 2 consecutive monthly increments below the 15th percentile. Bangladeshi infants were born relatively small and, on average, tracked downward from approximately age 6 to strategy is effective, the estimated preventable proportion in the group who experienced the event would be 34% at 12 mo and 24% at 24 mo. This analysis offers an approach for frontline workers to identify children at risk of stunting, allowing for timely initiation of preventive measures. It opens avenues for further investigation into evidence-informed application of the WHO growth velocity standards. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Raising Cervical Cancer Awareness: Analysing the Incremental Efficacy of Short Message Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Marina Serra; Rothes, Inês Areal; Oliveira, Filipa; Soares, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incremental efficacy of a Short Message Service (SMS) combined with a brief video intervention in increasing the effects of a health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention, over and beyond a video-alone intervention, with respect to key determinants of health behaviour change--knowledge, motivation and…

  20. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy: Construct and Incremental Validity in Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…

  1. Between structures and norms : Assessing tax increment financing for the Dutch spatial planning toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, Liz; Van Der Krabben, Erwin; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the institutional (mis)fit of tax increment financing for the Dutch spatial planning financial toolkit. By applying an institutionally oriented assessment framework, we analyse the interconnectivity of Dutch municipal finance and spatial planning structures and

  2. Analytic description of the frictionally engaged in-plane bending process incremental swivel bending (ISB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohn, Peter; Engel, Bernd; Groth, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Kinematic forming processes shape geometries by the process parameters to achieve a more universal process utilizations regarding geometric configurations. The kinematic forming process Incremental Swivel Bending (ISB) bends sheet metal strips or profiles in plane. The sequence for bending an arc increment is composed of the steps clamping, bending, force release and feed. The bending moment is frictionally engaged by two clamping units in a laterally adjustable bending pivot. A minimum clamping force hindering the material from slipping through the clamping units is a crucial criterion to achieve a well-defined incremental arc. Therefore, an analytic description of a singular bent increment is developed in this paper. The bending moment is calculated by the uniaxial stress distribution over the profiles' width depending on the bending pivot's position. By a Coulomb' based friction model, necessary clamping force is described in dependence of friction, offset, dimensions of the clamping tools and strip thickness as well as material parameters. Boundaries for the uniaxial stress calculation are given in dependence of friction, tools' dimensions and strip thickness. The results indicate that changing the bending pivot to an eccentric position significantly affects the process' bending moment and, hence, clamping force, which is given in dependence of yield stress and hardening exponent. FE simulations validate the model with satisfactory accordance.

  3. On critical cases in limit theory for stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Podolskij, Mark

    averages. The limit theory heavily depends on the interplay between the given order of the increments, the considered power, the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the driving pure jump Lévy process L and the behavior of the kernel function g at 0. In this work we will study the critical cases, which were...

  4. TCAM-based High Speed Longest Prefix Matching with Fast Incremental Table Updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Kragelund, A.; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    and consequently a higher throughput of the network search engine, since the TCAM down time caused by incremental updates is eliminated. The LPM scheme is described in HDL for FPGA implementation and compared to an existing scheme for customized CAM circuits. The paper shows that the proposed scheme can process...

  5. Differentiating Major and Incremental New Product Development: The Effects of Functional and Numerical Workforce Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.A.W.; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the differential effects of workforce flexibility on incremental and major new product development (NPD). Drawing on the resource-based theory of the firm, human resource management research, and innovation management literature, the authors distinguish two types of

  6. Real Time Implementation of Incremental Fuzzy Logic Controller for Gas Pipeline Corrosion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust virtual instrumentation based fuzzy incremental corrosion controller is presented to protect metallic gas pipelines. Controller output depends on error and change in error of the controlled variable. For corrosion control purpose pipe to soil potential is considered as process variable. The proposed fuzzy incremental controller is designed using a very simple control rule base and the most natural and unbiased membership functions. The proposed scheme is tested for a wide range of pipe to soil potential control. Performance comparison between the conventional proportional integral type and proposed fuzzy incremental controller is made in terms of several performance criteria such as peak overshoot, settling time, and rise time. Result shows that the proposed controller outperforms its conventional counterpart in each case. Designed controller can be taken in automode without waiting for initial polarization to stabilize. Initial startup curve of proportional integral controller and fuzzy incremental controller is reported. This controller can be used to protect any metallic structures such as pipelines, tanks, concrete structures, ship, and offshore structures.

  7. On the Perturb-and-Observe and Incremental Conductance MPPT methods for PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo; Kerekes, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the two most well-known hill-climbing MPPT algorithms, the Perturb-and-Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (INC). The purpose of the analysis is to clarify some common misconceptions in the literature regarding these two trackers, therefore helping...

  8. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  9. A gradient surface produced by combined electroplating and incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hong, Chuanshi; Kitamura, K.

    2017-01-01

    A Cu plate was first electroplated with a Ni layer, with a thickness controlled to be between 1 and 2 mu m. The coated surface was then deformed by incremental frictional sliding with liquid nitrogen cooling. The combined treatment led to a multifunctional surface with a gradient in strain...

  10. The effects of the pine processionary moth on the increment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... sycophanta L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) used against the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in biological control. T. J. Zool. 30:181-185. Kanat M, Sivrikaya F (2005). Effect of the pine processionary moth on diameter increment of Calabrian ...

  11. Incrementally Detecting Change Types of Spatial Area Object: A Hierarchical Matching Method Considering Change Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and extracting the change types of spatial area objects can track area objects’ spatiotemporal change pattern and provide the change backtracking mechanism for incrementally updating spatial datasets. To respond to the problems of high complexity of detection methods, high redundancy rate of detection factors, and the low automation degree during incrementally update process, we take into account the change process of area objects in an integrated way and propose a hierarchical matching method to detect the nine types of changes of area objects, while minimizing the complexity of the algorithm and the redundancy rate of detection factors. We illustrate in details the identification, extraction, and database entry of change types, and how we achieve a close connection and organic coupling of incremental information extraction and object type-of-change detection so as to characterize the whole change process. The experimental results show that this method can successfully detect incremental information about area objects in practical applications, with the overall accuracy reaching above 90%, which is much higher than the existing weighted matching method, making it quite feasible and applicable. It helps establish the corresponding relation between new-version and old-version objects, and facilitate the linked update processing and quality control of spatial data.

  12. Combining Compact Representation and Incremental Generation in Large Games with Sequential Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosansky, Branislav; Xin Jiang, Albert; Tambe, Milind

    2015-01-01

    representation of sequential strategies and linear programming, or by incremental strategy generation of iterative double-oracle methods. In this paper, we present novel hybrid of these two approaches: compact-strategy double-oracle (CS-DO) algorithm that combines the advantages of the compact representation...

  13. A power-driven increment borer for sampling high-density tropical wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krottenthaler, S.; Pitsch, P.; Helle, G.; Locosselli, G. M.; Ceccantini, G.; Altman, Jan; Svoboda, M.; Doležal, Jiří; Schleser, G.; Anhuf, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, November (2015), s. 40-44 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : tropical dendrochronology * tree sampling methods * increment cores Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2015

  14. Substructuring in the implicit simulation of single point incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a direct substructuring method to reduce the computing time of implicit simulations of single point incremental forming (SPIF). Substructuring is used to divide the finite element (FE) mesh into several non-overlapping parts. Based on the hypothesis that plastic deformation is

  15. Incremental Validity of the WJ III COG: Limited Predictive Effects beyond the GIA-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an examination of the incremental validity of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) for predicting scores on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). The participants were children and adolescents, ages 6-18 (n = 4,722), drawn from the WJ…

  16. Feasibility of Incremental 2-Times Weekly Hemodialysis in Incident Patients With Residual Kidney Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I. Chin

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: More than 50% of incident HD patients with RKF have adequate kidney urea clearance to be considered for 2-times weekly HD. When additionally ultrafiltration volume and blood pressure stability are taken into account, more than one-fourth of the total cohort could optimally start HD in an incremental fashion.

  17. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  18. The cerebellum and visual perceptual learning: evidence from a motion extrapolation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Cristina; Golzar, Ashkan; Santandrea, Elisa; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Eštočinová, Jana; Moretto, Giuseppe; Fiaschi, Antonio; Panzeri, Marta; Mariotti, Caterina; Tinazzi, Michele; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2014-09-01

    Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and recalibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor versus

  19. [Spatiotemporal variation of Populus euphratica's radial increment at lower reaches of Tarim River after ecological water transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong-Yan; Xu, Hai-Liang; Ye, Mao; Yu, Pu-Ji; Gong, Jun-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Taking the Populus euphratica at lower reaches of Tarim River as test object, and by the methods of tree dendrohydrology, this paper studied the spatiotemporal variation of P. euphratic' s branch radial increment after ecological water transfer. There was a significant difference in the mean radial increment before and after ecological water transfer. The radial increment after the eco-water transfer was increased by 125%, compared with that before the water transfer. During the period of ecological water transfer, the radial increment was increased with increasing water transfer quantity, and there was a positive correlation between the annual radial increment and the total water transfer quantity (R2 = 0.394), suggesting that the radial increment of P. euphratica could be taken as the performance indicator of ecological water transfer. After the ecological water transfer, the radial increment changed greatly with the distance to the River, i.e. , decreased significantly along with the increasing distance to the River (P = 0.007). The P. euphratic' s branch radial increment also differed with stream segment (P = 0.017 ), i.e. , the closer to the head-water point (Daxihaizi Reservoir), the greater the branch radial increment. It was considered that the limited effect of the current ecological water transfer could scarcely change the continually deteriorating situation of the lower reaches of Tarim River.

  20. A maximal incremental effort alters tear osmolarity depending on the fitness level in military helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David

    2017-10-01

    Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-02-24

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  2. A design of LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyan; Xiao, Zexin; He, Shaojia

    2010-11-01

    As a new generation energy-saving lighting source, LED is applied widely in various technology and industry fields. The requirement of its adaptive lighting technology is more and more rigorous, especially in the automatic on-line detecting system. In this paper, a closed loop feedback LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller is designed, which consists of MEGA16 chip as a Micro-controller Unit (MCU), the ambient light sensor BH1750 chip with Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C), and constant-current driving circuit. A given value of light intensity required for the on-line detecting environment need to be saved to the register of MCU. The optical intensity, detected by BH1750 chip in real time, is converted to digital signal by AD converter of the BH1750 chip, and then transmitted to MEGA16 chip through I2C serial bus. Since the variation law of light intensity in the on-line detecting environment is usually not easy to be established, incremental Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) algorithm is applied in this system. Control variable obtained by the incremental PID determines duty cycle of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). Consequently, LED's forward current is adjusted by PWM, and the luminous intensity of the detection environment is stabilized by self-adaptation. The coefficients of incremental PID are obtained respectively after experiments. Compared with the traditional LED dimming system, it has advantages of anti-interference, simple construction, fast response, and high stability by the use of incremental PID algorithm and BH1750 chip with I2C serial bus. Therefore, it is suitable for the adaptive on-line detecting applications.

  3. Endogenous-cue prospective memory involving incremental updating of working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P; Lukose, Ammu; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M

    2015-11-01

    Prospective memory paradigms are conventionally classified on the basis of event-, time-, or activity-based intention retrieval. In the vast majority of such paradigms, intention retrieval is provoked by some kind of external event. However, prospective memory retrieval cues that prompt intention retrieval in everyday life are commonly endogenous, i.e., linked to a specific imagined retrieval context. We describe herein a novel prospective memory paradigm wherein the endogenous cue is generated by incremental updating of working memory, and investigated the hemodynamic correlates of this task. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a prospective memory task where the delayed intention was triggered by an endogenous cue generated by incremental updating of working memory. Working memory and ongoing task control conditions were also administered. The 'endogenous-cue prospective memory condition' with incremental working memory updating was associated with maximum activations in the right rostral prefrontal cortex, and additional activations in the brain regions that constitute the bilateral fronto-parietal network, central and dorsal salience networks as well as cerebellum. In the working memory control condition, maximal activations were noted in the left dorsal anterior insula. Activation of the bilateral dorsal anterior insula, a component of the central salience network, was found to be unique to this 'endogenous-cue prospective memory task' in comparison to previously reported exogenous- and endogenous-cue prospective memory tasks without incremental working memory updating. Thus, the findings of the present study highlight the important role played by the dorsal anterior insula in incremental working memory updating that is integral to our endogenous-cue prospective memory task.

  4. Influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of composite base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Tarek A; Garoushi, Sufyan; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2017-06-01

    Bulk-fill resin composites (BFCs) are gaining popularity in restorative dentistry due to the reduced chair time and ease of application. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of different BFCs and a new discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite. One hundred eighty extracted sound human molars were prepared for a shear bond strength (SBS) test. The teeth were divided into four groups (n = 45) according to the resin composite used: regular particulate filler resin composite: (1) G-ænial Anterior [GA] (control); bulk-fill resin composites: (2) Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [TEBF] and (3) SDR; and discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite: (4) everX Posterior [EXP]. Each group was subdivided according to increment thickness (2, 4, and 6 mm). The irradiance power through the material of all groups/subgroups was quantified (MARC® Resin Calibrator; BlueLight Analytics Inc.). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. SBS and light irradiance decreased as the increment's height increased (p composite used. EXP presented the highest SBS in 2- and 4-mm-thick increments when compared to other composites, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Light irradiance mean values arranged in descending order were (p composites. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest value of curing light transmission, which was also seen in improved bonding strength to the underlying dentin surface. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite can be applied safely in bulks of 4-mm increments same as other bulk-fill composites, although, in 2-mm thickness, the investigated composites showed better performance.

  5. A fast implementation of the incremental backprojection algorithms for parallel beam geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.M.; Wang, C.Y.; Cho, Z.H.

    1996-01-01

    Filtered-backprojection algorithms are the most widely used approaches for reconstruction of computed tomographic (CT) images, such as X-ray CT and positron emission tomographic (PET) images. The Incremental backprojection algorithm is a fast backprojection approach based on restructuring the Shepp and Logan algorithm. By exploiting interdependency (position and values) of adjacent pixels, the Incremental algorithm requires only O(N) and O(N 2 ) multiplications in contrast to O(N 2 ) and O(N 3 ) multiplications for the Shepp and Logan algorithm in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) backprojections, respectively, for each view, where N is the size of the image in each dimension. In addition, it may reduce the number of additions for each pixel computation. The improvement achieved by the Incremental algorithm in practice was not, however, as significant as expected. One of the main reasons is due to inevitably visiting pixels outside the beam in the searching flow scheme originally developed for the Incremental algorithm. To optimize implementation of the Incremental algorithm, an efficient scheme, namely, coded searching flow scheme, is proposed in this paper to minimize the overhead caused by searching for all pixels in a beam. The key idea of this scheme is to encode the searching flow for all pixels inside each beam. While backprojecting, all pixels may be visited without any overhead due to using the coded searching flow as the a priori information. The proposed coded searching flow scheme has been implemented on a Sun Sparc 10 and a Sun Sparc 20 workstations. The implementation results show that the proposed scheme is 1.45--2.0 times faster than the original searching flow scheme for most cases tested

  6. Learned Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Carol E.

    1976-01-01

    Learned helplessness--the belief that a person's actions have no influence on the outcome of an event--is similar in many respects to the crisis state and depression. The author shows how this impaired social and psychological functioning occurs and identifies techniques that the social worker can use to prevent it. (Author)

  7. Constraints on Perceptual Learning: Objects and Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Felice L.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses two questions that may be unique to perceptual learning: What are the circumstances that produce learning? and What is the content of learning? Suggests a critical principle for each question. Provides a discussion of perceptual learning theory, how learning occurs, and what gets learned. Includes a 121-item bibliography. (DR)

  8. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV-positive and -negative individuals with recent HCV. The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from 50 genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. A total of 12% of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non-dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (that is, Resistance variants (resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low-level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192569.

  9. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  10. Learning e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available What You Understand Is What Your Cognitive Integrates. Scientific research develops, as a native environment, knowledge. This environment consists of two interdependent divisions: theory and technology. First division occurs as a recursive research, while the second one becomes an application of the research activity. Over time, theories integrate methodologies and technology extends as infrastructure. The engine of this environment is learning, as the human activity of knowledge work. The threshold term of this model is the concepts map; it is based on Bloom’ taxonomy for the cognitive domain and highlights the notion of software scaffolding which is grounded in Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory with its major theme, Zone of Proximal Development. This article is designed as a conceptual paper, which analyzes specific structures of this type of educational research: the model reflects a foundation for a theory and finally, the theory evolves as groundwork for a system. The outcomes of this kind of approach are the examples, which are, theoretically, learning outcomes, and practically exist as educational objects, so-called e-learning.

  11. Potential stocks and increments of woody biomass in the European Union under different management and climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Georg E; Schörghuber, Stefan; Linkosalo, Tapio; Sanchez, Anabel; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J

    2013-02-01

    Forests play an important role in the global carbon flow. They can store carbon and can also provide wood which can substitute other materials. In EU27 the standing biomass is steadily increasing. Increments and harvests seem to have reached a plateau between 2005 and 2010. One reason for reaching this plateau will be the circumstance that the forests are getting older. High ages have the advantage that they typical show high carbon concentration and the disadvantage that the increment rates are decreasing. It should be investigated how biomass stock, harvests and increments will develop under different climate scenarios and two management scenarios where one is forcing to store high biomass amounts in forests and the other tries to have high increment rates and much harvested wood. A management which is maximising standing biomass will raise the stem wood carbon stocks from 30 tC/ha to 50 tC/ha until 2100. A management which is maximising increments will lower the stock to 20 tC/ha until 2100. The estimates for the climate scenarios A1b, B1 and E1 are different but there is much more effect by the management target than by the climate scenario. By maximising increments the harvests are 0.4 tC/ha/year higher than in the management which maximises the standing biomass. The increments until 2040 are close together but around 2100 the increments when maximising standing biomass are approximately 50 % lower than those when maximising increments. Cold regions will benefit from the climate changes in the climate scenarios by showing higher increments. The results of this study suggest that forest management should maximise increments, not stocks to be more efficient in sense of climate change mitigation. This is true especially for regions which have already high carbon stocks in forests, what is the case in many regions in Europe. During the time span 2010-2100 the forests of EU27 will absorb additional 1750 million tC if they are managed to maximise increments compared

  12. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  13. Ductility, strength and hardness relation after prior incremental deformation (ratcheting) of austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Diem, H.K.; Wachter, O.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental investigations into the stress/strain behavior of the niobium stabilized austenitic material with the German notation X6 CrNiNb 18 10 proved that a limited incrementally applied prior deformation will reduce the total deformation capability only by the amount of the prior deformation. It could especially be determined on the little changes in the reduction of area that the basically ductile deformation behavior will not be changed by the type of the prior loading. There is a correlation between the amount of deformation and the increase in hardness. It is possible to correlate both the changes in hardness and the material properties. In the case of low cycle fatigue tests with alternating temperature an incremental increase in total strain (ratcheting) was noted to depend on the strain range applied

  14. A Batch-Incremental Video Background Estimation Model using Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2017-07-02

    Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.

  15. Influence of part orientation on the geometric accuracy in robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störkle, Denis Daniel; Seim, Patrick; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    This article describes new developments in an incremental, robot-based sheet metal forming process (`Roboforming') for the production of sheet metal components for small lot sizes and prototypes. The dieless kinematic-based generation of the shape is implemented by means of two industrial robots, which are interconnected to a cooperating robot system. Compared to other incremental sheet metal forming (ISF) machines, this system offers high geometrical form flexibility without the need of any part-dependent tools. The industrial application of ISF is still limited by certain constraints, e.g. the low geometrical accuracy. Responding to these constraints, the authors present the influence of the part orientation and the forming sequence on the geometric accuracy. Their influence is illustrated with the help of various experimental results shown and interpreted within this article.

  16. A simple extension of contraction theory to study incremental stability properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    Contraction theory is a recent tool enabling to study the stability of nonlinear systems trajectories with respect to one another, and therefore belongs to the class of incremental stability methods. In this paper, we extend the original definition of contraction theory to incorporate...... in an explicit manner the control input of the considered system. Such an extension, called universal contraction, is quite analogous in spirit to the well-known Input-to-State Stability (ISS). It serves as a simple formulation of incremental ISS, external stability, and detectability in a differential setting....... The hierarchical combination result of contraction theory is restated in this framework, and a differential small-gain theorem is derived from results already available in Lyapunov theory....

  17. Job Embeddedness Demonstrates Incremental Validity When Predicting Turnover Intentions for Australian University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Brody; Gilbert, Jessica M.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Job embeddedness is a construct that describes the manner in which employees can be enmeshed in their jobs, reducing their turnover intentions. Recent questions regarding the properties of quantitative job embeddedness measures, and their predictive utility, have been raised. Our study compared two competing reflective measures of job embeddedness, examining their convergent, criterion, and incremental validity, as a means of addressing these questions. Cross-sectional quantitative data from 246 Australian university employees (146 academic; 100 professional) was gathered. Our findings indicated that the two compared measures of job embeddedness were convergent when total scale scores were examined. Additionally, job embeddedness was capable of demonstrating criterion and incremental validity, predicting unique variance in turnover intention. However, this finding was not readily apparent with one of the compared job embeddedness measures, which demonstrated comparatively weaker evidence of validity. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings, noting that job embeddedness has a complementary place among established determinants of turnover intention. PMID:27199817

  18. An approach to eliminate stepped features in multistage incremental sheet forming process: Experimental and FEA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirala, Harish Kumar; Jain, Prashant K.; Tandon, Puneet [PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur Jabalpur-482005, Madhya Pradesh (India); Roy, J. J.; Samal, M. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-15

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a recently developed manufacturing technique. In ISF, forming is done by applying deformation force through the motion of Numerically controlled (NC) single point forming tool on the clamped sheet metal blank. Single Point Incremental sheet forming (SPISF) is also known as a die-less forming process because no die is required to fabricate any component by using this process. Now a day it is widely accepted for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal components. The formability of SPISF process improves by adding some intermediate stages into it, which is known as Multi-stage SPISF (MSPISF) process. However during forming in MSPISF process because of intermediate stages stepped features are generated. This paper investigates the generation of stepped features with simulation and experimental results. An effective MSPISF strategy is proposed to remove or eliminate this generated undesirable stepped features.

  19. Enthalpy increment measurements of NaCrO2 using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, V.S.; Jayanthi, K.; Ramarao, G.A.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Enthalpy increment measurements on NaCrO 2 (s) were carried out in the temperature range 323 to 839 K using a high temperature Calvet micro calorimeter. The enthalpy increment values were least-squares fitted with temperature with the constraint that (Hdeg T - Hdeg 298 ) at 298.18 K equals zero, and can be given by: (Hdeg T - Hdeg 298 ) J/mol) ± 336 = -23515 + 75.364T(K) + 0.01256T 2 (K) (323 to 839 K). The first differential of the above equation with temperature gives the constant pressure molar heat capacity of NaCrO 2 (s), which is given by: Cdeg p (NaCrO 2 , s, T) (J/K mol) = 75.364 + 0.02512T(K). The thermal properties of NaCrO 2 (s) were calculated using the molar heat capacities from the present study and Sdeg(298 K) from the literature. (orig.)

  20. Accounting for between-study variation in incremental net benefit in value of information methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Previous applications of value of information methods for determining optimal sample size in randomized clinical trials have assumed no between-study variation in mean incremental net benefit. By adopting a hierarchical model, we provide a solution for determining optimal sample size with this assumption relaxed. The solution is illustrated with two examples from the literature. Expected net gain increases with increasing between-study variation, reflecting the increased uncertainty in incremental net benefit and reduced extent to which data are borrowed from previous evidence. Hence, a trial can become optimal where current evidence is sufficient assuming no between-study variation. However, despite the expected net gain increasing, the optimal sample size in the illustrated examples is relatively insensitive to the amount of between-study variation. Further percentage losses in expected net gain were small even when choosing sample sizes that reflected widely different between-study variation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Are Fearless Dominance Traits Superfluous in Operationalizing Psychopathy? Incremental Validity and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett; Lilienfeld, Scott; Skeem, Jennifer; Edens, John

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are vigorously debating whether psychopathic personality includes seemingly adaptive traits, especially social and physical boldness. In a large sample (N=1565) of adult offenders, we examined the incremental validity of two operationalizations of boldness (Fearless Dominance traits in the Psychopathy Personality Inventory, Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Boldness traits in the Triarchic Model of Psychopathy, Patrick et al, 2009), above and beyond other characteristics of psychopathy, in statistically predicting scores on four psychopathy-related measures, including the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The incremental validity added by boldness traits in predicting the PCL-R’s representation of psychopathy was especially pronounced for interpersonal traits (e.g., superficial charm, deceitfulness). Our analyses, however, revealed unexpected sex differences in the relevance of these traits to psychopathy, with boldness traits exhibiting reduced importance for psychopathy in women. We discuss the implications of these findings for measurement models of psychopathy. PMID:26866795

  2. Improved incremental conductance method for maximum power point tracking using cuk converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saad Saoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian government relies on a strategy focused on the development of inexhaustible resources such as solar and uses to diversify energy sources and prepare the Algeria of tomorrow: about 40% of the production of electricity for domestic consumption will be from renewable sources by 2030, Therefore it is necessary to concentrate our forces in order to reduce the application costs and to increment their performances, Their performance is evaluated and compared through theoretical analysis and digital simulation. This paper presents simulation of improved incremental conductance method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT using DC-DC cuk converter. This improved algorithm is used to track MPPs because it performs precise control under rapidly changing Atmospheric conditions, Matlab/ Simulink were employed for simulation studies.

  3. The incremental role of trait emotional intelligence on perceived cervical screening barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba; Cuzzocrea, Francesca

    2018-02-13

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in investigating the role of the psychological aspects related to the perception of cervical screening barriers. This study investigates the influence of trait EI on perceived cervical screening barriers. Furthermore, this study investigates the incremental validity of trait EI beyond the Big Five, as well as emotion regulation in the perceived barrier towards the Pap test as revealed in a sample of 206 Italian women that were undergoing cervical screening. Results have shown that trait EI is negatively related to cervical screening barriers. Furthermore, trait EI can be considered as a strong incremental predictor of a woman's perception of screening over and above the Big Five, emotion regulation, age, sexual intercourse experience and past Pap test. Detailed information on the study findings and future research directions are discussed.

  4. Bigger is Better, but at What Cost? Estimating the Economic Value of Incremental Data Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, Brian; Perlich, Claudia; Raeder, Troy

    2014-06-01

    Many firms depend on third-party vendors to supply data for commercial predictive modeling applications. An issue that has received very little attention in the prior research literature is the estimation of a fair price for purchased data. In this work we present a methodology for estimating the economic value of adding incremental data to predictive modeling applications and present two cases studies. The methodology starts with estimating the effect that incremental data has on model performance in terms of common classification evaluation metrics. This effect is then translated into economic units, which gives an expected economic value that the firm might realize with the acquisition of a particular data asset. With this estimate a firm can then set a data acquisition price that targets a particular return on investment. This article presents the methodology in full detail and illustrates it in the context of two marketing case studies.

  5. Statistics of a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian velocity increment in fully developed turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R; Kamps, O; Grauer, R; Homann, H

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between Eulerian and Lagrangian probability density functions obtained from numerical simulations of two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional turbulence. We show that in contrast to the structure functions of the Lagrangian velocity increment δ τ v(y)=u(x(y, τ), τ)- u(y, 0), where u(x, t) denotes the Eulerian velocity and x(y, t) the particle path initially starting at x(y, 0)=y, the structure functions of the velocity increment δ τ w(y)=u(x(y, τ), τ)- u(y, τ) exhibit a wide range of scaling behavior. Similar scaling indices are detected for the structure functions for particles diffusing in frozen turbulent fields. Furthermore, we discuss a connection to the scaling of Eulerian transversal structure functions.

  6. Weighted tunable clustering in local-world networks with increment behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying-Hong; Li, Huijia; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Since some realistic networks are influenced not only by increment behavior but also by the tunable clustering mechanism with new nodes to be added to networks, it is interesting to characterize the model for those actual networks. In this paper, a weighted local-world model, which incorporates increment behavior and the tunable clustering mechanism, is proposed and its properties are investigated, such as degree distribution and clustering coefficient. Numerical simulations are fitted to the model and also display good right-skewed scale-free properties. Furthermore, the correlation of vertices in our model is studied which shows the assortative property. The epidemic spreading process by weighted transmission rate on the model shows that the tunable clustering behavior has a great impact on the epidemic dynamic

  7. A Batch-Incremental Video Background Estimation Model using Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra; Li, Xin; Richtarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.

  8. The scope of application of incremental rapid prototyping methods in foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stankiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the scope of application of selected incremental Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of manufacturing casting models, casting moulds and casts. The Rapid Prototyping methods (SL, SLA, FDM, 3DP, JS are predominantly used for the production of models and model sets for casting moulds. The Rapid Tooling methods, such as: ZCast-3DP, ProMetalRCT and VoxelJet, enable the fabrication of casting moulds in the incremental process. The application of the RP methods in cast production makes it possible to speed up the prototype preparation process. This is particularly vital to elements of complex shapes. The time required for the manufacture of the model, the mould and the cast proper may vary from a few to several dozen hours.

  9. Validade incremental do Zulliger e do Pfister no contexto da toxicomania Validez incremental del Zulliger y del Pfister en el contexto de la toxicomania Incremental validity of the Zulliger and Pfister in the contexto of drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Rocha Campos Franco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a validade incremental de duas técnicas projetivas, a partir da compreensão da personalidade de 20 dependentes químicos. Uma avaliação da personalidade de dez brasileiros adictos do álcool e dez franceses dependentes da heroína, que estavam vivenciando o processo do tratamento da desintoxicação da droga em centros especializados no Brasil ou na França, foi feita pela perspectiva da psicopatologia fenômeno-estrutural, que é uma abordagem teórica de origem francesa que compreende o funcionamento mental do indivíduo a partir do modo de viver o tempo e o espaço. A relação espaço-temporal e a personalidade foram compreendidas pela maneira como as pessoas se expressaram verbalmente e pelo modo como viram e construíram as imagens das técnicas projetivas de Zulliger e Pfister. Os resultados demonstraram coerência entre as informações geradas pelos instrumentos, provando que o Zulliger e o Pfister, quando aplicados de forma associada e interpretados pelo método fenômeno-estrutural, mostraram-se eficientes para conhecer as vivências de espaço e tempo dos sujeitos.El objetivo de esta investigación fue verificar la validez incremental de dos técnicas proyectivas, a partir de la comprensión de la personalidad de 20 dependientes químicos. Una evaluación de la personalidad de diez brasileños adictos del alcohol y diez franceses dependientes de heroína, que estaban vivenciando el proceso del tratamiento de la desintoxicación de droga en centros especializados en Brasil o en Francia, fue hecha por la perspectiva de la psicopatología fenómeno-estructural que es un abordaje teórico de origen francesa que comprende el funcionamiento mental del individuo por su modo de vivir el tiempo y el espacio. La relación espacio-temporal y la personalidad fueron comprendidas por el modo como las personas se expresaron verbalmente y como vieron y construyeron los imágenes de las t

  10. Translation of incremental talk test responses to steady-state exercise training intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Ellen; Menke, Miranda; Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Bubbers, Terresa

    2014-01-01

    The Talk Test (TT) is a submaximal, incremental exercise test that has been shown to be useful in prescribing exercise training intensity. It is based on a subject's ability to speak comfortably during exercise. This study defined the amount of reduction in absolute workload intensity from an incremental exercise test using the TT to give appropriate absolute training intensity for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program (N = 30) performed an incremental exercise test with the TT given every 2-minute stage. Patients rated their speech comfort after reciting a standardized paragraph. Anything other than a "yes" response was considered the "equivocal" stage, while all preceding stages were "positive" stages. The last stage with the unequivocally positive ability to speak was the Last Positive (LP), and the preceding stages were (LP-1 and LP-2). Subsequently, three 20-minute steady-state training bouts were performed in random order at the absolute workload at the LP, LP-1, and LP-2 stages of the incremental test. Speech comfort, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 minutes. The 20-minute exercise training bout was completed fully by LP (n = 19), LP-1 (n = 28), and LP-2 (n = 30). Heart rate, RPE, and speech comfort were similar through the LP-1 and LP-2 tests, but the LP stage was markedly more difficult. Steady-state exercise training intensity was easily and appropriately prescribed at intensity associated with the LP-1 and LP-2 stages of the TT. The LP stage may be too difficult for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

  11. Integrated Personnel and Pay System-Army Increment 2 (IPPS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    system maintenance, and minimizing pay discrepancies . IPPS-A Inc 2 will account for status changes between Active, Reserve, and National Guard components...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Integrated Personnel and Pay System-Army Increment 2 (IPPS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...703-325-3747 DSN Phone: 865-2915 DSN Fax: 221-3747 Date Assigned: May 2, 2014 Program Information Program Name Integrated Personnel and Pay System

  12. How to set the stage for a full-fledged clinical trial testing 'incremental haemodialysis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Basile, Carlo

    2017-07-21

    Most people who make the transition to maintenance haemodialysis (HD) therapy are treated with a fixed dose of thrice-weekly HD (3HD/week) regimen without consideration of their residual kidney function (RKF). The RKF provides an effective and naturally continuous clearance of both small and middle molecules, plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis, nutritional status and cardiovascular health, and aids in fluid management. The RKF is associated with better patient survival and greater health-related quality of life. Its preservation is instrumental to the prescription of incremental (1HD/week to 2HD/week) HD. The recently heightened interest in incremental HD has been hindered by the current limitations of the urea kinetic model (UKM), which tend to overestimate the needed dialysis dose in the presence of a substantial RKF. A recent paper by Casino and Basile suggested a variable target model (VTM), which gives more clinical weight to the RKF and allows less frequent HD treatments at lower RKF as opposed to the fixed target model, based on the wrong concept of the clinical equivalence between renal and dialysis clearance. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) enrolling incident patients and comparing incremental HD (prescribed according to the VTM) with the standard 3HD/week schedule and focused on hard outcomes, such as survival and health-related quality of life of patients, is urgently needed. The first step in designing such a study is to compute the 'adequacy lines' and the associated fitting equations necessary for the most appropriate allocation of the patients in the two arms and their correct and safe follow-up. In conclusion, the potentially important clinical and financial implications of the incremental HD render it highly promising and warrant RCTs. The UKM is the keystone for conducting such studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Defense Enterprise Accounting and Management System-Increment 1 (DEAMS Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    information accurately and in conformance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles , to comply with Congressional requirements of the Chief Financial ...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Defense Enterprise Accounting and Management System-Increment 1 (DEAMS Inc 1) Defense...Phone: 937-257-2714 Fax: DSN Phone: 787-2714 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: August 17, 2015 Program Information Program Name Defense Enterprise Accounting

  14. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase.

  15. A Decision Support System to Choose Optimal Release Cycle Length in Incremental Software Development Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Suman, Avnish Chandra; Mishra, Saraswati; Anand, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years it has been seen that many software vendors have started delivering projects incrementally with very short release cycles. Best examples of success of this approach has been Ubuntu Operating system that has a 6 months release cycle and popular web browsers such as Google Chrome, Opera, Mozilla Firefox. However there is very little knowledge available to the project managers to validate the chosen release cycle length. We propose a decision support system that...

  16. Detection of milled 100Cr6 steel surface by eddy current and incremental permeance methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy; Neslušan, M.; Stupakov, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, Apr (2017), s. 15-23 ISSN 0963-8695 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA ČR GA13-18993S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Eddy currents * hard milling * incremental permeance * magnetic materials * surface characterization Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2016

  17. Technological aspects regarding machining the titanium alloys by means of incremental forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologa Octavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are materials with reduced formability, due to their low plasticity. However, today there are high demands regarding their use in the automotive industry and in bio-medical industry, for prosthetic devices. This paper presents some technological aspects regarding the machinability of titanium alloys by means of incremental forming. The research presented in this paper aimed to demonstrate that the parts made from these materials could be machined at room temperature, in certain technological conditions.

  18. Diagnostic of flow rate of the tumors of the boobs at increment of the blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlodek, K.; Sohn, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    54 patients with ultrasonography evident tumors of the mammary glands were examined by angiography on flow rate of the blood in the tumor (14 patients with benign tumor and 40 patients with carcinoma at increment of the blood pressure. At evaluating of the findings 4 characteristic curves were obtained: first type was typical for malignant tumors; second type was characteristic for benign findings and third and fourth types were non-specific. (authors)

  19. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase. PMID:14728379

  20. Cross-correlation of instantaneous phase increments in pressure-flow fluctuations: Applications to cerebral autoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene; Novak, Vera; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between the blood flow velocities (BFV) in the middle cerebral arteries and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) recorded from a finger in healthy and post-stroke subjects during the quasisteady state after perturbation for four different physiologic conditions: supine rest, head-up tilt, hyperventilation, and CO2 rebreathing in upright position. To evaluate whether instantaneous BP changes in the steady state are coupled with instantaneous changes in the BFV, we compare dynamical patterns in the instantaneous phases of these signals, obtained from the Hilbert transform, as a function of time. We find that in post-stroke subjects the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV exhibit well-pronounced patterns that remain stable in time for all four physiologic conditions, while in healthy subjects these patterns are different, less pronounced, and more variable. We propose an approach based on the cross-correlation of the instantaneous phase increments to quantify the coupling between BP and BFV signals. We find that the maximum correlation strength is different for the two groups and for the different conditions. For healthy subjects the amplitude of the cross-correlation between the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV is small and attenuates within 3-5 heartbeats. In contrast, for post-stroke subjects, this amplitude is significantly larger and cross-correlations persist up to 20 heartbeats. Further, we show that the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV are cross-correlated even within a single heartbeat cycle. We compare the results of our approach with three complementary methods: direct BP-BFV cross-correlation, transfer function analysis, and phase synchronization analysis. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of cerebral vascular control in healthy subjects, suggesting that this control mechanism may involve rapid adjustments (within a heartbeat) of the cerebral vessels, so that BFV remains steady in

  1. Learning Lunar Science Through the Selene Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. D.; Wood, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.

  2. Development of the Nonstationary Incremental Analysis Update Algorithm for Sequential Data Assimilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Geun Ham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a modified version of the incremental analysis updates (IAU, called the nonstationary IAU (NIAU method, to improve the assimilation accuracy of the IAU while keeping the continuity of the analysis. Similar to the IAU, the NIAU is designed to add analysis increments at every model time step to improve the continuity in the intermittent data assimilation. However, unlike the IAU, the NIAU procedure uses time-evolved forcing using the forward operator as corrections to the model. The solution of the NIAU is superior to that of the forward IAU, of which analysis is performed at the beginning of the time window for adding the IAU forcing, in terms of the accuracy of the analysis field. It is because, in the linear systems, the NIAU solution equals that in an intermittent data assimilation method at the end of the assimilation interval. To have the filtering property in the NIAU, a forward operator to propagate the increment is reconstructed with only dominant singular vectors. An illustration of those advantages of the NIAU is given using the simple 40-variable Lorenz model.

  3. Two-Point Incremental Forming with Partial Die: Theory and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. B.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a new level of understanding of two-point incremental forming (TPIF) with partial die by means of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation. The theoretical developments include an innovative extension of the analytical model for rotational symmetric single point incremental forming (SPIF), originally developed by the authors, to address the influence of the major operating parameters of TPIF and to successfully explain the differences in formability between SPIF and TPIF. The experimental work comprised the mechanical characterization of the material and the determination of its formability limits at necking and fracture by means of circle grid analysis and benchmark incremental sheet forming tests. Results show the adequacy of the proposed analytical model to handle the deformation mechanics of SPIF and TPIF with partial die and demonstrate that neck formation is suppressed in TPIF, so that traditional forming limit curves are inapplicable to describe failure and must be replaced by fracture forming limits derived from ductile damage mechanics. The overall geometric accuracy of sheet metal parts produced by TPIF with partial die is found to be better than that of parts fabricated by SPIF due to smaller elastic recovery upon unloading.

  4. An application of the J-integral to an incremental analysis of blunting crack behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical approach to estimating the elastic-plastic stresses and strains near the tip of a blunting crack with a finite root radius. Rice's original derivation of the path independent J-integral considered the possibility of a finite crack tip root radius. For this problem Creager's elastic analysis gives the relation between the stress intensity factor K I and the near tip stresses. It can be shown that the relation K I 2 = E'J holds when the root radius is finite. Recognizing that elastic-plastic behavior is incrementally linear then allows a derivation to be performed for a bielastic specimen having a crack tip region of reduced modulus, and the result differentiated to estimate elastic-plastic behavior. The result is the incremental form of Neuber's equation. This result does not require the assumption of any particular stress-strain relation. However by assuming a pure power law stress-strain relation and using Ilyushin's principle, the ordinary deformation theory form of Neuber's equation, K σ K var epsilon = K t 2 , is obtained. Applications of the incremental form of Neuber's equation have already been made to fatigue and fracture analysis. This paper helps to provide a theoretical basis for these methods previously considered semiempirical. 26 refs., 4 figs

  5. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy over double Rayleigh channels, a common model for the fading amplitude of vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems. We investigate the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\\\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum number of HARQ rounds. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ with incremental redundancy. We provide analytical expressions for the expected waiting time, the packet\\'s sojourn time in the queue, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is adjusted to the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such that a target outage probability is not exceeded. This setting conforms with communication systems in which a quality of service is expected regardless of the channel conditions. Our analysis underscores the importance of HARQ in improving the spectral efficiency and reliability of communication systems. We demonstrate as well that the explored HARQ scheme achieves full diversity. Additionally, we investigate the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  6. The use of single point incremental forming for customized implants of unicondylar knee arthroplasty: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kailasrao Bhoyar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The implantable devices are having enormous market. These products are basically made by traditional manufacturing process, but for the custom-made implants Incremental Sheet Forming is a paramount alternative. Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a manufacturing process to form intricate, asymmetrical components. It forms the component using stretching and bending by maintaining materials crystal structure. SPIF process can be performed using conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. Review This review paper elaborates the various manufacturing processes carried on various biocompatible metallic and nonmetallic customised implantable devices. Conclusion Ti-6Al-4V alloy is broadly used for biomedical implants, but in this alloy, Vanadium is toxic so this alloy is not compatible for implants. The attention of researchers is towards the non toxic and suitable biocompatible materials. For this reason, a novel approach was developed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of this material. . The development of incremental forming technique can improve the formability of existing alloys and may meet the current strict requirements for performance of dies and punches.

  7. Adults with initial metabolic syndrome have altered muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alessandro da Costa; Barbosa, Thales Coelho; Kluser Sales, Allan Robson; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Silva, Bruno Moreira

    2017-02-01

    Reduced aerobic power is independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence and prevalence in adults. This study investigated whether muscle deoxygenation (proxy of microvascular O 2 extraction) during incremental exercise is altered in MetS and associated with reduced oxygen consumption ( V˙O 2peak ). Twelve men with initial MetS (no overt diseases and medication-naive; mean ± SD, age 38 ± 7 years) and 12 healthy controls (HCs) (34 ± 7 years) completed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion, in which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange (metabolic analyzer), as well as vastus lateralis deoxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), were measured. Subjects with MetS, in contrast to HCs, showed lower V˙O 2peak normalized to total lean mass, similar V˙O 2 response to exercise, and earlier break point (BP) in muscle deoxygenation. Consequently, deoxygenation slope from BP to peak exercise was greater. Furthermore, absolute V˙O 2peak was positively associated with BP in correlations adjusted for total lean mass. MetS, without overt diseases, altered kinetics of muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise, particularly at high-intensity exercise. Therefore, the balance between utilization and delivery of O 2 within skeletal muscle is impaired early in MetS natural history, which may contribute to the reduction in aerobic power. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. First UHF Implementation of the Incremental Scheme for Open-Shell Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Tony; Tew, David P; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-01-12

    The incremental scheme makes it possible to compute CCSD(T) correlation energies to high accuracy for large systems. We present the first extension of this fully automated black-box approach to open-shell systems using an Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) wave function, extending the efficient domain-specific basis set approach to handle open-shell references. We test our approach on a set of organic and metal organic structures and molecular clusters and demonstrate standard deviations from canonical CCSD(T) values of only 1.35 kJ/mol using a triple ζ basis set. We find that the incremental scheme is significantly more cost-effective than the canonical implementation even for relatively small systems and that the ease of parallelization makes it possible to perform high-level calculations on large systems in a few hours on inexpensive computers. We show that the approximations that make our approach widely applicable are significantly smaller than both the basis set incompleteness error and the intrinsic error of the CCSD(T) method, and we further demonstrate that incremental energies can be reliably used in extrapolation schemes to obtain near complete basis set limit CCSD(T) reaction energies for large systems.

  9. Cost of Incremental Expansion of an Existing Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkin, Evan A; Newton, Warren P; Toomey, Brian; Lingley, Ronald; Page, Cristen P

    2017-07-01

    Expanding residency training programs to address shortages in the primary care workforce is challenged by the present graduate medical education (GME) environment. The Medicare funding cap on new GME positions and reductions in the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Teaching Health Center (THC) GME program require innovative solutions to support primary care residency expansion. Sparse literature exists to assist in predicting the actual cost of incremental expansion of a family medicine residency program without federal or state GME support. In 2011 a collaboration to develop a community health center (CHC) academic medical partnership (CHAMP), was formed and created a THC as a training site for expansion of an existing family medicine residency program. The cost of expansion was a critical factor as no Federal GME funding or HRSA THC GME program support was available. Initial start-up costs were supported by a federal grant and local foundations. Careful financial analysis of the expansion has provided actual costs per resident of the incremental expansion of the residencyRESULTS: The CHAMP created a new THC and expanded the residency from eight to ten residents per year. The cost of expansion was approximately $72,000 per resident per year. The cost of incremental expansion of our residency program in the CHAMP model was more than 50% less than that of the recently reported cost of training in the HRSA THC GME program.

  10. Optimization of Surface Roughness and Wall Thickness in Dieless Incremental Forming Of Aluminum Sheet Using Taguchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedon, Zamzuri; Kuang, Shea Cheng; Jaafar, Hasnulhadi; Azhari, Azmir

    2018-03-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a versatile sheet metal forming process where a sheet metal is formed into its final shape by a series of localized deformation without a specialised die. However, it still has many shortcomings that need to be overcome such as geometric accuracy, surface roughness, formability, forming speed, and so on. This project focus on minimising the surface roughness of aluminium sheet and improving its thickness uniformity in incremental sheet forming via optimisation of wall angle, feed rate, and step size. Besides, the effect of wall angle, feed rate, and step size to the surface roughness and thickness uniformity of aluminium sheet was investigated in this project. From the results, it was observed that surface roughness and thickness uniformity were inversely varied due to the formation of surface waviness. Increase in feed rate and decrease in step size will produce a lower surface roughness, while uniform thickness reduction was obtained by reducing the wall angle and step size. By using Taguchi analysis, the optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness and uniform thickness reduction of aluminium sheet were determined. The finding of this project helps to reduce the time in optimising the surface roughness and thickness uniformity in incremental sheet forming.

  11. Adaptive scallop height tool path generation for robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Patrick; Möllensiep, Dennis; Störkle, Denis Daniel; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming is an emerging process for the production of individualized products or prototypes in low batch sizes and with short times to market. In these processes, the desired shape is produced by the incremental inward motion of the workpiece-independent forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the contour in lateral direction. Based on this shape production, the tool path generation is a key factor on e.g. the resulting geometric accuracy, the resulting surface quality, and the working time. This paper presents an innovative tool path generation based on a commercial milling CAM package considering the surface quality and working time. This approach offers the ability to define a specific scallop height as an indicator of the surface quality for specific faces of a component. Moreover, it decreases the required working time for the production of the entire component compared to the use of a commercial software package without this adaptive approach. Different forming experiments have been performed to verify the newly developed tool path generation. Mainly, this approach serves to solve the existing conflict of combining the working time and the surface quality within the process of incremental sheet metal forming.

  12. Incremental View Maintenance for Deductive Graph Databases Using Generalized Discrimination Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Beyhl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, graph databases are employed when relationships between entities are in the scope of database queries to avoid performance-critical join operations of relational databases. Graph queries are used to query and modify graphs stored in graph databases. Graph queries employ graph pattern matching that is NP-complete for subgraph isomorphism. Graph database views can be employed that keep ready answers in terms of precalculated graph pattern matches for often stated and complex graph queries to increase query performance. However, such graph database views must be kept consistent with the graphs stored in the graph database. In this paper, we describe how to use incremental graph pattern matching as technique for maintaining graph database views. We present an incremental maintenance algorithm for graph database views, which works for imperatively and declaratively specified graph queries. The evaluation shows that our maintenance algorithm scales when the number of nodes and edges stored in the graph database increases. Furthermore, our evaluation shows that our approach can outperform existing approaches for the incremental maintenance of graph query results.

  13. A numerical analysis on forming limits during spiral and concentric single point incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipiela, M. L.; Amauri, V.; Nikhare, C.; Marcondes, P. V. P.

    2017-01-01

    Sheet metal forming is one of the major manufacturing industries, which are building numerous parts for aerospace, automotive and medical industry. Due to the high demand in vehicle industry and environmental regulations on less fuel consumption on other hand, researchers are innovating new methods to build these parts with energy efficient sheet metal forming process instead of conventionally used punch and die to form the parts to achieve the lightweight parts. One of the most recognized manufacturing process in this category is Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). SPIF is the die-less sheet metal forming process in which the single point tool incrementally forces any single point of sheet metal at any process time to plastic deformation zone. In the present work, finite element method (FEM) is applied to analyze the forming limits of high strength low alloy steel formed by single point incremental forming (SPIF) by spiral and concentric tool path. SPIF numerical simulations were model with 24 and 29 mm cup depth, and the results were compare with Nakajima results obtained by experiments and FEM. It was found that the cup formed with Nakajima tool failed at 24 mm while cups formed by SPIF surpassed the limit for both depths with both profiles. It was also notice that the strain achieved in concentric profile are lower than that in spiral profile.

  14. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Nasir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs; performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ. E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment.

  15. Performance Analysis of Selective Decode-and-Forward Multinode Incremental Relaying with Maximal Ratio Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, we propose an incremental multinode relaying protocol with arbitrary N-relay nodes that allows an efficient use of the channel spectrum. The destination combines the received signals from the source and the relays using maximal ratio Combining (MRC). The transmission ends successfully once the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds a predefined threshold. The number of relays participating in the transmission is adapted to the channel conditions based on the feedback from the destination. The use of incremental relaying allows obtaining a higher spectral efficiency. Moreover, the symbol error probability (SEP) performance is enhanced by using MRC at the relays. The use of MRC at the relays implies that each relay overhears the signals from the source and all previous relays and combines them using MRC. The proposed protocol differs from most of existing relaying protocol by the fact that it combines both incremental relaying and MRC at the relays for a multinode topology. Our analyses for a decode-and-forward mode show that: (i) compared to existing multinode relaying schemes, the proposed scheme can essentially achieve the same SEP performance but with less average number of time slots, (ii) compared to schemes without MRC at the relays, the proposed scheme can approximately achieve a 3 dB gain.

  16. A model of positive and negative learning : Learning demands and resources, learning engagement, critical thinking, and fake news detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, Christian; Demerouti, Eva; Bakker, Arnold; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, O.; Wittum, G.; Dengel, A.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter proposes a model of positive and negative learning (PNL model). We use the term negative learning when stress among students occurs, and when knowledge and abilities are not properly developed. We use the term positive learning if motivation is high and active learning occurs. The PNL

  17. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  18. Increment of serum bilirubin as an independent marker predicting new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-E; Lee, Y-B; Jun, J E; Jin, S-M; Jee, J H; Bae, J C; Kim, J H

    2017-03-01

    Several cross-sectional studies reported that serum bilirubin concentrations had an inverse association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between percentage change in bilirubin levels (PCB) and incident risk of T2DM using a longitudinal model. 22,084 participants who received regular health check-ups between 2006 and 2012 were enrolled. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to determine the hazard ratio (HR) of incident T2DM based on PCB. PCB was determined by subtracting baseline serum bilirubin level (BB) from the bilirubin level at the end of follow-up or a year before the last date of diagnosis, dividing by BB and multiplying by 100. Compared to non-diabetics, BB was lower in the diabetic group at the initial visit. There were 20,098 participants without T2DM at the initial visit; 1253 new cases occurred during follow-up. As PCB increased, T2DM incidence also increased (P bilirubin level of the Incident T2DM group increased before T2DM development and decreased rapidly thereafter compared to others (P Bilirubin level increment over time is associated with T2DM development. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the performance of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over amplify-and-forward dual-hop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a three node relay network comprising a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits the message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears the transmitted message, amplifies it using a variable gain amplifier, and then forwards the message to the destination. This latter combines both the source and the relay message and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination sends a negative acknowledgement. A new replica of the message containing new parity bits is then transmitted in the subsequent HARQ round. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination or a maximum number M of rounds is reached. We study the performance of HARQ-IR over the considered relay channel from an information theoretic perspective. We derive for instance exact expressions and bounds for the information outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate. The derived exact expressions are validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Adaptive polymeric system for Hebbian type learning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We present the experimental realization of an adaptive polymeric system displaying a ?learning behaviour?. The system consists on a statistically organized networks of memristive elements (memory-resitors) based on polyaniline. In a such network the path followed by the current increments its conductivity, a property which makes the system able to mimic Hebbian type learning and have application in hardware neural networks. After discussing the working principle of ...