WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning modules hosted

  1. Modulation of Host Learning in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinauger, Clément; Lahondère, Chloé; Wolff, Gabriella H; Locke, Lauren T; Liaw, Jessica E; Parrish, Jay Z; Akbari, Omar S; Dickinson, Michael H; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2018-02-05

    How mosquitoes determine which individuals to bite has important epidemiological consequences. This choice is not random; most mosquitoes specialize in one or a few vertebrate host species, and some individuals in a host population are preferred over others. Mosquitoes will also blood feed from other hosts when their preferred is no longer abundant, but the mechanisms mediating these shifts between hosts, and preferences for certain individuals within a host species, remain unclear. Here, we show that olfactory learning may contribute to Aedes aegypti mosquito biting preferences and host shifts. Training and testing to scents of humans and other host species showed that mosquitoes can aversively learn the scent of specific humans and single odorants and learn to avoid the scent of rats (but not chickens). Using pharmacological interventions, RNAi, and CRISPR gene editing, we found that modification of the dopamine-1 receptor suppressed their learning abilities. We further show through combined electrophysiological and behavioral recordings from tethered flying mosquitoes that these odors evoke changes in both behavior and antennal lobe (AL) neuronal responses and that dopamine strongly modulates odor-evoked responses in AL neurons. Not only do these results provide direct experimental evidence that olfactory learning in mosquitoes can play an epidemiological role, but collectively, they also provide neuroanatomical and functional demonstration of the role of dopamine in mediating this learning-induced plasticity, for the first time in a disease vector insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Host age modulates within-host parasite competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Routtu, Jarkko; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-05-01

    In many host populations, one of the most striking differences among hosts is their age. While parasite prevalence differences in relation to host age are well known, little is known on how host age impacts ecological and evolutionary dynamics of diseases. Using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we examined how host age at exposure influences within-host parasite competition and virulence. We found that multiply-exposed hosts were more susceptible to infection and suffered higher mortality than singly-exposed hosts. Hosts oldest at exposure were least often infected and vice versa. Furthermore, we found that in young multiply-exposed hosts competition was weak, allowing coexistence and transmission of both parasite clones, whereas in older multiply-exposed hosts competitive exclusion was observed. Thus, age-dependent parasite exposure and host demography (age structure) could together play an important role in mediating parasite evolution. At the individual level, our results demonstrate a previously unnoticed interaction of the host's immune system with host age, suggesting that the specificity of immune function changes as hosts mature. Therefore, evolutionary models of parasite virulence might benefit from incorporating age-dependent epidemiological parameters. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Endodontic Periodontic Lesions and Host Modulation – Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Zia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Host modulation, includes inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, blocking production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibition of osteoclastic activity, has therapeutic value as adjunctive therapy in treating chronic periodontitis. This case series presented three patients with chief complaint of teeth mobility where endo perio involvement was diagnosed. The endo perio combined lesions generally shows the communication between pulp and periodontal tissues with the same origin of dental infection. Diagnosis in such cases is difficult and generally raising problem in the management. All of the cases were managed by non surgical endodontic therapy combined with host modulation. All local factors causing the lesion were removed. Clinical outcome after six and nine months were quite satisfactory. Combined endo perio cases are challenging to the dentists and involve multidisciplinary involvement. To manage such cases, dentists have to rely on the unconventional techniques.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i1.378

  4. Applying Economics Using Interactive Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of web-based, interactive learning modules in the principles of economics course. The learning modules introduce students to important, historical economic events while providing real-world application of the economic theory presented in class. Each module is designed to supplement and complement the economic theory…

  5. An endosymbiont positively modulates ornithine decarboxylase in host trypanosomatids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Mariana Lins; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Matta, Renato Augusto da; Souza, Wanderley de; Garcia de Mello, Fernando; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Some trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia deanei, are endosymbiont-containing species. Aposymbiotic strains are obtained after antibiotic treatment, revealing interesting aspects of this symbiotic association. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promotes polyamine biosynthesis and contributes to cell proliferation. Here, we show that ODC activity is higher in endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids than in aposymbiotic cells, but isolated endosymbionts did not display this enzyme activity. Intriguingly, expressed levels of ODC were similar in both strains, suggesting that ODC is positively modulated in endosymbiont-bearing cells. When the aposymbiotic strain was grown in conditioned medium, obtained after cultivation of the endosymbiont-bearing strain, cellular proliferation as well as ODC activity and localization were similar to that observed in the endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids. Furthermore, dialyzed-heated medium and trypsin treatment reduced ODC activity of the aposymbiont strain. Taken together, these data indicate that the endosymbiont can enhance the protozoan ODC activity by providing factors of protein nature, which increase the host polyamine metabolism

  6. Epigenetic modulation of host: new insights into immune evasion by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viruses have evolved with their hosts, which include all living species. This has been partly responsible for the development of highly advanced immune systems in the hosts. However, viruses too have evolved ways to regulate and evade the host's immune defence. In addition to mutational mechanisms that viruses employ ...

  7. Host age modulates parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-07-01

    Host age is one of the most striking differences among hosts within most populations, but there is very little data on how age-dependent effects impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics of both the host and the parasite. Here, we examined the influence of host age (juveniles, young and old adults) at parasite exposure on host susceptibility, fecundity and survival as well as parasite transmission, using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Younger D. magna were more susceptible to infection than older ones, regardless of host or parasite clone. Also, younger-infected D. magna became castrated faster than older hosts, but host and parasite clone effects contributed to this trait as well. Furthermore, the early-infected D. magna produced considerably more parasite transmission stages than late-infected ones, while host age at exposure did not affect virulence as it is defined in models (host mortality). When virulence is defined more broadly as the negative effects of infection on host fitness, by integrating the parasitic effects on host fecundity and mortality, then host age at exposure seems to slide along a negative relationship between host and parasite fitness. Thus, the virulence-transmission trade-off differs strongly among age classes, which in turn affects predictions of optimal virulence. Age-dependent effects on host susceptibility, virulence and parasite transmission could pose an important challenge for experimental and theoretical studies of infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology. Our results present a call for a more explicit stage-structured theory for disease, which will incorporate age-dependent epidemiological parameters. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  8. Providing Learning Computing Labs using Hosting and Virtualization Technologies

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    Armide González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computing hosting system to provide virtual computing laboratories for learning activities. This system is based on hosting and virtualization technologies. All the components used in its development are free software tools. The computing lab model provided by the system is a more sustainable and scalable alternative than the traditional academic computing lab, and it requires lower costs of installation and operation.

  9. Social learning of a brood parasite by its host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

  10. Host AMPK Is a Modulator of Plasmodium Liver Infection

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    Margarida T. Grilo Ruivo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the master regulator of energy homeostasis AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity is a strategy used by many intracellular pathogens for successful replication. Infection by most pathogens leads to an activation of host AMPK activity due to the energetic demands placed on the infected cell. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite is observed in cells infected with rodent malaria parasites. Indeed, AMPK activity upon the infection of hepatic cells is suppressed and dispensable for successful infection. By contrast, an overactive AMPK is deleterious to intracellular growth and replication of different Plasmodium spp., including the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. The negative impact of host AMPK activity on infection was further confirmed in mice under conditions that activate its function. Overall, this work establishes the role of host AMPK signaling as a suppressive pathway of Plasmodium hepatic infection and as a potential target for host-based antimalarial interventions.

  11. Epigenetic modulation of host: new insights into immune evasion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    regulation of gene expression is intrinsically active inside the host and is involved in regulating gene expression and .... self from non-self, helps the packaging of the viral DNA ..... with DNA as genetic material, and having the potential to.

  12. Multi-Omics Studies towards Novel Modulators of Influenza A Virus–Host Interaction

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    Sandra Söderholm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses (IAVs cause global pandemics and epidemics. These viruses evolve rapidly, making current treatment options ineffective. To identify novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, we re-analyzed our recent transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and genomics/virtual ligand screening data. We identified 713 potential modulators targeting 199 cellular and two viral proteins. Anti-influenza activity for 48 of them has been reported previously, whereas the antiviral efficacy of the 665 remains unknown. Studying anti-influenza efficacy and immuno/neuro-modulating properties of these compounds and their combinations as well as potential viral and host resistance to them may lead to the discovery of novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza therapeutics.

  13. Molecular mimicry modulates plant host responses to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Pamela; Joe, Anna

    2018-01-25

    Pathogens often secrete molecules that mimic those present in the plant host. Recent studies indicate that some of these molecules mimic plant hormones required for development and immunity. This Viewpoint reviews the literature on microbial molecules produced by plant pathogens that functionally mimic molecules present in the plant host. This article includes examples from nematodes, bacteria and fungi with emphasis on RaxX, a microbial protein produced by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. RaxX mimics a plant peptide hormone, PSY (plant peptide containing sulphated tyrosine). The rice immune receptor XA21 detects sulphated RaxX but not the endogenous peptide PSY. Studies of the RaxX/XA21 system have provided insight into both host and pathogen biology and offered a framework for future work directed at understanding how XA21 and the PSY receptor(s) can be differentially activated by RaxX and endogenous PSY peptides. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Coronavirus gene 7 counteracts host defenses and modulates virus virulence.

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    Jazmina L G Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV genome contains three accessory genes: 3a, 3b and 7. Gene 7 is only present in members of coronavirus genus a1, and encodes a hydrophobic protein of 78 aa. To study gene 7 function, a recombinant TGEV virus lacking gene 7 was engineered (rTGEV-Δ7. Both the mutant and the parental (rTGEV-wt viruses showed the same growth and viral RNA accumulation kinetics in tissue cultures. Nevertheless, cells infected with rTGEV-Δ7 virus showed an increased cytopathic effect caused by an enhanced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. Macromolecular synthesis analysis showed that rTGEV-Δ7 virus infection led to host translational shut-off and increased cellular RNA degradation compared with rTGEV-wt infection. An increase of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α phosphorylation and an enhanced nuclease, most likely RNase L, activity were observed in rTGEV-Δ7 virus infected cells. These results suggested that the removal of gene 7 promoted an intensified dsRNA-activated host antiviral response. In protein 7 a conserved sequence motif that potentially mediates binding to protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c, a key regulator of the cell antiviral defenses, was identified. We postulated that TGEV protein 7 may counteract host antiviral response by its association with PP1c. In fact, pull-down assays demonstrated the interaction between TGEV protein 7, but not a protein 7 mutant lacking PP1c binding motif, with PP1. Moreover, the interaction between protein 7 and PP1 was required, during the infection, for eIF2α dephosphorylation and inhibition of cell RNA degradation. Inoculation of newborn piglets with rTGEV-Δ7 and rTGEV-wt viruses showed that rTGEV-Δ7 virus presented accelerated growth kinetics and pathology compared with the parental virus. Overall, the results indicated that gene 7 counteracted host cell defenses, and modified TGEV persistence increasing TGEV survival. Therefore, the

  15. Chronic pyelonephritis: Modulation of host defenses by cyclosporin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic experimental pyelonephritis is characterized by a stable level of infection, which persists for many months. Administration of cyclosporin A (CsA) reactivated previously healed renal lesions and caused a marked increase in bacterial numbers in the kidney. Studies were then carried out to compare the effects of CsA, and the nonselective cytodepletive agents irradiation and cyclophosphamide, on both host defenses and the bacteriologic status of chronically infected kidneys. Two different responses were observed. In animals treated with CsA, bacterial numbers increased markedly, although circulating neutrophil numbers were relatively unaffected. This observation was in contrast to the severe ablation of leukocyte numbers and competence needed to achieve an equivalent effect when irradiation and cyclophosphamide were used. One possible explanation for the adverse effect of CsA on the host-parasite balance in chronic pyelonephritis is that CsA affects mediators that control the inflammatory response or induces a qualitative change in a critical cellular defense compartment

  16. Insights into Host Cell Modulation and Induction of New Cells by the Corn Smut Ustilago maydis

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    Amey Redkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungal pathogens induce drastic modulation of host cells causing abnormal infectious structures such as galls, or tumors that arise as a result of re-programming in the original developmental cell fate of a colonized host cell. Developmental consequences occur predominantly with biotrophic phytopathogens. This suggests that these host structures result as an outcome of efficient defense suppression and intimate fungal–host interaction to suit the pathogen’s needs for completion of its infection cycle. This mini-review mainly summarizes host cell re-programming that occurs in the Ustilago maydis – maize interaction, in which the pathogen deploys cell-type specific effector proteins with varying activities. The fungus senses the physiological status and identity of colonized host cells and re-directs the endogenous developmental program of its host. The disturbance of host cell physiology and cell fate leads to novel cell shapes, increased cell size, and/or the number of host cells. We particularly highlight the strategies of U. maydis to induce physiologically varied host organs to form the characteristic tumors in both vegetative and floral parts of maize.

  17. Modulation of host responses by oral commensal bacteria

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    Deirdre A. Devine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory commensal bacteria are proposed to be essential for maintaining healthy tissues, having multiple roles including priming immune responses to ensure rapid and efficient defences against pathogens. The default state of oral tissues, like the gut, is one of inflammation which may be balanced by regulatory mechanisms and the activities of anti-inflammatory resident bacteria that modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR signalling or NF-κB activation, or influence the development and activities of immune cells. However, the widespread ability of normal resident organisms to suppress inflammation could impose an unsustainable burden on the immune system and compromise responses to pathogens. Immunosuppressive resident bacteria have been isolated from the mouth and, for example, may constitute 30% of the resident streptococci in plaque or on the tongue. Their roles in oral health and dysbiosis remain to be determined. A wide range of bacterial components and/or products can mediate immunomodulatory activity, raising the possibility of development of alternative strategies for therapy and health promotion using probiotics, prebiotics, or commensal-derived immunomodulatory molecules.

  18. Host modulation therapeutics in periodontics: role as an adjunctive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Muhammad Saad; Tanwir, Farzeen; Hyder, Pakiza Raza; Bin Saeed, Muhammad Humza

    2014-09-01

    Host Modulation Therapy (HMT) is a treatment concept that reduces tissue destruction and stabilizes or even regenerates inflammatory tissue by modifying host response factors. It has been used for treating osteoporosis and arthritis for several decades. However, its use in dentistry has only been recently reported. The objective of this article is to present a review of the various literatures available on HMT and also its role as adjunct therapy in periodontics. For identifying studies for this review, a PUBMED search was carried out in 2013 for all articles published till December 2012. The search was restricted to English language publications only. Longitudinal prospective and retrospective studies were included in the search. The key words used were: Host Modulation Therapy; Sub antimicrobial dose doxycycline and Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy. The main outcomes sought were host modulation therapeutics in periodontics. Exclusion criteria included cross sectional studies, short case series as well as studies with short follow-up periods. There is a paucity of literature on HMT in periodontics although the only drug approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) with highly predictable results as a host modulating agent in periodontal diseases and also an effective adjunctive therapy in various diseases of periodontium. However, more randomized controlled trials are needed to obtain clinical guidelines on the usage of other host modulating agents as adjunct as well as definite therapy for periodontal diseases. SDD is an effective adjunct therapy when used in dosage of 20mg twice daily for minimum 3 months duration in various periodontal diseases with predictable clinical outcomes. It is also recommended that future clinical research on anti cytokine drugs, chemically modified tetracycline and other HMT agents should be conducted so that new drugs are available with highly predictable results.

  19. The pleotropic role of statins: Could it be the imminent host modulation agent in periodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Luthra, Shailly; Maroo, Shruti; Maroo, Niteeka

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which represents a primarily anaerobic Gram-negative oral infection that results in gingival inflammation, loss of attachment, bone destruction. Bacterial endotoxins in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that are instrumental in generating a host-mediated tissue destructive immune response by mobilizing their defensive cells and releasing cytokines like Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which lead to tissue destruction by stimulating the production of the collagenolytic enzymes: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Since the host-mediated tissue destruction is to be controlled, various means have been employed for modulating this response. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors, besides having lipid-lowering abilities also have antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and osteomodulatory properties. All of these pleiotropic effects of statins point out to it perhaps becoming the novel host modulation agent in periodontics.

  20. Analysis of Learning Conceptions Based on Three Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, E. Langston; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

    Three learning modules are described and investigated as they reflect different students' conceptions of and approaches to learning. The Schoolwork Module (SWM) focuses on task performance and involves a passive, incremental, piecemeal, and rote memory method of learning, parallel to what might be implied by the Information Processing model of…

  1. Microbiota promote secretory cell determination in the intestinal epithelium by modulating host Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, Joshua V; Hamilton, M Kristina; Abel, Melissa L; Ganz, Julia; Bates, Jennifer M; Stephens, W Zac; Melancon, Ellie; van der Vaart, Michiel; Meijer, Annemarie H; Distel, Martin; Eisen, Judith S; Guillemin, Karen

    2018-02-23

    Resident microbes promote many aspects of host development, although the mechanisms by which microbiota influence host tissues remain unclear. We showed previously that the microbiota is required for allocation of appropriate numbers of secretory cells in the zebrafish intestinal epithelium. Because Notch signaling is crucial for secretory fate determination, we conducted epistasis experiments to establish whether the microbiota modulates host Notch signaling. We also investigated whether innate immune signaling transduces microbiota cues via the Myd88 adaptor protein. We provide the first evidence that microbiota-induced, Myd88-dependent signaling inhibits host Notch signaling in the intestinal epithelium, thereby promoting secretory cell fate determination. These results connect microbiota activity via innate immune signaling to the Notch pathway, which also plays crucial roles in intestinal homeostasis throughout life and when impaired can result in chronic inflammation and cancer. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Circadian modulation of complex learning in diurnal and nocturnal Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Katzoff, Ayelet; Susswein, Abraham J.; Eskin, Arnold

    2005-01-01

    Understanding modulation of memory, as well as the mechanisms underlying memory formation, has become a key issue in neuroscience research. Previously, we found that the formation of long-term, but not short-term, memory for a nonassociative form of learning, sensitization, was modulated by the circadian clock in the diurnal Aplysia californica. To define the scope of circadian modulation of memory, we examined an associative operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). Si...

  3. Genome-wide RNAi Screening to Identify Host Factors That Modulate Oncolytic Virus Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kristina J; Mahoney, Douglas J; Baird, Stephen D; Lefebvre, Charles A; Stojdl, David F

    2018-04-03

    High-throughput genome-wide RNAi (RNA interference) screening technology has been widely used for discovering host factors that impact virus replication. Here we present the application of this technology to uncovering host targets that specifically modulate the replication of Maraba virus, an oncolytic rhabdovirus, and vaccinia virus with the goal of enhancing therapy. While the protocol has been tested for use with oncolytic Maraba virus and oncolytic vaccinia virus, this approach is applicable to other oncolytic viruses and can also be utilized for identifying host targets that modulate virus replication in mammalian cells in general. This protocol describes the development and validation of an assay for high-throughput RNAi screening in mammalian cells, the key considerations and preparation steps important for conducting a primary high-throughput RNAi screen, and a step-by-step guide for conducting a primary high-throughput RNAi screen; in addition, it broadly outlines the methods for conducting secondary screen validation and tertiary validation studies. The benefit of high-throughput RNAi screening is that it allows one to catalogue, in an extensive and unbiased fashion, host factors that modulate any aspect of virus replication for which one can develop an in vitro assay such as infectivity, burst size, and cytotoxicity. It has the power to uncover biotherapeutic targets unforeseen based on current knowledge.

  4. Resiniferatoxin modulates the Th1 immune response and protects the host during intestinal nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

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    Shaw Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated and 901 (CAM treated THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold, eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the

  6. Salmonella modulation of host cell gene expression promotes its intracellular growth.

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    Sebastian Hannemann

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved a complex functional interface with its host cell largely determined by two type III secretion systems (T3SS, which through the delivery of bacterial effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular processes. We show here that Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells results in a profound transcriptional reprogramming that changes over time. This response is triggered by Salmonella T3SS effector proteins, which stimulate unique signal transduction pathways leading to STAT3 activation. We found that the Salmonella-stimulated changes in host cell gene expression are required for the formation of its specialized vesicular compartment that is permissive for its intracellular replication. This study uncovers a cell-autonomous process required for Salmonella pathogenesis potentially opening up new avenues for the development of anti-infective strategies that target relevant host pathways.

  7. Salmonella modulation of host cell gene expression promotes its intracellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Sebastian; Gao, Beile; Galán, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved a complex functional interface with its host cell largely determined by two type III secretion systems (T3SS), which through the delivery of bacterial effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular processes. We show here that Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells results in a profound transcriptional reprogramming that changes over time. This response is triggered by Salmonella T3SS effector proteins, which stimulate unique signal transduction pathways leading to STAT3 activation. We found that the Salmonella-stimulated changes in host cell gene expression are required for the formation of its specialized vesicular compartment that is permissive for its intracellular replication. This study uncovers a cell-autonomous process required for Salmonella pathogenesis potentially opening up new avenues for the development of anti-infective strategies that target relevant host pathways.

  8. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

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    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  9. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  10. Circuit-Host Coupling Induces Multifaceted Behavioral Modulations of a Gene Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrew E; Liao, Chen; Lu, Ting

    2018-02-06

    Quantitative modeling of gene circuits is fundamentally important to synthetic biology, as it offers the potential to transform circuit engineering from trial-and-error construction to rational design and, hence, facilitates the advance of the field. Currently, typical models regard gene circuits as isolated entities and focus only on the biochemical processes within the circuits. However, such a standard paradigm is getting challenged by increasing experimental evidence suggesting that circuits and their host are intimately connected, and their interactions can potentially impact circuit behaviors. Here we systematically examined the roles of circuit-host coupling in shaping circuit dynamics by using a self-activating gene switch as a model circuit. Through a combination of deterministic modeling, stochastic simulation, and Fokker-Planck equation formalism, we found that circuit-host coupling alters switch behaviors across multiple scales. At the single-cell level, it slows the switch dynamics in the high protein production regime and enlarges the difference between stable steady-state values. At the population level, it favors cells with low protein production through differential growth amplification. Together, the two-level coupling effects induce both quantitative and qualitative modulations of the switch, with the primary component of the effects determined by the circuit's architectural parameters. This study illustrates the complexity and importance of circuit-host coupling in modulating circuit behaviors, demonstrating the need for a new paradigm-integrated modeling of the circuit-host system-for quantitative understanding of engineered gene networks. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning from Online Modules in Diverse Instructional Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen Nugent

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects originally developed for use in online learning environments can also be used to enhance face-to-face instruction. This study examined the learning impacts of online learning objects packaged into modules and used in different contexts for undergraduate education offered on campus at three institutions. A multi-case study approach was used, examining learning impacts across a variety of course subjects, course levels (introductory and advanced undergraduate, student levels (undergraduate and graduate, and instructional goals (i.e., replacement for lecture, remediation. A repeated measures design was used, with learning data collected prior to viewing the online module, after completion of the module, and at the end of the semester. The study provided a broad examination of ways that online modules are typically used in a college classroom, as well as measured learning effectiveness based on different instructional purpose and usage contexts. Results showed the effectiveness of the modules in serving as a substitute for classroom lecture, remediation of course prerequisite material, introduction to content with follow-up lab practice, and review for final exams. In each of these cases, the use of the modules resulted in significant learning increases, as well as retention of the learning until the end of the semester.

  12. Innate Host Habitat Preference in the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata: Functional Significance and Modifications through Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Segura

    Full Text Available Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging.

  13. The pleotropic role of statins: Could it be the imminent host modulation agent in periodontics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which represents a primarily anaerobic Gram-negative oral infection that results in gingival inflammation, loss of attachment, bone destruction. Bacterial endotoxins in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS that are instrumental in generating a host-mediated tissue destructive immune response by mobilizing their defensive cells and releasing cytokines like Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6, which lead to tissue destruction by stimulating the production of the collagenolytic enzymes: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Since the host-mediated tissue destruction is to be controlled, various means have been employed for modulating this response. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, besides having lipid-lowering abilities also have antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and osteomodulatory properties . All of these pleiotropic effects of statins point out to it perhaps becoming the novel host modulation agent in periodontics.

  14. Development of Scientific Approach Based on Discovery Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.; Beltris, S.; Suharni, R.

    2018-04-01

    Scientific Approach is a learning process, designed to make the students actively construct their own knowledge through stages of scientific method. The scientific approach in learning process can be done by using learning modules. One of the learning model is discovery based learning. Discovery learning is a learning model for the valuable things in learning through various activities, such as observation, experience, and reasoning. In fact, the students’ activity to construct their own knowledge were not optimal. It’s because the available learning modules were not in line with the scientific approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a scientific approach discovery based learning module on Acid Based, also on electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. The developing process of this chemistry modules use the Plomp Model with three main stages. The stages are preliminary research, prototyping stage, and the assessment stage. The subject of this research was the 10th and 11th Grade of Senior High School students (SMAN 2 Padang). Validation were tested by the experts of Chemistry lecturers and teachers. Practicality of these modules had been tested through questionnaire. The effectiveness had been tested through experimental procedure by comparing student achievement between experiment and control groups. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the developed scientific approach discovery based learning module significantly improve the students’ learning in Acid-based and Electrolyte solution. The result of the data analysis indicated that the chemistry module was valid in content, construct, and presentation. Chemistry module also has a good practicality level and also accordance with the available time. This chemistry module was also effective, because it can help the students to understand the content of the learning material. That’s proved by the result of learning student. Based on the result can conclude that chemistry module based on

  15. Bifidobacterial surface-exopolysaccharide facilitates commensal-host interaction through immune modulation and pathogen protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Saranna; Hall, Lindsay J.; Cronin, Michelle; Zomer, Aldert; MacSharry, John; Goulding, David; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Shanahan, Fergus; Nally, Kenneth; Dougan, Gordon; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacteria comprise a significant proportion of the human gut microbiota. Several bifidobacterial strains are currently used as therapeutic interventions, claiming various health benefits by acting as probiotics. However, the precise mechanisms by which they maintain habitation within their host and consequently provide these benefits are not fully understood. Here we show that Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 produces a cell surface-associated exopolysaccharide (EPS), the biosynthesis of which is directed by either half of a bidirectional gene cluster, thus leading to production of one of two possible EPSs. Alternate transcription of the two opposing halves of this cluster appears to be the result of promoter reorientation. Surface EPS provided stress tolerance and promoted in vivo persistence, but not initial colonization. Marked differences were observed in host immune response: strains producing surface EPS (EPS+) failed to elicit a strong immune response compared with EPS-deficient variants. Specifically, EPS production was shown to be linked to the evasion of adaptive B-cell responses. Furthermore, presence of EPS+ B. breve reduced colonization levels of the gut pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Our data thus assigns a pivotal and beneficial role for EPS in modulating various aspects of bifidobacterial–host interaction, including the ability of commensal bacteria to remain immunologically silent and in turn provide pathogen protection. This finding enforces the probiotic concept and provides mechanistic insights into health-promoting benefits for both animal and human hosts. PMID:22308390

  16. TF.Learn: TensorFlow's High-level Module for Distributed Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    TF.Learn is a high-level Python module for distributed machine learning inside TensorFlow. It provides an easy-to-use Scikit-learn style interface to simplify the process of creating, configuring, training, evaluating, and experimenting a machine learning model. TF.Learn integrates a wide range of state-of-art machine learning algorithms built on top of TensorFlow's low level APIs for small to large-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This module focuses on bringing machine learning t...

  17. Online Video Modules for Improvement in Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Matthew; Thomas, Sunil; Kohli, Chiranjeev

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this teaching innovation was to incorporate a comprehensive set of short online video modules covering key topics from the undergraduate principles of marketing class, and to evaluate its effectiveness in improving student learning. A quasiexperimental design was used to compare students who had access to video modules with a…

  18. Differences between the IPA Learning Outcomes Learning Module Part with Conventional Learning Class IV in SDN Jodipan Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helda Kusuma Wardani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perbedaan Hasil Pembelajaran IPA antara Pembelajaran Modul Bagian dengan Pembelajaran Konvensional Kelas IV SD Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of learning science a significant difference between the learning modules with conventional learning class section IV in SDN Jodipan Malang and describe the realization of the effectiveness and appeal of learning on learning module and conventional learning section. This quasi-experimental research design was used pre- and post-test design or nonequivalent control group. Testing the hypothesis used t test using SPSS. Conclusions from the results of hypothesis testing is no significant difference between the effectiveness of learning modules with conventional learning section on the topic of the relationship between structure and function of plant roots after the implementation of learning. Minimal realization completeness criteria (KKM classroom learning module parts is very high. Scores posttes conventional learning classes showed no achievement of KKM. Realization appeal the high part of the learning modules according to the whole class learning module sample parts, and the appeal of high-graded conventional learning. KKM realization is directly proportional to the realization of part of the appeal of the learning module. Key Words: learning outcomes, the learning module parts, conventional learning Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbedaan signifikan keefektifan pembelajaran IPA antara pembelajaran modul bagian dengan pembelajaran konvensional kelas IV di SDN Jodipan Kota Malang dan mendeskripsikan realisasi keefektifan serta daya tarik pembelajaran pada pembelajaran modul bagian maupun pembelajaran konvensional. Penelitian eksperimen kuasi ini menggunakan rancangan pre- and post-test design atau nonequivalent control group design. Pengujian hipotesis digunakan uji t menggunakan SPSS. Simpulan dari hasil uji hipotesis adalah ada perbedaan signifikan antara

  19. Dimerization Controls Marburg Virus VP24-dependent Modulation of Host Antioxidative Stress Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Britney; Li, Jing; Adhikari, Jagat; Edwards, Megan R.; Zhang, Hao; Schwarz, Toni; Leung, Daisy W.; Basler, Christopher F.; Gross, Michael L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2016-08-04

    Marburg virus (MARV), a member of the Filoviridae family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV), causes lethal hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates that have exceeded 50% in some outbreaks. Within an infected cell, there are numerous host-viral interactions that contribute to the outcome of infection. Recent studies identified MARV protein 24 (mVP24) as a modulator of the host antioxidative responses, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a combination of biochemical and mass spectrometry studies, we show that mVP24 is a dimer in solution that directly binds to the Kelch domain of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to regulate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This interaction between Keap1 and mVP24 occurs through the Kelch interaction loop (K-Loop) of mVP24 leading to upregulation of antioxidant response element transcription, which is distinct from other Kelch binders that regulate Nrf2 activity. N-terminal truncations disrupt mVP24 dimerization, allowing monomeric mVP24 to bind Kelch with higher affinity and stimulate higher antioxidative stress response element (ARE) reporter activity. Mass spectrometry-based mapping of the interface revealed overlapping binding sites on Kelch for mVP24 and the Nrf2 proteins. Substitution of conserved cysteines, C209 and C210, to alanine in the mVP24 K-Loop abrogates Kelch binding and ARE activation. Our studies identify a shift in the monomer-dimer equilibrium of MARV VP24, driven by its interaction with Keap1 Kelch domain, as a critical determinant that modulates host responses to pathogenic Marburg viral infections.

  20. Modules as Learning Tools in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Laurel; Vidakovic, Draga; Martin, William O.; Dexter, Scott; Suzuki, Jeff; Loch, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the experience of STEM and mathematics faculty at four different institutions working collaboratively to integrate learning theory with curriculum development in a core undergraduate linear algebra context. The faculty formed a Professional Learning Community (PLC) with a focus on learning theories in mathematics and…

  1. Cervicovaginal bacteria are a major modulator of host inflammatory responses in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahtar, Melis N; Byrne, Elizabeth H; Doherty, Kathleen E; Bowman, Brittany A; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Soumillon, Magali; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Sabatini, Mary E; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Nusbaum, Chad; Huttenhower, Curtis; Virgin, Herbert W; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Dong, Krista L; Walker, Bruce D; Fichorova, Raina N; Kwon, Douglas S

    2015-05-19

    Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital communities with low Lactobacillus abundance and high ecological diversity. High-diversity communities strongly correlated with genital pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Transcriptional profiling suggested that genital antigen-presenting cells sense gram-negative bacterial products in situ via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, contributing to genital inflammation through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and recruitment of lymphocytes by chemokine production. Our study proposes a mechanism by which cervicovaginal microbiota impact genital inflammation and thereby might affect a woman's reproductive health, including her risk of acquiring HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Trichomonas vaginalis Rhomboid Protease and Its Substrate Modulate Parasite Attachment and Cytolysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Angelica M.; Gandhi, Shiv; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Moradian, Annie; Hess, Sonja; Urban, Sinisa; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although disease burden is high, molecular mechanisms underlying T. vaginalis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a family of putative T. vaginalis rhomboid proteases and demonstrate catalytic activity for two, TvROM1 and TvROM3, using a heterologous cell cleavage assay. The two T. vaginalis intramembrane serine proteases display different subcellular localization and substrate specificities. TvROM1 is a cell surface membrane protein and cleaves atypical model rhomboid protease substrates, whereas TvROM3 appears to localize to the Golgi apparatus and recognizes a typical model substrate. To identify TvROM substrates, we interrogated the T. vaginalis surface proteome using both quantitative proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Of the nine candidates identified, TVAG_166850 and TVAG_280090 were shown to be cleaved by TvROM1. Comparison of amino acid residues surrounding the predicted cleavage sites of TvROM1 substrates revealed a preference for small amino acids in the predicted transmembrane domain. Over-expression of TvROM1 increased attachment to and cytolysis of host ectocervical cells. Similarly, mutations that block the cleavage of a TvROM1 substrate lead to its accumulation on the cell surface and increased parasite adherence to host cells. Together, these data indicate a role for TvROM1 and its substrate(s) in modulating attachment to and lysis of host cells, which are key processes in T. vaginalis pathogenesis. PMID:26684303

  3. Learning with three factors: modulating Hebbian plasticity with errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Isomura, Takuya; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2017-10-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a central theme in neuroscience. A framework of three-factor learning rules provides a powerful abstraction, helping to navigate through the abundance of models of synaptic plasticity. It is well-known that the dopamine modulation of learning is related to reward, but theoretical models predict other functional roles of the modulatory third factor; it may encode errors for supervised learning, summary statistics of the population activity for unsupervised learning or attentional feedback. Specialized structures may be needed in order to generate and propagate third factors in the neural network. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for miRNA-mediated modulation of the host transcriptome in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2017-12-08

    Reef-building corals and other cnidarians living in symbiotic relationships with intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium undergo transcriptomic changes during infection with the algae and maintenance of the endosymbiont population. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms modulating the host transcriptome are unknown. Here we report apparent post-transcriptional gene regulation by miRNAs in the sea anemone Aiptasia, a model system for cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. Aiptasia encodes mainly species-specific miRNAs, and there appears to have been recent differentiation within the Aiptasia genome of miRNAs that are commonly conserved among anthozoan cnidarians. Analysis of miRNA expression showed that both conserved and species-specific miRNAs are differentially expressed in response to endosymbiont infection. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation of Argonaute, the central protein of the miRNA-induced silencing complex, we identified miRNA binding sites on a transcriptome-wide scale and found that the targets of the miRNAs regulated in response to symbiosis include genes previously implicated in biological processes related to Symbiodinium infection. Our study shows that cnidarian miRNAs recognize their mRNA targets via high-complementarity target binding and suggests that miRNA-mediated modulations of genes and pathways are important during the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for miRNA-mediated modulation of the host transcriptome in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Cziesielski, Maha J.; Thomas, Ludivine; Michell, Craig; Esherick, Lisl Y.; Pringle, John R.; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Reef-building corals and other cnidarians living in symbiotic relationships with intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium undergo transcriptomic changes during infection with the algae and maintenance of the endosymbiont population. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms modulating the host transcriptome are unknown. Here we report apparent post-transcriptional gene regulation by miRNAs in the sea anemone Aiptasia, a model system for cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. Aiptasia encodes mainly species-specific miRNAs, and there appears to have been recent differentiation within the Aiptasia genome of miRNAs that are commonly conserved among anthozoan cnidarians. Analysis of miRNA expression showed that both conserved and species-specific miRNAs are differentially expressed in response to endosymbiont infection. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation of Argonaute, the central protein of the miRNA-induced silencing complex, we identified miRNA binding sites on a transcriptome-wide scale and found that the targets of the miRNAs regulated in response to symbiosis include genes previously implicated in biological processes related to Symbiodinium infection. Our study shows that cnidarian miRNAs recognize their mRNA targets via high-complementarity target binding and suggests that miRNA-mediated modulations of genes and pathways are important during the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of Discovery Learning-Based Transformation Geometry Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, R.; Haryono, Y.; Yusri, R.

    2017-09-01

    Development of transformation geometry module is conducted because the students got difficulties to understand the existing book. The purpose of the research was to find out the effectiveness of discovery learning-based transformation geometry module toward student’s activity. Model of the development was Plomp model consisting preliminary research, prototyping phase and assessment phase. The research was focused on assessment phase where it was to observe the designed product effectiveness. The instrument was observation sheet. The observed activities were visual activities, oral activities, listening activities, mental activities, emotional activities and motor activities. Based on the result of the research, it is found that visual activities, learning activities, writing activities, the student’s activity is in the criteria very effective. It can be concluded that the use of discovery learning-based transformation geometry module use can increase the positive student’s activity and decrease the negative activity.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin modulates skin host response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Lianghua; Kim, Byung Eui; Brauweiler, Anne; Goleva, Elena; Streib, Joanne; Ji, Yinduo; Schlievert, Patrick M; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-09-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with a history of eczema herpeticum have increased staphylococcal colonization and infections. However, whether Staphylococcus aureus alters the outcome of skin viral infection has not been determined. We investigated whether S aureus toxins modulated host response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and vaccinia virus (VV) infections in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) and in murine infection models. NHKs were treated with S aureus toxins before incubation of viruses. BALB/c mice were inoculated with S aureus 2 days before VV scarification. Viral loads of HSV-1 and VV were evaluated by using real-time PCR, a viral plaque-forming assay, and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA duplexes were used to knockdown the gene expression of the cellular receptor of α-toxin, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). ADAM10 protein and α-toxin heptamers were detected by using Western blot assays. We demonstrate that sublytic staphylococcal α-toxin increases viral loads of HSV-1 and VV in NHKs. Furthermore, we demonstrate in vivo that the VV load is significantly greater (P skin inoculated with an α-toxin-producing S aureus strain compared with murine skin inoculated with the isogenic α-toxin-deleted strain. The viral enhancing effect of α-toxin is mediated by ADAM10 and is associated with its pore-forming property. Moreover, we demonstrate that α-toxin promotes viral entry in NHKs. The current study introduces the novel concept that staphylococcal α-toxin promotes viral skin infection and provides a mechanism by which S aureus infection might predispose the host toward disseminated viral infections. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of Host Osseointegration during Bone Regeneration by Controlling Exogenous Stem Cells Differentiation Using a Material Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping; Xia, Zengmin; Chen, Li; Jiang, Xi; Rowe, David; Wei, Mei

    2014-02-01

    Stem cell-based tissue engineering for large bone defect healing has attracted enormous attention in regenerative medicine. However, sufficient osseointegration of the grafts combined with exogenous stem cells still remains a major challenge. Here we developed a material approach to modulate the integration of the grafts to the host tissue when exogenous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used as donor cells. Distinctive osseointegration of bone grafts was observed as we varied the content of hydroxyapatite (HA) in the tissue scaffolds implanted in a mouse femur model. More than 80% of new bone was formed in the first two weeks of implantation in high HA content scaffold but lack of host integration while only less than 5% of the new bone was formed during this time period in the no HA group but with much stronger host integration. Cell origin analysis leveraging GFP reporter indicates new bone in HA containing groups was mainly derived from donor BMSCs. In comparison, both host and donor cells were found on new bone surface in the no HA groups which led to seamless bridging between host tissue and the scaffold. Most importantly, host integration during bone formation is closely dictated to the content of HA present in the scaffolds. Taken together, we demonstrate a material approach to modulate the osseointegration of bone grafts in the context of exogenous stem cell-based bone healing strategy which might lead to fully functional bone tissue regeneration.

  9. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil modulates the host cellular and inflammatory responses to Trypanosoma congolense infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiby Kuriakose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular and intravascular blood parasites that cause debilitating acute or chronic disease in cattle and other domestic animals. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for trypanosomiasis in livestock since 1955. As in livestock, treatment of infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice with Berenil leads to rapid control of parasitemia and survival from an otherwise lethal infection. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms of action of Berenil are still not very well defined and its effect on the host immune system has remained relatively unstudied. Here, we investigated whether Berenil has, in addition to its trypanolytic effect, a modulatory effect on the host immune response to Trypanosoma congolense. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with T. congolense, treated with Berenil and the expression of CD25 and FoxP3 on splenic cells was assessed directly ex vivo. In addition, serum levels and spontaneous and LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by splenic and hepatic CD11b⁺ cells were determined by ELISA. Berenil treatment significantly reduced the percentages of CD25⁺ cells, a concomitant reduction in the percentage of regulatory (CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells and a striking reduction in serum levels of disease exacerbating pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, TNF and IFN-γ. Furthermore, Berenil treatment significantly suppressed spontaneous and LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by splenic and liver macrophages and significantly ameliorated LPS-induced septic shock and the associated cytokine storm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results provide evidence that in addition to its direct trypanolytic effect, Berenil also modulates the host immune response to the parasite in a manner that dampen excessive immune activation and production of pathology

  10. Web-based Learning Modules using Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hamper, R.; Morris, F.

    2011-01-01

    Three web-based learning modules for introductory undergraduate astronomy courses are available at Indiana University Bloomington. The NovaSearch module allows students to view images of the core of the Andromeda Galaxy to discover novae and monitor their light curves. The Proper Pair module allows students to examine proper motion and parallax data from Hipparcos to determine if pairs of stars close together on the sky are true binary star systems. A third module, Astronomy in Color, allows students to produce color images using multi-wavelength data. The pedagogical goals of these curriculum materials are to teach that science is a process of discovery, not just a body of knowledge, to increase positive attitudes towards science by engaging students in discovery, and to motivate students towards pursuing STEM careers by giving students an opportunity to develop skills such as critical thinking, teamwork, and task focus that are important in any career path. The learning modules may be accessed at www.astro.indiana.edu/catyp/rbseu The development of these curriculum modules has been funded by the national Science Foundation through grant DUE-0618441.

  11. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Probiotic modulation of symbiotic gut microbial–host metabolic interactions in a humanized microbiome mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Wang, Yulan; Sprenger, Norbert; Yap, Ivan K S; Lundstedt, Torbjörn; Lek, Per; Rezzi, Serge; Ramadan, Ziad; van Bladeren, Peter; Fay, Laurent B; Kochhar, Sunil; Lindon, John C; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2008-01-01

    The transgenomic metabolic effects of exposure to either Lactobacillus paracasei or Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotics have been measured and mapped in humanized extended genome mice (germ-free mice colonized with human baby flora). Statistical analysis of the compartmental fluctuations in diverse metabolic compartments, including biofluids, tissue and cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in relation to microbial population modulation generated a novel top-down systems biology view of the host response to probiotic intervention. Probiotic exposure exerted microbiome modification and resulted in altered hepatic lipid metabolism coupled with lowered plasma lipoprotein levels and apparent stimulated glycolysis. Probiotic treatments also altered a diverse range of pathways outcomes, including amino-acid metabolism, methylamines and SCFAs. The novel application of hierarchical-principal component analysis allowed visualization of multicompartmental transgenomic metabolic interactions that could also be resolved at the compartment and pathway level. These integrated system investigations demonstrate the potential of metabolic profiling as a top-down systems biology driver for investigating the mechanistic basis of probiotic action and the therapeutic surveillance of the gut microbial activity related to dietary supplementation of probiotics. PMID:18197175

  13. Validating module network learning algorithms using simulated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoel, Tom; Maere, Steven; Bonnet, Eric; Joshi, Anagha; Saeys, Yvan; Van den Bulcke, Tim; Van Leemput, Koenraad; van Remortel, Piet; Kuiper, Martin; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2007-05-03

    In recent years, several authors have used probabilistic graphical models to learn expression modules and their regulatory programs from gene expression data. Despite the demonstrated success of such algorithms in uncovering biologically relevant regulatory relations, further developments in the area are hampered by a lack of tools to compare the performance of alternative module network learning strategies. Here, we demonstrate the use of the synthetic data generator SynTReN for the purpose of testing and comparing module network learning algorithms. We introduce a software package for learning module networks, called LeMoNe, which incorporates a novel strategy for learning regulatory programs. Novelties include the use of a bottom-up Bayesian hierarchical clustering to construct the regulatory programs, and the use of a conditional entropy measure to assign regulators to the regulation program nodes. Using SynTReN data, we test the performance of LeMoNe in a completely controlled situation and assess the effect of the methodological changes we made with respect to an existing software package, namely Genomica. Additionally, we assess the effect of various parameters, such as the size of the data set and the amount of noise, on the inference performance. Overall, application of Genomica and LeMoNe to simulated data sets gave comparable results. However, LeMoNe offers some advantages, one of them being that the learning process is considerably faster for larger data sets. Additionally, we show that the location of the regulators in the LeMoNe regulation programs and their conditional entropy may be used to prioritize regulators for functional validation, and that the combination of the bottom-up clustering strategy with the conditional entropy-based assignment of regulators improves the handling of missing or hidden regulators. We show that data simulators such as SynTReN are very well suited for the purpose of developing, testing and improving module network

  14. Identification and characterization of the host protein DNAJC14 as a broadly active flavivirus replication modulator.

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    Zhigang Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses in the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family are arthropod-transmitted and contribute to staggering numbers of human infections and significant deaths annually across the globe. To identify cellular factors with antiviral activity against flaviviruses, we screened a cDNA library using an iterative approach. We identified a mammalian Hsp40 chaperone protein (DNAJC14 that when overexpressed was able to mediate protection from yellow fever virus (YFV-induced cell death. Further studies revealed that DNAJC14 inhibits YFV at the step of viral RNA replication. Since replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the related Pestivirus genus, is also known to be modulated by DNAJC14, we tested the effect of this host factor on diverse Flaviviridae family members. Flaviviruses, including the pathogenic Asibi strain of YFV, Kunjin, and tick-borne Langat virus, as well as a Hepacivirus, hepatitis C virus (HCV, all were inhibited by overexpression of DNAJC14. Mutagenesis showed that both the J-domain and the C-terminal domain, which mediates self-interaction, are required for anti-YFV activity. We found that DNAJC14 does not block YFV nor HCV NS2-3 cleavage, and using non-inhibitory mutants demonstrate that DNAJC14 is recruited to YFV replication complexes. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that endogenous DNAJC14 rearranges during infection and is found in replication complexes identified by dsRNA staining. Interestingly, silencing of endogenous DNAJC14 results in impaired YFV replication suggesting a requirement for DNAJC14 in YFV replication complex assembly. Finally, the antiviral activity of overexpressed DNAJC14 occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DNAJC14 overexpression may disrupt the proper stoichiometry resulting in inhibition, which can be overcome upon restoration of the optimal ratios due to the accumulation of viral nonstructural proteins. Our findings, together with previously published work

  15. Extracellular vesicles modulate host-microbe responses by altering TLR2 activity and phagocytosis.

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    Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen

    Full Text Available Oral delivery of Gram positive bacteria, often derived from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, can modulate immune function. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, immunomodulatory effects may be elicited through the direct interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium or resident dendritic cell (DC populations. We analyzed the immune activation properties of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium species and made the surprising observation that cellular responses in vitro were differentially influenced by the presence of serum, specifically the extracellular vesicle (EV fraction. In contrast to the tested Lactobacilli species, tested Bifidobacterium species induce TLR2/6 activity which is inhibited by the presence of EVs. Using specific TLR ligands, EVs were found to enhance cellular TLR2/1 and TLR4 responses while TLR2/6 responses were suppressed. No effect could be observed on cellular TLR5 responses. We determined that EVs play a role in bacterial aggregation, suggesting that EVs interact with bacterial surfaces. EVs were found to slightly enhance DC phagocytosis of Bifidobacterium breve whereas phagocytosis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was virtually absent upon serum EV depletion. DC uptake of a non-microbial substance (dextran was not affected by the different serum fractions suggesting that EVs do not interfere with DC phagocytic capacity but rather modify the DC-microbe interaction. Depending on the microbe, combined effects of EVs on TLR activity and phagocytosis result in a differential proinflammatory DC cytokine release. Overall, these data suggest that EVs play a yet unrecognized role in host-microbe responses, not by interfering in recipient cellular responses but via attachment to, or scavenging of, microbe-associated molecular patterns. EVs can be found in any tissue or bodily fluid, therefore insights into EV-microbe interactions are important in understanding the mechanism of action of potential

  16. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes.

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    David Proud

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. The human airway epithelial cell is the primary site of HRV infection and responds to infection with altered expression of multiple genes, the products of which could regulate the outcome to infection. Cigarette smoking aggravates asthma symptoms, and is also the predominant risk factor for the development and progression of COPD. We, therefore, examined whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE modulates viral responses by altering HRV-induced epithelial gene expression. Primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone, CSE alone, purified HRV-16 alone or to HRV-16+ CSE. After 24 h, supernatants were collected and total cellular RNA was isolated. Gene array analysis was performed to examine mRNA expression. Additional experiments, using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and/or western blotting, validated altered expression of selected gene products. CSE and HRV-16 each induced groups of genes that were largely independent of each other. When compared to gene expression in response to CSE alone, cells treated with HRV+CSE showed no obvious differences in CSE-induced gene expression. By contrast, compared to gene induction in response to HRV-16 alone, cells exposed to HRV+CSE showed marked suppression of expression of a number of HRV-induced genes associated with various functions, including antiviral defenses, inflammation, viral signaling and airway remodeling. These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes.

  17. Depletion of dendritic cells enhances innate anti-bacterial host defense through modulation of phagocyte homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella E Autenrieth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells play an important role in the initiation and modulation of the adaptive immune response. However, their role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections is not completely defined. Here we have analyzed the role of DCs and their impact on the innate anti-bacterial host defense in an experimental infection model of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye. We used CD11c-diphtheria toxin (DT mice to deplete DCs prior to severe infection with Ye. DC depletion significantly increased animal survival after Ye infection. The bacterial load in the spleen of DC-depleted mice was significantly lower than that of control mice throughout the infection. DC depletion was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of CXCL1, G-CSF, IL-1α, and CCL2 and an increase in the numbers of splenic phagocytes. Functionally, splenocytes from DC-depleted mice exhibited an increased bacterial killing capacity compared to splenocytes from control mice. Cellular studies further showed that this was due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by neutrophils. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from DC-depleted mice into control mice prior to Ye infection reduced the bacterial load to the level of Ye-infected DC-depleted mice, suggesting that the increased number of phagocytes with additional ROS production account for the decreased bacterial load. Furthermore, after incubation with serum from DC-depleted mice splenocytes from control mice increased their bacterial killing capacity, most likely due to enhanced ROS production by neutrophils, indicating that serum factors from DC-depleted mice account for this effect. In summary, we could show that DC depletion triggers phagocyte accumulation in the spleen and enhances their anti-bacterial killing capacity upon bacterial infection.

  18. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  19. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  20. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  1. Dynamic e-learning modules for student lecture preparation

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    Timothy McIntyre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and demonstrated the effectiveness of a set of online interactive learning modules to accompany physics courses at first- and second-year university levels. Students access the modules prior to attending lectures to familiarize themselves with content which is then discussed and reaffirmed in class. Student surveys and access data show that students were much more likely to use material presented in this form, rather than a textbook, when preparing for lectures given in an active learning format. The students found that interactive simulations, videos of problem-solving approaches prepared by course staff, and quick-check immediate feedback questions were all useful tools for lecture preparation–none of which are available when using a traditional textbook for lecture preparation.

  2. Review article: Critical Care Airway Management eLearning modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Deepak; McCarthy, Sally; Mowatt, Elizabeth; Cahill, Angela; Peirce, Bronwyn; Hawking, Geoff; Osborne, Ruth; Hibble, Belinda; Ebbs, Katharine

    2017-11-16

    The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) has recently launched the Critical Care Airway Management eLearning modules to support emergency medicine trainees in developing their airway management skills in the ED. A team of emergency physicians and trainees worked collaboratively to develop the eLearning resources ensuring extensive stakeholder consultation. A comprehensive resource manual was written to provide learners with knowledge that underpins the modules. ACEM provided project coordination as well as administrative and technical team support to the production. Although specifically developed with early ACEM trainees in mind, it is envisaged the resources will be useful for all emergency clinicians. The project was funded by the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Impact on learning of an e-learning module on leukaemia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulis, Yuri; Kumar, Rakesh K; Lindeman, Robert; Velan, Gary M

    2012-05-28

    e-learning resources may be beneficial for complex or conceptually difficult topics. Leukaemia is one such topic, yet there are no reports on the efficacy of e-learning for leukaemia. This study compared the learning impact on senior medical students of a purpose-built e-learning module on leukaemia, compared with existing online resources. A randomised controlled trial was performed utilising volunteer senior medical students. Participants were randomly allocated to Study and Control groups. Following a pre-test on leukaemia administered to both groups, the Study group was provided with access to the new e-learning module, while the Control group was directed to existing online resources. A post-test and an evaluation questionnaire were administered to both groups at the end of the trial period. Study and Control groups were equivalent in gender distribution, mean academic ability, pre-test performance and time studying leukaemia during the trial. The Study group performed significantly better than the Control group in the post-test, in which the group to which the students had been allocated was the only significant predictor of performance. The Study group's evaluation of the module was overwhelmingly positive. A targeted e-learning module on leukaemia had a significant effect on learning in this cohort, compared with existing online resources. We believe that the interactivity, dialogic feedback and integration with the curriculum offered by the e-learning module contributed to its impact. This has implications for e-learning design in medicine and other disciplines.

  4. Impact on learning of an e-learning module on leukaemia: a randomised controlled trial

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    Morgulis Yuri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background e-learning resources may be beneficial for complex or conceptually difficult topics. Leukaemia is one such topic, yet there are no reports on the efficacy of e-learning for leukaemia. This study compared the learning impact on senior medical students of a purpose-built e-learning module on leukaemia, compared with existing online resources. Methods A randomised controlled trial was performed utilising volunteer senior medical students. Participants were randomly allocated to Study and Control groups. Following a pre-test on leukaemia administered to both groups, the Study group was provided with access to the new e-learning module, while the Control group was directed to existing online resources. A post-test and an evaluation questionnaire were administered to both groups at the end of the trial period. Results Study and Control groups were equivalent in gender distribution, mean academic ability, pre-test performance and time studying leukaemia during the trial. The Study group performed significantly better than the Control group in the post-test, in which the group to which the students had been allocated was the only significant predictor of performance. The Study group’s evaluation of the module was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions A targeted e-learning module on leukaemia had a significant effect on learning in this cohort, compared with existing online resources. We believe that the interactivity, dialogic feedback and integration with the curriculum offered by the e-learning module contributed to its impact. This has implications for e-learning design in medicine and other disciplines.

  5. Impact on learning of an e-learning module on leukaemia: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background e-learning resources may be beneficial for complex or conceptually difficult topics. Leukaemia is one such topic, yet there are no reports on the efficacy of e-learning for leukaemia. This study compared the learning impact on senior medical students of a purpose-built e-learning module on leukaemia, compared with existing online resources. Methods A randomised controlled trial was performed utilising volunteer senior medical students. Participants were randomly allocated to Study and Control groups. Following a pre-test on leukaemia administered to both groups, the Study group was provided with access to the new e-learning module, while the Control group was directed to existing online resources. A post-test and an evaluation questionnaire were administered to both groups at the end of the trial period. Results Study and Control groups were equivalent in gender distribution, mean academic ability, pre-test performance and time studying leukaemia during the trial. The Study group performed significantly better than the Control group in the post-test, in which the group to which the students had been allocated was the only significant predictor of performance. The Study group’s evaluation of the module was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions A targeted e-learning module on leukaemia had a significant effect on learning in this cohort, compared with existing online resources. We believe that the interactivity, dialogic feedback and integration with the curriculum offered by the e-learning module contributed to its impact. This has implications for e-learning design in medicine and other disciplines. PMID:22640463

  6. Use of Handwriting Recognition Technologies in Tablet-Based Learning Modules for First Grade Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanikoglu, Berrin; Gogus, Aytac; Inal, Emre

    2017-01-01

    Learning through modules on a tablet helps students participate effectively in learning activities in classrooms and provides flexibility in the learning process. This study presents the design and evaluation of an application that is based on handwriting recognition technologies and e-content for the developed learning modules. The application…

  7. Psychosocial modulators of motor learning in Parkinson’s disease

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    Petra eZemankova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD.

  8. Glycan gimmickry by parasitic helminths: a strategy for modulating the host immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, Irma; Cummings, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminths (worms) co-evolved with vertebrate immune systems to enable long-term survival of worms in infected hosts. Among their survival strategies, worms use their glycans within glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are abundant on helminth surfaces and in their excretory/ secretory products, to regulate and suppress host immune responses. Many helminths express unusual and antigenic (nonhost-like) glycans, including those containing polyfucose, tyvelose, terminal GalNAc, phosphorylcholine, methyl groups, and sugars in unusual linkages. In addition, some glycan antigens are expressed that share structural features with those in their intermediate and vertebrate hosts (host-like glycans), including Le(X) (Galbeta1-4[Fucalpha1-3]GlcNAc-), LDNF (GalNAcbeta1-4[Fucalpha1-3]GlcNAc-), LDN (GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-), and Tn (GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr/Ser) antigens. The expression of host-like glycan determinants is remarkable and suggests that helminths may gain advantages by synthesizing such glycans. The expression of host-like glycans by parasites previously led to the concept of "molecular mimicry," in which molecules are either derived from the pathogen or acquired from the host to evade recognition by the host immune system. However, recent discoveries into the potential of host glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), such as C-type lectin receptors and galectins, to functionally interact with various host-like helminth glycans provide new insights. Host GBPs through their interactions with worm-derived glycans participate in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses upon infection. We thus propose an alternative concept termed "glycan gimmickry," which is defined as an active strategy of parasites to use their glycans to target GBPs within the host to promote their survival.

  9. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.

    2018-01-01

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  10. Procurement Service launches new eLearning module

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Procurement Service has launched a training module covering “Procurement of supplies at CERN up to 200,000 CHF” in the form of an eLearning, accessible to all users involved in the procurement process. A long version (30 minutes) and a short version (10 minutes) are now available via this link.   The objectives of this eLearning module are as follows: To improve users' knowledge of the Procurement Rules to facilitate the successful completion of a DAI. This will ensure their DAI is processed as quickly as possible; To decrease the number of single tender requests and to avoid non compliant procurement practices such as the fragmentation of requirements into smaller orders. The eLearning module in its short version covers a range of topics, including the role of the technical officer, estimation of order amount (and the subsequent procedure to follow) and preparation and completion of the DAI form. The longer version also includes useful informati...

  11. E-learning modules for nuclear reactor heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Praveen Bharadwaj

    E learning in engineering education is becoming popular at several universities as it allows instructors to create content that the students may view and interact with at his/her own convenience. Web-based simulation and what-if analysis are examples of such educational content and has proved to be extremely beneficial for engineering students. Such pedagogical content promote active learning and encourage students to experiment and be more creative. The main objective of this project is to develop web based learning modules, in the form of analytical simulations, for the Reactor Thermal Hydraulics course offered by the College of Engineering at UT Arlington. These modules seek to comprehensively transform the traditional education structure. The simulations are built to supplement the class lectures and are divided into categories like Fundamentals, Heat generation, Heat transfer and Heat removal categories. Each category contains modules which are sub-divided chapter wise and further into section wise. Some of the important sections from the text book are taken and calculations for a particular functionality are implemented. Since it is an interactive tool, it allows user to input certain values, which are then processed with the traditional equations, and output results either in the form of a number or graphs.

  12. Unfolding Role of a Danger Molecule Adenosine Signaling in Modulation of Microbial Infection and Host Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaden S. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, specific nucleotide metabolizing enzymes located on the surface of the host, can convert a pro-inflammatory environment driven by a danger molecule extracellular-ATP to an adenosine-mediated anti-inflammatory milieu. Accordingly, CD39/CD73 signaling has been strongly implicated in modulating the intensity, duration, and composition of purinergic danger signals delivered to host. Recent studies have eluted potential roles for CD39 and CD73 in selective triggering of a variety of host immune cells and molecules in the presence of pathogenic microorganisms or microbial virulence molecules. Growing evidence also suggests that CD39 and CD73 present complimentary, but likely differential, actions against pathogens to shape the course and severity of microbial infection as well as the associated immune response. Similarly, adenosine receptors A2A and A2B have been proposed to be major immunomodulators of adenosine signaling during chronic inflammatory conditions induced by opportunistic pathogens, such as oral colonizer Porphyromonas gingivalis. Therefore, we here review the recent studies that demonstrate how complex network of molecules in the extracellular adenosine signaling machinery and their interactions can reshape immune responses and may also be targeted by opportunistic pathogens to establish successful colonization in human mucosal tissues and modulate the host immune response.

  13. Working with interpreters: an interactive Web-based learning module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Gany, Francesca; Senter, Lindsay

    2002-09-01

    Medical students are presented with unique challenges when they care for patients with limited English proficiency. Students must learn a complex set of skills needed to care for patients across cultural and language barriers and to understand the impact of their own attitudes and beliefs about caring for these patients. We developed and piloted a multimedia interactive Web-based module aimed at teaching students effective strategies for working with interpreters and diverse patient populations, and at raising their awareness of important legal, ethical, and cultural issues. First the learner completes a 37-multiple-choice-question (MCQ) pre-test that assesses attitudes, factual knowledge, and ability to analyze written clinical scenarios relevant to the module's content. Learners are then shown a series of professionally produced video vignettes, which reflect diverse patient populations, interpreters, and effectiveness of interpretation strategies (e.g., a Russian-speaking woman with chest pain whose daughter interprets, a medical student interpreting for a Chinese-speaking man using herbal medication, a Haitian woman told of an abnormal mammogram through a trained simultaneous interpreter). In each case, learners submit short answers to on-screen questions analyzing the effectiveness of the interpretation strategies demonstrated. Immediate feedback is given comparing student responses with those of experts. At any time during the module, the learners may view video commentary by legal, ethics, and cultural experts, or access a glossary and Web site links. Students conclude the module by again taking the MCQ test. A final screen compares their pre- and post-MCQ test responses and shows best answers, allowing them to assess their learning. The learners also complete a survey, providing personal cultural information and feedback on the module. All 160 first-year medical students completed the module and evaluated its effectiveness this year. On average, students

  14. A Polymorphism within the Internal Fusion Loop of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Modulates Host Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus; Crone, Lisa; Dietzel, Erik; Paijo, Jennifer; González-Hernández, Mariana; Nehlmeier, Inga; Kalinke, Ulrich; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two nonhuman primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency. We found that EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into diverse NHP-derived cell lines, as well as human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, was reduced compared to EBOV1976-GP, although entry into most human- and all bat-derived cell lines tested was comparable. Moreover, EBOV2014 replication in NHP but not human cells was diminished relative to EBOV1976, suggesting that reduced cell entry translated into reduced viral spread. Mutagenic analysis of EBOV2014-GP and EBOV1976-GP revealed that an amino acid polymorphism in the receptor-binding domain, A82V, modulated entry efficiency in a cell line-independent manner and did not account for the reduced EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into NHP cells. In contrast, polymorphism T544I, located in the internal fusion loop in the GP2 subunit, was found to be responsible for the entry phenotype. These results suggest that position 544 is an important determinant of EBOV infectivity for both NHP and certain human target cells. IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2013 entailed more than 10,000 deaths. The scale of the outbreak and its dramatic impact on human health raised the question whether the responsible virus was particularly adept at infecting human cells. Our study shows that an amino acid exchange, A82V, that was acquired during the epidemic and that was not observed in previously circulating viruses, increases viral entry into diverse target cells

  15. Achievement of learning outcome after implemented physical modules based on problem based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isna, R.; Masykuri, M.; Sukarmin

    2018-03-01

    Implementation of Problem BasedLearning (PBL) modules can grow the students' thinking skills to solve the problems in daily life and equip the students into higher education levels. The purpose of this research is to know the achievement of learning outcome after implementation physics module based on PBL in Newton,s Law of Gravity. This research method use the experimental method with posttest only group design. To know the achievement of student learning outcomes was analyzed using t test through application of SPSS 18. Based on research result, it is found that the average of student learning outcomes after appliying physics module based on PBL has reached the minimal exhaustiveness criteria. In addition, students' scientific attitudes also improved at each meeting. Presentation activities which contained at learning sync are also able to practice speaking skills and broaden their knowledge. Looking at some shortcomings during the study, it is suggested the issues raised into learning should be a problem close to the life of students so that, the students are more active and enthusiastic in following the learning of physics.

  16. Membrane cholesterol regulates lysosome-plasma membrane fusion events and modulates Trypanosoma cruzi invasion of host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Hissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi are able to invade several types of non-phagocytic cells through a lysosomal dependent mechanism. It has been shown that, during invasion, parasites trigger host cell lysosome exocytosis, which initially occurs at the parasite-host contact site. Acid sphingomyelinase released from lysosomes then induces endocytosis and parasite internalization. Lysosomes continue to fuse with the newly formed parasitophorous vacuole until the parasite is completely enclosed by lysosomal membrane, a process indispensable for a stable infection. Previous work has shown that host membrane cholesterol is also important for the T. cruzi invasion process in both professional (macrophages and non-professional (epithelial phagocytic cells. However, the mechanism by which cholesterol-enriched microdomains participate in this process has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present work we show that cardiomyocytes treated with MβCD, a drug able to sequester cholesterol from cell membranes, leads to a 50% reduction in invasion by T. cruzi trypomastigotes, as well as a decrease in the number of recently internalized parasites co-localizing with lysosomal markers. Cholesterol depletion from host membranes was accompanied by a decrease in the labeling of host membrane lipid rafts, as well as excessive lysosome exocytic events during the earlier stages of treatment. Precocious lysosomal exocytosis in MβCD treated cells led to a change in lysosomal distribution, with a reduction in the number of these organelles at the cell periphery, and probably compromises the intracellular pool of lysosomes necessary for T. cruzi invasion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, we propose that cholesterol depletion leads to unregulated exocytic events, reducing lysosome availability at the cell cortex and consequently compromise T. cruzi entry into host cells. The results also suggest that two different pools of

  17. Module Seven: Combination Circuits and Voltage Dividers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…

  18. Teaching calculus using module based on cooperative learning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbin, Norazman; Ghani, Sazelli Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of a module which utilizes the cooperative learning for teaching Calculus for limit, derivative and integral. The sample consists of 50 semester 1 students from the Science Programme (AT 16) Sultan Idris Education University. A set of questions of related topics (pre and post) has been used as an instrument to collect data. The data is analyzed using inferential statistics involving the paired sample t-test and the independent t-test. The result shows that students have positive inclination towards the modulein terms of understanding.

  19. Physics-Based Scientific Learning Module to Improve Students Motivation and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Nugroho Yuliono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching materials that available in the school to learn physics especially scientific-based is limited and become one of the obstacles to achieving the learning objectives on electromagnetic waves maerial. The research aims is to gain scientific Physics-based learning modules for high school grade XII students who have met the eligibility criteria, determine the effectiveness of using scientific-based learning modules Physics to improve motivation and learning outcomes from students of grade XII High School. The development of this research on Physics module using 4D development procedure which consist of the steps of define, design, development, and dissemination. Definition phase consists of the teacher and student’s needs analysis process, material analysis, as well as the formulation of the learning module. The design phase of physics learning modules according to the stage of scientific learning are integrated into the module. The development phase consists of the development process of the modules from the design results, validating the feasibility, module revision, limited testing, and the use of scientifically-based learning modules Physics in grade XII IPA 1 Batik 2 Surakarta senior high school. The deployment phase is the deployment process module to another Senior High School in Surakarta. Data Analysis for the study is quantitative descriptive analysis based on the score criteria and analysis of increasing student motivation through N-gain. Conclusion obtained are ; 1 Physics-based scientific learning modules that developed meet the eligibility criteria on aspects of content and presentation, language, the chart, and aspects of learning. The module is declared worthy of the ideals validation results with the percentage of 85.16%, 83.66% by students and teachers in the response phase of the deployment of 85.93%, which is included in the category of "very good"; 2 Physics-based scietific learning modules with material scientific

  20. Respiratory virus modulation of host nucleocytoplasmic transport; target for therapeutic intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon eCaly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory diseases caused by Rhinovirus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza virus represent a large social and financial burden on healthcare worldwide. Although all three viruses have distinctly unique properties in terms of infection and replication, they share the ability to exploit/manipulate the host-cell nucleocytoplasmic transport system in order to replicate effectively and efficiently. This review outlines the various ways in which infection by these viruses impacts on the host nucleocytoplasmic transport system, and examples where inhibition thereof in turn decreases viral replication. The highly conserved nature of the nucleocytoplasmic transport system and the viral proteins that interact with it make this virus-host interface a prime candidate for the development of specific antiviral therapeutics in the future.

  1. Transportation life cycle assessment (LCA) synthesis : life cycle assessment learning module series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The Life Cycle Assessment Learning Module Series is a set of narrated, self-advancing slideshows on : various topics related to environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). This research project produced the first 27 of such modules, which : are freely...

  2. Interface Molecules of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Their Role in Parasite Survival and Modulation of Host Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. Morassutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Disease presents following the ingestion of third-stage larvae residing in the intermediate mollusk host and disease manifests as an acute inflammation of the meninges characterized by eosinophil infiltrates which release a battery of proinflammatory and cytotoxic agents in response to the pathogen. As a mechanism of neutralizing these host defenses, A. cantonensis expresses different molecules with immunomodulatory properties that are excreted or secreted (ES. In this paper we discuss the role of ES proteins on disease exacerbation and their potential use as therapeutic targets.

  3. Reminder cues modulate the renewal effect in human predictive learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bustamante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Associative learning refers to our ability to learn about regularities in our environment. When a stimulus is repeatedly followed by a specific outcome, we learn to expect the outcome in the presence of the stimulus. We are also able to modify established expectations in the face of disconfirming information (the stimulus is no longer followed by the outcome. Both the change of environmental regularities and the related processes of adaptation are referred to as extinction. However, extinction does not erase the initially acquired expectations. For instance, following successful extinction, the initially learned expectations can recover when there is a context change – a phenomenon called the renewal effect, which is considered as a model for relapse after exposure therapy. Renewal was found to be modulated by reminder cues of acquisition and extinction. However, the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of reminder cues are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of reminder cues on renewal in the field of human predictive learning. Experiment I demonstrated that renewal in human predictive learning is modulated by cues related to acquisition or extinction. Initially, participants received pairings of a stimulus and an outcome in one context. These stimulus-outcome pairings were preceded by presentations of a reminder cue (acquisition cue. Then, participants received extinction in a different context in which presentations of the stimulus were no longer followed by the outcome. These extinction trials were preceded by a second reminder cue (extinction cue. During a final phase conducted in a third context, participants showed stronger expectations of the outcome in the presence of the stimulus when testing was accompanied by the acquisition cue compared to the extinction cue. Experiment II tested an explanation of the reminder cue effect in terms of simple cue-outcome associations. Therefore

  4. Selectively Modulating Triplet Exciton Formation in Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Bi, Ran; Chen, Ting; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Runfeng; Tao, Ye; Zhang, Hongmei; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-03-23

    The concept of limiting the triplet exciton formation to fundamentally alleviate triplet-involved quenching effects is introduced to construct host materials for highly efficient and stable blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The low triplet exciton formation is realized by small triplet exciton formation fraction and rate with high binding energy and high reorganization energy of triplet exciton. Demonstrated in two analogue molecules in conventional donor-acceptor molecule structure for bipolar charge injection and transport with nearly the same frontier orbital energy levels and triplet excited energies, the new concept host material shows significantly suppressed triplet exciton formation in the host to avoid quenching effects, leading to much improved device efficiencies and stabilities. The low-voltage-driving blue PhOLED devices exhibit maximum efficiencies of 43.7 cd A(-1) for current efficiency, 32.7 lm W(-1) for power efficiency, and 20.7% for external quantum efficiency with low roll-off and remarkable relative quenching effect reduction ratio up to 41%. Our fundamental solution for preventing quenching effects of long-lived triplet excitons provides exciting opportunities for fabricating high-performance devices using the advanced host materials with intrinsically small triplet exciton formation cross section.

  5. Pathogenic leptospires modulate protein expression and post-translational modifications in response to mammalian host signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Reservoir hosts of leptospirosis, including rodents, dogs and cattle, exhibit little to no signs of disease but shed large numbers of organisms in...

  6. Emotional Modulation of Learning and Memory: Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLumiere, Ryan T; McGaugh, James L; McIntyre, Christa K

    2017-07-01

    Memory consolidation involves the process by which newly acquired information becomes stored in a long-lasting fashion. Evidence acquired over the past several decades, especially from studies using post-training drug administration, indicates that emotional arousal during the consolidation period influences and enhances the strength of the memory and that multiple different chemical signaling systems participate in this process. The mechanisms underlying the emotional influences on memory involve the release of stress hormones and activation of the basolateral amygdala, which work together to modulate memory consolidation. Moreover, work suggests that this amygdala-based memory modulation occurs with numerous types of learning and involves interactions with many different brain regions to alter consolidation. Additionally, studies suggest that emotional arousal and amygdala activity in particular influence synaptic plasticity and associated proteins in downstream brain regions. This review considers the historical understanding for memory modulation and cellular consolidation processes and examines several research areas currently using this foundational knowledge to develop therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Self-Directed Learning Modules for Independent Learning: IELTS Exam Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Morrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Learners studying for exams sometimes show a lack of awareness in their abilities as tested through the framework of that exam. Instead, such learners focus on the score obtained in exams, and exam preparation includes using textbooks, online materials and timed use of past papers. The purpose of exam-focused flexible self-directed learning modules (FSDLMs at Kanda University of International Studies have been designed to address this by developing learners’ ability to identify their strengths and weaknesses, to make informed decisions about their own learning, and to improve their test-taking skills. Each FSDLM has at its core a diagnostic for learners to use for self-evaluation, often with guidance from a learning advisor. This process leads to the setting of clear goals and the development and implementation of an individual learning plan through a variety of dialogues. Learners have the potential to transfer this skill beyond examination preparation to other areas of learning. In other words, learners’ awareness of needs analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation is fostered with a view to developing their language learning ability within and beyond this module.

  8. Pathogenic Leptospires Modulate Protein Expression and Post-translational Modifications in Response to Mammalian Host Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jarlath E; Grassmann, Andre A; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Seshu, Janakiram; McBride, Alan J; Caimano, Melissa J

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Reservoir hosts of leptospirosis, including rodents, dogs, and cattle, exhibit little to no signs of disease but shed large numbers of organisms in their urine. Transmission occurs when mucosal surfaces or abraded skin come into contact with infected urine or urine-contaminated water or soil. Whilst little is known about how Leptospira adapt to and persist within a reservoir host, in vitro studies suggest that leptospires alter their transcriptomic and proteomic profiles in response to environmental signals encountered during mammalian infection. We applied the dialysis membrane chamber (DMC) peritoneal implant model to compare the whole cell proteome of in vivo derived leptospires with that of leptospires cultivated in vitro at 30°C and 37°C by 2-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Of 1,735 protein spots aligned across 9 2-D DIGE gels, 202 protein spots were differentially expressed ( p 1.25 or expressed proteins were excised for identification by mass spectrometry. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006995. The greatest differences were detected when DMC-cultivated leptospires were compared with IV30- or IV37-cultivated leptospires, including the increased expression of multiple isoforms of Loa22, a known virulence factor. Unexpectedly, 20 protein isoforms of LipL32 and 7 isoforms of LipL41 were uniformly identified by DIGE as differentially expressed, suggesting that unique post-translational modifications (PTMs) are operative in response to mammalian host conditions. To test this hypothesis, a rat model of persistent renal colonization was used to isolate leptospires directly from the urine of experimentally infected rats. Comparison of urinary derived leptospires to IV30 leptospires by 2-D immunoblotting confirmed that modification of proteins with

  9. Pathogenic Leptospires Modulate Protein Expression and Post-translational Modifications in Response to Mammalian Host Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath E. Nally

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Reservoir hosts of leptospirosis, including rodents, dogs, and cattle, exhibit little to no signs of disease but shed large numbers of organisms in their urine. Transmission occurs when mucosal surfaces or abraded skin come into contact with infected urine or urine-contaminated water or soil. Whilst little is known about how Leptospira adapt to and persist within a reservoir host, in vitro studies suggest that leptospires alter their transcriptomic and proteomic profiles in response to environmental signals encountered during mammalian infection. We applied the dialysis membrane chamber (DMC peritoneal implant model to compare the whole cell proteome of in vivo derived leptospires with that of leptospires cultivated in vitro at 30°C and 37°C by 2-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE. Of 1,735 protein spots aligned across 9 2-D DIGE gels, 202 protein spots were differentially expressed (p < 0.05, fold change >1.25 or < −1.25 across all three conditions. Differentially expressed proteins were excised for identification by mass spectrometry. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006995. The greatest differences were detected when DMC-cultivated leptospires were compared with IV30- or IV37-cultivated leptospires, including the increased expression of multiple isoforms of Loa22, a known virulence factor. Unexpectedly, 20 protein isoforms of LipL32 and 7 isoforms of LipL41 were uniformly identified by DIGE as differentially expressed, suggesting that unique post-translational modifications (PTMs are operative in response to mammalian host conditions. To test this hypothesis, a rat model of persistent renal colonization was used to isolate leptospires directly from the urine of experimentally infected rats. Comparison of urinary derived leptospires to IV30

  10. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Rydengård, Victoria; Malmsten, Martin; Albiger, Barbara; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  11. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kalle

    Full Text Available Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  12. Recognizing the SINEs of Infection: Regulation of Retrotransposon Expression and Modulation of Host Cell Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dunker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Short interspersed elements (SINEs are a family of retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from cellular RNA polymerase III transcripts. Over evolutionary time, SINEs have expanded throughout the human genome and today comprise ~11% of total chromosomal DNA. While generally transcriptionally silent in healthy somatic cells, SINE expression increases during a variety of types of stresses, including DNA virus infection. The relevance of SINE expression to viral infection was largely unexplored, however, recent years have seen great progress towards defining the impact of SINE expression on viral replication and host gene expression. Here we review the origin and diversity of SINE elements and their transcriptional control, with an emphasis on how their expression impacts host cell biology during viral infection.

  13. The pleotropic role of statins: Could it be the imminent host modulation agent in periodontics?

    OpenAIRE

    Harpreet Singh Grover; Shailly Luthra; Shruti Maroo; Niteeka Maroo

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which represents a primarily anaerobic Gram-negative oral infection that results in gingival inflammation, loss of attachment, bone destruction. Bacterial endotoxins in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that are instrumental in generating a host-mediated tissue destructive immune response by mobilizing their defensive cells and releasing cytokines like Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), w...

  14. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood. Presentation of the hypothesis Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs, which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs. Testing the hypothesis The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. Expected outcome The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified. Implications of the hypothesis Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and

  15. Prediction of interactions between viral and host proteins using supervised machine learning methods.

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    Ranjan Kumar Barman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral-host protein-protein interaction plays a vital role in pathogenesis, since it defines viral infection of the host and regulation of the host proteins. Identification of key viral-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs has great implication for therapeutics. METHODS: In this study, a systematic attempt has been made to predict viral-host PPIs by integrating different features, including domain-domain association, network topology and sequence information using viral-host PPIs from VirusMINT. The three well-known supervised machine learning methods, such as SVM, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest, which are commonly used in the prediction of PPIs, were employed to evaluate the performance measure based on five-fold cross validation techniques. RESULTS: Out of 44 descriptors, best features were found to be domain-domain association and methionine, serine and valine amino acid composition of viral proteins. In this study, SVM-based method achieved better sensitivity of 67% over Naïve Bayes (37.49% and Random Forest (55.66%. However the specificity of Naïve Bayes was the highest (99.52% as compared with SVM (74% and Random Forest (89.08%. Overall, the SVM and Random Forest achieved accuracy of 71% and 72.41%, respectively. The proposed SVM-based method was evaluated on blind dataset and attained a sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 83%, and accuracy of 74%. In addition, unknown potential targets of hepatitis B virus-human and hepatitis E virus-human PPIs have been predicted through proposed SVM model and validated by gene ontology enrichment analysis. Our proposed model shows that, hepatitis B virus "C protein" binds to membrane docking protein, while "X protein" and "P protein" interacts with cell-killing and metabolic process proteins, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed method can predict large scale interspecies viral-human PPIs. The nature and function of unknown viral proteins (HBV and HEV, interacting partners of host

  16. Effects of a blended learning module on self-reported learning performances in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2011-11-01

    This article is a report of a quasi-experimental study of the effects of blended modules on nursing students' learning of ethics course content. There is yet to be an empirically supported mix of strategies on which a working blended learning model can be built for nursing education. This was a two-group pretest and post-test quasi-experimental study in 2008 involving a total of 233 students. Two of the five clusters were designated the experimental group to experience a blended learning model, and the rest were designated the control group to be given classroom lectures only. The Case Analysis Attitude Scale, Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale, Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, and Metacognition Scale were used in pretests and post-tests for the students to rate their own performance. In this study, the experimental group did not register significantly higher mean scores on the Case Analysis Attitude Scale at post-test and higher mean ranks on the Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale, the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, and the Metacognition Scale at post-test than the control group. Moreover, the experimental group registered significant progress in the mean ranks on the Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale and the Metacognition Scale from pretest to post-test. No between-subjects effects of four scales at post-test were found. Newly developed course modules, be it blended learning or a combination of traditional and innovative components, should be tested repeatedly for effectiveness and popularity for the purpose of facilitating the ultimate creation of a most effective course module for nursing education. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Habitat amount modulates the effect of patch isolation on host-parasitoid interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie eCoudrain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.Habitat amount and patch isolation are important determinants of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We studied the separate and interactive effects of these two components of habitat fragmentation on host-parasitoid interactions in a replicated landscape-scale study. 2.We used trap-nesting solitary bees, wasps and their natural enemies as study system. We exposed trap nests in 30 tree patches in agricultural landscapes in northern Switzerland. Study sites were either (i adjacent to forest (adjacent, (ii distant from forest but connected through woody elements (connected or (iii distant from forest with no connecting woody elements (isolated. Independent of the three levels of isolation, the amount of woody habitat in the landscapes covered a gradient from 4 to 74%. 3.Host and parasitoid species richness increased with the amount of habitat in the landscape and was strongly reduced at isolated compared to adjacent and connected sites. Loss of host species richness was 21% at isolated compared to non-isolated sites, whereas parasitoid species richness decreased by 68%, indicating that the higher trophic level was more adversely affected by isolation. Most importantly, habitat amount and isolation had a pronounced interactive effect on parasitism: while isolation resulted in a strong decrease in parasitism in landscapes with low habitat amount, this effect was mitigated by high habitat amount. These interactive effects were consistent across the three years of the study. 4.The observed interplay between habitat amount and patch isolation may explain the often conflicting results in the habitat fragmentation literature and should be considered in future research on multitrophic communities and ecosystem functioning in fragmented landscapes.

  18. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Reminder: Bike safety – e-learning module still available!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The “Safe bike riding” e-learning module offered by the Safety Training Section of the HSE Unit is designed for anyone who uses a bike on the CERN site.   The course, which takes around 10 minutes to complete, can be accessed via the SIR application. It presents safety information, such as the road traffic rules, and practical advice, such as the appropriate safety equipment to wear and to have fitted to your bike. Regarding the rules, we would like to remind you that CERN's Safety Code A7 applies to cyclists as well as motorists.  The training module was created by the accident prevention service of the HSE Unit after it was noticed that the number of occupational accidents involving cyclists had been constantly increasing since 2008, with a rise from about 20 in 2009 to about 50 in 2013. Since its launch in September 2013, the course has been taken by more than 670 people. It can be completed at any time, in either English or French. The Safety T...

  20. Bacterial genotoxin functions as immune-modulator and promotes host survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Guidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial genotoxins are effectors that cause DNA damage in target cells. Many aspects of the biology of these toxins have been characterised in vitro, such as structure, cellular internalisation pathways and effects on the target cells. However, little is known about their function in vivo. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is a Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that causes typhoid fever, a debilitating disease infecting more than 20 million people every year. S. Typhi produce a genotoxin named typhoid toxin (TT, but its role in the contest of host infection is poorly characterized. The major obstacle in addressing this issue is that S. Typhi is exclusively a human pathogen. To overcome this limitation, we have used as model bacterium S. Typhimurium, and engineered it to produce endogenous levels of an active and inactive typhoid toxin, hereby named as TT (or genotoxic and cdtB (or control, respectively. To our surprise, infection with the genotoxin strain strongly suppressed intestinal inflammation, leading to a better survival of the host during the acute phase of infection, suggesting typhoid toxin may exert a protective role. The presence of a functional genotoxin was also associated with an increased frequency of asymptomatic carriers.

  1. Dietary Factors Modulate Colonic Tumorigenesis Through the Interaction of Gut Microbiota and Host Chloride Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Kang, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Lan; Zhou, Min; Chen, Meng-Ting; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Kai; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Zhu, Jun-Dong; Mi, Man-Tian

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, the association among diet, gut microbiota, and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established. Gut microbiota and associated metabolites, such as bile acids and butyrate, are now known to play a key role in CRC development. The aim of this study is to identify that the progression to CRC is influenced by cholic acid, sodium butyrate, a high-fat diet, or different dose of dihydromyricetin (DMY) interacted with gut microbiota. An AOM/DSS (azoxymethan/dextran sodium sulfate) model is established to study the gut microbiota compsition before and after tumor formation during colitis-induced tumorigenesis. All above dietary factors profoundly influence the composition of gut microbiota and host colonic tumorigenesis. In addition, mice with DMY-modified initial microbiota display different degrees of chemically induced tumorigenesis. Mechanism analysis reveals that gut microbiota-associated chloride channels participated in colon tumorigenesis. Gut microbiota changes occur in the hyperproliferative stage before tumor formation. Gut microbiota and host chloride channels, both of which are regulated by dietary factors, are associated with CRC development. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Tumor suppressor maspin as a modulator of host immune response to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijana H. Dzinic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promising clinical outcome, the primary challenge of the curative cancer immunotherapy is to overcome the dichotomy of the immune response: tumor-evoked immunostimulatory versus tumor-induced immunosuppressive. The goal needs to be two-fold, to re-establish sustainable antitumor-cancer immunity and to eliminate immunosuppression. The successful elimination of cancer cells by immunosurveillance requires the antigenic presentation of the tumor cells or tumor-associated antigens and the expression of immunostimulatory cytokines and chemokines by cancer and immune cells. Tumors are heterogeneous and as such, some of the tumor cells are thought to have stem cell characteristics that enable them to suppress or desensitize the host immunity due to acquired epigenetic changes. A central mechanism underlying tumor epigenetic instability is the increased histone deacetylase (HDAC-mediated repression of HDAC-target genes regulating homeostasis and differentiation. It was noted that pharmacological HDAC inhibitors are not effective in eliminating tumor cells partly because they may induce immunosuppression. We have shown that epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin, an ovalbumin-like non-inhibitory serine protease inhibitor, reprograms tumor cells toward better differentiated phenotypes by inhibiting HDAC1. Recently, we uncovered a novel function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination. In this review, we discuss the maspin and maspin/HDAC1 interplay in tumor biology and immunology. We propose that maspin based therapies may eradicate cancer.

  3. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: A descriptive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. Aims: To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Method: Two strategies were used. First,

  4. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  5. Instructional and Learning Modes in Math. Module CMM:006:02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexroat, Melvin E.

    This is the second module in a series on mathematics methods and materials for preservice elementary teachers. This module focuses on three instructional and learning modes: expository, guided discovery, and inquiry (pure discovery). Objectives for the module are listed, the prerequisites are stated, pre- and post-assessment standards are…

  6. Comparing the efficacy of multimedia modules with traditional textbooks for learning introductory physics content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Timothy; Gladding, Gary; Mestre, José P.; Brookes, David T.

    2009-02-01

    We compared the efficacy of multimedia learning modules with traditional textbooks for the first few topics of a calculus-based introductory electricity and magnetism course. Students were randomly assigned to three groups. One group received the multimedia learning module presentations, and the other two received the presentations via written text. All students were then tested on their learning immediately following the presentations as well as 2weeks later. The students receiving the multimedia learning modules performed significantly better on both tests than the students experiencing the text-based presentations.

  7. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    , liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism...... conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice using gene expression data and tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). We created a generic mouse metabolic reaction (MMR) GEM, reconstructed 28 tissue-specific GEMs based on proteomics data, and manually curated GEMs for small intestine, colon....... To validate our predictions, we measured the level of AAs and N-acetylated AAs in the hepatic portal vein of CONV-R and GF mice. Finally, we simulated the metabolic differences between the small intestine of the CONV-R and GF mice accounting for the content of the diet and relative gene expression differences...

  8. Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces predator aversion in rats through epigenetic modulation in the host medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Dass, Shantala Arundhati; Vyas, Ajai

    2014-12-01

    Male rats (Rattus novergicus) infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii relinquish their innate aversion to the cat odours. This behavioural change is postulated to increase transmission of the parasite to its definitive felid hosts. Here, we show that the Toxoplasma gondii infection institutes an epigenetic change in the DNA methylation of the arginine vasopressin promoter in the medial amygdala of male rats. Infected animals exhibit hypomethylation of arginine vasopressin promoter, leading to greater expression of this nonapeptide. The infection also results in the greater activation of the vasopressinergic neurons after exposure to the cat odour. Furthermore, we show that loss of fear in the infected animals can be rescued by the systemic hypermethylation and recapitulated by directed hypomethylation in the medial amygdala. These results demonstrate an epigenetic proximate mechanism underlying the extended phenotype in the Rattus novergicus-Toxoplasma gondii association. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Implicit learning modulates attention capture: evidence from an item-specific proportion congruency manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, David R.; Willoughby, Karen; Milliken, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has now shown that our explicit goals and intentions can, in large part, overcome the capture of visual attention by objects that differ from their surroundings in terms of size, shape, or color. Surprisingly however, there is little evidence for the role of implicit learning in mitigating capture effects despite the fact that such learning has been shown to strongly affect behavior in a host of other performance domains. Here, we employ a modified attention capture paradig...

  10. The Development Of Learning Sets And Research Methodology Module Using Problem Based Learning For Accounting Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Partono; Nurkhin, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the learning process is very important for every lecturer by implement innovative learning methods or media. The purpose of this study is to develop a research methodology learning instruction and module based of problem based learning for accounting education students. This research applied research and development design in the research methodology course in Economics Education (Accounting) Department, Faculty Of Economics, Semarang State University. Data analysis was used to test...

  11. Astrocyte Apoptosis and HIV Replication Are Modulated in Host Cells Coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Urquiza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. In immunosuppressed individuals, as it occurs in the coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the central nervous system may be affected. In this regard, reactivation of Chagas disease is severe and often lethal, and it accounts for meningoencephalitis. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the environment maintenance of healthy neurons; however, they can host HIV and T. cruzi. In this report, human astrocytes were infected in vitro with both genetically modified-pathogens to express alternative fluorophore. As evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, HIV and T. cruzi coexist in the same astrocyte, likely favoring reciprocal interactions. In this context, lower rates of cell death were observed in both T. cruzi monoinfected-astrocytes and HIV-T. cruzi coinfection in comparison with those infected only with HIV. The level of HIV replication is significantly diminished under T. cruzi coinfection, but without affecting the infectivity of the HIV progeny. This interference with viral replication appears to be related to the T. cruzi multiplication rate or its increased intracellular presence but does not require their intracellular cohabitation or infected cell-to-cell contact. Among several Th1/Th2/Th17 profile-related cytokines, only IL-6 was overexpressed in HIV-T. cruzi coinfection exhibiting its cytoprotective role. This study demonstrates that T. cruzi and HIV are able to coinfect astrocytes thus altering viral replication and apoptosis.

  12. Interactions between Gut Microbiota, Host Genetics and Diet Modulate the Predisposition to Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussar, Siegfried; Griffin, Nicholas W; Bezy, Olivier; Fujisaka, Shiho; Vienberg, Sara; Softic, Samir; Deng, Luxue; Bry, Lynn; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Kahn, C Ronald

    2015-09-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. To dissect these interactions, we utilized three commonly used inbred strains of mice-obesity/diabetes-prone C57Bl/6J mice, obesity/diabetes-resistant 129S1/SvImJ from Jackson Laboratory, and obesity-prone but diabetes-resistant 129S6/SvEvTac from Taconic-plus three derivative lines generated by breeding these strains in a new, common environment. Analysis of metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in all strains and their environmentally normalized derivatives revealed strong interactions between microbiota, diet, breeding site, and metabolic phenotype. Strain-dependent and strain-independent correlations were found between specific microbiota and phenotypes, some of which could be transferred to germ-free recipient animals by fecal transplantation. Environmental reprogramming of microbiota resulted in 129S6/SvEvTac becoming obesity resistant. Thus, development of obesity/metabolic syndrome is the result of interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics, and diet. In permissive genetic backgrounds, environmental reprograming of microbiota can ameliorate development of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The periplasmic enzyme, AnsB, of Shigella flexneri modulates bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya T George

    Full Text Available S. flexneri strains, most frequently linked with endemic outbreaks of shigellosis, invade the colonic and rectal epithelium of their host and cause severe tissue damage. Here we have attempted to elucidate the contribution of the periplasmic enzyme, L-asparaginase (AnsB to the pathogenesis of S. flexneri. Using a reverse genetic approach we found that ansB mutants showed reduced adherence to epithelial cells in vitro and attenuation in two in vivo models of shigellosis, the Caenorhabditis elegans and the murine pulmonary model. To investigate how AnsB affects bacterial adherence, we compared the proteomes of the ansB mutant with its wild type parental strain using two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and identified the outer membrane protein, OmpA as up-regulated in ansB mutant cells. Bacterial OmpA, is a prominent outer membrane protein whose activity has been found to be required for bacterial pathogenesis. Overexpression of OmpA in wild type S. flexneri serotype 3b resulted in decreasing the adherence of this virulent strain, suggesting that the up-regulation of OmpA in ansB mutants contributes to the reduced adherence of this mutant strain. The data presented here is the first report that links the metabolic enzyme AnsB to S. flexneri pathogenesis.

  14. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347067-10$15.00/0.

  15. MicroRNA-155 Modulates Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease by Impacting T Cell Expansion, Migration, and Effector Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzer, Nina C; Snyder, Katiri; Meng, Xiamoei; Taylor, Patricia A; Efebera, Yvonne A; Devine, Steven M; Blazar, Bruce R; Garzon, Ramiro; Ranganathan, Parvathi

    2018-06-15

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is a small noncoding RNA critical for the regulation of inflammation as well as innate and adaptive immune responses. MiR-155 has been shown to be dysregulated in both donor and recipient immune cells during acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). We previously reported that miR-155 is upregulated in donor T cells of mice and humans with aGVHD and that mice receiving miR-155-deficient (miR155 -/- ) splenocytes had markedly reduced aGVHD. However, molecular mechanisms by which miR-155 modulates T cell function in aGVHD have not been fully investigated. We identify that miR-155 expression in both donor CD8 + T cells and conventional CD4 + CD25 - T cells is pivotal for aGVHD pathogenesis. Using murine aGVHD transplant experiments, we show that miR-155 strongly impacts alloreactive T cell expansion through multiple distinct mechanisms, modulating proliferation in CD8 + donor T cells and promoting exhaustion in donor CD4 + T cells in both the spleen and colon. Additionally, miR-155 drives a proinflammatory Th1 phenotype in donor T cells in these two sites, and miR-155 -/- donor T cells are polarized toward an IL-4-producing Th2 phenotype. We further demonstrate that miR-155 expression in donor T cells regulates CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine-dependent migration. Notably, we show that miR-155 expression is crucial for donor T cell infiltration into multiple target organs. These findings provide further understanding of the role of miR-155 in modulating aGVHD through T cell expansion, effector cytokine production, and migration. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. OSI-027 modulates acute graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Chen, Wei; Liang, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ma, Tao; Xia, Xuefeng; Hu, Liqiang; Bai, Xueli; Liang, Tingbo

    2017-09-01

    Despite its rarity (1%-2%), acute graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation (LT-aGVHD) has a high mortality rate (85%). A gradual decrease in regulatory T cells (Tregs) correlates with disease progression in a rat LT-GVHD model, and treatments which increase Tregs exert therapeutic effects on LT-aGVHD. In this study, LT-aGVHD model rats were treated with rapamycin (RAPA), OSI-027, or an equal quantity of vehicle. Rats treated with OSI-027 survived longer (>100 days) than those in the RAPA (70 ± 8 days) or control (24 ± 3 days) groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the Treg ratios in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the OSI-027 group were higher than those in the RAPA or control groups. The proportions of donor-derived lymphocytes in the OSI-027 group were lower than those in the RAPA or control groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of skin tissue demonstrated less severe lymphocyte infiltration in the OSI-027 group than that in the RAPA or control groups. In vitro, OSI-027 induced differentiation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into CD4 + CD25 + forkhead box P3 + Tregs. Furthermore, injection of OSI-027-induced donor-derived CD4 + CD25 + T cells into the peripheral blood of LT-aGVHD model rats prevented LT-aGVHD. Thus, OSI-027 is implicated as a novel method for the treatment of LT-aGVHD. Liver Transplantation 23 1186-1198 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Koot, Hans M; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2014-01-01

    E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Two strategies were used. First, articles were systematically searched in databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Second, Google search was used to find e-learning modules on the Web. The literature search resulted in 448 papers, of which none met the inclusion criteria of this study. The Google search resulted in 130 hits, of which 23 met the inclusion criteria of this review. Organizations that owned the modules were contacted, of which 13 responded and nine were included in this study. The effectiveness of two e-learning modules is currently being tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), one organization is planning to test the effectiveness of their module, and one organization has compared their face-to-face training with their online training. Furthermore, the included modules have different characteristics. There is a need for RCTs to study the effectiveness of online modules in this area and to understand which characteristics are essential to create effective e-learning modules to educate gatekeepers in suicide prevention.

  18. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA: Multiple Functions in West Nile Virus Pathogenesis and Modulation of Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Roby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  19. Recipient Immune Modulation with Atorvastatin for Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanate, Abraham S; Hari, Parameswaran N; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Visotcky, Alexis; Ahn, Kwang W; Boyd, Jennifer; Guru Murthy, Guru Subramanian; Rizzo, J Douglas; Saber, Wael; Drobyski, William; Michaelis, Laura; Atallah, Ehab; Carlson, Karen S; D'Souza, Anita; Fenske, Timothy S; Cumpston, Aaron; Bunner, Pamela; Craig, Michael; Horowitz, Mary M; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Atorvastatin administration to both the donors and recipients of matched related donor (MRD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has been shown to be safe and effective. However, its efficacy as acute GVHD prophylaxis when given only to allo-HCT recipients is unknown. We conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin-based acute GVHD prophylaxis given only to the recipients of MRD (n = 30) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) (n = 39) allo-HCT, enrolled in 2 separate cohorts. Atorvastatin (40 mg/day) was administered along with standard GVHD prophylaxis consisting of tacrolimus and methotrexate. All patients were evaluable for acute GVHD. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV acute GVHD at day +100 in the MRD and MUD cohorts were 9.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0 to 20%) and 29.6% (95% CI,15.6% to 43.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of grade III and IV acute GVHD at day +100 in the MRD and MUD cohorts were 3.4% (95% CI, 0 to 9.7%) and 18.3% (95% CI, 6.3% to 30.4%), respectively. The corresponding rates of moderate/severe chronic GVHD at 1 year were 28.1% (95% CI, 11% to 45.2%) and 38.9% (95% CI, 20.9% to 57%), respectively. In the MRD cohort, the 1-year nonrelapse mortality, relapse rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 6.7% (95% CI, 0 to 15.4%), 43.3% (95% CI, 24.9% to 61.7%), 50% (95% CI, 32.1% to 67.9%), and 66.7% (95% CI, 49.8% to 83.6%), respectively. The respective figures for the MUD cohort were 10.3% (95% CI, 8% to 19.7%), 20.5% (95% CI, 7.9% to 33.1%), 69.2% (95% CI, 54.7% to 83.7%), and 79.5% (95% CI, 66.8% to 92.2%), respectively. No grade 4 toxicities attributable to atorvastatin were seen. In conclusion, the addition of atorvastatin to standard GVHD prophylaxis in only the recipients of MRD and MUD allo-HCT appears to be feasible and safe. The preliminary efficacy seen here warrants confirmation in

  20. Initial Assessments of E-learning modules in cytotechnology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari S Mukherjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nine E-learning modules (ELMs were developed in our program using Articulate software. This study assessed our cytotechnology (CT students' perceptions on the content of the ELMs, and the perceived influence of the ELMs on students' performance during clinical rotations. Subjects and Methods: All CT students watched nine ELMs before the related classroom lecture and group discussion. Following that, students completed nine preclinical rotation surveys. After their clinical rotations, students completed nine postclinical rotation surveys. Results: Statements on the content of the ELMs regarding the quality of the video and audio, duration, navigation, and the materials presented, received positive responses from the majority of the students. While there were a few disagreements and neutral responses, most of the students responded positively saying that the ELMs better prepared them for their role, as well as helped them to better perform their roles during the clinical rotation. The majority of the students recommended developing more EMLs for cytology courses in the future Conclusions: This study has given hope that the ELMs have potential to enhance our online curriculum and benefit students, within the United States and internationally, who have no easy access to cytology clinical laboratories for hands-on training.

  1. Initial Assessments of E-Learning Modules in Cytotechnology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Maheswari S; Donnelly, Amber D

    2018-01-01

    Nine E-learning modules (ELMs) were developed in our program using Articulate software. This study assessed our cytotechnology (CT) students' perceptions on the content of the ELMs, and the perceived influence of the ELMs on students' performance during clinical rotations. All CT students watched nine ELMs before the related classroom lecture and group discussion. Following that, students completed nine preclinical rotation surveys. After their clinical rotations, students completed nine postclinical rotation surveys. Statements on the content of the ELMs regarding the quality of the video and audio, duration, navigation, and the materials presented, received positive responses from the majority of the students. While there were a few disagreements and neutral responses, most of the students responded positively saying that the ELMs better prepared them for their role, as well as helped them to better perform their roles during the clinical rotation. The majority of the students recommended developing more EMLs for cytology courses in the future. This study has given hope that the ELMs have potential to enhance our online curriculum and benefit students, within the United States and internationally, who have no easy access to cytology clinical laboratories for hands-on training.

  2. Personalising e-learning modules: targeting Rasmussen levels using XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, J M; Leroy, S; Camus, H; Picavet, M; Beuscart, R

    2003-01-01

    The development of Internet technologies has made it possible to increase the number and the diversity of on-line resources for teachers and students. Initiatives like the French-speaking Virtual Medical University Project (UMVF) try to organise the access to these resources. But both teachers and students are working on a partly redundant subset of knowledge. From the analysis of some French courses we propose a model for knowledge organisation derived from Rasmussen's stepladder. In the context of decision-making Rasmussen has identified skill-based, rule-based and knowledge-based levels for the mental process. In the medical context of problem-solving, we apply these three levels to the definition of three students levels: beginners, intermediate-level learners, experts. Based on our model, we build a representation of the hierarchical structure of data using XML language. We use XSLT Transformation Language in order to filter relevant data according to student level and to propose an appropriate display on students' terminal. The model and the XML implementation we define help to design tools for building personalised e-learning modules.

  3. Sex differences in social modulation of learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosz, Marta; Nowak, Aleksandra; Werka, Tomasz; Knapska, Ewelina

    2015-12-14

    In its simplest form, empathy can be characterized as the capacity to share the emotional experiences among individuals, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. Recent research shows that emotional contagion and its adaptive role can be studied in rodents. However, it is not known whether sex differences observed in human empathy extend to its more primitive forms. In the present study, we used a rat model of emotional contagion to compare the behavioral consequences of social transfer of information about threat, and the subsequent neural activation patterns in male and female rats. We found that: (1) males and females display a similar behavioral pattern during the interaction with either a fear-conditioned or a control rat; (2) interaction with a fear-conditioned conspecific positively modulates two-way avoidance learning in male and diestral female rats but not in estral females; and (3) such interaction results in increased c-Fos expression in the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex in males, whereas in females no such changes were observed. Collectively, our results point to the occurrence of sex and estrus cycle phase differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and underlying neuronal activation in rodents.

  4. Borrelia host adaptation Regulator (BadR) regulates rpoS to modulate host adaptation and virulence factors in Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christine L.; Rajasekhar Karna, S. L.; Seshu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The RpoS transcription factor of Borrelia burgdorferi is a “gatekeeper” because it activates genes required for spirochetes to transition from tick to vertebrate hosts. However, it remains unknown how RpoS becomes repressed to allow the spirochetes to transition back from the vertebrate host to the tick vector. Here we show that a putative carbohydrate-responsive regulatory protein, designated BadR (Borrelia host adaptation Regulator), is a transcriptional repressor of rpoS. BadR levels are e...

  5. Material Matters for Learning in Virtual Networks: A Case Study of a Professional Learning Programme Hosted in a Google+ Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Aileen; Swinney, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on Actor-Network Theories (ANT) to explore how material components functioned to create gateways and barriers to a virtual learning network in the context of a professional development module in higher education. Students were practitioners engaged in family learning in different professional roles and contexts. The data…

  6. Infection of C57BL/6 mice by Trypanosoma musculi modulates host immune responses during Brucella abortus cocolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Jake E; Leonhardt, Jack A; Yao, Chaoqun; Belden, E Lee; Andrews, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, which results in fetal abortions in domestic and wildlife animal populations, is of major concern in the US and throughout much of the world. The disease, caused by Brucella abortus, poses an economic threat to agriculture-based communities. A moderately efficacious live attenuated vaccine (B. abortus strain RB51) exists. However, even with vaccine use, outbreaks occur. Evidence suggests that elk (Cervus canadensis), a wild host reservoir, are the source of recent outbreaks in domestic cattle herds in Wyoming, USA. Brucella abortus establishes a chronic, persistent infection in elk. The molecular mechanisms allowing the establishment of this persistent infective state are currently unknown. A potential mechanism could be that concurrent pathogen burdens contribute to persistence. In Wyoming, elk are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cervi, which may modulate host responses in a similar manner to that documented for other trypanosomes. To identify any synergistic relationship between the two pathogens, we simulated coinfection in the well-established murine brucellosis model using Trypanosoma musculi and B. abortus S19. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) were infected with either B. abortus strain 19 (S19) or T. musculi or both. Sera were collected weekly; spleens from euthanized mice were tested to determine bacterial load near the end of normal brucellosis infection. Although changes in bacterial load were observed during the later stages of brucellosis in those mice coinfected with T. musculi, the most significant finding was the suppression of gamma interferon early during the infection along with an increase in interleukin-10 secretion compared with mice infected with either pathogen alone. These results suggest that immune modulatory events occur in the mouse during coinfection and that further experiments are warranted to determine if T. cervi impacts Brucella infection in elk.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef protein modulates the lipid composition of virions and host cell membrane microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyer Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nef protein of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses optimizes viral spread in the infected host by manipulating cellular transport and signal transduction machineries. Nef also boosts the infectivity of HIV particles by an unknown mechanism. Recent studies suggested a correlation between the association of Nef with lipid raft microdomains and its positive effects on virion infectivity. Furthermore, the lipidome analysis of HIV-1 particles revealed a marked enrichment of classical raft lipids and thus identified HIV-1 virions as an example for naturally occurring membrane microdomains. Since Nef modulates the protein composition and function of membrane microdomains we tested here if Nef also has the propensity to alter microdomain lipid composition. Results Quantitative mass spectrometric lipidome analysis of highly purified HIV-1 particles revealed that the presence of Nef during virus production from T lymphocytes enforced their raft character via a significant reduction of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine species and a specific enrichment of sphingomyelin. In contrast, Nef did not significantly affect virion levels of phosphoglycerolipids or cholesterol. The observed alterations in virion lipid composition were insufficient to mediate Nef's effect on particle infectivity and Nef augmented virion infectivity independently of whether virus entry was targeted to or excluded from membrane microdomains. However, altered lipid compositions similar to those observed in virions were also detected in detergent-resistant membrane preparations of virus producing cells. Conclusion Nef alters not only the proteome but also the lipid composition of host cell microdomains. This novel activity represents a previously unrecognized mechanism by which Nef could manipulate HIV-1 target cells to facilitate virus propagation in vivo.

  8. 75 FR 13259 - NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn About the Proposed NOAA Climate Service AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  9. Evaluation of faciocutaneous clues to systemic diseases: A learning module for Chinese undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Introducing this additional learning module may offer an early opportunity to explore systemic diseases from a dermatological view and is likely to lay the foundations for interdisciplinary collaboration in the future practice for medical students.

  10. Developing Project Based Learning E-Module for the Course of Video Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Krisnayuni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the development of an electronic module for the course of video editing and analyzed the students’ response of the e-module. A waterfall model was adopted in the development process of the e-module that consisted of five stages namely (1 analysis; (2 design; (3 implementation; (4 evaluation; and (5 maintenance. The subjects of this study were the students of class XI at SMK Negeri 1 Sukasada. Project Based Learning was used as the basis of the e-module development as the most relevant learning model to meet the students’needs and the schools’ situation. The data of the students’ response about the e-module were collected through a questionnaire. The students’ response was very positive indicated by the mean score of 94,37. It was concluded that the developed e-modul was categorized as very good.

  11. Differential modulation of host genes in the kidney of brown trout Salmo trutta during sporogenesis of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-10-04

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. In Europe, spores of T. bryosalmonae develop in the kidney of infected brown trout Salmo trutta and are released via urine to infect the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana. The transcriptomes of kidneys of infected and non-infected brown trout were compared by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Differential screening and a subsequent NCBI BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags revealed 21 transcripts with functions that included cell stress and cell growth, ribonucleoprotein, signal transduction, ion transporter, immune response, hemoglobin and calcium metabolisms. Quantitative real time PCR was used to verify the presence of these selected transcripts in brown trout kidney at sporogonic stages of T. bryosalmonae development. Expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, prothymosin alpha, transforming protein RhoA, immunoglobulin light chain and major histocompatibility complex class I were up-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. Expression of both the hemoglobin subunit beta and stanniocalcin precursor were down-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. This study suggests that cell stress and cell growth processes, signal transduction activities, erythropoiesis and calcium homeostasis of the host are modulated during sporogonic stages of parasite development, which may support the sporogenesis of T. bryosalmonae in the kidney of brown trout.

  12. The modulation of the symbiont/host interaction between Wolbachia pipientis and Aedes fluviatilis embryos by glycogen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Rocha Fernandes

    Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally transmitted bacterium that colonizes arthropods, may affect the general aspects of insect physiology, particularly reproduction. Wolbachia is a natural endosymbiont of Aedes fluviatilis, whose effects in embryogenesis and reproduction have not been addressed so far. In this context, we investigated the correlation between glucose metabolism and morphological alterations during A. fluviatilis embryo development in Wolbachia-positive (W+ and Wolbachia-negative (W- mosquito strains. While both strains do not display significant morphological and larval hatching differences, larger differences were observed in hexokinase activity and glycogen contents during early and mid-stages of embryogenesis, respectively. To investigate if glycogen would be required for parasite-host interaction, we reduced Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3 levels in adult females and their eggs by RNAi. GSK-3 knock-down leads to embryonic lethality, lower levels of glycogen and total protein and Wolbachia reduction. Therefore, our results suggest that the relationship between A. fluviatilis and Wolbachia may be modulated by glycogen metabolism.

  13. Module Six: Parallel Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn the rules that govern the characteristics of parallel circuits; the relationships between voltage, current, resistance and power; and the results of common troubles in parallel circuits. The module is divided into four lessons: rules of voltage and current, rules for resistance and power, variational analysis,…

  14. Teaching materials on language endangerment, an interactive e-learning module on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odé, C.; de Graaf, T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, in the framework of the NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) Research Programme on Endangered Languages, an interactive e-learning module has been developed on language endangerment. The module for students in secondary schools (15-18 years of age) is available free of

  15. A Matlab/Simulink-Based Interactive Module for Servo Systems Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive module for learning both the fundamental and practical issues of servo systems. This module, developed using Simulink in conjunction with the Matlab graphical user interface (Matlab-GUI) tool, is used to supplement conventional lectures in control engineering and robotics subjects. First, the paper introduces the…

  16. Blended learning pedagogy designed for communication module among undergraduate nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Devi, M Kamala; Chen, Hui-Chen; Soong, Swee Kit Alan; Ang, Emily

    2018-02-01

    Effective communication is important for nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing students often feel unprepared to communicate effectively with patients and other healthcare workers within the clinical environment. Blended learning pedagogy-based communication skills training can provide an alternative to traditional methods of teaching to enhance students' satisfaction and self-efficacy levels in communicating with others. To examine the effectiveness of blended learning pedagogy in a redesigned communication module among nursing undergraduates in enhancing their satisfaction levels and attitudes towards learning communication module as well as self-efficacy in communication. A single group pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted. Data were collected from August 2016 to November 2016 from 124 nursing undergraduates from a leading nursing school. Blended learning pedagogy was adopted to redesign a communication module that offered a wide array of learning opportunities via face-to-face classroom and online sessions. Validated and reliable instruments were used to measure satisfaction levels with blended learning pedagogy, attitudes towards learning communication, and communication self-efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants had enhanced satisfaction levels with blended learning pedagogy, better attitudes in learning communication skills, and improved communication self-efficacies at posttest (week 13 of the semester) when compared with their pre-test scores (week one of the semester). Participants scored higher in the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, the Communication Skills Attitude Scale, and the communication skills subscale of the Nursing Students Self-Efficacy Scale. Blended learning pedagogy can be effectively used in facilitating communication modules and enhancing student outcomes among nursing undergraduates. The long-term effectiveness of using blended learning pedagogy in

  17. Hypertension module: an interactive learning tool in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işman, C A; Gülpinar, M A; Kurtel, H; Alican, I; Yeğen, B C

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the strong or weak aspects of an interactive study module introduced during the "Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Subject Committee" in the second year of the medical program. Five study groups consisting of 25 students attended two-hour module sessions for six weeks with the same tutor. According to the module assessment questionnaire, the majority of the students assessed the module as excellent or good. The students reported that they had gained not only in knowledge but also in skills development. The general opinion of the students was that both the organization and the implementation of the module met their expectations. Nearly one-half of the students reported that their expectations with regard to the educational environment and the participation of students were fully met. The major weakness in this new educational trial appears to be assessment of the module.

  18. Material matters for learning in virtual networks: a case study of a professional learning programme hosted in a Google+ online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Ackland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw on Actor–Network Theories (ANT to explore how material components functioned to create gateways and barriers to a virtual learning network in the context of a professional development module in higher education. Students were practitioners engaged in family learning in different professional roles and contexts. The data comprised postings in the Google+ community, email correspondence, meeting notes, feedback submitted at the final workshop and post-module evaluation forms. Our analysis revealed a complex set of interactions, and suggests multiple ways human actors story their encounters with non-human components and the effects these have on the learning experience. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more holistic understanding of the components and dynamics of social learning networks in the virtual world and consider the implications for the design of online learning for continuous professional development (CPD.

  19. Radio Galaxy Zoo: Machine learning for radio source host galaxy cross-identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, M. J.; Banfield, J. K.; Ong, C. S.; Rudnick, L.; Wong, O. I.; Wolf, C.; Andernach, H.; Norris, R. P.; Shabala, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of determining the host galaxies of radio sources by cross-identification. This has traditionally been done manually, which will be intractable for wide-area radio surveys like the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU). Automated cross-identification will be critical for these future surveys, and machine learning may provide the tools to develop such methods. We apply a standard approach from computer vision to cross-identification, introducing one possible way of automating this problem, and explore the pros and cons of this approach. We apply our method to the 1.4 GHz Australian Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the ESO Large Area ISO Survey South 1 (ELAIS-S1) fields by cross-identifying them with the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. We train our method with two sets of data: expert cross-identifications of CDFS from the initial ATLAS data release and crowdsourced cross-identifications of CDFS from Radio Galaxy Zoo. We found that a simple strategy of cross-identifying a radio component with the nearest galaxy performs comparably to our more complex methods, though our estimated best-case performance is near 100 per cent. ATLAS contains 87 complex radio sources that have been cross-identified by experts, so there are not enough complex examples to learn how to cross-identify them accurately. Much larger datasets are therefore required for training methods like ours. We also show that training our method on Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications gives comparable results to training on expert cross-identifications, demonstrating the value of crowdsourced training data.

  20. The design of the frame structure used in integral hosting of the nuclear island steel lining cylinder module and problems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinian; Liu Xiao; Wang Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The use of the steel frame in the integral hosting of nuclear island steel lining cylinder module made a breakthrough in China's nuclear power construction. The deformation of the cylinder wall is the key issue in the integral lifting process of the nuclear island steel lining. Using the frame in lifting large and thin steel cylinder, the form of frame structure and its deformation will directly affect the radial deformation of the lifted cylinder, the buckling deformation of the distal cylinder, and the cylinder's deformation surround the penetrations. The diameter of nuclear island steel liner is 44 meters. The wall of the cylinder is thin, and the total weight of the cylinder itself and its attached penetrations, walkways and lifting tools, etc. is up to 120 tons, which not only increase the difficulty of lifting, but also have some risks. To ensure the cylinder deformation within the limits, this thesis establishes the parameter structure for the lifting frame, calculates the displacement and analyzes the axial stresses, based on the ANSYS finite element analysis software. The results showed that the models and parameters for integral hosting of the steel lining cylinder modular frame structure is reasonable and feasible, and analyzing the hosting-frame data is necessary, which lay the foundation for the design of the hosting frame and the eventual implementation of the integral hosting scheme of the steel lining cylinder module. (authors)

  1. Module Ten: Transformers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…

  2. Development of an e-Learning Research Module Using Multimedia Instruction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Chan, Moon Fai; Tan, Sharon Swee Lin; Soong, Alan Swee Kit; Chan, Sally Wai Chi

    2017-03-01

    Students nowadays feel more comfortable with new technologies, which increase their motivation and, as a result, improve their academic performance. In the last two decades, the use of information communication technology has been increasing in many disciplines in higher education. Online learning or e-learning has been used and integrated into the curriculum around the world. A team of nursing faculty and educational technology specialists have developed an e-learning research module and integrate it into the nursing curriculum. The aim was to assist master of nursing and postgraduate nursing students in developing their research knowledge before and throughout their enrollment in the research course. This e-learning module includes interactive multimedia such as audiovisual presentation, graphical theme, animation, case-based learning, and pretest and posttest for each topic area. The module focuses on three main topic areas: (1) basic research principles (for review), (2) quantitative method, and (3) qualitative method. The e-learning module is an innovative use of the information and communication technology to enhance student engagement and learning outcomes in a local context. This article discusses the development journey, piloting process, including the variety of evaluation perspectives, and the ways in which the results influenced the e-learning resource before its wider distribution.

  3. Design and Implementation of a Mechatronics Learning Module in a Large First-Semester Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, R. T.; Zephirin, T.; Lohani, V. K.; Kachroo, P.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, the first-year engineering program at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, has been significantly restructured to include more hands-on learning. A major grant (2004-2009) under the department level reform (DLR) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF) facilitated this restructuring. A number of hands-on learning modules were developed…

  4. Learners perceptions of technology for design of a collaborative mLearning module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Dewitt, Saedah Siraj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysian schools the learning of science does not reflect the nature of science. An instructional module which could address the need for teaching science through a process of scientific discovery and collaboration is required. A developmental research approach with three phases was used to design a collaborative m-Learning module for a topic in s c i e n c e . I n t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f a n a l y s i s , a s u r v e y o f 1 5 8 s t u d e n t s ’ u s e o f t e c h n o l o g y a n d t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e u s e o f computers and mobile phones was completed. Data from the analysis phase indicated the students’ readiness in using online tools such as discussion forums and text messaging with mobiles for learning. Computers were perceived to be useful for learning, but mobile phones were not. The findings from the first phase were used to determine the learning tools to utilize in the design of the module in the second phase. The online learning tools used are wikis and discussion forums. In addition, text messaging using the mobile phone was also employed for individualized quizzes. The collaborative m-Learning module designed, was evaluated by experts for further improvements. The findings indicate that the experts agree that a collaborative Learning module with a variety of learning tools such as wikis, discussion forum and text messaging, could be used for teaching science. In addition, this module could also be used for teaching other subjects.

  5. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  6. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  7. Modulation and Apoptosis of Neutrophil Granulocytes by Extracorporeal Photopheresis in the Treatment of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Franklin

    Full Text Available Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD is a common side effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Especially skin, eyes and oral mucosa are affected. This can lead to pain and functional impairment. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP is an effective immunomodulatory therapy with minimal side effects but its mode of action is still largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of ECP on neutrophil granulocytes in patients with cGVHD. Analysis of leukocytes from cGVHD patients obtained from the ECP device during treatment showed that neutrophil granulocytes account for the majority of cells treated during ECP. Neutrophils from healthy donors treated in vitro with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as well as neutrophils from buffy coats of patients with cGVHD treated by ECP showed increased apoptosis and decreased half-life. In remaining non-apoptotic cells chemoirradiation resulted in loss of activation markers and reduced effector functions. This was accompanied by an increase in extracellular arginase-1 activity. Additional comparison of neutrophils isolated from blood of cGVHD patients before and 24h after ECP revealed a decreased half-life and reduction of effector functions of post-ECP neutrophils ex vivo. These observations strongly suggest that ECP induces both apoptosis and physiological changes in neutrophils and that these changes also take place in vivo. This study is the first to show that ECP modulates apoptosis and inflammatory activity in neutrophil granulocytes, indicating that neutrophils may significantly contribute to the overall immunomodulatory effects attributed to this treatment.

  8. Bacteria modulate the CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire of host cytosol-exposed proteins to manipulate the host immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Maman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main adaptive immune response to bacteria is mediated by B cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, some bacterial proteins reach the cytosol of host cells and are exposed to the host CD8+ T-cells response. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria can translocate proteins to the cytosol through type III and IV secretion and ESX-1 systems, respectively. The translocated proteins are often essential for the bacterium survival. Once injected, these proteins can be degraded and presented on MHC-I molecules to CD8+ T-cells. The CD8+ T-cells, in turn, can induce cell death and destroy the bacteria's habitat. In viruses, escape mutations arise to avoid this detection. The accumulation of escape mutations in bacteria has never been systematically studied. We show for the first time that such mutations are systematically present in most bacteria tested. We combine multiple bioinformatic algorithms to compute CD8+ T-cell epitope libraries of bacteria with secretion systems that translocate proteins to the host cytosol. In all bacteria tested, proteins not translocated to the cytosol show no escape mutations in their CD8+ T-cell epitopes. However, proteins translocated to the cytosol show clear escape mutations and have low epitope densities for most tested HLA alleles. The low epitope densities suggest that bacteria, like viruses, are evolutionarily selected to ensure their survival in the presence of CD8+ T-cells. In contrast with most other translocated proteins examined, Pseudomonas aeruginosa's ExoU, which ultimately induces host cell death, was found to have high epitope density. This finding suggests a novel mechanism for the manipulation of CD8+ T-cells by pathogens. The ExoU effector may have evolved to maintain high epitope density enabling it to efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell mediated cell death. These results were tested using multiple epitope prediction algorithms, and were found to be consistent for most proteins tested.

  9. Learning and Visualizing Modulation Discriminative Radio Signal Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    method may be successfully applied to pre-trained models with neg- ligible impact on classification performance on an automated modulation...to as a Stacked What -Where Autoencoder (SWWAE). In an SWWAE, the encoder is composed of convolutions and max-pooling operations, and the de- coder is...work automated modulation classification (AMC) models tend to over-predict GMSK and OFDM at low SNR at the expense of other categories. Intuitively

  10. Strategies to Mitigate the Negative and Accentuate the Positive Impacts of International Service-Learning on Host Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Galiardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International service-learning can have a transformative effect on student participants, but little research has been done on the impact of these experiences on host communities. The authors make the case that an emphasis on intentional personal, cultural, and group preparation is imperative to have the best possible impact on both the student and host community. Overarching strategies include: 1 preparing students for their experience prior to departure from both an individual and group development perspective; 2 designing reflection activities and discussions that include members of the host community; 3 facilitating open conversations about equitable relationships, international perspectives of Americans, and potential negative effects the group could have on the host community; 4 providing opportunities for post-travel dialogue and personal action plans for re-engaging with the local community upon return. The authors draw from both theoretical frameworks and many years of experience traveling abroad with students to underpin the strategies outlined in this article. KEYWORDSservice-learning; group development; international

  11. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  12. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  13. Evaluating Self-directed Learning Skills in SALC Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Noguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of the last contributions to the column which followed the self-directed learning curriculum renewal project being conducted at Kanda University of International Studies in Japan. Junko Noguchi unpacks the complicated issue of assessing self-directed learning.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis controls microRNA-99b (miR-99b) expression in infected murine dendritic cells to modulate host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Kaul, Vandana; Mehra, Alka; Chatterjee, Samit; Tousif, Sultan; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2013-02-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides and replicates within host phagocytes by modulating host microbicidal responses. In addition, it suppresses the production of host protective cytokines to prevent activation of and antigen presentation by M. tuberculosis-infected cells, causing dysregulation of host protective adaptive immune responses. Many cytokines are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), a newly discovered class of small noncoding RNAs, which have been implicated in modulating host immune responses in many bacterial and viral diseases. Here, we show that miRNA-99b (miR-99b), an orphan miRNA, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection. We found that miR-99b expression was highly up-regulated in M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv-infected dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Blockade of miR-99b expression by antagomirs resulted in significantly reduced bacterial growth in DCs. Interestingly, knockdown of miR-99b in DCs significantly up-regulated proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. Furthermore, mRNA and membrane-bound protein data indicated that inhibition of miR-99b augments TNF-α and TNFRSF-4 production. Thus, miR-99b targets TNF-α and TNFRSF-4 receptor genes. Treatment of anti-miR-99b-transfected DCs with anti-TNF-α antibody resulted in increased bacterial burden. Thus, our findings unveil a novel host evasion mechanism adopted by M. tuberculosis via miR-99b, which may open up new avenues for designing miRNA-based vaccines and therapies.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Controls MicroRNA-99b (miR-99b) Expression in Infected Murine Dendritic Cells to Modulate Host Immunity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Kaul, Vandana; Mehra, Alka; Chatterjee, Samit; Tousif, Sultan; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R.; Das, Gobardhan

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides and replicates within host phagocytes by modulating host microbicidal responses. In addition, it suppresses the production of host protective cytokines to prevent activation of and antigen presentation by M. tuberculosis-infected cells, causing dysregulation of host protective adaptive immune responses. Many cytokines are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), a newly discovered class of small noncoding RNAs, which have been implicated in modulating host immune responses in many bacterial and viral diseases. Here, we show that miRNA-99b (miR-99b), an orphan miRNA, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection. We found that miR-99b expression was highly up-regulated in M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv-infected dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Blockade of miR-99b expression by antagomirs resulted in significantly reduced bacterial growth in DCs. Interestingly, knockdown of miR-99b in DCs significantly up-regulated proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. Furthermore, mRNA and membrane-bound protein data indicated that inhibition of miR-99b augments TNF-α and TNFRSF-4 production. Thus, miR-99b targets TNF-α and TNFRSF-4 receptor genes. Treatment of anti-miR-99b-transfected DCs with anti-TNF-α antibody resulted in increased bacterial burden. Thus, our findings unveil a novel host evasion mechanism adopted by M. tuberculosis via miR-99b, which may open up new avenues for designing miRNA-based vaccines and therapies. PMID:23233675

  16. The Role of L-type Calcium Channels in Olfactory Learning and Its Modulation by Norepinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba Ghosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L type calcium channels (LTCCs are prevalent in different systems and hold immense importance for maintaining/performing selective functions. In the nervous system, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 are emerging as critical modulators of neuronal functions. Although the general role of these calcium channels in modulating synaptic plasticity and memory has been explored, their role in olfactory learning is not well understood. In this review article we first discuss the role of LTCCs in olfactory learning especially focusing on early odor preference learning in neonate rodents, presenting evidence that while NMDARs initiate stimulus-specific learning, LTCCs promote protein-synthesis dependent long-term memory (LTM. Norepinephrine (NE release from the locus coeruleus (LC is essential for early olfactory learning, thus noradrenergic modulation of LTCC function and its implication in olfactory learning is discussed here. We then address the differential roles of LTCCs in adult learning and learning in aged animals.

  17. Social Cognition as Reinforcement Learning: Feedback Modulates Emotion Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil; Kallman, Seth; Wimmer, G Elliott; Ochsner, Kevin; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-09-01

    Neuroscientific studies of social cognition typically employ paradigms in which perceivers draw single-shot inferences about the internal states of strangers. Real-world social inference features much different parameters: People often encounter and learn about particular social targets (e.g., friends) over time and receive feedback about whether their inferences are correct or incorrect. Here, we examined this process and, more broadly, the intersection between social cognition and reinforcement learning. Perceivers were scanned using fMRI while repeatedly encountering three social targets who produced conflicting visual and verbal emotional cues. Perceivers guessed how targets felt and received feedback about whether they had guessed correctly. Visual cues reliably predicted one target's emotion, verbal cues predicted a second target's emotion, and neither reliably predicted the third target's emotion. Perceivers successfully used this information to update their judgments over time. Furthermore, trial-by-trial learning signals-estimated using two reinforcement learning models-tracked activity in ventral striatum and ventromedial pFC, structures associated with reinforcement learning, and regions associated with updating social impressions, including TPJ. These data suggest that learning about others' emotions, like other forms of feedback learning, relies on domain-general reinforcement mechanisms as well as domain-specific social information processing.

  18. Student-Centered Modules to Support Active Learning in Hydrology: Development Experiences and Users' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Habib, E. H.; Deshotel, M.; Merck, M. F.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to undergraduate hydrology and water resource education are textbook based, adopt unit processes and rely on idealized examples of specific applications, rather than examining the contextual relations in the processes and the dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. The overarching goal of this project is to address the needed paradigm shift in undergraduate education of engineering hydrology and water resources education to reflect parallel advances in hydrologic research and technology, mainly in the areas of new observational settings, data and modeling resources and web-based technologies. This study presents efforts to develop a set of learning modules that are case-based, data and simulation driven and delivered via a web user interface. The modules are based on real-world case studies from three regional hydrologic settings: Coastal Louisiana, Utah Rocky Mountains and Florida Everglades. These three systems provide unique learning opportunities on topics such as: regional-scale budget analysis, hydrologic effects of human and natural changes, flashflood protection, climate-hydrology teleconnections and water resource management scenarios. The technical design and contents of the modules aim to support students' ability for transforming their learning outcomes and skills to hydrologic systems other than those used by the specific activity. To promote active learning, the modules take students through a set of highly engaging learning activities that are based on analysis of hydrologic data and model simulations. The modules include user support in the form of feedback and self-assessment mechanisms that are integrated within the online modules. Module effectiveness is assessed through an improvement-focused evaluation model using a mixed-method research approach guiding collection and analysis of evaluation data. Both qualitative and quantitative data are collected through student learning data, product analysis, and staff interviews

  19. Differential modulation by Akkermansia muciniphila and faecalibacterium prausnitzii of host peripheral lipid metabolism and histone acetylation in mouse gut organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovac, S.; Belzer, C.; Pellis, L.; Keijser, B.J.; Vos, W.M. de; Montijn, R.C.; Roeselers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for numerous aspects of human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of many host-microbiota interactions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of the microbiota on host epithelium using a novel ex vivo model based on mouse ileal

  20. systemic approaches to teaching and learning a module of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    In this article, we introduce the application of SATL in the subject of medical biochemistry. ... The factors that affect the selection of teaching and learning methods. • On the ... assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.

  1. Building an open academic environment - a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through 'Shadow Modules'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan L; Moxham, Bernard J; Rutherford, Stephen M

    2014-03-01

    Teaching and learning in anatomy is undertaken by a variety of methodologies, yet all of these pedagogies benefit from students discussing and reflecting upon their learning activities. An approach of particular potency is peer-mediated learning, through either peer-teaching or collaborative peer-learning. Collaborative, peer-mediated, learning activities help promote deep learning approaches and foster communities of practice in learning. Students generally flourish in collaborative learning settings but there are limitations to the benefits of collaborative learning undertaken solely within the confines of modular curricula. We describe the development of peer-mediated learning through student-focused and student-led study groups we have termed 'Shadow Modules'. The 'Shadow Module' takes place parallel to the formal academically taught module and facilitates collaboration between students to support their learning for that module. In 'Shadow Module' activities, students collaborate towards curating existing online open resources as well as developing learning resources of their own to support their study. Through the use of communication technologies and Web 2.0 tools these resources are able to be shared with their peers, thus enhancing the learning experience of all students following the module. The Shadow Module activities have the potential to lead to participants feeling a greater sense of engagement with the subject material, as well as improving their study and group-working skills and developing digital literacy. The outputs from Shadow Module collaborative work are open-source and may be utilised by subsequent student cohorts, thus building up a repository of learning resources designed by and for students. Shadow Module activities would benefit all pedagogies in the study of anatomy, and support students moving from being passive consumers to active participants in learning. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  2. N-Terminomics TAILS Identifies Host Cell Substrates of Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus B3 3C Proteinases That Modulate Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdeo, Julienne M.; Dufour, Antoine; Klein, Theo; Solis, Nestor; Kleifeld, Oded; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran; Luo, Honglin; Overall, Christopher M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteroviruses encode proteinases that are essential for processing of the translated viral polyprotein. In addition, viral proteinases also target host proteins to manipulate cellular processes and evade innate antiviral responses to promote replication and infection. Although some host protein substrates of enterovirus proteinases have been identified, the full repertoire of targets remains unknown. We used a novel quantitative in vitro proteomics-based approach, termed terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS), to identify with high confidence 72 and 34 new host protein targets of poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases (3Cpros) in HeLa cell and cardiomyocyte HL-1 cell lysates, respectively. We validated a subset of candidate substrates that are targets of poliovirus 3Cpro in vitro including three common protein targets, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (PFAS), hnRNP K, and hnRNP M, of both proteinases. 3Cpro-targeted substrates were also cleaved in virus-infected cells but not noncleavable mutant proteins designed from the TAILS-identified cleavage sites. Knockdown of TAILS-identified target proteins modulated infection both negatively and positively, suggesting that cleavage by 3Cpro promotes infection. Indeed, expression of a cleavage-resistant mutant form of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi vesicle-tethering protein p115 decreased viral replication and yield. As the first comprehensive study to identify and validate functional enterovirus 3Cpro substrates in vivo, we conclude that N-terminomics by TAILS is an effective strategy to identify host targets of viral proteinases in a nonbiased manner. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that encode proteases that cleave the viral polyprotein into the individual mature viral proteins. In addition, viral proteases target host proteins in order to modulate cellular pathways and block antiviral responses in order to facilitate virus infection

  3. Evaluation of a Team Project Based Learning Module for Developing Employability Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Whatley

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study, in which a new module, aimed at enhancing students’ employ-ability skills, is evaluated. Employability skills for graduates from higher education are regarded as essential outcomes from their degree programmes, but it can be difficult to provide appropriate opportunities to develop these skills in the context of their studies. This paper describes a new module, called Live Projects, designed to provide project based learning on campus, but involv-ing local bu...

  4. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alseddiqi, M; Mishra, R; Pislaru, C

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  5. Evolution of interprofessional learning: Dalhousie University's "From Family Violence to Health" module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Grace M; Ryding, Helen A; Campbell, Lindsay M

    2003-11-01

    At Dalhousie University, interprofessional (IP) learning modules are used to help future health care professionals learn to work together in resolving complex problems. One module, "From Family Violence to Health," features the role of dental professionals. This paper describes the evolution of this module from the year 2000. By February 2003, 1,182 students from 15 health care professions had completed the module. Qualitative evaluation in years 1 and 2 of the program (2000 and 2001) revealed that, before participating in the IP module, many students were able to identify a role for themselves in the recognition of family violence and knew their responsibility to report incidents. However, after participating in the module, they had a greater understanding of the reporting of family violence, a more comprehensive and supportive perspective, increased recognition of how health care professionals could work together and improved awareness of the roles of other professions. In a quantitative evaluation in year 3 (2002), mean student ratings on a scale of 1 to 5 indicated that the IP module was relevant (4.2), increased their understanding of family violence (4.0), and had some impact in promoting IP learning (3.8). As health care delivery becomes more focused on care teams and system thinking, the provision of IP training is expected to increase. The Dalhousie University IP modules (available at http://www.dal.ca/~fhp/ipl/index.html) address health and social problems for which it is critical that health care and other professionals work together. Feedback from practitioners on the development of IP education is welcomed, particularly with regard to the IP module addressing family violence.

  6. mGluR5 Positive Allosteric Modulation Enhances Extinction Learning Following Cocaine Self-Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Cleva, Richard M.; Hicks, Megan P.; Gass, Justin T.; Wischerath, Kelly C.; Plasters, Elizabeth T.; Widholm, John J.; Olive, M. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of classically and instrumentally conditioned behaviors, such as conditioned fear and drug-seeking behavior, is a process of active learning, and recent studies indicate that potentiation of glutamatergic transmission facilitates extinction learning. In this study we investigated the effects of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) positive allosteric modulator 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) on the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior in ...

  7. Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...

  8. Ficolins Promote Fungal Clearance in vivo and Modulate the Inflammatory Cytokine Response in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, N; Cramer, E Præstekjær; Rosbjerg, A

    2016-01-01

    the lectin pathway of complement. Previous in vitro studies reported that ficolins bind to A. fumigatus, but their part in host defense against fungal infections in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used ficolin-deficient mice to investigate the role of ficolins during lung infection with A. fumigatus......-mediated complement activation in ficolin knockout mice and wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ficolins are important in initial innate host defense against A. fumigatus infections in vivo....

  9. Attentional Modulation in Visual Cortex Is Modified during Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Marco; Smith, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practicing a visual task commonly results in improved performance. Often the improvement does not transfer well to a new retinal location, suggesting that it is mediated by changes occurring in early visual cortex, and indeed neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies both demonstrate that perceptual learning is associated with altered activity…

  10. Module for Learning Integral Calculus with Maple: Lecturers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2012-01-01

    Engineering technology students can attain a meaningful mathematics learning if they are allowed to actively participate in hands-on activities. However, the current dissemination of knowledge in the classroom still focuses on teacher-centered paradigm of teaching. A study to explore lecturers' views regarding a newly developed integral calculus…

  11. A learning progression based teaching module on the causes of seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galano, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report about designing and validating a teaching learning module based on a learning progression and focused on the causes of seasons. An initial learning progression about the Celestial Motion big idea —causes of seasons, lunar and solar eclipse and Moon phases— was developed and validated. Existing curricula, research studies on alternative conceptions about these phenomena, and students’ answers to an open questionnaire were the starting point to develop initial learning progressions; then, a two-tier multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to validate and improve it. The questionnaire was submitted to about 300 secondary-school students whose answers were used to revise the hypothesized learning progressions. This improved version of the learning progression was used to design a module focused on the causes of seasons in which students were engaged in quantitative measurements with a photovoltaic panel to explain changes of the Sun rays’ flow on the Earth’s surface over the year. The efficacy of our module in improving students’ understanding of the phenomenon of the seasons was tested using our questionnaire as pre- and post-test.

  12. A Learning Module for BA Students to Develop ICT Skills for their Learning Activities | Un module de formation visant le développement des compétences TICE chez les étudiants en baccalauréat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Platteaux

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or ECC, which was in charge of techno-pedagogical development at the institution, created a hybrid learning module that offered students learning materials and activities with both face-to-face workshops and online tutorials for autonomous learning. The students were able to choose subjects they wanted to learn "à la carte" by taking tutorials on their own and/or by participating in face-to-face workshops. The module described in this case is currently under construction. The design phase of this project is the focus of this case study.

  13. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  14. The Iterative Development and Use of an Online Problem-Based Learning Module for Preservice and Inservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter; Camposeco, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Teachers' problem-based learning knowledge, abilities, and attitudes are important factors in successful K--12 PBL implementations. This article describes the development and use of a free, online module entitled "Design a Problem-Based Learning Experience." The module production, aligned with theories of andragogy, was a partnership…

  15. Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentiv...

  16. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  17. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  18. What Factors Promote Student Resilience on a Level 1 Distance Learning Module?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Joan; Beaumont, Kythe; Holland, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    Resilience is understood to be the ability to adapt positively in the face of adversity. In relation to new students on a distance learning module, this can mean how they adapt and make sense of the demands of their chosen study to enable them to persist in their studies. This article reports a small-scale study involving semi-structured telephone…

  19. Potentiating mGluR5 Function with a Positive Allosteric Modulator Enhances Adaptive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J.; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5…

  20. Memory Consolidation within the Central Amygdala Is Not Necessary for Modulation of Cerebellar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Adam B.; Ng, Ka H.; Freeman, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested…

  1. "Scaffolding" of Action Learning within a Part-Time Management Development Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesbury, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This Account of Practice describes the introduction and development of action learning within a level 5 module of "Communications at Work" delivered as part of a Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) Professional Certificate in Management (CMS) between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. This will commence with a personal narrative and…

  2. Efficacy of Multimedia Learning Modules as Preparation for Lecture-Based Tutorials in Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the efficacy of on-line, multimedia learning modules (MLMs) as preparation for in-class, lecture-based tutorials in electromagnetism in a physics course for natural science majors (biology and marine science). Specifically, we report the results of a multiple-group pre/post-test research design comparing two groups receiving…

  3. Effects of Web-Based Interactive Modules on Engineering Students' Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haiyan; Aman, Amjad; Xu, Yunjun; Orlovskaya, Nina; Zhou, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of a newly developed modules, Interactive Web-Based Visualization Tools for Gluing Undergraduate Fuel Cell Systems Courses system (IGLU), on learning motivations of engineering students using two samples (n[subscript 1] = 144 and n[subscript 2] = 135) from senior engineering classes. The…

  4. Using Multimedia Learning Modules in a Hybrid-Online Course in Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2011-01-01

    We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a "prelecture assignment" in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results…

  5. Stress Modulates the Use of Spatial versus Stimulus-Response Learning Strategies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippsen, Christine; Richter, Steffen; Bohringer, Andreas; Wippich, Werner; Schachinger, Hartmut; Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S.

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies provided evidence that stress modulates multiple memory systems, favoring caudate nucleus-based "habit" memory over hippocampus-based "cognitive" memory. However, effects of stress on learning strategy and memory consolidation were not differentiated. We specifically address the effects of psychosocial stress on the applied learning…

  6. A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach to understand how effector genes extend beyond phytoplasma to modulate plant hosts, insect vectors and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Melissa; Kliot, Adi; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2018-03-13

    Members of the Candidatus genus Phytoplasma are small bacterial pathogens that hijack their plant hosts via the secretion of virulence proteins (effectors) leading to a fascinating array of plant phenotypes, such as witch's brooms (stem proliferations) and phyllody (retrograde development of flowers into vegetative tissues). Phytoplasma depend on insect vectors for transmission, and interestingly, these insect vectors were found to be (in)directly attracted to plants with these phenotypes. Therefore, phytoplasma effectors appear to reprogram plant development and defence to lure insect vectors, similarly to social engineering malware, which employs tricks to lure people to infected computers and webpages. A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach will enable a better understanding of how phytoplasma effector-mediated modulations of plant host development and insect vector behaviour contribute to phytoplasma spread, and ultimately to predict the long reach of phytoplasma effector genes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Development of active learning modules in pharmacology for small group teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Raakhi K; Sarkate, Pankaj V; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila V; Rege, Nirmala N

    2015-01-01

    Current teaching in pharmacology in undergraduate medical curriculum in India is primarily drug centered and stresses imparting factual knowledge rather than on pharmacotherapeutic skills. These skills would be better developed through active learning by the students. Hence modules that will encourage active learning were developed and compared with traditional methods within the Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai. After Institutional Review Board approval, 90 second year undergraduate medical students who consented were randomized into six sub-groups, each with 15 students. Pre-test was administered. The three sub-groups were taught a topic using active learning modules (active learning groups), which included problems on case scenarios, critical appraisal of prescriptions and drug identification. The remaining three sub-groups were taught the same topic in a conventional tutorial mode (tutorial learning groups). There was crossover for the second topic. Performance was assessed using post-test. Questionnaires with Likert-scaled items were used to assess feedback on teaching technique, student interaction and group dynamics. The active and tutorial learning groups differed significantly in their post-test scores (11.3 ± 1.9 and 15.9 ± 2.7, respectively, P active learning session as interactive (vs. 37/90 students in tutorial group) and enhanced their understanding vs. 56/90 in tutorial group), aroused intellectual curiosity (47/90 students of active learning group vs. 30/90 in tutorial group) and provoked self-learning (41/90 active learning group vs. 14/90 in tutorial group). Sixty-four students in the active learning group felt that questioning each other helped in understanding the topic, which was the experience of 25/90 students in tutorial group. Nevertheless, students (55/90) preferred tutorial mode of learning to help them score better in their examinations. In this study, students preferred an active learning environment, though to pass examinations, they

  8. Experimental Learning of Digital Power Controller for Photovoltaic Module Using Proteus VSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit V. Padgavhankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric power supplied by photovoltaic module depends on light intensity and temperature. It is necessary to control the operating point to draw the maximum power of photovoltaic module. This paper presents the design and implementation of digital power converters using Proteus software. Its aim is to enhance student’s learning for virtual system modeling and to simulate in software for PIC microcontroller along with the hardware design. The buck and boost converters are designed to interface with the renewable energy source that is PV module. PIC microcontroller is used as a digital controller, which senses the PV electric signal for maximum power using sensors and output voltage of the dc-dc converter and according to that switching pulse is generated for the switching of MOSFET. The implementation of proposed system is based on learning platform of Proteus virtual system modeling (VSM and the experimental results are presented.

  9. A Blended Learning Module in Statistics for Computer Science and Engineering Students Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andersson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a statistics course for undergraduate computer science students can be very challenging: As statistics teachers we are usually faced with problems ranging from a complete disinterest in the subject to lack of basic knowledge in mathematics and anxiety for failing the exam, since statistics has the reputation of having high failure rates. In our case, we additionally struggle with difficulties in the timing of the lectures as well as often occurring absence of the students due to spare-time jobs or a long traveling time to the university. This paper reveals how these issues can be addressed by the introduction of a blended learning module in statistics. In the following, we describe an e-learning development process used to implement time- and location-independent learning in statistics. The study focuses on a six-step-approach for developing the blended learning module. In addition, the teaching framework for the blended module is presented, including suggestions for increasing the interest in learning the course. Furthermore, the first experimental in-class usage, including evaluation of the students’ expectations, has been completed and the outcome is discussed.

  10. EkSTEMiT Learning Module and Inculcation of Inventive Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaslinda Abdul Samad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The young generation of today must be prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to compete globally thus boosting economic growth and prosperity. Therefore, students should not only be equipped with knowledge but they are in need of the “21st century skills”, which is the top priority and one of the main education agenda goals today. As one of the domains in the 21st century skills, inventive thinking includes elements of flexibility, self-regulation, curiosity, creativity, risk taking, higher order thinking and reasoning. In order to inculcate inventive thinking for students, the EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed for the topic Electrochemistry; one of the most difficult topics to learn among students. EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed based on the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics integrated model. Thus, this paper will discuss the conceptual framework underlying the development of EkSTEMiT Learning Module with descriptions of learning activities designed for Electrochemistry.

  11. Neural correlates of contextual cueing are modulated by explicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Miller, Brennan B; Reber, Paul J; Cohen, Neal J; Paller, Ken A

    2011-10-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be impaired following damage to the medial temporal lobe. Here we investigated neural correlates of contextual cueing and explicit scene memory in two participant groups. Only one group was explicitly instructed about scene repetition. Participants viewed a sequence of complex scenes that depicted a landscape with five abstract geometric objects. Superimposed on each object was a letter T or L rotated left or right by 90°. Participants responded according to the target letter (T) orientation. Responses were highly accurate for all scenes. Response speeds were faster for repeated versus novel scenes. The magnitude of this contextual cueing did not differ between the two groups. Also, in both groups repeated scenes yielded reduced hemodynamic activation compared with novel scenes in several regions involved in visual perception and attention, and reductions in some of these areas were correlated with response-time facilitation. In the group given instructions about scene repetition, recognition memory for scenes was superior and was accompanied by medial temporal and more anterior activation. Thus, strategic factors can promote explicit memorization of visual scene information, which appears to engage additional neural processing beyond what is required for implicit learning of object configurations and target locations in a scene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning related modulation of functional retrieval networks in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, K M; Sandblom, J; Gisselgård, J; Ingvar, M

    2001-07-01

    The medial temporal lobe has been implicated in studies of episodic memory tasks involving spatio-temporal context and object-location conjunctions. We have previously demonstrated that an increased level of practice in a free-recall task parallels a decrease in the functional activity of several brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe, the prefrontal, the anterior cingulate, the anterior insular, and the posterior parietal cortices, that in concert demonstrate a move from elaborate controlled processing towards a higher degree of automaticity. Here we report data from two experiments that extend these initial observations. We used a similar experimental approach but probed for effects of retrieval paradigms and stimulus material. In the first experiment we investigated practice related changes during recognition of object-location conjunctions and in the second during free-recall of pseudo-words. Learning in a neural network is a dynamic consequence of information processing and network plasticity. The present and previous PET results indicate that practice can induce a learning related functional restructuring of information processing. Different adaptive processes likely subserve the functional re-organisation observed. These may in part be related to different demands for attentional and working memory processing. It appears that the role(s) of the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe in memory retrieval are complex, perhaps reflecting several different interacting processes or cognitive components. We suggest that an integrative interactive perspective on the role of the prefrontal and medial temporal lobe is necessary for an understanding of the processing significance of these regions in learning and memory. It appears necessary to develop elaborated and explicit computational models for prefrontal and medial temporal functions in order to derive detailed empirical predictions, and in combination with an efficient use and development of

  13. Design of environmental education module towards the needs of aboriginal community learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasman, Siti Mariam; Yasin, Ruhizan Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    Non-formal education (NFE) refers to a program that is designed for personal and social education for learners to improve the level of skills and competencies outside formal educational curriculum. Issues related to geography and environment of different Aboriginal communities with other communities play an important role in determining the types and methods that should be made available to the minority community groups. Thus, this concept paper is intended to cater for educational environment through the design and development of learning modules based on non-formal education to the learning of Aboriginal community. Methods and techniques in the design and construction of the modules is based on the Design and Development Research (DDR) that was based on instructional design model of Morrison, Kemp and Ross which is more flexible and prioritizes the needs and characteristics of learners who were involved in the learning modules of the future. The discussion is related to the module development which is suitable to the learning needs of the community and there are several recommendations which may be applied in the implementation of this approach. In conclusion, the community of Orang Asli should be offered the same education as other communities but it is important to distinguish acceptance of learning techniques or approaches used in the education system to meet their standards. The implications of this concept paper is to meet the educational needs of the environment which includes a few aspects of science and some learning activities using effective approaches such as playing and building their own knowledge of meaning.

  14. A Case Study of Student Engagement in Collaborative Group Learning in a Blended Community Based (Service) Learning Module

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrigle, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: A participatory action research case study employed mixed methods to examine student collaboration and engagement in a Community Based (Service) learning module. A quasi experimental testing of Coates (2007) typology of student engagement found low agreement between students and lecturers in assigning the terms, passive, intense, independent or collaborative to student postings to discussion fora. Evidence from this case study found greater student collaboration in discussion fora w...

  15. The New School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module: A Practical Implementation in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) System in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcomes. The TVE students should meet the desired outcomes after the completion of the learning activities and assessments. To help with the implementation phase of the new module, the authors developed guidelines for each case study. The guidelines incorporated learning activities to be delivered in an integrated learning environment. The skills to be transferred were related to cognitive, affective, and technical proficiencies. The guidelines included structured instructions to help students during the learning process. In addition, technology was introduced to improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. The guidelines include learning indicators for each learning activity and were based on their interrelation with competencies to be achieved with respect to modern industrial requirements. Each learning indicator was then correlated against the type of learning environment, teaching and learning styles, examples of mode of delivery, and assessment strategy. Also, the learning activities were supported by technological features such as discussion forums for social perception and engagement and immediate feedback exercises for self-motivation. Through the developed module, TVE teachers can effectively manage the teaching and learning process as well as the assessment strategy to satisfy students' individual requirements and enable them to meet workplace requirements.

  16. Creating a blended learning module in an online master study programme in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Benjamin; Ring, Christina; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Schmidt-Strassburger, Uta

    2015-01-01

    The medical faculty of Ulm University has launched the postgraduate master online study programme Advanced Oncology (AO) in 2010. We describe the challenges in developing an e-learning module using the example of a medical biometry course, focusing the implementation of the course material and our single-loop learning experience after the first students have finished and evaluated the lecture. Programme participants are qualified medical doctors and researchers in biomedical areas related to the field of oncology. The study programme provides the majority of lectures online via didactic videos accompanied by one-week attendance seminars. Supplementary learning materials include review articles, supportive reading material, multiple choice questions, and exercises for each unit. Lecture evaluations based on specific questions concerning learning environment and information learned, each measured on a five-point Likert scale. Lecture videos were implemented following the classical triad of the didactic process, using oncological examples from practice to teach. The online tutorial support offered to students was hardly used, thus we enhanced faculty presence during the face-to-face seminars. Lecture evaluations improved after revising the learning material on the basis of the first AO student cohort's comments. Developing and implementing an online study programme is challenging with respect of maximizing the information students learn due to limited opportunities for personal contact between lecturers and students. A more direct interaction of lecturers and students in a blended learning setting outperforms a mere web-based contact in terms of learning advantage and students' satisfaction, especially for complex methodological content.

  17. Nicotinic modulation of hippocampal cell signaling and associated effects on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    The hippocampus is a key brain structure involved in synaptic plasticity associated with long-term declarative memory formation. Importantly, nicotine and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can alter hippocampal plasticity and these changes may occur through modulation of hippocampal kinases and transcription factors. Hippocampal kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), and the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) that are activated either directly or indirectly by nicotine may modulate hippocampal plasticity and in parallel hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Evidence suggests that nicotine may alter hippocampus-dependent learning by changing the time and magnitude of activation of kinases and transcription factors normally involved in learning and by recruiting additional cell signaling molecules. Understanding how nicotine alters learning and memory will advance basic understanding of the neural substrates of learning and aid in understanding mental disorders that involve cognitive and learning deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex modulates arithmetic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Roland H; Rütsche, Bruno; Ruff, Christian C; Hauser, Tobias U

    2015-07-01

    The successful acquisition of arithmetic skills is an essential step in the development of mathematical competencies and has been associated with neural activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). It is unclear, however, whether this brain region plays a causal role in arithmetic skill acquisition and whether arithmetic learning can be modulated by means of non-invasive brain stimulation of this key region. In the present study we addressed these questions by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left PPC during a short-term training that simulates the typical path of arithmetic skill acquisition (specifically the transition from effortful procedural to memory-based problem-solving strategies). Sixty participants received either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS while practising complex multiplication and subtraction problems. The stability of the stimulation-induced learning effects was assessed in a follow-up test 24 h after the training. Learning progress was modulated by tDCS. Cathodal tDCS (compared with sham) decreased learning rates during training and resulted in poorer performance which lasted over 24 h after stimulation. Anodal tDCS showed an operation-specific improvement for subtraction learning. Our findings extend previous studies by demonstrating that the left PPC is causally involved in arithmetic learning (and not only in arithmetic performance) and that even a short-term tDCS application can modulate the success of arithmetic knowledge acquisition. Moreover, our finding of operation-specific anodal stimulation effects suggests that the enhancing effects of tDCS on learning can selectively affect just one of several cognitive processes mediated by the stimulated area. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Developing the fun and educative module in plant morphology and anatomy learning for tenth graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Suciyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the eligibility of and responses from expert media, expert material, practitioners and students’ on the ‘Fun and Educative’ biology module. The module was developed in a fun and educative way presenting various educative games. The research development model is using ADDIE model that consists of five phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The data collection technique employed examination of learning media experts, material experts, practitioners (biology teachers, and students. The data of research was analyzed in descriptive-qualitative and descriptive-qualitative ways. The results of evaluation on the module’s eligibility convey that the learning media expert gave 87.69% with the category of ‘highly eligible’, the material expert gave 86.00% with the category of ‘highly eligible', and the practitioners gave 83.68% with the category of ‘eligible'. The students' responses to questionnaires given related to the developed module gave 90.00% with the category of ‘highly interesting'. Based on the results of examination by the media expert, material expert, practitioners, and students, conclude that the module has fulfilled the criteria of good and eligible learning material and can be used for studying biology.

  20. Learning to live together: mutualism between self-splicing introns and their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalamcharla Venkata R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Group I and II introns can be considered as molecular parasites that interrupt protein-coding and structural RNA genes in all domains of life. They function as self-splicing ribozymes and thereby limit the phenotypic costs associated with disruption of a host gene while they act as mobile DNA elements to promote their spread within and between genomes. Once considered purely selfish DNA elements, they now seem, in the light of recent work on the molecular mechanisms regulating bacterial and phage group I and II intron dynamics, to show evidence of co-evolution with their hosts. These previously underappreciated relationships serve the co-evolving entities particularly well in times of environmental stress.

  1. Expatriate’s and Host Country National’s Professional Learning in Adverse Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romani, Laurence; Lorenzen, Julie; Holck, Lotte

    important professional learning, which leads them to become better officers once back in Denmark. This contribution, based on a qualitative case study, intends to elicit this unexpected finding and to contribute to further theory development in expatriate adjustment literature. In the present case, no cross-cultural....... This case provides an example of how an environment perceived as foreign and undesirable turns out to be beneficial for individual learning...

  2. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  3. Mirroring "meaningful" actions: sensorimotor learning modulates imitation of goal-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-06-19

    Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions. One reason for the lack of research on goal-directed actions is that imitation of such actions is commonly confounded with the tendency to respond in a spatially compatible manner. However, since the most prominent account of mirror neuron function, and hence of imitation, suggests that these cells encode goal-directed actions, it is important to establish whether sensorimotor learning can also modulate imitation of goal-directed actions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that imitation of goal-directed grasping can be measured while controlling for spatial compatibility, and Experiment 2 showed that this imitation effect can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Together these data support the hypothesis that the capacity for behavioural imitation, and the properties of the mirror neuron system, are constructed in the course of development through associative learning.

  4. Effect of L-arginine on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and immune modulation of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vikky; Chauhan, Rubika; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Das, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. The life-cycle of Plasmodium species involves several stages both in mosquito and the vertebrate host. In the erythrocytic stage, Plasmodium resides inside the red blood cells (RBCs), where it meets most of its nutritional requirement by degrad- ing host's haemoglobin. L-arginine is required for growth and division of cells. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effect of supplementation of different concentrations of L-arginine and L-citrulline on the growth of parasite, and effect of the culture supernatant on the host's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To examine the effect of supplementation of L-arginine and L-citrulline, Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) was cultured in RPMI 1640, L-arginine deficient RPMI 1640, and in different concentrations of L-arginine, and L-citrulline supplemented in arginine deficient RPMI 1640 medium. To have a holistic view of in vivo cell activation, the PBMCs isolated from healthy human host were cultured in the supernatant collected from P. falciparum culture. Growth of the parasite was greatly enhanced in L-arginine supplemented media and was found to be concentration dependent. However, parasite growth was compromised in L-citrulline supplemented and L-arginine deficient media. The supernatant collected from L-arginine supplemented parasite media (sArg) showed increased FOXP3 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression as compared to the supernatant collected from L-citrulline supple- mented parasite media (sCit). The in vitro culture results showed, decreased parasite growth, and decreased expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) (a coinhibitory molecule) and IL-10 in the L-citrulline supplemented media as compared to L-arginine supplemented media. Hence, it was concluded that L-citrulline supplementation would be a better alternative than L-arginine to inhibit the parasite growth.

  5. Social learning modulates the lateralization of emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-08-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas recognition of complex social emotions is processed preferentially by the left PFC. Experiment 1 assessed the ability of healthy controls and patients with right and left PFC lesions to recognize basic and complex emotions. Experiment 2 modeled the patient's data of Experiment 1 on healthy participants under lateralized displays of the emotional stimuli. Both experiments support the Type as well as the Valence Hypotheses. However, our findings indicate that the Valence Hypothesis holds for basic but less so for complex emotions. It is suggested that, since social learning overrules the basic preference of valence in the hemispheres, the processing of complex emotions in the hemispheres is less affected by valence.

  6. Role of the hippocampus on learning and memory functioning and pain modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haimei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, an important part of the limbic system, is considered to be an important region of the brain for learning and memory functioning. Recent studies have demonstrated that synaptic plasticity is thought to be the basis of learning and memory functioning. A series of studies report that similar synaptic plasticity also exists in the spinal cord in the conduction pathway of pain sensation, which may contribute to hyperalgesia, abnormal pain, and analgesia. The synaptic plasticity of learning and memory functioning and that of the pain conduction pathway have similar mechanisms, which are related to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. The hippocampus also has a role in pain modulation. As pain signals can reach the hippocampus, the precise correlation between synaptic plasticity of the pain pathway and that of learning and memory functioning deserves further investigation. The role of the hippocampus in processing pain information requires to be identified.

  7. The effectiveness of module with critical thinking approach on hydrolysis and buffer materials in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuswowati, M.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The research aims is to find out the effectiveness of critical thinking approach in Chemistry learning especially on hydrolysis and buffer materials. The level of its effectiveness was viewed from the students’ learning outcomes including knowledge, attitude and skill domains. The data were collected through validation sheets, questionnaires and tests, which were then analyzed by using descriptive quantitative method. The first step conducted was validating the module that was going to be used in the learning processes. The students’ learning outcome on knowledge domain was very good, viewed from the classical attainment by 88.63% with N-gain 0.718 with high criteria. It was also viewed from the students’ criticality level in solving the given problems. The result of the study revealed that more than 75% of the students obtained critical and very critical criteria in solving the given problems. The students’ attitudes and skills values were viewed through observation sheets during the learning processes. The result of the observation stated that more than 75% of the students showed good and very good attitudes and skills values. Based on the data, it could be concluded that the module with critical thinking approach was effective to be used on hydrolysis and buffer materials.

  8. Chemically modified tetracyclines an emerging host modulator in chronic periodontitis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousef, Abdullah A; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Muzaheed

    2017-09-01

    Although periodontal diseases are caused by some of the specific pathogens, most of the tissue damage is caused by the host reaction to disease and not actually by the infections. Therefore, host modulatory therapy (HMT) has advanced benefit for the treatment of periodontitis, which works basically by reducing tissue destruction and regeneration in periodontium by altering the critical aspects of host response regulation and up regulating defensive regenerative responses. The present study was conducted with the goal to test an innovative therapeutic option using chemically modified tetracycline in patients affected with generalized, moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. We assumed that CMT might have the potential to provoke an assessable clinical result and pharmacologically impede the level inflammatory flow. CMT (incyclinide) treated group had significantly higher CAL (clinical attachment) values than Placebo Control suggesting an improved CAL in CMT treatment. Host modulation therapy width incyclinide can be as an adjunct to conventional nonsurgical therapies without antimicrobial resistance. Progress was noticed in the clinical parameters but not the serum CRP level in our study establishing the role of CMTs in controlling chronic periodontitis. Also CMT treatment indicates its role in anti-inflammatory process as it inhibited IL-12 and TNF alpha but IL-10 level was not affected. However, more randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample size are required in order to authenticate the usage of CMTs in chronic periodontitis treatment. Based on this understanding, exploration of the novel, low-cost synthetic inhibitors that can be used as potential therapeutic agents, has been tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development Module (Lab Report) As a Media of Learning in Vocational Education Viewed by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Supari; Suprianto, Bambang; Putra Gitama, Nahindi

    2018-04-01

    Module as a media of learning and training, which especially the students studying in institutions offering education at undergraduate and associate levels can employ as a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) controlled simulator of the logic gate, timer and counter. During industrial manufacturing processes, has been actualized through this work, for the purpose of training qualified technical personnel needed by companies, who are specialized in control and electro mechanics. It was found that, students are very happy learning to use the module so with very significant contributes to a large extent to the training process in favor of faculty members, who are to train personnel for the sector, and in favor of students, who should be able to acquire proper education. Working on the training tool allows students to acquire knowledge and practical skills and then make use of those skills for troubleshooting and control of machinery.

  10. Adaptive eLearning modules for cytopathology education: A review and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulski, T Danielle; La, Teresa; Wu, Roseann I

    2016-11-01

    Clinical training imposes time and resource constraints on educators and learners, making it difficult to provide and absorb meaningful instruction. Additionally, innovative and personalized education has become an expectation of adult learners. Fortunately, the development of web-based educational tools provides a possible solution to these challenges. Within this review, we introduce the utility of adaptive eLearning platforms in pathology education. In addition to a review of the current literature, we provide the reader with a suggested approach for module creation, as well as a critical assessment of an available platform, based on our experience in creating adaptive eLearning modules for teaching basic concepts in gynecologic cytopathology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:944-951. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Integration of strategy experiential learning in e-module of electronic records management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sutirman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies to improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. This study is a research and development. Model research and development used is Web-Based Instructional Design (WBID developed by Davidson-Shivers and Rasmussen. The steps of research and development carried out by analysis, evaluation planning, concurrent design, implementation, and a summative evaluation. The approach used in this study consisted of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Collecting data used the Delphi technique, observation, documentation studies and tests. Research data analysis used qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Testing the effectiveness of the product used a quasi-experimental research design pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group. The results showed that the e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies can improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.

  12. Modulation of Host Immunity by Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Virulence Factors: A Synergic Inhibition of Both Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Canedo-Marroquín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins. These include the Fusion protein (F, the Glycoprotein (G, and the Small Hydrophobic (SH protein, which are located on the virus surface. In addition, the Nucleoprotein (N, Phosphoprotein (P large polymerase protein (L part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex, the M2-1 protein as a transcription elongation factor, the M2-2 protein as a regulator of viral transcription and (M protein all of which locate inside the virion. Apart from the structural proteins, the hRSV genome encodes for the non-structural 1 and 2 proteins (NS1 and NS2. HRSV has developed different strategies to evade the host immunity by means of the function of some of these proteins that work as virulence factors to improve the infection in the lung tissue. Also, hRSV NS-1 and NS-2 proteins have been shown to inhibit the activation of the type I interferon response. Furthermore, the hRSV nucleoprotein has been shown to inhibit the immunological synapsis between the dendritic cells and T cells during infection, resulting in an inefficient T cell activation. Here, we discuss the hRSV virulence factors and the host immunological features raised during infection with this virus.

  13. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here...... present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin...

  14. The development of a valid discovery-based learning module to improve students' mathematical connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuneni, Erna; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-08-01

    Geometry is the most important branch in mathematics. The purpose of teaching this material is to develop students' level of thinking for a better understanding. Otherwise, geometry in particular, has contributed students' failure in mathematics examinations. This problem occurs due to special feature in geometry which has complexity of correlation among its concept. This relates to mathematical connection. It is still difficult for students to improve this ability. This is because teachers' lack in facilitating students towards it. Eventhough, facilitating students can be in the form of teaching material. A learning module can be a solution because it consists of series activities that should be taken by students to achieve a certain goal. A series activities in this case is adopted by the phases of discovery-based learning model. Through this module, students are facilitated to discover concept by deep instruction and guidance. It can build the mathematical habits of mind and also strengthen the mathematical connection. Method used in this research was ten stages of research and development proposed by Bord and Gall. The research purpose is to create a valid learning module to improve students' mathematical connection in teaching quadrilateral. The retrieved valid module based on media expert judgment is 2,43 for eligibility chart aspect, 2,60 for eligibility presentation aspect, and 3,00 for eligibility contents aspect. Then the retrieved valid module based on material expert judgment is 3,10 for eligibility content aspect, 2,87 for eligibility presentation aspect, and 2,80 for eligibility language and legibility aspect.

  15. Towards an Ontology to Describe the Taxonomy of Common Modules in Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Montenegro Marin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article have the objective a create ontology for "common modules in a Learning Management Systems", the steps for the build Ontology were: Determine the domain and scope of the ontology, Consider reusing existing ontology, Enumerate important terms in the ontology, Define the classes and the class hierarch, Define the properties of classes—slot and Define the facets of the slot, finally be explained how the ontology is composed.

  16. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357374-14$15.00/0.

  17. Using Machine Learning for Risky Module Estimation of Safety-Critical Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Mi; Jeong, Choong Heui

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of digital computer and information processing technologies, nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) system which needs safety critical function has adopted digital technologies. Software used in safety-critical system must have high dependability. Highly dependable software needs strict software testing and V and V activities. These days, regulatory demands for nuclear power plants are more and more increasing. But, human resources and time for regulation are limited. So, early software risky module prediction is very useful for software testing and regulation activities. Early estimation can be built from a collection of internal metrics during early development phase. Internal metrics are measures of a product derived from assessment of the product itself, and external metrics are measures of a product derived from assessment of the behavior of the systems. Internal metrics can be collected more easily and early than external metrics. In addition, internal metrics can be useful for estimating fault-prone software modules using machine learning. In this paper, we introduce current research status and techniques related to estimating risky software module using machine learning techniques. Section 2 describes the overview of the estimation model using machine learning and section 3 describes processes of the estimation model. Section 4 describes several estimation models using machine leanings. Section 5 concludes the paper

  18. Implicit learning modulates attention capture: evidence from an item-specific proportion congruency manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Willoughby, Karen; Milliken, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has now shown that our explicit goals and intentions can, in large part, overcome the capture of visual attention by objects that differ from their surroundings in terms of size, shape, or color. Surprisingly however, there is little evidence for the role of implicit learning in mitigating capture effects despite the fact that such learning has been shown to strongly affect behavior in a host of other performance domains. Here, we employ a modified attention capture paradigm, based on the work of Theeuwes (1991, 1992), in which participants must search for an odd-shaped target amongst homogeneous distracters. On each trial, there is also a salient, but irrelevant odd-colored distracter. Across the experiments reported, we intermix two search contexts: for one set of distracters (e.g., squares) the shape singleton and color singleton coincide on a majority of trials (high proportion congruent condition), whereas for the other set of distracters (e.g., circles) the shape and color singletons are highly unlikely to coincide (low proportion congruent condition). Crucially, we find that observers learn to allow the capture of attention by the salient distracter to a greater extent in the high, compared to the low proportion congruent condition, albeit only when search is sufficiently difficult. Moreover, this effect of prior experience on search behavior occurs in the absence of awareness of our proportion manipulation. We argue that low-level properties of the search displays recruit representations of prior experience in a rapid, flexible, and implicit manner.

  19. Pengembangan Modul Pembelajaran Fisika Berbasis Problem Based Learning (PBL pada Materi Gelombang Bunyi untuk Siswa SMA Kelas XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Anita Nur Hasanah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 curriculum emphasizes on Scientific Approach taht tie topic with real context. Either learning model that leads to Scientific Approach that is Problem Based Learning (PBL. So that need to prepare appropriate teaching material to support learning model PBL one of them module independent teaching topic for learners. The aim of these research is describe the Learning Module which is developed that is physic learning module based on PBL of the topic sound wave for senior high school grade XII and examine its feasibility. This development research used 4-D Thiagarajan with modified model. This research has been done in three stages such as define, design, and develop which are restricted until the limited try out. The data collection is used questionnaire. The module validation by 4 validators and limited try out to 10 students. The result of research drawn that material aspect is 3,59 with the suitable criterion, presentation aspect is 3,9 with the suitable criterion, language aspect is 3,41 with the suitable criterion, and the limited try out result got 3,6 with an appropriate criterion. In conclusion, physic learning module based on PBL in sound wave material for senior high school grade XII is applicable. Keywords: Physic Learning Module, Problem Based Learning (PBL, Topic sound wave Pada kurikulum 2013 menekankan pada Scientific Approach yang mengaitkan materi dengan konteks dunia nyata. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang mengarah ke Scientific Approach yaitu Problem Based Learning (PBL. Sehingga perlu dipersiapkan bahan ajar yang tepat untuk mendukung model pembelajaran PBL salah satunya modul yang merupakan bahan ajar mandiri bagi peserta didik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan pengembangan modul yaitu modul pembelajaran fisika berbasis PBL pada materi Gelombang Bunyi untuk siswa SMA kelas XII dan menguji kelayakannya.Penelitian pengembangan menggunakan model 4-D Thiagarajan yang sudah di modifikasi. Penelitian ini

  20. Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 Modulates Intestinal Host Defense Peptide Expression in the Model of IPEC-J2 Cells and Neonatal Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Hou, Chengli; Wang, Gang; Jia, Hongmin; Yu, Haitao; Zeng, Xiangfang; Thacker, Philip A.; Zhang, Guolong; Qiao, Shiyan

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression. Gene expressions of HDPs, toll-like receptors, and fatty acid receptors were determined, as well as colonic short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota. Exposure to 108 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of L. reuteri I5007 for 6 h significantly increased the expression of porcine β-Defensin2 (PBD2), pBD3, pBD114, pBD129, and protegrins (PG) 1-5 in IPEC-J2 cells. Similarly, L. reuteri I5007 administration significantly increased the expression of jejunal pBD2 as well as colonic pBD2, pBD3, pBD114, and pBD129 in neonatal piglets (p reuteri I5007 in the piglets did not affect the colonic microbiota structure. Our findings suggested that L. reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression and improve the gut health of neonatal piglets, probably through the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and the up-regulation of the downstream molecules of butyric acid, PPAR-γ and GPR41, but not through modifying gut microbiota structure. PMID:28561758

  1. Small non-coding RNAs: new insights in modulation of host immune response by intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria possess intricate regulatory networks that temporally control the production of virulence factors, and enable the bacteria to survive and proliferate within host cell. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs have been identified as important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological contexts. Recent research has shown bacterial sRNAs involved in growth and development, cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, cell signaling and immune response through regulating protein–protein interactions or via their ability to base pair with RNA and DNA. In this review, we provide a brief overview of mechanism of action employed by immune-related sRNAs, their known functions in immunity, and how they can be integrated into regulatory circuits that govern virulence, which will facilitates to understand pathogenesis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat infections caused by intracellular bacterial pathogens.

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP (VFT MODULE IN LEARNING BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbaizura HARIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This study was conducted to 60 students employing a quasi-experimental design involving a treatment group taught using the VFT module and a control group who were taught using conventional methods. Analysis into the effectiveness of the virtual module was done descriptively, followed by inferential analysis involving the two-way ANOVA. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of pre and post achievement between students taught using VFT and students who were taught using conventional methods for objective, structure and essay type questions. The study concluded that teaching and learning by using the VFT module, integrated with ICT, has a positive impact on student achievement whencompared to conventional methods. This study focuses on the use of the VFT recognizing that teachers are often unable to conduct a real field trip on location.

  3. Social modulation of learned behavior by dopamine in the basal ganglia: insights from songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, Arthur

    2013-06-01

    Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system leads to motor, cognitive, and motivational symptoms in brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in sensorimotor learning and receive a strong dopaminergic signal, shown to play an important role in social interactions. The function of the dopaminergic input to the BG in the integration of social cues during sensorimotor learning remains however largely unexplored. Songbirds use learned vocalizations to communicate during courtship and aggressive behaviors. Like language learning in humans, song learning strongly depends on social interactions. In songbirds, a specialized BG-thalamo-cortical loop devoted to song is particularly tractable for elucidating the signals carried by dopamine in the BG, and the function of dopamine signaling in mediating social cues during skill learning and execution. Here, I review experimental findings uncovering the physiological effects and function of the dopaminergic signal in the songbird BG, in light of our knowledge of the BG-dopamine interactions in mammals. Interestingly, the compact nature of the striato-pallidal circuits in birds led to new insight on the physiological effects of the dopaminergic input on the BG network as a whole. In singing birds, D1-like receptor agonist and antagonist can modulate the spectral variability of syllables bi-directionally, suggesting that social context-dependent changes in spectral variability are triggered by dopaminergic input through D1-like receptors. As variability is crucial for exploration during motor learning, but must be reduced after learning to optimize performance, I propose that, the dopaminergic input to the BG could be responsible for the social-dependent regulation of the exploration/exploitation balance in birdsong, and possibly in learned skills in other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prior Visual Experience Modulates Learning of Sound Localization Among Blind Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2017-05-01

    Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.

  5. Stimulating Students' Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Chemistry through the Use of Context-Based Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a research project in which five chemistry teachers, working in cooperation with university researchers, implemented a new teaching approach using context-based modules specially designed to stimulate the intrinsic motivation of students. The intention was to induce change in chemistry teachers' teaching approach from more…

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Practical Inquiry-Based Learning Bioinformatics Module on Undergraduate Student Engagement and Applied Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A. L.

    2016-01-01

    A pedagogic intervention, in the form of an inquiry-based peer-assisted learning project (as a practical student-led bioinformatics module), was assessed for its ability to increase students' engagement, practical bioinformatic skills and process-specific knowledge. Elements assessed were process-specific knowledge following module completion,…

  7. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 5'-terminal S fragment is required for replication and modulation of the innate immune response in host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloc, Anna; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Schafer, Elizabeth A; Rai, Devendra K; Kenney, Mary; de Los Santos, Teresa; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    The S fragment of the FMDV 5' UTR is predicted to fold into a long stem-loop structure and it has been implicated in virus-host protein interactions. In this study, we report the minimal S fragment sequence required for virus viability and show a direct correlation between the extent of the S fragment deletion mutations and attenuated phenotypes. Furthermore, we provide novel insight into the role of the S fragment in modulating the host innate immune response. Importantly, in an FMDV mouse model system, all animals survive the inoculation with the live A 24 FMDV-S 4 mutant, containing a 164 nucleotide deletion in the upper S fragment loop, at a dose 1000 higher than the one causing lethality by parental A 24 FMDV, indicating that the A 24 FMDV-S 4 virus is highly attenuated in vivo. Additionally, mice exposed to high doses of live A 24 FMDV-S 4 virus are fully protected when challenged with parental A 24 FMDV virus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded BART MicroRNA: A Paradigm for Viral Modulation of Host Immune Response Genes and Genome Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Dreyfus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, is associated through epidemiologic evidence with common autoimmune syndromes and cancers. However, specific genetic mechanisms of pathogenesis have been difficult to identify. In this review, the author summarizes evidence that recently discovered noncoding RNAs termed microRNA encoded by Epstein-Barr virus BARF (BamHI A right frame termed BART (BamHI A right transcripts are modulators of human immune response genes and genome stability in infected and bystander cells. BART expression is apparently regulated by complex feedback loops with the host immune response regulatory NF-κB transcription factors. EBV-encoded BZLF-1 (ZEBRA protein could also regulate BART since ZEBRA contains a terminal region similar to ankyrin proteins such as IκBα that regulate host NF-κB. BALF-2 (BamHI A left frame transcript, a viral homologue of the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene recombinase RAG-1 (recombination-activating gene-1, may also be coregulated with BART since BALF-2 regulatory sequences are located near the BART locus. Viral-encoded microRNA and viral mRNA transferred to bystander cells through vesicles, defective viral particles, or other mechanisms suggest a new paradigm in which bystander or hit-and-run mechanisms enable the virus to transiently or chronically alter human immune response genes as well as the stability of the human genome.

  10. Developing a service-learning module for oral health: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Service learning (SL as a pedagogy in higher education must be differentiated from other services with a primarily philanthropic intent. Dental therapy and oral hygiene students at Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, School of Oral Health Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa visit community sites during their 2nd year of study. However, the current curricula would need restructuring for alignment with the espoused pedagogy and standards of SL. Such an SL curriculum design would thus allow for the provision of meaningful services to communities as an integral component of these programmes. Objective. To explore (i perceptions of 2nd-year oral health students; and (ii opinions of academics with regard to the need for an SL module. Methods. Purposive sampling was used to conduct two focus group discussions with academics involved in curriculum development (n=11 and students who had previous exposure to communities (n=10. A survey containing open-ended questions was completed by 9 academics, who would implement the proposed SL module. Frequencies were calculated and data from the open questions were analysed for emergent themes. Results. Most academics (89%, n=8 indicated that working effectively with others as members of a team and developing cultural sensitivity were achievable from an SL module. Two themes emerged from the focus groups, i.e. (i enhanced teaching and learning – students could apply theoretical and clinical training in an authentic setting; and (ii standardisation of training – an SL module would ensure consistency when engaging with communities. Conclusion. The needs assessment was valuable to inform the development and implementation of the SL module.

  11. Evaluation of Online Learning Modules for Improving Physical Activity Counseling Skills, Practices, and Knowledge of Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Balneaves, Lynda; Courneya, Kerry S; Perry, Beth; Truant, Tracy; Vallance, Jeff

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effectiveness of online learning modules for improving physical activity counseling practices among oncology nurses. 
. Randomized, controlled trial.
. Online.
. 54 oncology nurses.
. Oncology nurses were randomly assigned to the learning modules group or control group. The learning modules group completed six online learning modules and quizzes focused on physical activity for cancer survivors, general physical activity principles, and motivational interviewing.
. Percentage of cancer survivors counseled, self-efficacy for physical activity counseling, knowledge of physical activity, and perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity counseling.
. Analyses of covariance revealed no significant difference between the learning modules and control groups in the percentage of cancer survivors that oncology nurses counseled. Significant differences were found in self-efficacy for physical activity counseling and perceived barriers to physical activity counseling at postintervention. 
. The online learning intervention tested in this study improved some parameters of physical activity counseling but did not increase the percentage of cancer survivors that oncology nurses counseled. Additional pilot work is needed to refine the intervention.
. This study suggests the potential utility of an evidence-based online learning strategy for oncology nurses that includes information on physical activity and its benefits in cancer survivorship. The findings offer a framework on how to implement physical activity counseling skills in oncology nursing practice.

  12. Host modulation by a parasite: how Leishmania infantum modifies the intestinal environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to favor its development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Cristina Santos

    Full Text Available Some reports have described the interference of Leishmania on sand flies physiology, and such behavior most likely evolved to favor the development and transmission of the parasite. Most of these studies showed that Leishmania could modulate the level of proteases in the midgut after an infective blood meal, and decreased proteolytic activity is indeed beneficial for the development of promastigotes in the gut of sand flies. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the intestinal pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis females naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and investigated the production of trypsin by these insects using different approaches. Our results allowed us to propose a mechanism by which these parasites interfere with the physiology of L. longipalpis to decrease the production of proteolytic enzymes. According to our hypothesis L. infantum promastigotes indirectly interfere with the production of trypsin by modulating the mechanism that controls the intestinal pH via the action of a yet non-identified substance released by promastigote forms inside the midgut. This substance is not an acid, whose action would be restrict on to release H+ to the medium, but is a substance that is able to interfere with midgut physiology through a mechanism involving pH control. According to our hypothesis, as the pH decreases, the proteolytic enzymes efficiency is also reduced, leading to a decline in the supply of amino acids to the enterocytes: this decline reduces the stimulus for protease production because it is regulated by the supply of amino acids, thus leading to a delay in digestion.

  13. Lessons from interprofessional e-learning: piloting a care of the elderly module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Anitta; Heikkinen, Eija

    2004-08-01

    Educating health care professionals is a key issue in the provision of quality healthcare services. Interprofessional education has been suggested as a means of meeting this challenge. Four Finnish polytechnics providing education for nurses, social workers and physiotherapists wished to develop the content and methods of teaching the care of the elderly by collaboratively creating and implementing an interprofessional module of 15 European Credit Transfer units, using e-learning. This paper examines the planning and assessment of the impact of the pilot module. The web-based environment eminently suited teaching interprofessional care of the elderly. It supported content and methodological development and renewal of the module. It enabled discussion and collaboration between nursing, social work and rehabilitation teachers and students from the Polytechnics which are located in different parts of Finland. However, it became evident during the pilot that the most crucial challenges of the web-based pedagogy were in the ability of the teacher to supervise, support and motivate students and the organisation of interprofessional learning offered by collaborating institutions.

  14. Towards developing high-fidelity simulated learning environment training modules in audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzulkarnain, A A; Rahmat, S; Mohd Puzi, N A F; Badzis, M

    2017-02-01

    This discussion paper reviews and synthesises the literature on simulated learning environment (SLE) from allied health sciences, medical and nursing in general and audiology specifically. The focus of the paper is on discussing the use of high-fidelity (HF) SLE and describing the challenges for developing a HF SLE for clinical audiology training. Through the review of the literature, this paper discusses seven questions, (i) What is SLE? (ii) What are the types of SLEs? (iii) How is SLE classified? (iv) What is HF SLE? (v) What types of SLEs are available in audiology and their level of fidelity? (vi) What are the components needed for developing HF SLE? (vii) What are the possible types of HF SLEs that are suitable for audiology training? Publications were identified by structured searches from three major databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo and from the reference lists of relevant articles. The authors discussed and mapped the levels of fidelity of SLE audiology training modules from the literature and the learning domains involved in the clinical audiology courses. The discussion paper has highlighted that most of the existing SLE audiology training modules consist of either low- or medium-fidelity types of simulators. Those components needed to achieve a HF SLE for audiology training are also highlighted. Overall, this review recommends that the combined approach of different levels and types of SLE could be used to obtain a HF SLE training module in audiology training.

  15. Modulation of learning and memory by cytokines: signaling mechanisms and long term consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzis, Elissa J; Tronson, Natalie C

    2014-11-01

    This review describes the role of cytokines and their downstream signaling cascades on the modulation of learning and memory. Immune proteins are required for many key neural processes and dysregulation of these functions by systemic inflammation can result in impairments of memory that persist long after the resolution of inflammation. Recent research has demonstrated that manipulations of individual cytokines can modulate learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. The many conflicting findings, however, have prevented a clear understanding of the precise role of cytokines in memory. Given the complexity of inflammatory signaling, understanding its modulatory role requires a shift in focus from single cytokines to a network of cytokine interactions and elucidation of the cytokine-dependent intracellular signaling cascades. Finally, we propose that whereas signal transduction and transcription may mediate short-term modulation of memory, long-lasting cellular and molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic modifications and altered neurogenesis may be required for the long lasting impact of inflammation on memory and cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cerebellar Norepinephrine Modulates Learning of Delay Classical Eyeblink Conditioning: Evidence for Post-Synaptic Signaling via PKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Mathew; Bickford, Paula C.; Cartford, M. Claire; Samec, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to modulate cerebellar-dependent learning and memory. Lesions of the nucleus locus coeruleus or systemic blockade of noradrenergic receptors has been shown to delay the acquisition of several cerebellar-dependent learning tasks. To date, no studies have shown a direct involvement of…

  17. Development of Health Education Learning Module in Bac.TSE-LDPE Programme in TTI: Needs Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Alijah; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2015-01-01

    This study is to explore the need to develop learning modules of health education for trainee teachers in the Bachelor Of Teaching (Hons)(Special Education-Learning Disabilities For Primary Education) Programme (Bac.TSE-LDPE) in the Teacher Training Institute (TTI). The questionnaire uses the Likert scale with the close ended questions analysed by…

  18. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  19. Development and Impact Evaluation of an E-Learning Radiation Oncology Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfieri, Joanne, E-mail: Joanne.alfieri@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Portelance, Lorraine; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter [Centre for Medical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Gallant, Fleure [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Artho, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists are faced with the challenge of irradiating tumors to a curative dose while limiting toxicity to healthy surrounding tissues. This can be achieved only with superior knowledge of radiologic anatomy and treatment planning. Educational resources designed to meet these specific needs are lacking. A web-based interactive module designed to improve residents' knowledge and application of key anatomy concepts pertinent to radiotherapy treatment planning was developed, and its effectiveness was assessed. Methods and Materials: The module, based on gynecologic malignancies, was developed in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team of subject matter experts. Subsequently, a multi-centre randomized controlled study was conducted to test the module's effectiveness. Thirty-six radiation oncology residents participated in the study; 1920 were granted access to the module (intervention group), and 17 in the control group relied on traditional methods to acquire their knowledge. Pretests and posttests were administered to all participants. Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test, analysis of variance, and post hoc tests. Results: The randomized control study revealed that the intervention group's pretest and posttest mean scores were 35% and 52%, respectively, and those of the control group were 37% and 42%, respectively. The mean improvement in test scores was 17% (p < 0.05) for the intervention group and 5% (p = not significant) for the control group. Retrospective pretest and posttest surveys showed a statistically significant change on all measured module objectives. Conclusions: The use of an interactive e-learning teaching module for radiation oncology is an effective method to improve the radiologic anatomy knowledge and treatment planning skills of radiation oncology residents.

  20. Development and Impact Evaluation of an E-Learning Radiation Oncology Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfieri, Joanne; Portelance, Lorraine; Souhami, Luis; Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter; Gallant, Fleure; Artho, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists are faced with the challenge of irradiating tumors to a curative dose while limiting toxicity to healthy surrounding tissues. This can be achieved only with superior knowledge of radiologic anatomy and treatment planning. Educational resources designed to meet these specific needs are lacking. A web-based interactive module designed to improve residents' knowledge and application of key anatomy concepts pertinent to radiotherapy treatment planning was developed, and its effectiveness was assessed. Methods and Materials: The module, based on gynecologic malignancies, was developed in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team of subject matter experts. Subsequently, a multi-centre randomized controlled study was conducted to test the module's effectiveness. Thirty-six radiation oncology residents participated in the study; 1920 were granted access to the module (intervention group), and 17 in the control group relied on traditional methods to acquire their knowledge. Pretests and posttests were administered to all participants. Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test, analysis of variance, and post hoc tests. Results: The randomized control study revealed that the intervention group's pretest and posttest mean scores were 35% and 52%, respectively, and those of the control group were 37% and 42%, respectively. The mean improvement in test scores was 17% (p < 0.05) for the intervention group and 5% (p = not significant) for the control group. Retrospective pretest and posttest surveys showed a statistically significant change on all measured module objectives. Conclusions: The use of an interactive e-learning teaching module for radiation oncology is an effective method to improve the radiologic anatomy knowledge and treatment planning skills of radiation oncology residents.

  1. Needs Analysis for Graphic Design Learning Module Based on Technology & Learning Styles of Deaf Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Zainuddin; Alias, Norlidah; Nordin, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The field of Information Communication Technology has offered a promising future for deaf students. Web design, animation, and multimedia application design are a branch of graphic design area, which aim to aid their learning visually. However, most of the technical terms cannot be interpreted in Malaysian sign language. Moreover, the development…

  2. A Distance Learning Review--The Communicational Module "Learning on Demand--Anywhere at Any Time"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja

    2004-01-01

    The society of knowledge refers to the society marked with the principle which requires that knowledge, information and life-time learning hold a key to success in the world of IT technology. Internet, World Wide Web, Web Based Education and ever so growing speed of IT and communicational technologies have enabled the application of new modes,…

  3. A recommendation module to help teachers build courses through the Moodle Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Carla; Lombardi, Matteo; Marani, Alessandro; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In traditional e-learning, teachers design sets of Learning Objects (LOs) and organize their sequencing; the material implementing the LOs could be either built anew or adopted from elsewhere (e.g. from standard-compliant repositories) and reused. This task is applicable also when the teacher works in a system for personalized e-learning. In this case, the burden actually increases: for instance, the LOs may need adaptation to the system, through additional metadata. This paper presents a module that gives some support to the operations of retrieving, analyzing, and importing LOs from a set of standard Learning Objects Repositories, acting as a recommending system. In particular, it is designed to support the teacher in the phases of (i) retrieval of LOs, through a keyword-based search mechanism applied to the selected repositories; (ii) analysis of the returned LOs, whose information is enriched by a concept of relevance metric, based on both the results of the searching operation and the data related to the previous use of the LOs in the courses managed by the Learning Management System; and (iii) LO importation into the course under construction.

  4. Development and evaluation of learning module on clinical decision-making in Prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Saee; Lambade, Dipti; Chahande, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Best practice strategies for helping students learn the reasoning skills of problem solving and critical thinking (CT) remain a source of conjecture, particularly with regard to CT. The dental education literature is fundamentally devoid of research on the cognitive components of clinical decision-making. This study was aimed to develop and evaluate the impact of blended learning module on clinical decision-making skills of dental graduates for planning prosthodontics rehabilitation. An interactive teaching module consisting of didactic lectures on clinical decision-making and a computer-assisted case-based treatment planning software was developed Its impact on cognitive knowledge gain in clinical decision-making was evaluated using an assessment involving problem-based multiple choice questions and paper-based case scenarios. Mean test scores were: Pretest (17 ± 1), posttest 1 (21 ± 2) and posttest 2 (43 ± 3). Comparison of mean scores was done with one-way ANOVA test. There was overall significant difference in between mean scores at all the three points (P posttest 1 > pretest. Blended teaching methods employing didactic lectures on the clinical decision-making as well as computer assisted case-based learning can be used to improve quality of clinical decision-making in prosthodontic rehabilitation for dental graduates.

  5. Adaptive gain modulation in V1 explains contextual modifications during bisection learning.

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    Roland Schäfer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal processing of visual stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1 can be modified by perceptual training. Training in bisection discrimination, for instance, changes the contextual interactions in V1 elicited by parallel lines. Before training, two parallel lines inhibit their individual V1-responses. After bisection training, inhibition turns into non-symmetric excitation while performing the bisection task. Yet, the receptive field of the V1 neurons evaluated by a single line does not change during task performance. We present a model of recurrent processing in V1 where the neuronal gain can be modulated by a global attentional signal. Perceptual learning mainly consists in strengthening this attentional signal, leading to a more effective gain modulation. The model reproduces both the psychophysical results on bisection learning and the modified contextual interactions observed in V1 during task performance. It makes several predictions, for instance that imagery training should improve the performance, or that a slight stimulus wiggling can strongly affect the representation in V1 while performing the task. We conclude that strengthening a top-down induced gain increase can explain perceptual learning, and that this top-down signal can modify lateral interactions within V1, without significantly changing the classical receptive field of V1 neurons.

  6. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  7. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

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    Pascal Rousse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of learning-induced modulation of visual motion processing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Gál

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Training on a visual task leads to increased perceptual and neural responses to visual features that were attended during training as well as decreased responses to neglected distractor features. However, the time course of these attention-based modulations of neural sensitivity for visual features has not been investigated before. Here we measured event related potentials (ERP in response to motion stimuli with different coherence levels before and after training on a speed discrimination task requiring object-based attentional selection of one of the two competing motion stimuli. We found that two peaks on the ERP waveform were modulated by the strength of the coherent motion signal; the response amplitude associated with motion directions that were neglected during training was smaller than the response amplitude associated with motion directions that were attended during training. The first peak of motion coherence-dependent modulation of the ERP responses was at 300 ms after stimulus onset and it was most pronounced over the occipitotemporal cortex. The second peak was around 500 ms and was focused over the parietal cortex. A control experiment suggests that the earlier motion coherence-related response modulation reflects the extraction of the coherent motion signal whereas the later peak might index accumulation and readout of motion signals by parietal decision mechanisms. These findings suggest that attention-based learning affects neural responses both at the sensory and decision processing stages.

  9. Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a "flipped classroom" model of a renal pharmacotherapy module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Richard; Fox, Jeremy

    2012-12-12

    To implement a "flipped classroom" model for a renal pharmacotherapy topic module and assess the impact on pharmacy students' performance and attitudes. Students viewed vodcasts (video podcasts) of lectures prior to the scheduled class and then discussed interactive cases of patients with end-stage renal disease in class. A process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) activity was developed and implemented that complemented, summarized, and allowed for application of the material contained in the previously viewed lectures. Students' performance on the final examination significantly improved compared to performance of students the previous year who completed the same module in a traditional classroom setting. Students' opinions of the POGIL activity and the flipped classroom instructional model were mostly positive. Implementing a flipped classroom model to teach a renal pharmacotherapy module resulted in improved student performance and favorable student perceptions about the instructional approach. Some of the factors that may have contributed to students' improved scores included: student mediated contact with the course material prior to classes, benchmark and formative assessments administered during the module, and the interactive class activities.

  10. Designing electronic module based on learning content development system in fostering students’ multi representation skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resita, I.; Ertikanto, C.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop electronic module design based on Learning Content Development System (LCDS) to foster students’ multi representation skills in physics subject material. This study uses research and development method to the product design. This study involves 90 students and 6 physics teachers who were randomly chosen from 3 different Senior High Schools in Lampung Province. The data were collected by using questionnaires and analyzed by using quantitative descriptive method. Based on the data, 95% of the students only use one form of representation in solving physics problems. Representation which is tend to be used by students is symbolic representation. Students are considered to understand the concept of physics if they are able to change from one form to the other forms of representation. Product design of LCDS-based electronic module presents text, image, symbolic, video, and animation representation.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE LEARNING MODULE FOR CHILDRENT WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Marzuqi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are the absence of teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics and conditions of a hearing impairment children in terms of learning, especially science subjects. The characteristics of hearing impairment children is poor in their vocabularies, so that, the teaching materials emphasizing the visual aspect is necessary. This study used a Research and Development (R & D adapted by the Sugiyono model in order to produce teaching materials in the form of pictorial modules and to test their effectiveness. The result of the research showed that it was a very valid criteria with a score of 97% of the materials experts, 85% of media experts, and 93% of skilled practitioners. The score of the effectiveness of the modules was 75% with the effective criteria.

  12. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating the Educational Module Students Active Learning via Internet Observations (SALIO) in Undergraduate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Bjuhr, Marie; Mårtensson, Gunilla

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed not only to describe the development and implementation of the module but also to evaluate the nursing students' perceptions. A cross-sectional design including 101 students who were asked to participate and answer a survey. We describe the development of the pedagogic module Students Active Learning via Internet Observations based on situated learning. The findings show that learning about service users' own lived experiences via web-based platforms was instructive according to the students: 81% agreed to a high or very high degree. Another important finding was that 96% of students responded that the module had clinical relevance for nursing work. We argue that learning that engages students with data that are contextually and culturally situated is important for developing competence in caregiving. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Implicit Learning Modulates Attention Capture: Evidence from an Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Thomson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A host of research has now shown that our explicit goals and intentions can, in large part, overcome the capture of visual attention by objects that differ from their surroundings in terms of size, shape, or color. Surprisingly however, there is little evidence for the role of implicit learning in mitigating capture effects despite the fact that such learning has been shown to strongly affect behavior in a host of other performance domains. Here, we employ a modified attention capture paradigm, based on the work of Theeuwes (1991; 1992, in which participants must search for an odd-shaped target amongst homogeneous distracters. On each trial, there is also a salient, but irrelevant odd-colored distracter. Across the experiments reported, we intermix two search contexts: for one set of distracters (e.g. squares the shape singleton and color singleton coincide on a majority of trials (high proportion congruent condition, whereas for the other set of distracters (e.g. circles the shape and color singletons are highly unlikely to coincide (low proportion congruent condition. Crucially, we find that observers learn to allow the capture of attention by the salient distracter to a greater extent in the high, compared to the low proportion congruent condition, albeit only when search is sufficiently difficult. Moreover, this effect of prior experience on search behavior occurs in the absence of awareness of our proportion manipulation. We argue that low-level properties of the search displays recruit representations of prior experience in a rapid, flexible, and implicit manner.

  14. Interactive E-learning module in pharmacology: a pilot project at a rural medical college in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Nitin; Tankhiwale, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Many medical educators are experimenting with innovative ways of E-learning. E-learning provides opportunities to students for self-directed learning in addition to other advantages. In this study, we designed and evaluated an interactive E-learning module in pharmacology for effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility, with the aim of promoting active learning in this fact-filled subject. A quasi-experimental single-group pre-test/post-test study was conducted with fourth-semester students of the second professionals course (II MBBS), selected using non-probability convenience sampling method. An E-learning module in endocrine pharmacology was designed to comprise three units of interactive PowerPoint presentations. The pre-validated presentations were uploaded on the website according to a predefined schedule and the 42 registered students were encouraged to self-learning using these interactive presentations. Cognitive gain was assessed using an online pre- and post-test for each unit. Students' perceptions were recorded using an online feedback questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, focused group discussion was conducted to further explore students' views on E-learning activity. Significant attrition was observed during the E-learning activity. Of the 42 registered students, only 16 students completed the entire E-learning module. The summed average score of all three units (entire module) was increased significantly from 38.42 % (summed average pre-test score: 11.56/30 ± 2.90) to 66.46 % (summed average post-test score: 19.94/30 ± 6.13). The class-average normalized gain for the entire module was 0.4542 (45.42). The students accepted this E-learning activity well as they perceived it to be innovative, convenient, flexible and useful. The average rating was between 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree). The interactive E-learning module in pharmacology was moderately effective and well perceived by the students. The simple, cost-effective and

  15. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, J [University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an

  16. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive

  17. Learning to Produce Syllabic Speech Sounds via Reward-Modulated Neural Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Finnegan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    At around 7 months of age, human infants begin to reliably produce well-formed syllables containing both consonants and vowels, a behavior called canonical babbling. Over subsequent months, the frequency of canonical babbling continues to increase. How the infant’s nervous system supports the acquisition of this ability is unknown. Here we present a computational model that combines a spiking neural network, reinforcement-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and a human-like vocal tract to simulate the acquisition of canonical babbling. Like human infants, the model’s frequency of canonical babbling gradually increases. The model is rewarded when it produces a sound that is more auditorily salient than sounds it has previously produced. This is consistent with data from human infants indicating that contingent adult responses shape infant behavior and with data from deaf and tracheostomized infants indicating that hearing, including hearing one’s own vocalizations, is critical for canonical babbling development. Reward receipt increases the level of dopamine in the neural network. The neural network contains a reservoir with recurrent connections and two motor neuron groups, one agonist and one antagonist, which control the masseter and orbicularis oris muscles, promoting or inhibiting mouth closure. The model learns to increase the number of salient, syllabic sounds it produces by adjusting the base level of muscle activation and increasing their range of activity. Our results support the possibility that through dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, the motor cortex learns to harness its natural oscillations in activity in order to produce syllabic sounds. It thus suggests that learning to produce rhythmic mouth movements for speech production may be supported by general cortical learning mechanisms. The model makes several testable predictions and has implications for our understanding not only of how syllabic vocalizations develop

  18. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Wang

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina, mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA, or a floral odor (hexanal as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  19. Host immune responses to a viral immune modulating protein: immunogenicity of viral interleukin-10 in rhesus cytomegalovirus-infected rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K Eberhardt

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence has accumulated that multiple viruses, bacteria, and protozoa manipulate interleukin-10 (IL-10-mediated signaling through the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R in ways that could enable establishment of a persistent microbial infection. This suggests that inhibition of pathogen targeting of IL-10/IL-10R signaling could prevent microbial persistence. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV express a viral interleukin-10 (cmvIL-10 and rhcmvIL-10, respectively with comparable immune modulating properties in vitro to that of their host's cellular IL-10 (cIL-10. A prior study noted that rhcmvIL-10 alters innate and adaptive immunity to RhCMV in vivo, consistent with a central role for rhcmvIL-10 during acute virus-host interactions. Since cmvIL-10 and rhcmvIL-10 are extremely divergent from the cIL-10 of their respective hosts, vaccine-mediated neutralization of their function could inhibit establishment of viral persistence without inhibition of cIL-10.As a prelude to evaluating cmvIL-10-based vaccines in humans, the rhesus macaque model of HCMV was used to interrogate peripheral and mucosal immune responses to rhcmvIL-10 in RhCMV-infected animals. ELISA were used to detect rhcmvIL-10-binding antibodies in plasma and saliva, and an IL-12-based bioassay was used to quantify plasma antibodies that neutralized rhcmvIL-10 function. rhcmvIL-10 is highly immunogenic during RhCMV infection, stimulating high avidity rhcmvIL-10-binding antibodies in the plasma of all infected animals. Most infected animals also exhibited plasma antibodies that partially neutralized rhcmvIL-10 function but did not cross-neutralize the function of rhesus cIL-10. Notably, minimally detectable rhcmvIL-10-binding antibodies were detected in saliva.This study demonstrates that rhcmvIL-10, as a surrogate for cmvIL-10, is a viable vaccine candidate because (1 it is highly immunogenic during natural RhCMV infection, and (2 neutralizing antibodies to

  20. Development Of Electronic Digestive System Module For Effective Teaching And Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Aminu Doko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The digestive system hence digestion of food is usually one of the topics taught at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. Often this topic is taught using teaching aid in the form of diagrams or charts drawn on plane papers. The inanimate nature of these teaching aid employed makes learning less interesting and comprehension difficult. This paper presents the design and construction of a semi animated digestive module with remote control that visualizes the movement and process of food digestion in the body. Basically the system consists of carved wooden digestive organs with light emitting diodes LEDs carefully fixed on the path of digestion. A remote control is also built to aid remote access to the module. These LEDs start to blink indicating swallowing from the mouth down to the anus illustrating the process of digestion which also involves the production of enzymes. A comparison of with the improved teaching aid will make conventional types showed that it aroused student interest during teaching and learning process. It also reduced too much abstract explanation. Thus making teaching more efficient.

  1. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

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    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  2. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ASSISTED WITH MODULE AND STUDENTS LEARNING MOTIVATION TOWARD THE STUDY RESULT ON STUDENTS SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotman Sitanggang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve learning quality of high school students in grade ten (X to the study material is about the vector. This research is a quasiexperimental study. Samples selection is random, using the control class from the adjacent class to avoid the large bias. The results of samples selection are the students of class X-H as the control class and the students of class X-I as the experimental class. The motivation variable was distinguished from the observations of student activities at the pre-study and at current research. Highly motivated students are the students who actively ask the questions and give answers to problems. While the low-motivated students are the students whose learning activities are the less. This research was designed using 2x2 factorial ANOVA, namely the effects of cooperative learning between learning without module and module-assisted learning on students’ learning results; and the effects of students’ learning motivation between highly motivated students and low motivated students. After given the treatment, those are: the same pre-test, cooperative learning without modules in control class, module-assisted cooperative learning in experimental class, the same post-test, questionnaires distribution, collection and tabulation of the data. The data were analyzed using qualitative-descriptive technique and percentage. The data analysis results using SPSS 17.0 conclude that: (1 There is a significant difference of study results in cooperative learning without module against module-assisted cooperative learning. (2 There is a significant difference of study results between highly motivated students and low motivated students. (3 There is a significant difference of study results between the group of cooperative learning and the group of student motivation at the significance value of = 0.05.

  3. Exploring Student Engagement and Collaborative Learning in a Community-Based Module in Fine Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGarrigle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on masters research1 into student and civic engagement using a case study of an innovative Community Based Module in a Fine Art degree course (McGarrigle, 2009. 2 (Flyvbjerg, 2006 notes that contrary to some common misunderstandings around case study research, it is possible to use individual case study to test theory particularly in relation to falsification. The research presented here is based on student’s repsonses to Coates’ (2007 quantitative study of student engagement and attempts to test his engagement typology which identifies the terms passive, intense, independent or collaborative to apply to students’ approaches to online and general campus learning. In a participatory action research framework, low agreement was found between students (n=13 and lecturers (n=3 in assigning these terms to student postings to online discussion fora. This presents a challenge to the validity of such a narrow typology, and discussions with this student group suggested the addition of ‘adaptive’ as a valid student approach to the varied demands of third level learning. Further evidence from the case study found greater student collaboration in discussion fora when linked to practical course activity. Qualitative analysis of discussion threads using conversation analysis provided evidence for collaboration in deeper knowledge construction when supported by lecturers’ contributions. Collaborative approaches to learning may support learning within a social constructivist paradigm, though acknowledgement must be made of the context of an individualistic society where competition may present real or imagined barriers to student collaboration. An argument is made for Pedagogies for Community Engagement to promote these ways of learning to in order to develop active and engaged citizens of the future.

  4. Utilisation of a peer assisted learning scheme in an undergraduate diagnostic radiography module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meertens, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peer to peer support programmes involve students supporting each other in either an educational, social and/or pastoral way. This is now common place in higher education institutes and has been proven to decrease student attrition and improve grades. Aim: To evaluate a peer assisted learning scheme (PALS) within the University of Exeter undergraduate programme, where final year (stage 3) students held extra-curricular teaching sessions in an on-campus X-ray room throughout the academic term to support a first year (stage 1) module introducing basic projectional radiographic examinations, radiation safety, patient care and radiographic equipment. PALS sessions were unstructured and as such could involve roleplaying radiographic examinations, revisiting lecture material and/or discussing hospital placement or pastoral issues. Methods: Brookfield's four lenses of critical reflection were used. 16 of 63 stage 1 students and 9 of 29 stage 3 students were electronically surveyed upon completion of the PALS sessions. Relevant colleagues and educational specialists were also informally interviewed. These were put in context with autobiographical reflections and the existing literature base on PALS. Results: All agreed that the sessions provided a good environment for stage 1 students to improve their practical skills, revise lecture content, and gain confidence for upcoming clinical placements. Stage 3 students gained experience teaching students, an essential role of a graduate radiographer's job. Improvements around recruiting stage 3 peer leaders, sustainability, timetabling and session structure were explored. Conclusion: The PALS proved to be a successful initiative within the undergraduate programme and will be continued into the future. - Highlights: • Peer Assisted Learning Schemes are an established part of higher education. • Peer Assisted Learning Schemes can reduce student attrition and improve grades. • Peer Assisted Learning

  5. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

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    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  6. The Central Conserved Region (CCR) of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G Protein Modulates Host miRNA Expression and Alters the Cellular Response to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Harcourt, Jennifer L; Haynes, Lia M; Anderson, Larry J; Tripp, Ralph A

    2017-07-03

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects respiratory epithelial cells and deregulates host gene expression by many mechanisms including expression of RSV G protein (RSV G). RSV G protein encodes a central conserved region (CCR) containing a CX3C motif that functions as a fractalkine mimic. Disruption of the CX3C motif (a.a. 182-186) located in the CCR of the G protein has been shown to affect G protein function in vitro and the severity of RSV disease pathogenesis in vivo. We show that infection of polarized Calu3 respiratory cells with recombinant RSV having point mutations in Cys173 and 176 (C173/176S) (rA2-GC12), or Cys186 (C186S) (rA2-GC4) is associated with a decline in the integrity of polarized Calu-3 cultures and decreased virus production. This is accompanied with downregulation of miRNAs let-7f and miR-24 and upregulation of interferon lambda (IFNλ), a primary antiviral cytokine for RSV in rA2-GC12/rA2-GC4 infected cells. These results suggest that residues in the cysteine noose region of RSV G protein can modulate IFN λ expression accompanied by downregulation of miRNAs, and are important for RSV G protein function and targeting.

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis α-Actinin 2 Modulates Host Immune Responses by Inducing Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via IL-10 Production from Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Juri; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25- regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells.

  8. Validity and Practitality of Acid-Base Module Based on Guided Discovery Learning for Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerimadesi; Bayharti; Jannah, S. M.; Lufri; Festiyed; Kiram, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This Research and Development(R&D) aims to produce guided discovery learning based module on topic of acid-base and determine its validity and practicality in learning. Module development used Four D (4-D) model (define, design, develop and disseminate).This research was performed until development stage. Research’s instruments were validity and practicality questionnaires. Module was validated by five experts (three chemistry lecturers of Universitas Negeri Padang and two chemistry teachers of SMAN 9 Padang). Practicality test was done by two chemistry teachers and 30 students of SMAN 9 Padang. Kappa Cohen’s was used to analyze validity and practicality. The average moment kappa was 0.86 for validity and those for practicality were 0.85 by teachers and 0.76 by students revealing high category. It can be concluded that validity and practicality was proven for high school chemistry learning.

  9. Dopamine modulates memory consolidation of discrimination learning in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicknick, Horst; Reichenbach, Nicole; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Scheich, Henning; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    In Mongolian gerbils, the auditory cortex is critical for discriminating rising vs. falling frequency-modulated tones. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that dopaminergic inputs to the auditory cortex during and shortly after acquisition of the discrimination strategy control long-term memory formation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frequency-modulated tone discrimination learning of gerbils in a shuttle box GO/NO-GO procedure following differential treatments. (i) Pre-exposure of gerbils to the frequency-modulated tones at 1 day before the first discrimination training session severely impaired the accuracy of the discrimination acquired in that session during the initial trials of a second training session, performed 1 day later. (ii) Local injection of the D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 into the auditory cortex after task acquisition caused a discrimination deficit of similar extent and time course as with pre-exposure. This effect was dependent on the dose and time point of injection. (iii) Injection of the D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonist SKF-38393 into the auditory cortex after retraining caused a further discrimination improvement at the beginning of subsequent sessions. All three treatments, which supposedly interfered with dopamine signalling during conditioning and/or retraining, had a substantial impact on the dynamics of the discrimination performance particularly at the beginning of subsequent training sessions. These findings suggest that auditory-cortical dopamine activity after acquisition of a discrimination of complex sounds and after retrieval of weak frequency-modulated tone discrimination memory further improves memory consolidation, i.e. the correct association of two sounds with their respective GO/NO-GO meaning, in support of future memory recall. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Oyarzabal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56% provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27% provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20% provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32% did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P < 0.05. Thirty participants (42% stated that the most valuable thing they learned with this interactive module was the difference between hazard and risk, and 40 participants (65% responded that they did not attend similar presentations in the past. The fact that less than one third of the participants answered properly to the definitions of hazard and risk at baseline is not surprising. However, these results highlight the need for the incorporation of modules to discuss these important food safety terms and include more active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important

  11. Available, intuitive and free! Building e-learning modules using web 2.0 services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chun Wah Michael; Eastwood, Anne

    2012-01-01

    E-learning is part of the mainstream in medical education and often provides the most efficient and effective means of engaging learners in a particular topic. However, translating design and content ideas into a useable product can be technically challenging, especially in the absence of information technology (IT) support. There is little published literature on the use of web 2.0 services to build e-learning activities. To describe the web 2.0 tools and solutions employed to build the GP Synergy evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal online course. We used and integrated a number of free web 2.0 services including: Prezi, a web-based presentation platform; YouTube, a video sharing service; Google Docs, a online document platform; Tiny.cc, a URL shortening service; and Wordpress, a blogging platform. The course consisting of five multimedia-rich, tutorial-like modules was built without IT specialist assistance or specialised software. The web 2.0 services used were free. The course can be accessed with a modern web browser. Modern web 2.0 services remove many of the technical barriers for creating and sharing content on the internet. When used synergistically, these services can be a flexible and low-cost platform for building e-learning activities. They were a pragmatic solution in our context.

  12. Honey Bee Allatostatins Target Galanin/Somatostatin-Like Receptors and Modulate Learning: A Conserved Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    Full Text Available Sequencing of the honeybee genome revealed many neuropeptides and putative neuropeptide receptors, yet functional characterization of these peptidic systems is scarce. In this study, we focus on allatostatins, which were first identified as inhibitors of juvenile hormone synthesis, but whose role in the adult honey bee (Apis mellifera brain remains to be determined. We characterize the bee allatostatin system, represented by two families: allatostatin A (Apime-ASTA and its receptor (Apime-ASTA-R; and C-type allatostatins (Apime-ASTC and Apime-ASTCC and their common receptor (Apime-ASTC-R. Apime-ASTA-R and Apime-ASTC-R are the receptors in bees most closely related to vertebrate galanin and somatostatin receptors, respectively. We examine the functional properties of the two honeybee receptors and show that they are transcriptionally expressed in the adult brain, including in brain centers known to be important for learning and memory processes. Thus we investigated the effects of exogenously applied allatostatins on appetitive olfactory learning in the bee. Our results show that allatostatins modulate learning in this insect, and provide important insights into the evolution of somatostatin/allatostatin signaling.

  13. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Rowe, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56%) provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27%) provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20%) provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32%) did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important food safety terms that serve as building blocks for the understanding of more complex food safety topics.

  14. Validation of Lectora based interactive module to improve the ability of junior high school students spatial in learning Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Septia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological developments provide opportunities for educators to develop learning media through interactive modules integrated into lectora software. The development of an interactive module based on lectora can motivate students to learn independently, to be creative, and to enjoy what they are doing. Research into the development of an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material aimed to develop an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material, with the research design consisting of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the module. The result obtained from the use of an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material that had been designed and validated and later revised showed an average value of the feasibility of content to be 3.75, the average value of the aspects of presentation was 2.94, the average value aspects of language was 3.06, and the average value of the aspects of graph was 2.86. This research enabled us to conclude that an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material could be categorized as valid.

  15. Development of contextual teaching and learning based science module for junior high school for increasing creativity of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasari, H.; Sukarmin; Sarwanto

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research are to analyze the the properness of contextual teaching and learning (CTL)-based science module for Junior High School for increasing students’ creativity and using CTL-based science module to increase students’ learning creativity. Development of CTL-based science module for Junior High School is Research and Development (R&D) using 4D Model consist of 4 steps: define, design, develop, and disseminate. Module is validated by 3 expert validators (Material, media, and language experts), 2 reviewer and 1 peer reviewer. . Based on the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that: the results of the validation, the average score of CTL-based science module is 88.28%, the value exceeded the value of the cut off score of 87.5%, so the media declared eligible for the study. Research shows that the gain creativity class that uses CTL-based science module has a gain of 0.72. Based on the results of the study showed that CTL-based science module effectively promotes creativity of students

  16. Implementing simulated learning modules to improve students’ pharmacy practice skills and professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzic J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective communication enables healthcare professionals and students to practise their disciplines in a professional and competent manner. Simulated-based education (SBE has been increasingly used to improve students’ communication and practice skills in Health Education. Objective: Simulated learning modules (SLMs were developed using practice-based scenarios grounded in effective communication competencies. The effect of the SLMs on Pharmacy students’ (i Practice skills and (ii Professionalism were evaluated. Methods: SLMs integrating EXCELL competencies were applied in the classroom to study their effect on a number of learning outcomes. EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL Program is a schematic, evidence-based professional development resource centred around developing participants’ self-efficacy and generic communication competencies. Students (N=95 completed three hours of preliminary lectures and eight hours of SLM workshops including six scenarios focused on Pharmacy Practice and Experiential Placements. Each SLM included briefing, role-plays with actors, facilitation, and debriefing on EXCELL social interaction maps (SIMs. Evaluations comprised quantitative and qualitative survey responsed by students before and post-workshops, and post-placements, and teachers’ reflections. Surveys examine specific learning outcomes by using pharmacy professionalism and pharmacy practice effectiveness scales. Responses were measured prior to the commencement of SLMs, after completion of the two workshops and after students completed their block placement. Self-report measures enabled students to self-assess whether any improvements occurred. Results: Student responses were overwhelmingly positive and indicated significant improvements in their Pharmacy practice and professionalism skills, and commitment to professional ethics. Qualitative feedback strongly supported students’ improved communication

  17. Chloroplast Redox Status Modulates Genome-Wide Plant Responses during the Non-host Interaction of Tobacco with the Hemibiotrophic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pierella Karlusich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast. We have previously reported that down-regulation of ROS build-up in chloroplasts by expression of a plastid-targeted flavodoxin (Fld suppressed LCD in tobacco leaves inoculated with the non-host bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, while other defensive responses were unaffected, suggesting that chloroplast ROS and/or redox status play a major role in the progress of LCD. To better understand these effects, we compare here the transcriptomic alterations caused by Xcv inoculation on leaves of Fld-expressing tobacco plants and their wild-type siblings. About 29% of leaf-expressed genes were affected by Xcv and/or Fld. Surprisingly, 5.8% of them (1,111 genes were regulated by Fld in the absence of infection, presumably representing pathways responsive to chloroplast ROS production and/or redox status during normal growth conditions. While the majority (∼75% of pathogen-responsive genes were not affected by Fld, many Xcv responses were exacerbated, attenuated, or regulated in opposite direction by expression of this protein. Particularly interesting was a group of 384 genes displaying Xcv responses that were already triggered by Fld in the absence of infection, suggesting that the transgenic plants had a larger and more diversified suite of constitutive defenses against the attacking microorganism compared to the wild type. Fld modulated many genes involved in pathogenesis, signal

  18. Automatic Modulation Classification Based on Deep Learning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duona Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC. It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF method to solve the problem in a unified framework. The contributions include the following: (1 a convolutional neural network (CNN and long short-term memory (LSTM are combined by two different ways without prior knowledge involved; (2 a large database, including eleven types of single-carrier modulation signals with various noises as well as a fading channel, is collected with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs based on a real geographical environment; and (3 experimental results demonstrate that HDMF is very capable of coping with the AMC problem, and achieves much better performance when compared with the independent network.

  19. Automatic Modulation Classification Based on Deep Learning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duona; Ding, Wenrui; Zhang, Baochang; Xie, Chunyu; Li, Hongguang; Liu, Chunhui; Han, Jungong

    2018-03-20

    Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC). It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF) method to solve the problem in a unified framework. The contributions include the following: (1) a convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) are combined by two different ways without prior knowledge involved; (2) a large database, including eleven types of single-carrier modulation signals with various noises as well as a fading channel, is collected with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) based on a real geographical environment; and (3) experimental results demonstrate that HDMF is very capable of coping with the AMC problem, and achieves much better performance when compared with the independent network.

  20. Prevention of graft-versus-host-disease with preserved graft-versus-leukemia-effect by ex vivo and in vivo modulation of CD4(+) T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Stephan; Hilger, Nadja; Fricke, Christian; Schönfelder, Uta; Behre, Gerhard; Ruschpler, Peter; Boldt, Andreas; Oelkrug, Christopher; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report showing that an epitope-specific ex vivo modulation of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell graft by the anti-human CD4 antibody MAX.16H5 IgG1 simultaneously facilitates the anti-tumor capacity of the graft (Graft-versus-leukemia effect, GvL) and the long-term suppression of the deleterious side effect Graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). To distinguish and consolidate GvL from GvHD, the anti-human CD4 antibody MAX16.H5 IgG1 was tested in murine GvHD and tumor models. The survival rate was significantly increased in recipients receiving a MAX.16H5 IgG1 short-term (2 h) pre-incubated graft even when tumor cells were co-transplanted or when recipient mice were treated by MAX.16H5 IgG1 before transplantation. After engraftment, regulatory T-cells are generated only supporting the GvL effect. It was also possible to transfer the immune tolerance from GvHD-free recipient chimeras into third party recipient mice without the need of reapplication of MAX.16H5 IgG1 anti-human CD4 antibodies. These findings are also benefical for patients with leukemia when no matched related or unrelated donor is available and provides a safer allogeneic HSCT, which is more effective against leukemia. It also facilitates allogeneic (stem) cell transplantations for other indications (e.g., autoimmune-disorders).

  1. The Effects of Textisms on Learning, Study Time, and Instructional Perceptions in an Online Artificial Intelligence Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…

  2. Using Real-Worldness and Cultural Difference to Enhance Student Learning in a Foundation Phase Life Skills Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Mariette; Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore how real-world experience, inclusive of engagement with cultural differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module in pre-service Foundation Phase teacher education. The study was conducted with 147 students in their final year of the Bachelor of Education (Foundation Phase specialisation), at…

  3. Integrating Anatomy Training into Radiation Oncology Residency: Considerations for Developing a Multidisciplinary, Interactive Learning Module for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labranche, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie; Palma, David; D'Souza, Leah; Jaswal, Jasbir

    2015-01-01

    Radiation oncologists require an in-depth understanding of anatomical relationships for modern clinical practice, although most do not receive formal anatomy training during residency. To fulfill the need for instruction in relevant anatomy, a series of four multidisciplinary, interactive learning modules were developed for a cohort of radiation…

  4. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Ten: Transformers. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on transformers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module:…

  5. Learning modulation of odor representations: new findings from Arc-indexed networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eYuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We first review our understanding of odor representations in rodent olfactory bulb and anterior piriform cortex. We then consider learning-induced representation changes. Finally we describe the perspective on network representations gained from examining Arc-indexed odor networks of awake rats. Arc-indexed networks are sparse and distributed, consistent with current views. However Arc provides representations of repeated odors. Arc-indexed repeated odor representations are quite variable. Sparse representations are assumed to be compact and reliable memory codes. Arc suggests this is not necessarily the case. The variability seen is consistent with electrophysiology in awake animals and may reflect top down-cortical modulation of context. Arc-indexing shows that distinct odors share larger than predicted neuron pools. These may be low-threshold neuronal subsets.Learning’s effect on Arc-indexed representations is to increase the stable or overlapping component of rewarded odor representations. This component can decrease for similar odors when their discrimination is rewarded. The learning effects seen are supported by electrophysiology, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  6. Different role of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex on modulation of innate and associative learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, S F; Stecchini, M F; Corrêa, F M A; Guimarães, F S; Resstel, L B M

    2010-12-15

    Reversible inactivation of the ventral portion of medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) of the rat brain has been shown to induce anxiolytic-like effects in animal models based on associative learning. The role of this brain region in situations involving innate fear, however, is still poorly understood, with several contradictory results in the literature. The objective of the present work was to verify in male Wistar rats the effects of vMPFC administration of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a selective inhibitor of synaptic activity, in rats submitted to two models based on innate fear, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB), comparing the results with those obtained in two models involving associative learning, the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and Vogel conflict (VCT) tests. The results showed that, whereas CoCl(2) induced anxiolytic-like effects in the CFC and VCT tests, it enhanced anxiety in rats submitted to the EPM and LDB. Together these results indicate that the vMPFC plays an important but complex role in the modulation of defensive-related behaviors, which seems to depend on the nature of the anxiety/fear inducing stimuli. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flyback CCM inverter for AC module applications: iterative learning control and convergence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Minsung

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an iterative learning controller (ILC) for an interleaved flyback inverter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The flyback CCM inverter features small output ripple current, high efficiency, and low cost, and hence it is well suited for photovoltaic power applications. However, it exhibits the non-minimum phase behaviour, because its transfer function from control duty to output current has the right-half-plane (RHP) zero. Moreover, the flyback CCM inverter suffers from the time-varying grid voltage disturbance. Thus, conventional control scheme results in inaccurate output tracking. To overcome these problems, the ILC is first developed and applied to the flyback inverter operating in CCM. The ILC makes use of both predictive and current learning terms which help the system output to converge to the reference trajectory. We take into account the nonlinear averaged model and use it to construct the proposed controller. It is proven that the system output globally converges to the reference trajectory in the absence of state disturbances, output noises, or initial state errors. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed control scheme, and experiments using 400-W AC module prototype are carried out to demonstrate its practical feasibility.

  8. English for Specific Purposes (ESP Modules in the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC for Success in the Global Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Knight

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available University students must prepare themselves to be successful members of the global workforce, and this paper introduces one way for a self-access center to support such preparation by students outside of the formal classroom environment. In this paper, it is proposed that the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS provide ESP (English for specific purposes modules intended to prepare students for their future careers. Within these self-study modules, the following should be recognized and incorporated: 1. The principles of ESP 2. Elements of outcome-based education 3. The relationship between leadership, learning, and teachingIn describing such ESP modules, this paper also proposes the development of self-access materials that could be made available to facilitate the independent study.

  9. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen B R E; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.

  10. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: Empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B.R.E. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.

  11. The Role of Model Making as a Constructivist Learning Tool to Enhance Deep Learning in a Building Technology Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Beagon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the use of model making assignments in a Building Technology module encourages deeper learning of a particular topic compared to traditional lecture style teaching using 2D drawings or 3D models. It also investigates how student engagement can be improved as a result of creating a ‘constructivist environment’. The assessment tool, which involved students building a model of a window jamb and cill, was designed to encourage creativity and included elements of best practice such as reflection and development of written communication skills which are important graduate attributes for employability. Quantitative analyses based on surveys carried out amongst the students indicated that, students generally enjoyed making the model and felt, as an activity improved their attention levels. Furthermore, results showed that students felt more confident about recalling the specific detail as a result of the model making exercise compared to creating 2D drawings or merely observing a 3D model. Student feedback confirmed that model making goes some way to bridge the gap between lecture material and an understanding of how buildings are constructed on site.

  12. [Conception and implementation of a novel E-learning module with EbM learning contents in operative dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Dreher, Stefanie; Rüttermann, Stefan; Weberschock, Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs are becoming more widely used in medical and dental training. However, the combination of CAL programs and evidence-based education in dentistry has not been described previously. The aim was to determine the acceptance and user-friendliness of a CAL program combined with evidence-based training. The didactic concept of the module includes the case-oriented, problem-based embedding of a total of 32 EbM learning assignments, which can be completed interactively and self-determinedly in an interdisciplinary context using focus patients with different diseases. The present study was conducted at the Dental School of the Goethe University in Frankfurt/Main. Data on acceptance and user-friendliness were collected from three consecutive cohorts of 114 dental students attending their first clinical semester. They used the "Toothache Walk-in Clinic: FOCUS" CAL, which can be downloaded via the Internet. The instrument consisted of 64 statements. The first part addressed general information about the user. The second part contained 43 specific statements on the CAL program. These included factors A (handling and technical aspects), B (content and functional range), and C (didactics and suitability for education). Possible responses ranged from 0 to 3 (0 = strongly disagree, 3 = strongly agree). All of the 114 questionnaires distributed were returned (response rate 100%). Most users (90.1%) considered the topics of evidence-based dentistry important for their training. They rated the program by using German school grades, and the overall rating was 2.26 (SD = 0.64). Most students (88.6%) considered the program useful for their clinical training in the treatment of patients. The mean scores for the 43 specific items amounted to 1.90 (factor A, SD = 0.63), 1.55 (factor B, SD = 1.93), and 2.23 (factor C, SD = 0.79). The CAL program with dental medicine vignettes and learning elements for evidence-based medicine received a primarily

  13. Learning to modulate one's own brain activity: The effect of spontaneous mental strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using neurofeedback (NF, individuals can learn to modulate their own brain activity, in most cases electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms. Although a large body of literature reports positive effects of NF training on behavior and cognitive functions, there are hardly any reports on how participants can successfully learn to gain control over their own brain activity. About one third of people fail to gain significant control over their brain signals even after repeated training sessions. The reasons for this failure are still largely unknown. In this context, we investigated the effects of spontaneous mental strategies on NF performance. Twenty healthy participants performed either a SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15 Hz based or a Gamma (40-43 Hz based NF training over ten sessions. After the first and the last training session, they were asked to write down which mental strategy they have used for self-regulating their EEG. After the first session, all participants reported the use of various types of mental strategies such as visual strategies, concentration, or relaxation. After the last NF training session, four participants of the SMR group reported to employ no specific strategy. These four participants showed linear improvements in NF performance over the ten training sessions. In contrast, participants still reporting the use of specific mental strategies in the last NF session showed no changes in SMR based NF performance over the ten sessions. This effect could not be observed in the Gamma group. The Gamma group showed no prominent changes in Gamma power over the NF training sessions, regardless of the mental strategies used. These results indicate that successful SMR based NF performance is associated with implicit learning mechanisms. Participants stating vivid reports on strategies to control their SMR probably overload cognitive resources, which might be counterproductive in terms of increasing SMR power.

  14. DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Kristina; Ehrentreich, Hanna; Holtfrerich, Sarah K C; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2018-01-01

    Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity. 30 women with a regular menstrual cycle performed a probabilistic feedback learning task twice during the early and late FP. In addition, 39 women, who took hormonal contraceptives (HC) to suppress natural ovulation, were tested during the "pill break" and the intake phase of HC. The present data show that DAT1-genotype may interact with transient hormonal state, but only in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We found that carriers of the 9-repeat allele (9RP) experienced a significant decrease in the ability to avoid punishment from early to late FP. Neither homozygote subjects of the 10RP allele, nor subjects from the HC group showed a change in behavior between phases. These data are consistent with neurobiological studies that found that rising E2 may reverse DA transporter function and could enhance DA efflux, which would in turn reduce punishment sensitivity particularly in subjects with a higher transporter density to begin with. Taken together, the present results, although based on a small sample, add to the growing understanding of the complex interplay between different physiological modulators of dopaminergic transmission. They may not only point out the necessity to control for hormonal state in behavioral genetic research, but may offer new starting points for studies in clinical settings.

  15. DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA and current 17ß-estradiol (E2 level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1 affects reinforcement learning capacity. 30 women with a regular menstrual cycle performed a probabilistic feedback learning task twice during the early and late FP. In addition, 39 women, who took hormonal contraceptives (HC to suppress natural ovulation, were tested during the “pill break” and the intake phase of HC. The present data show that DAT1-genotype may interact with transient hormonal state, but only in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We found that carriers of the 9-repeat allele (9RP experienced a significant decrease in the ability to avoid punishment from early to late FP. Neither homozygote subjects of the 10RP allele, nor subjects from the HC group showed a change in behavior between phases. These data are consistent with neurobiological studies that found that rising E2 may reverse DA transporter function and could enhance DA efflux, which would in turn reduce punishment sensitivity particularly in subjects with a higher transporter density to begin with. Taken together, the present results, although based on a small sample, add to the growing understanding of the complex interplay between different physiological modulators of dopaminergic transmission. They may not only point out the necessity to control for hormonal state in behavioral genetic research, but may offer new starting points for studies in clinical settings.

  16. Innovation Online Teaching Module Plus Digital Engineering Kit with Proteus Software through Hybrid Learning Method to Improve Student Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholis, Nur; Syariffuddien Zuhrie, Muhamad; Rahmadian, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Demands the competence (competence) needs of the industry today is a competent workforce to the field of work. However, during this lecture material Digital Engineering (Especially Digital Electronics Basics and Digital Circuit Basics) is limited to the delivery of verbal form of lectures (classical method) is dominated by the Lecturer (Teacher Centered). Though the subject of Digital Engineering requires learning tools and is required understanding of electronic circuits, digital electronics and high logic circuits so that learners can apply in the world of work. One effort to make it happen is by creating an online teaching module and educational aids (Kit) with the help of Proteus software that can improve the skills of learners. This study aims to innovate online teaching modules plus kits in Proteus-assisted digital engineering courses through hybrid learning approaches to improve the skills of learners. The process of innovation is done by considering the skills and mastery of the technology of students (students) Department of Electrical Engineering - Faculty of Engineering – Universitas Negeri Surabaya to produce quality graduates Use of online module plus Proteus software assisted kit through hybrid learning approach. In general, aims to obtain adequate results with affordable cost of investment, user friendly, attractive and interactive (easily adapted to the development of Information and Communication Technology). With the right design, implementation and operation, both in the form of software both in the form of Online Teaching Module, offline teaching module, Kit (Educational Viewer), and e-learning learning content (both online and off line), the use of the three tools of the expenditure will be able to adjust the standard needs of Information and Communication Technology world, both nationally and internationally.

  17. An E-Learning Module to Improve Nongenetic Health Professionals' Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Genetic Risk: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Kirsten Freya Lea; Aalfs, Cora M; Dekker, Evelien; Tanis, Pieter J; Smets, Ellen M

    2017-12-18

    Nongenetic health providers may lack the relevant knowledge, experience, and communication skills to adequately detect familial colorectal cancer (CRC), despite a positive attitude toward the assessment of history of cancer in a family. Specific training may enable them to more optimally refer patients to genetic counseling. The aim of this study was to develop an e-learning module for gastroenterologists and surgeons (in training) aimed at improving attitudes, knowledge, and comprehension of communication skills, and to assess the feasibility of the e-learning module for continued medical education of these specialists. A focus group helped to inform the development of a training framework. The e-learning module was then developed, followed by a feasibility test among a group of surgeons-in-training (3rd- and 4th-year residents) and then among gastroenterologists, using pre- and posttest questionnaires. A total of 124 surgeons-in-training and 14 gastroenterologists participated. The e-learning was positively received (7.5 on a scale of 1 to 10). Between pre- and posttest, attitude increased significantly on 6 out of the 10 items. Mean test score showed that knowledge and comprehension of communication skills improved significantly from 49% to 72% correct at pretest to 67% to 87% correct at posttest. This study shows the feasibility of a problem-based e-learning module to help surgeons-in-training and gastroenterologists in recognizing a hereditary predisposition in patients with CRC. The e-learning led to improvements in attitude toward the assessment of cancer family history, knowledge on criteria for referral to genetic counseling for CRC, and comprehension of communication skills. ©Kirsten Freya Lea Douma, Cora M Aalfs, Evelien Dekker, Pieter J Tanis, Ellen M Smets. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 18.12.2017.

  18. An E-Learning Module to Improve Nongenetic Health Professionals’ Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Genetic Risk: Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalfs, Cora M; Dekker, Evelien; Tanis, Pieter J; Smets, Ellen M

    2017-01-01

    Background Nongenetic health providers may lack the relevant knowledge, experience, and communication skills to adequately detect familial colorectal cancer (CRC), despite a positive attitude toward the assessment of history of cancer in a family. Specific training may enable them to more optimally refer patients to genetic counseling. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an e-learning module for gastroenterologists and surgeons (in training) aimed at improving attitudes, knowledge, and comprehension of communication skills, and to assess the feasibility of the e-learning module for continued medical education of these specialists. Methods A focus group helped to inform the development of a training framework. The e-learning module was then developed, followed by a feasibility test among a group of surgeons-in-training (3rd- and 4th-year residents) and then among gastroenterologists, using pre- and posttest questionnaires. Results A total of 124 surgeons-in-training and 14 gastroenterologists participated. The e-learning was positively received (7.5 on a scale of 1 to 10). Between pre- and posttest, attitude increased significantly on 6 out of the 10 items. Mean test score showed that knowledge and comprehension of communication skills improved significantly from 49% to 72% correct at pretest to 67% to 87% correct at posttest. Conclusions This study shows the feasibility of a problem-based e-learning module to help surgeons-in-training and gastroenterologists in recognizing a hereditary predisposition in patients with CRC. The e-learning led to improvements in attitude toward the assessment of cancer family history, knowledge on criteria for referral to genetic counseling for CRC, and comprehension of communication skills. PMID:29254907

  19. Role of debriefing as a learning tool in simulation based learning for students of preclinical years at the end of two consecutive modules-initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Nisar, S.; Ghassan, A.

    2015-01-01

    The topic of debriefing has been receiving some attention in the simulation literature. Because of the significance of debriefing on learning, evaluation of the de-briefer is done to ensure optimal performance. Structured debriefing as a learning tool was evaluated at the end of modular teaching of first year MBBS. This study is a descriptive cross sectional study to analyze the usefulness of debriefing as an instructional strategy during observed structured clinical examination conducted at the end of two consecutive modules of first year MBBS students. Methods: Performance of 150 students of first year MBBS was evaluated at the end of modules called Foundation module and skin and musculoskeletal module. Debriefing was structured and conducted after training of six staff members who conducted and supervised Objectively Structured Clinical Examination. Results: Apart from description of results of Objectively Structured Clinical Examination that were generally good, students praised the debriefing session. Ninety percent students thought the timing of debriefing to be perfect. Only 2% percent students complained about negative debriefing. Ten percent students wanted the debriefing session to be conducted in camera so that they could evaluate their own performance. Conclusion: Debriefing session at the end of modular teaching Objectively Structured Clinical Examination is a useful learning tool as not only it provides immediate feedback about the performance but gives students opportunity to discuss own performance with the instructor in order to develop habit of lifelong self-directed adult learner. (author)

  20. Efficacy of Adolescent Suicide Prevention E-Learning Modules for Gatekeepers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Gould, Madelyn S; Twisk, Jos Wr; Kerkhof, Ad Jfm; Koot, Hans M

    2016-01-29

    Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The transition to a Web-based setting could address obstacles associated with face-to-face gatekeeper training. Although Web-based suicide prevention training targeting adolescents exists, so far no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to investigate their efficacy. This RCT study investigated the efficacy of a Web-based adolescent suicide prevention program entitled Mental Health Online, which aimed to improve the knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers working with adolescents (12-20 years old). The program consisted of 8 short e-learning modules each capturing an important aspect of the process of early recognition, guidance, and referral of suicidal adolescents, alongside additional information on the topic of (adolescent) suicide prevention. A total of 190 gatekeepers (ages 21 to 62 years) participated in this study and were randomized to either the experimental group or waitlist control group. The intervention was not masked. Participants from both groups completed 3 Web-based assessments (pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up). The outcome measures of this study were actual knowledge, and participants' ratings of perceived knowledge and perceived self-confidence using questionnaires developed specifically for this study. The actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and perceived self-confidence of gatekeepers in the experimental group improved significantly compared to those in the waitlist control group at posttest, and the effects remained significant at 3-month follow-up. The overall effect sizes were 0.76, 1.20, and 1.02, respectively, across assessments. The findings of this study indicate that Web-based suicide prevention e-learning modules can be an

  1. Development of Instructional Materials for Electrochemical Module Class XII Science High School Students with Guided Inquiry Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Fatmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Elektrokimia untuk Siswa SMA Kelas XII IPA dengan Pendekatan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the electrochemical module for high school students of class XII results of development. Electrochemical module of the development consists of two learning activities, ie to the material Volta cells and electrolysis cells for the material. Results of the assessment by two chemistry lecturer, State University of Malang and two chemistry teachers XII as an expert content / learning material for eligibility contents was 92.9%, for eligibility and completeness of presentation is 91.1%, and for the eligibility of language is 92.3% , which is classified as very feasible criteria. Overall the average value was 92.1 feasibility. Effectiveness module is indicated by the results of the development of perception and student learning outcomes. Students' perceptions obtained from student assessment results to module development. In the limited field trials obtained average value is 81.8 for all aspects of the maximum value of 100. Obtaining the average value of student learning outcomes for the cognitive aspect is 83.3, for the affective aspect is 82.3, and for the psychomotor aspect is 83.8 out of 100. The maximum value of the overall results of the study showed that the electrochemical module for high school students Class XII Science development results are very decent and very effectively used in the learning process. Key Words: guided inquiry, electrochemical module, model 4-D Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kelayakan, dan keefektifan modul elektrokimia untuk siswa SMA kelas XII hasil pengembangan. Modul Elektrokimia hasil pengembangan terdiri dari dua kegiatan belajar, yaitu untuk materi sel Volta dan untuk materi sel elektrolisis. Hasil penilaian oleh dua dosen kimia Universitas Negeri Malang dan dua guru kimia kelas XII sebagai

  2. RANCANG BANGUN SISTEM E-LEARNING PEMROGRAMAN PADA MODUL DETEKSI PLAGIARISME KODE PROGRAM DAN STUDENT FEEDBACK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Munif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kompetensi utama yang harus dimiliki oleh mahasiswa jurusan ilmu komputer/informatika adalah pemrograman. Perkuliahan yang berbasis pemrograman seringkali mewajibkan mahasiswa untuk mengerjakan soal yang cukup banyak. Hal ini tentunya akan menyulitkan dosen dalam mengevaluasi hasil pekerjaan mahasiswa. Selain itu, dimungkinkan pula adanya praktik mahasiswa yang memplagiat hasil dari mahasiswa lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjawab permasalahan tersebut. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan sebuah sistem pembelajaran/e-learning pemrograman. Modul sistem e-learning yang dibuat pada artikel ini terbatas pada modul deteksi kemiripan kode program dan student feedback system. Modul deteksi kemiripan kode program berfungsi untuk mengecek kemiripan kode program antar mahasiswa. Kemudian kode-kode program yang memiliki tingkat kemiripan tinggi akan dikelompokkan menjadi satu menggunakan algoritma hierarchical clustering. Proses pengecekan kemiripan program dimulai dari proses transformasi kode program ke dalam Abstract Syntax Tree (AST, kemudian ditransformasi menjadi sequence dan dihitung kemiripannya menggunakan algoritma Levenshtein Distance. Modul student feedback system berfungsi untuk mengecek kemiripan kode program mahasiswa dengan dosen. Mahasiswa akan mendapatkan informasi apakah kode program mereka sudah sesuai dengan yang diinginkan oleh dosen atau belum. Sebelum sistem memberikan umpan balik, terlebih dahulu kode program dosen dan mahasiswa diproses menjadi AST dan kemudian menjadi sequence. Sistem akan membandingkan kemiripan kode program dosen dan mahasiswa menggunakan algoritma Smith-Waterman yang telah dimodifikasi. Kemudian sistem menampilkan baris-baris kode mana saja yang sama antara kode program dosen dengan kode program mahasiswa. Dari hasil pengujian dapat disimpulkan bahwa modul deteksi plagiarisme dan student feedback system telah terimplementasi dengan baik.

  3. Equipping family physician trainees as teachers: a qualitative evaluation of a twelve-week module on teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Marietjie R; Cilliers, Francois J; Coetzee, Francois; Herman, Nicoline; van Heusden, Martie; von Pressentin, Klaus B

    2014-10-22

    There is a dire need to expand the capacity of institutions in Africa to educate health care professionals. Family physicians, as skilled all-rounders at district level, are potentially well placed to contribute to an extended training platform in this context. To play this role, they need to both have an understanding of their specialist role that incorporates teaching and be equipped for their role as trainers of current and future health workers and specialists. A teaching and learning capacity-building module was introduced into a new master's programme in family medicine at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. We report on the influence of this module on graduates after the first six years. A qualitative study was undertaken, interviewing thirteen graduates of the programme. Thematic analysis of data was done by a team comprising tutors and graduates of the programme and an independent researcher. Ethical clearance was obtained. The module influenced knowledge, skills and attitudes of respondents. Perceptions and evidence of changes in behaviour, changes in practice beyond the individual respondent and benefits to students and patients were apparent. Factors underlying these changes included the role of context and the role of personal factors. Contextual factors included clinical workload and opportunity pressure i.e., the pressure and responsibility to undertake teaching. Personal factors comprised self-confidence, modified attitudes and perceptions towards the roles of a family physician and towards learning and teaching, in addition to the acquisition of knowledge and skills in teaching and learning. The interaction between opportunity pressure and self-confidence influenced the application of what was learned about teaching. A module on teaching and learning influenced graduates' perceptions of, and self-reported behaviour relating to, teaching as practicing family physicians. This has important implications for educating family physicians in and for

  4. Optical implementation of neural learning algorithms based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhi; Le, Yansi; Sun, Chonghui; Song, Xiaojia; Wu, Chongqing

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering has a wide range of applications in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, adaptive control, etc. Photonics, characterized by its high speed, wide bandwidth, low power consumption and massive parallelism, is an ideal way to realize ultrafast spiking neural networks (SNNs). Synaptic plasticity is believed to be critical for learning, memory and development in neural circuits. Experimental results have shown that changes of synapse are highly dependent on the relative timing of pre- and postsynaptic spikes. Synaptic plasticity in which presynaptic spikes preceding postsynaptic spikes results in strengthening, while the opposite timing results in weakening is called antisymmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule. And synaptic plasticity has the opposite effect under the same conditions is called antisymmetric anti-STDP learning rule. We proposed and experimentally demonstrated an optical implementation of neural learning algorithms, which can achieve both of antisymmetric STDP and anti-STDP learning rule, based on the cross-gain modulation (XGM) within a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The weight and height of the potentitation and depression window can be controlled by adjusting the injection current of the SOA, to mimic the biological antisymmetric STDP and anti-STDP learning rule more realistically. As the injection current increases, the width of depression and potentitation window decreases and height increases, due to the decreasing of recovery time and increasing of gain under a stronger injection current. Based on the demonstrated optical STDP circuit, ultrafast learning in optical SNNs can be realized.

  5. Efficacy of Multimedia Learning Modules as Preparation for Lecture-Based Tutorials in Electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Christopher Moore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the efficacy of on-line, multimedia learning modules (MLMs as preparation for in-class, lecture-based tutorials in electromagnetism in a physics course for natural science majors (biology and marine science. Specifically, we report the results of a multiple-group pre/post-test research design comparing two groups receiving different treatments with respect to activities preceding participation in Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different pre-tutorial activities were as follows: (1 students were assigned reading from a traditional textbook, followed by a traditional lecture; and (2 students completed on-line MLMs developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC, and commercially known as FlipItPhysics. The MLM treatment group earned significantly higher mid-term examination scores and larger gains in content knowledge as measured by the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM. Student attitudes towards “reformed” instruction in the form of active-engagement tutorials were also improved. Specifically, post-course surveys showed that MLM-group students believed class time was more effective and the instructor was more clear than reported by non-MLM students, even though there was no significant difference between groups with respect to in-class activities and the same instructor taught both groups. MLM activities can be a highly effective tool for some student populations, especially when student preparation and buy-in are important for realizing significant gains.

  6. Are online learning modules an effective way to deliver hand trauma management continuing medical education to emergency physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason G

    2014-01-01

    The enormity of modern medical knowledge and the rapidity of change have created increased need for ongoing or continuing medical education (CME) for physicians. Online CME is attractive for its availability at any time and any place, low cost and potentially increased effectiveness compared with traditional face-to-face delivery. To determine whether online CME modules are an effective method for delivering plastic surgery CME to primary care physicians. A needs assessment survey was conducted among all emergency and family physicians in Nova Scotia. Results indicated that this type of program was appealing, and that hand trauma related topics were most desired for CME. 7 Lesson Builder (SoftChalk LLC, www.softchalk.com) was used to construct a multimedia e-learning module that was distributed along with a pretest, post-test and feedback questionnaire. Quantitative (pre- and post-test scores) and qualitative (feedback responses) data were analyzed. The 32 participants who completed the study indicated that it was a positive and enjoyable experience, and that there was a need for more resources like this. Compared with pretest scores, there was a significant gain in knowledge following completion of the module (P=0.001). The present study demonstrated that an e-learning format is attractive for this population and effective in increasing knowledge. This positive outcome will lead to development of additional modules.

  7. From bird to sparrow: Learning-induced modulations in fine-grained semantic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meo, Rosanna; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Recognition of environmental sounds is believed to proceed through discrimination steps from broad to more narrow categories. Very little is known about the neural processes that underlie fine-grained discrimination within narrow categories or about their plasticity in relation to newly acquired expertise. We investigated how the cortical representation of birdsongs is modulated by brief training to recognize individual species. During a 60-minute session, participants learned to recognize a set of birdsongs; they improved significantly their performance for trained (T) but not control species (C), which were counterbalanced across participants. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during pre- and post-training sessions. Pre vs. post changes in AEPs were significantly different between T and C i) at 206-232ms post stimulus onset within a cluster on the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus; ii) at 246-291ms in the left middle frontal gyrus; and iii) 512-545ms in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. All effects were driven by weaker activity for T than C species. Thus, expertise in discriminating T species modulated early stages of semantic processing, during and immediately after the time window that sustains the discrimination between human vs. animal vocalizations. Moreover, the training-induced plasticity is reflected by the sharpening of a left lateralized semantic network, including the anterior part of the temporal convexity and the frontal cortex. Training to identify birdsongs influenced, however, also the processing of C species, but at a much later stage. Correct discrimination of untrained sounds seems to require an additional step which results from lower-level features analysis such as apperception. We therefore suggest that the access to objects within an auditory semantic category is different and depends on subject's level of expertise. More specifically, correct intra

  8. "The Child's World": a creative and visual trigger to stimulate student enquiry in a problem based learning module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carol; Lambert, Veronica; Conlon, Joy; Harrington, Tracey

    2008-11-01

    -based learning. In: Barrett, T. Mac Labhrainn, I., Fallon, H., (Eds.), Handbook of Enquiry and Problem-based Learning: Irish Case Studies and International Perspectives. AISHE & CELT, NUI Galway. ]. This paper outlines the planning, implementation and evaluation of a "trigger" developed for a first year undergraduate nursing module. To meet specific module learning outcomes and to stimulate student inquiry through the learning strategy of PBL, a bright and colourful collage, was constructed. This tool was then evaluated using focus group interviews. Students' perspectives centered round a core theme, 'finding a focus and taking control'. Four categories were identified illustrating students progress from 'initial confusion' to engaging with the 'trigger diversity' before confidently 'exploring their own line of inquiry', thus leading to the 'stimulation of their learning'. Consistent with previous research, we also suggest it is customary for students to experience an initial period of ambiguity as they switch from teacher led to student centered learning [Biley, F., 1999. Creating tension: under graduate students nurses' response to a problem-based learning curriculum. Nurse Education Today 19 (7), 586-589]. One challenge in developing "triggers" is that the process is primarily controlled by lecturers. We suggest that a possible way forward would be to also engage students in the development of "triggers".

  9. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 surface exopolysaccharide production is a beneficial trait mediating commensal-host interaction through immune modulation and pathogen protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Saranna; Hall, Lindsay J; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacteria constitute a substantial proportion of the human gut microbiota. There are currently many bifidobacterial strains with claimed probiotic attributes. The mechanism through which these strains reside within their host and exert benefits to the host is far from fully understood. We have shown in the case of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 that a cell surface exopolysaccharide (EPS) plays a role in in vivo persistence. Biosynthesis of two possible EPSs is controlled by a bidirectional gene cluster which guides alternate EPS synthesis by means of a reorienting promoter. The presence of EPS impacts on host immune response: the wild type, EPS-positive B. breve UCC2003 efficiently evades the adaptive B-cell host response, while its isogenic, EPS-deficient equivalent elicits a strong adaptive immune response. Functionally, EPS positive strains were more resilient to presence of acid and bile and were responsible for reduced colonization levels of Citrobacter rodentium, a gut pathogen. In conclusion, we have found that EPS is important in host interactions and pathogen protection, the latter indicative of a probiotic ability for the EPS of B. breve UCC2003.

  10. Learning With Reflection: Practices in an Osteopathic Surgery Clinical Clerkship Through an Online Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Farber, Susan; Chen, Haiqin; Peska, Don N

    2015-11-01

    The value of reflective practices has gained momentum in osteopathic medical education. However, the use of reflective pedagogies has not been explored in the larger context of medical course delivery and design, to the authors' knowledge. To determine the types of reflection demonstrated by osteopathic medical students on an online discussion board and to explore differences in discussion engagement caused by the use of a reflective learning self-assessment tool. Using a mixed-method approach, reflection processes in an osteopathic surgery clinical clerkship online module were investigated in third-year osteopathic medical students. Discussion board messages were captured and coded. Both manual coding techniques and automated interrogation using NVivo9 (a computer program) for qualitative data were applied. Correlations of scores across 4 case-based discussion tasks and scores for self-reflection were computed as quantitative data. Twenty-eight students were included. Four main types of reflection (ie, content, contextual, dialogic, and personal) along with corresponding differentiated subthemes for each type of case-based discussion board group message were identified. Group collaboration revealed insights about the reflection process itself and also about the evidence of collective efforts, group engagements, and intragroup support among students. Student preparation revealed that students' metacognition was triggered when they judged their own contributions to group work. Challenges in completing readings and meeting deadlines were related to the students' long work hours. Reflective practices are essential to the practice of osteopathic medicine and medical education. Curricula can promote the development of reflective skills by integrating these deliberate practices in educational activities.

  11. Reinforcement learning modulates the stability of cognitive control settings for object selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Sali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility reflects both a trait that reliably differs between individuals and a state that can fluctuate moment-to-moment. Whether individuals can undergo persistent changes in cognitive flexibility as a result of reward learning is less understood. Here, we investigated whether reinforcing a periodic shift in an object selection strategy can make an individual more prone to switch strategies in a subsequent unrelated task. Participants completed two different choice tasks in which they selected one of four objects in an attempt to obtain a hidden reward on each trial. During a training phase, objects were defined by color. Participants received either consistent reward contingencies in which one color was more often rewarded, or contingencies in which the color that was more often rewarded changed periodically and without warning. Following the training phase, all participants completed a test phase in which reward contingencies were defined by spatial location and the location that was more often rewarded remained constant across the entire task. Those participants who received inconsistent contingencies during training continued to make more variable selections during the test phase in comparison to those who received the consistent training. Furthermore, a difference in the likelihood to switch selections on a trial-by-trial basis emerged between training groups: participants who received consistent contingencies during training were less likely to switch object selections following an unrewarded trial and more likely to repeat a selection following reward. Our findings provide evidence that the extent to which priority shifting is reinforced modulates the stability of cognitive control settings in a persistent manner, such that individuals become generally more or less prone to shifting priorities in the future.

  12. PhaR, a Negative Regulator of PhaP, Modulates the Colonization of a Burkholderia Gut Symbiont in the Midgut of the Host Insect, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Han; Jang, Ho Am; Lee, Junbeom; Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Seung Ah; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Byung Hyun; Jo, Yong Hun; Lee, Bok Luel

    2017-06-01

    Five genes encoding PhaP family proteins and one phaR gene have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia symbiont strain RPE75. PhaP proteins function as the surface proteins of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules, and the PhaR protein acts as a negative regulator of PhaP biosynthesis. Recently, we characterized one phaP gene to understand the molecular cross talk between Riptortus insects and Burkholderia gut symbionts. In this study, we constructed four other phaP gene-depleted mutants (Δ phaP1 , Δ phaP2 , Δ phaP3 , and Δ phaP4 mutants), one phaR gene-depleted mutant, and a phaR -complemented mutant (Δ phaR/phaR mutant). To address the biological roles of four phaP family genes and the phaR gene during insect-gut symbiont interaction, these Burkholderia mutants were fed to the second-instar nymphs, and colonization ability and fitness parameters were examined. In vitro , the Δ phaP3 and Δ phaR mutants cannot make a PHA granule normally in a stressful environment. Furthermore, the Δ phaR mutation decreased the colonization ability in the host midgut and negatively affected the host insect's fitness compared with wild-type Burkholderia -infected insects. However, other phaP family gene-depleted mutants colonized well in the midgut of the fifth-instar nymph insects. However, in the case of females, the colonization rate of the Δ phaP3 mutant was decreased and the host's fitness parameters were decreased compared with the wild-type-infected host, suggesting that the environment of the female midgut may be more hostile than that of the male midgut. These results demonstrate that PhaR plays an important role in the biosynthesis of PHA granules and that it is significantly related to the colonization of the Burkholderia gut symbiont in the host insects' midgut. IMPORTANCE Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis is a complex process requiring several enzymes. The biological roles of PHA granule synthesis enzymes and the surface proteins of PHA

  13. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...

  14. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are pa...

  15. Valenced action/inhibition learning in humans is modulated by a genetic variant linked to dopamine D2 receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni eRichter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivational salience plays an important role in shaping human behavior, but recent studies demonstrate that human performance is not uniformly improved by motivation. Instead, action has been shown to dominate valence in motivated tasks, and it is particularly difficult for humans to learn the inhibition of an action to obtain a reward, but the neural mechanism behind this behavioral specificity is yet unclear. In all mammals, including humans, the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly important in the neural manifestation of appetitively motivated behavior, and the human dopamine system is subject to considerable genetic variability. The well-studied TaqIA restriction fragment length polymorphism (rs1800497 has previously been shown to affect striatal dopamine metabolism. In this study we investigated a potential effect of this genetic variation on motivated action/inhibition learning. Two independent cohorts consisting of 87 and 95 healthy participants, respectively, were tested using the previously described valenced go/no-go learning paradigm in which participants learned the reward-associated no-go condition significantly worse than all other conditions. This effect was modulated by the TaqIA polymorphism, with carriers of the A1 allele showing a diminished learning-related performance enhancement in the rewarded no-go condition compared to the A2 homozygotes. This result highlights a modulatory role for genetic variability of the dopaminergic system in individual learning differences of action-valence interaction.

  16. The effectiveness of research-based physics learning module with predict-observe-explain strategies to improve the student’s competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmeldi

    2018-05-01

    The preliminary study shows that many students are difficult to master the concept of physics. There are still many students who have not mastery learning physics. Teachers and students still use textbooks. Students rarely do experiments in the laboratory. One model of learning that can improve students’ competence is a research-based learning with Predict- Observe-Explain (POE) strategies. To implement this learning, research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy are used. The research aims to find out the effectiveness of implementation of research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy to improving the students’ competence. The research used a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest group control design. Data were collected using observation sheets, achievement test, skill assessment sheets, questionnaire of attitude and student responses to learning implementation. The results of research showed that research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy was effective to improve the students’ competence, in the case of (1) mastery learning of physics has been achieved by majority of students, (2) improving the students competency of experimental class including high category, (3) there is a significant difference between the average score of students’ competence of experimental class and the control class, (4) the average score of the students competency of experimental class is higher than the control class, (5) the average score of the students’ responses to the learning implementation is very good category, this means that most students can implement research-based learning with POE strategies.

  17. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  18. Student and Tutor Perceptions of Learning and Teaching on a First-Year Study Skills Module in a University Computing Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Jane; Swift, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The level of student preparedness for university-level study has been widely debated. Effective study skills modules have been linked to supporting students' academic development during the transition phase. However, few studies have evaluated the learning experience on study skills modules from both a student and staff perspective. We surveyed…

  19. Design and Evaluation of a Digital Module with Guided Peer Feedback for Student Learning Biotechnology and Molecular Life Sciences, Attitudinal Change, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…

  1. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Six: Parallel Circuits. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…

  2. Design and evaluation of a digital module with guided peer feedback for student learning biotechnology and molecular life sciences, attitudinal change, and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 5’-terminal S fragment is required for replication and modulation of the innate immune response in host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) contains a 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR) with multiple structural domains that regulate viral genome replication, translation, and virus-host interactions. At its 5’terminus, the S fragment of over 360 bp is predicted to form a stable stem-loop that is separ...

  4. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  5. Improving Learning in a Traditional, Large-Scale Science Module with a Simple and Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    the impact on teaching and learning in terms of how the teacher and the students used the materials and the impact on the students’ performance and satisfaction. The article concludes that replacing face-to-face lectures with webcasts and online activities has the potential to improve learning in terms...... of a better student performance, higher student satisfaction, and a higher degree of flexibility for the students. In addition, the article discusses implications of using learning design for educational development, how learning design may help breaking with the perception that facilitating blended learning...... is a daunting process, and, ultimately, its potential for addressing some of the grand challenges in science education and the political agenda of today....

  6. Team-Based Learning Module for Undergraduate Medical Education: a Module Focused on the Human Papilloma Virus to Increase Willingness to Vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Rachel; Shelal, Zeena; Bernard, Carolyn; Urbauer, Diana; Toy, Eugene; Ramondetta, Lois

    2017-12-26

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination rates lag behind other vaccines, primarily because of weak provider recommendations, and are associated with nearly 30,000 new cancer diagnoses a year. Educating medical students about HPV using active, team-centered learning may increase assimilation of information and may increase vaccination rates. A team-based learning (TBL) module focused on HPV for first-year medical students about HPV will better increase knowledge and likeliness to vaccinate than traditional education methods. Baseline HPV knowledge in medical students across Texas was assessed by surveying all 4-year undergraduate medical schools. Students at one medical school then participated in a week-long TBL focused on basic and clinical concepts relating to HPV, and then were re-surveyed upon completion of the course module. At baseline assessment, first-year student at the intervention site performed at the same level as first-year medical students across the state of Texas on knowledge and satisfaction with their HPV-related medical school education. After the TBL implementation, students performed significantly better than similar-year students and equal to graduating seniors, on knowledge of HPV- and HPV-related cancers, and report significantly higher satisfaction with education measures. Students at the intervention site were significantly more likely to recommend the HPV vaccination in future practice. Short-term knowledge and willingness to recommend vaccination are improved with a targeted HPV TBL early in medical education, which may provide a basis of knowledge that could translate into improved vaccination rates.

  7. Color Modulates Olfactory Learning in Honeybees by an Occasion-Setting Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A sophisticated form of nonelemental learning is provided by occasion setting. In this paradigm, animals learn to disambiguate an uncertain conditioned stimulus using alternative stimuli that do not enter into direct association with the unconditioned stimulus. For instance, animals may learn to discriminate odor rewarded from odor nonrewarded…

  8. Technology Acceptance of Healthcare E-Learning Modules: A Study of Korean and Malaysian Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Mai; Park, Heykyung; Lee, Min-Jae; Soh, Jian-Yuan; Oh, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    Educators today are moving towards transforming their teaching and learning methods from conventional teacher-centered approaches to student-centered learning approaches with the support of technology so as to better motivate students to participate and engage in their learning process. This study was developed as a joint collaborative effort…

  9. Global Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT of a Photovoltaic Module Array Constructed through Improved Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT method in which improved teaching-learning-based optimization (I-TLBO is applied to perform global MPPT of photovoltaic (PV module arrays under dissimilar shading situations to ensure the maximum power output of the module arrays. The proposed I-TLBO enables the automatic adjustment of teaching factors according to the self-learning ability of students. Incorporating smart-tracking and self-study strategies can effectively improve the tracking response speed and steady-state tracking performance. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed I-TLBO, a HIP-2717 PV module array from Sanyo Electric was employed to compose various arrays with different serial and parallel configurations. The arrays were operated under different shading conditions to test the MPPT with double, triple, or quadruple peaks of power-voltage characteristic curves. Boost converters were employed with TMS320F2808 digital signal processors to test the proposed MPPT method. Empirical results confirm that the proposed method exhibits more favorable dynamic and static-state response tracking performance compared with that of conventional TLBO.

  10. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This module covers the relationships between current and voltage; resistance in a series circuit; how to determine the values of current, voltage, resistance, and power in resistive series circuits; the effects of source internal resistance; and an introduction to the troubleshooting of series circuits. This module is divided into five lessons:…

  11. Sigmund Freud's Personality Theory: Learning Module Employing Computer-Assisted Instruction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Jose M.

    This interactive module contains 33 windows of text and three graphics, in which Freud's topographical (unconscious, pre-conscious, and conscious) and structural (id, ego, and superego) models of the psyche are studied. Seventeen fill-in questions are interspersed within the text. The module stresses the importance of comprehending the concept of…

  12. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  13. Interactive Online Modules and Videos for Learning Geological Concepts at the University of Toronto Department of Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglio, E.; Graves, L. W.; Bank, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    We designed various computer-based applications and videos as educational resources for undergraduate courses at the University of Toronto in the Earth Science Department. These resources were developed in effort to enhance students' self-learning of key concepts as identified by educators at the department. The interactive learning modules and videos were created using the programs MATLAB and Adobe Creative Suite 5 (Photoshop and Premiere) and range from optical mineralogy (extinction and Becke line), petrology (equilibrium melting in 2-phase systems), crystallography (crystal systems), geophysics (gravity anomaly), and geologic history (evolution of Canada). These resources will be made available for students on internal course websites as well as through the University of Toronto Earth Science's website (www.es.utoronto.ca) where appropriate; the video platform YouTube.com may be used to reach a wide audience and promote the material. Usage of the material will be monitored and feedback will be collected over the next academic year in order to gage the use of these interactive learning tools and to assess if these computer-based applications and videos foster student engagement and active learning, and thus offer an enriched learning experience.

  14. Teaching and Learning of Aural and Oral Skills in Foreign Languages for Specific Purposes: The Preparation of Bilingual Hosts for the CONFINTEA VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwiges Conceição de Souza Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a FLSP1 course where principles on the aural and oral development skills were addressed with the aim of preparing competent conference hosts to work for the CONFINTEA VI. The course takers were selected from two Public Brazilian Universities: The State University of Pará and The Federal University of Pará, by a process which involved previous needs assessment, course design, material selection and continuous collaborative teaching. Contextualized communicative strategies were used in order to facilitate interaction in the foreign languages with distinct groups of foreigners invited for the international event. The theoretical foundation of this paper lies principally on the works of Almeida Filho (1998, Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, Hutchinson and Waters (1987, Munby (1978 and Nunan (1988. This teaching experience is reported through a qualitative perspective and its positive results were accredited to the effective learning environment created for the development of multicultural linguistic knowledge.

  15. Electronic Module Design with Scientifically Character-Charged Approach on Kinematics Material Learning to Improve Holistic Competence of High School Students in 10th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, R.; Darvina, Y.; Amir, H.; Murtiani, M.; Yulkifli, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The availability of modules in schools is currently lacking. Learners have not used the module as a source in the learning process. In accordance with the demands of the 2013 curriculum, that learning should be conducted using a scientific approach and loaded with character values as well as learning using interactive learning resources. The solution of this problem is to create an interactive module with a scientifically charged character approach. This interactive module can be used by learners outside the classroom or in the classroom. This interactive module contains straight motion material, parabolic motion and circular motion of high school physics class X semester 1. The purpose of this research is to produce an interactive module with a scientific approach charged with character and determine the validity and practicality. The research is Research and Development. This study was conducted only until the validity test and practice test. The validity test was conducted by three lecturers of Physics of FMIPA UNP as experts. The instruments used in this research are validation sheet and worksheet sheet. Data analysis technique used is product validity analysis. The object of this research is electronic module, while the subject of this research is three validator.

  16. Ultraviolet irradiation modulates MHC-alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors involved in the onset of graft-versus-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prooijen, H.C. Van; Aarts-Riemens, M.I.; Weelden, H. Van; Grijzenhout, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of cellular blood components has been proposed as a new technology to prevent HLA sensitization in recipients. Earlier studies have shown that a dose of 2 J/cm 2 abrogates the ability of lymphocytes to serve as stimulators in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). In this study the authors evaluate the effect of UV energy on T-lymphocytes for the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GvHD). The response of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors against host alloantigens was almost undetectable at a dose of 0.5 J/cm 2 . T-cell proliferation in MLC or in response to phytohaemagglutinin was inhibited by more than 95% at doses of 1 J/cm 2 or higher. The data suggest that UV irradiation can be used to prevent both HLA sensitization and TA-GvHD in recipients. (Author)

  17. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness

  18. Medical student knowledge regarding radiology before and after a radiological anatomy module: implications for vertical integration and self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; O'Connor, Owen J; Cryan, John F; Maher, Michael M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the impact that anatomy-focused radiology teaching has on non-examined knowledge regarding radiation safety and radiology as a specialty. First-year undergraduate medical students completed surveys prior to and after undertaking the first-year anatomy programme that incorporates radiological anatomy. Students were asked opinions on preferred learning methodology and tested on understanding of radiology as a specialty and radiation safety. Pre-module and post-module response rates were 93 % (157/168) and 85 % (136/160), respectively. Pre-module and post-module, self-directed learning (SDL) ranked eighth (of 11) for preferred gross-anatomy teaching formats. Correct responses regarding radiologist/radiographer roles varied from 28-94 % on 16 questions with 4/16 significantly improving post-module. Identification of modalities that utilise radiation significantly improved for five of eight modalities post-module but knowledge regarding relative amount of modality-specific radiation use was variable pre-module and post-module. SDL is not favoured as an anatomy teaching method. Exposure of students to a radiological anatomy module delivered by senior clinical radiologists improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use, but there was no improvement in knowledge regarding radiation exposure relative per modality. A possible explanation is that students recall knowledge imparted in didactic lectures but do little reading around the subject when the content is not examined. • Self-directed learning is not favoured as a gross anatomy teaching format amongst medical students. • An imaging anatomy-focused module improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use. • Detailed knowledge of modality-specific radiation exposure remained suboptimal post-module. • Knowledge of roles within a clinical radiology department showed little change post-module.

  19. The role of the iPad in collaborative learning in a large-enrollment first-year physics module

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ventel, Brandon; Newman, Richard; Botes, Lise; Goldberg, Alan

    2016-07-01

    The role of the iPad was investigated in the possible enhancement of collaborative learning within a tutorial setting in a large-enrollment first-year physics module. Every tutorial session was divided into an ‘iPad group’ and a ‘non-iPad group’. A set of core apps was chosen to facilitate discussion within the group. In order to maintain parity across the two groups, all the tutorial questions had to be refitted into a form suitable for use with the iPad. The results of a survey done after each tutorial indicates that, qualitatively, the iPad significantly enhanced the learning experience and strongly contributed to discussion within the group.

  20. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  1. Modulation of Host miRNAs Transcriptome in Lung and Spleen of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infected Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is one of the highly contagious viral disease, characterized by fever, sore mouth, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and pneumonia, primarily affecting sheep and goats. Reports suggested variable host response in goats and sheep and this host response vis-a-vis the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs has not been investigated. Here, miRNAs were sequenced and proteomics data were generated to identify the role of differentially expressed miRNA (DEmiRNA in PPR virus (PPRV infected lung and spleen tissues of sheep and goats. In lungs, 67 and 37 DEmiRNAs have been identified in goats and sheep, respectively. Similarly, in spleen, 50 and 56 DEmiRNAs were identified in goats and sheep, respectively. A total of 20 and 11 miRNAs were found to be common differentially expressed in both the species in PPRV infected spleen and lung, respectively. Six DEmiRNAs—miR-21-3p, miR-1246, miR-27a-5p, miR-760-3p, miR-320a, and miR-363 were selected based on their role in viral infections, apoptosis, and fold change. The target prediction analysis of these six selected DEmiRNAs from the proteome data generated, revealed involvement of more number of genes in lung and spleen of goats than in sheep. On gene ontology analysis of host target genes these DEmiRNAs were found to regulate several immune response signaling pathways. It was observed that the pathways viz. T cell receptor signaling, Rap1 signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, and B cell receptor signaling governed by DEmiRNAs were more perturbed in goats than in sheep. The data suggests that PPRV-induced miR-21-3p, miR-320a, and miR-363 might act cooperatively to enhance viral pathogenesis in the lung and spleen of sheep by downregulating several immune response genes. The study gives an important insight into the molecular pathogenesis of PPR by identifying that the PPRV—Izatnagar/94 isolate elicits a strong host response in goats than in sheep.

  2. Team-based learning in a preclinical removable denture prosthesis module in a United Arab Emirates dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Ali, Reem; Al Quran, Firas

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of a team-based learning (TBL) approach in a removable denture prosthesis (RDP) module and present the results of students' performance in individual and group TBL activities and exam scores, students' experience with TBL and end of course evaluations, and faculty feedback. Course material at the College of Dentistry, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, was transformed into seven conventional lectures and seven TBL sessions. Each TBL session consisted of pre-assigned reading (self-directed learning), in-class individual and group readiness tests (accountability), team problem-solving of patient RDP cases, and faculty-led class discussion (knowledge application). The course was assessed through scores from TBL session activities and course examinations, student satisfaction survey, and faculty feedback. Course grades were found to be higher using the TBL method then the traditional lecture-based method. Student evaluation data and faculty response indicated strong support for TBL as it was implemented in the course. The faculty noted a higher level of student engagement with team learning than in conventional class lecturing. TBL is an active-learning instructional strategy for courses with high student-to-faculty ratios. This approach provides regular feedback and the opportunity for students to develop higher reasoning skills.

  3. Implementation of a Service-learning Module in Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology Classes at an Undergraduate Liberal Arts University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios-Sanz, Maia; Simmons, Alexandra D; Bagnall, Ruth Ann; Rosell, Rosemarie C

    2011-01-01

    Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper-division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics to a real-life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester) at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell) seen at the clinic and, working in groups, come up with educational material in the form of a display or brochure to be distributed to patients. The material was meant to educate patients about the disease in general terms, as well as how to recognize (symptoms), prevent and treat it. Students were required to keep a reflective journal in the form of a blog throughout the semester, and present their final materials to the class orally. Students were surveyed about their opinion of the experience at the end of the semester. The vast majority of student participants felt that the project was a positive experience and that it helped them develop additional skills beyond what they learn in the classroom and understand how lecture topics relate to every day life.

  4. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Lopez-Alonso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1 on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI. We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, paired associative stimulation (PAS25, and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28 were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online, 1 day after training (consolidation, and 1 week after training (retention. We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning.

  5. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Liew, Sook-Lei; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel; Cheeran, Binith; Sandrini, Marco; Abe, Mitsunari; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI). We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), paired associative stimulation (PAS25), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28) were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online), 1 day after training (consolidation), and 1 week after training (retention). We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning. PMID:29740271

  6. Efficacy of a Meiosis Learning Module Developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Eric E.; Reindl, Katie M.; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G.; Schroeder, Noah L.; White, Alan R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports calling for change in undergraduate biology education have resulted in the redesign of many introductory biology courses. Reports on one common change to course structure, the active-learning environment, have placed an emphasis on student preparation, noting that the positive outcomes of active learning in the classroom depend…

  7. The design and use of open online modules for blended learning in STEM education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theo van den Bogaart; Paul Drijvers; Jos Tolboom

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning, a teaching format in which face-to-face and online learning is integrated, nowadays is an important development in education. Little is known, however, about its affordances for teacher education, and for domain specific didactical courses in particular. To investigate this topic,

  8. Organizational Approach to the Ergonomic Examination of E-Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Evgeniy; Kupenko, Olena; Lavryk, Tetiana; Barchenko, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    With a significant increase in the number of e-learning resources the issue of quality is of current importance. An analysis of existing scientific and methodological literature shows the variety of approaches, methods and tools to evaluate e-learning materials. This paper proposes an approach based on the procedure for estimating parameters of…

  9. Dose Dependent Dopaminergic Modulation of Reward-Based Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wouwe, N. C.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Band, G. P. H.; van den Wildenberg, W. P. M.; Wylie, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to select optimal behavior in new and uncertain situations is a crucial aspect of living and requires the ability to quickly associate stimuli with actions that lead to rewarding outcomes. Mathematical models of reinforcement-based learning to select rewarding actions distinguish between (1) the formation of stimulus-action-reward…

  10. Development of Ethnoscience Approach in The Module Theme Substance Additives to Improve the Cognitive Learning Outcome and Student’s entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmin; Febu, R.; Nuswowati, M.; Sumarni, W.

    2017-04-01

    Ethnoscience approach is an interesting research today. The purpose of this research is to develop approaches ethnoscience and modules ethnoscience theme additives based ethnoscience; as well as assess the feasibility and effectiveness of module theme additives based ethnoscience to improve learning outcomes and the entrepreneurial character of students. This type of research is the Research and Development (R & D). In this research consist of four stages, namely define, design, development and implementation. The subjects of this study were students of the School of MTs Maarif NU Brebes. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitative and quantitative. The results showed that ethnoscience approach and the module theme substance additives used declared worthy of National Education Standards Agency (BNSP) with an average percentage of validation on the feasibility aspect of the content, language feasibility, and feasibility of presenting respectively for 94.3%, 86 % and 92% and a very decent entry criteria. The effect of the application modules substance additive based ethnoscience can improve on the cognitive learning classical amounted to 90.63%, and increased learning outcomes category was based on the scores of N-gain. Influence ethnoscience approach application and module theme substances additives based ethnoscience able to improve the entrepreneurial character of students. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ethnoscience approach and module theme substance additives based ethnoscience effective to improve learning outcomes and students’ entrepreneurship.

  11. States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Matthias J; Gelman, Bernard D; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-10-22

    People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity. Importantly, individual variability in curiosity-driven memory benefits for incidental material was supported by anticipatory activity in the midbrain and hippocampus and by functional connectivity between these regions. These findings suggest a link between the mechanisms supporting extrinsic reward motivation and intrinsic curiosity and highlight the importance of stimulating curiosity to create more effective learning experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Matthias J.; Gelman, Bernard D.; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-01-01

    Summary People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about, and also for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. FMRI results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity. Importantly, individual variability in curiosity-driven memory benefits for incidental material was supported by anticipatory activity in the midbrain and hippocampus and by functional connectivity between these regions. These findings suggest a link between the mechanisms supporting extrinsic reward motivation and intrinsic curiosity and highlight the importance of stimulating curiosity in order to create more effective learning experiences. PMID:25284006

  13. A single session of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation does not modulate implicit task sequence learning and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Branislav; Müri, René; Meier, Beat

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is assumed to affect cortical excitability and dependent on the specific stimulation conditions either to increase or decrease learning. The purpose of this study was to modulate implicit task sequence learning with tDCS. As cortico-striatal loops are critically involved in implicit task sequence learning, tDCS was applied above the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In Experiment 1, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied before the start of the sequence learning task. In Experiment 2, stimulation was applied during the sequence learning task. Consolidation of learning was assessed after 24 h. The results of both experiments showed that implicit task sequence learning occurred consistently but it was not modulated by different tDCS conditions. Similarly, consolidation measured after a 24 h-interval including sleep was also not affected by stimulation. These results indicate that a single session of DLPFC tDCS is not sufficient to modulate implicit task sequence learning. This study adds to the accumulating evidence that tDCS may not be as effective as originally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of an e-learning module in delivering a curriculum in radiation protection to undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sum; Mc Laughlin, Patrick; O'Connor, Owen J; O'Flynn, Siun; Maher, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Integrating radiation protection (RP) education in the undergraduate medical curriculum is gaining importance and is mandatory in certain jurisdictions. An e-learning module for RP was developed at the authors' medical school and was integrated into year 4 of the 5-year undergraduate medical program. The aim of this study was to investigate its impact on RP knowledge, student preferences for various teaching methods, self-assessment of RP knowledge, and perceptions of career prospects in radiology. Likert-type 5-point scale evaluations and general comments about the RP module and various methods of teaching were also obtained. An e-learning module in RP was designed and presented to year 4 medical undergraduates. All students were required to complete premodule and postmodule questionnaires. Eighty-nine percent (n = 113) and 99% (n = 126) of the 127 medical students successfully completed and returned the premodule and postmodule questionnaires, respectively. After the e-learning module, students' postmodule RP knowledge had improved significantly. Analysis of postmodule RP knowledge suggested that a favorable self-assessment of knowledge of RP, perception of career prospects in radiology, and completion of the e-learning module with an increased number of sessions were factors predictive of improved RP knowledge. Students expressed a preference for didactic lectures and clinical attachment for instruction in RP over e-learning. The development of an e-learning module in RP is feasible and results in improved knowledge of RP among medical undergraduates. Combining e-learning and more traditional educational programs such as a clinical radiology rotation is likely to improve student experience. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social modulation of stress reactivity and learning in young worker honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    Full Text Available Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition, it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval.

  16. Social Modulation of Stress Reactivity and Learning in Young Worker Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old) controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition), it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval. PMID:25470128

  17. Just enough, but not too much interactivity leads to better clinical skills performance after a computer assisted learning module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, A L; Song, H S; Sarpel, U; Schwartz, R; Brenner, J; Ark, T K; Plass, J

    2012-01-01

    Well-designed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can potentially transform medical education. Yet little is known about whether specific design features such as direct manipulation of the content yield meaningful gains in clinical learning. We designed three versions of a multimedia module on the abdominal exam incorporating different types of interactivity. As part of their physical diagnosis course, 162 second-year medical students were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to Watch, Click or Drag versions of the abdominal exam module. First, students' prior knowledge, spatial ability, and prior experience with abdominal exams were assessed. After using the module, students took a posttest; demonstrated the abdominal exam on a standardized patient; and wrote structured notes of their findings. Data from 143 students were analyzed. Baseline measures showed no differences among groups regarding prior knowledge, experience, or spatial ability. Overall there was no difference in knowledge across groups. However, physical exam scores were significantly higher for students in the Click group. A mid-range level of behavioral interactivity was associated with small to moderate improvements in performance of clinical skills. These improvements were likely mediated by enhanced engagement with the material, within the bounds of learners' cognitive capacity. These findings have implications for the design of CAI materials to teach procedural skills.

  18. Positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 accelerates extinction learning but not relearning following methamphetamine self-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Kufahl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have implicated glutamate neurotransmission as an important substrate for the extinction of conditioned behaviors, including responding for drug reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulation of the type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5 in particular has emerged as a treatment strategy for the enhancement of extinction of drug-motivated behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB, a compound known for its cognitive enhancing effects in rodents, on extinction learning in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH training. Rats were trained to self-administer METH under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA, or 8 daily sessions of short access followed by 8 sessions of long access (6 hr/day, LgA. Control rats self-administered sucrose pellets in daily 30 min sessions. Next, rats were administered vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB prior to 7 consecutive daily extinction sessions, subjected to additional extinction sessions to re-establish a post-treatment baseline, and then tested for reinstatement of behavior in the presence of METH- or sucrose-paired cues. Rats were then subjected to a second series of extinction sessions, preceded by vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB, and an additional test for cue-triggered reinstatement. CDPPB treatment resulted in a more rapid extinction of responding on the active lever, especially in the early sessions of the first extinction sequence. However, treatment effects were minimal during subsequent cue reinstatement tests and nonexistent during the second series of extinction sessions. Rats with histories of ShA, LgA and sucrose training expressed similar behavioral sensitivities to CDPPB, with LgA rats demonstrating a modestly higher treatment effect. Positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 may therefore have some beneficial effects on efforts to facilitate extinction learning and reduce methamphetamine seeking.

  19. Exploring Local Level Factors Shaping the Implementation of a Blended Learning Module for Information and Geospatial Literacy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Vine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended learning model? and How satisfied are implementers (faculty, administrators and library instructional/support staff with the new blended learning model for geospatial and information fluency? Focus groups (n=7 plus one interview (total n=22 were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g., staff, faculty, administrators to better understand facilitators, barriers, and/or issues related to module development, in addition to perceptions about how the modules are utilized by teaching assistants (TAs, instructional assistants (IAs, and instructors. Participants were identified according to their status as either discipline-specific instructional staff (i.e., instructor, TA, IA or staff who supported the development of modules (i.e., library instructional staff, library management, administrators. From an ontological standpoint that privileges an individual perspective on the nature of reality, while epistemologically seeking to understand the relationship between the “knower” and what can be known, we adopted a theory of constructivism to support this inquiry. Transcripts were imported into a qualitative analysis software package (NVivo 8.0 for organization, coding and analysis. Instructors found value in the online modules, particularly in a blended learning setting. Instructors felt that having the material in advance, in-class time could be better focused on interaction, assignments, and assessments and resulted in reduced anxiety in busy lab environments. Several key themes emerged, including: (a instructor expectations (time constraints, sustainability, and collaborative nature of development process and

  20. Modulating effects in learned helplessness of dyadic dominance-submission relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Berciano, Cristina; de Vicente, Francisco; Fontecha, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, learned helplessness was studied from an ethological perspective by examining individual differences in social dominance and its influence on the effects of helplessness. Ninety animals were used, 30 randomly selected and 60 selected because of their clear dominance or submission. Each condition (dominant, submissive, and random) was distributed in three subgroups corresponding to the triadic design. The test consisted of an escape/avoidance task. The results showed that the animals in the uncontrollable condition performed worse than those in the controllable and no treatment conditions. Social submission and dominance reduced vulnerability of the subjects against learned helplessness. Submission had a facilitating effect on subsequent learning, independently of whether pretreatment was controllability or uncontrollability. Learned mastery was observed in the submissive condition, because submission benefited the subjects in the controllable condition in comparison with the untreated subjects, and dominance impaired the subjects in the controllable condition. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A cooperative inquiry into action learning and praxis development in a community nursing module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emrys R; Mabbett, Gaynor M; Surridge, Andrea G; Warring, Joanna; Gwynn, Elizabeth D

    2009-09-01

    As nurse lecturers we investigated practice development and action learning approaches aimed at enabling postregistration bachelor's- and master's-level nursing students (Community Health Studies, Nursing in the Home) to advance practice in the context of policy and professional developments. A patchwork text was used to assess summatively what students achieved (practice change/development) and how this was informed critically, via an extended epistemology. First-person inquiry supplemented by cooperative inquiry postcourse completion (including reflective discussions with 16 students and 16 practice mentors) were used to assist coresearcher constructions of meaning. A relational, tripartite approach to learning and assessment (students', teachers', and practice mentors' collective contributions) depends on continuing reflective attention. Action learning enhances interrelation of experience with dialectic thinking. The patchwork text functions to promote creative writing, evaluative thinking, and praxis development. Role modeling by all, being genuine and not just "talking" genuine, is challenging yet crucial if people are to function as mutual resources for learning.

  2. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  3. Modulation of spatial attention by goals, statistical learning, and monetary reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sha, Li Z; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    This study documented the relative strength of task goals, visual statistical learning, and monetary reward in guiding spatial attention. Using a difficult T-among-L search task, we cued spatial attention to one visual quadrant by (i) instructing people to prioritize it (goal-driven attention), (ii) placing the target frequently there (location probability learning), or (iii) associating that quadrant with greater monetary gain (reward-based attention). Results showed that successful goal-driven attention exerted the strongest influence on search RT. Incidental location probability learning yielded a smaller though still robust effect. Incidental reward learning produced negligible guidance for spatial attention. The 95 % confidence intervals of the three effects were largely nonoverlapping. To understand these results, we simulated the role of location repetition priming in probability cuing and reward learning. Repetition priming underestimated the strength of location probability cuing, suggesting that probability cuing involved long-term statistical learning of how to shift attention. Repetition priming provided a reasonable account for the negligible effect of reward on spatial attention. We propose a multiple-systems view of spatial attention that includes task goals, search habit, and priming as primary drivers of top-down attention.

  4. Host regulation of lysogenic decision in bacteriophage lambda: transmembrane modulation of FtsH (HflB), the cII degrading protease, by HflKC (HflA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, A; Akiyama, Y; Ito, K

    1997-05-27

    The cII gene product of bacteriophage lambda is unstable and required for the establishment of lysogenization. Its intracellular amount is important for the decision between lytic growth and lysogenization. Two genetic loci of Escherichia coli are crucial for these commitments of infecting lambda genome. One of them, hflA encodes the HflKC membrane protein complex, which has been believed to be a protease degrading the cII protein. However, both its absence and overproduction stabilized cII in vivo and the proposed serine protease-like sequence motif in HflC was dispensable for the lysogenization control. Moreover, the HflKC protein was found to reside on the periplasmic side of the plasma membrane. In contrast, the other host gene, ftsH (hflB) encoding an integral membrane ATPase/protease, is positively required for degradation of cII, since loss of its function stabilized cII and its overexpression accelerated the cII degradation. In vitro, purified FtsH catalyzed ATP-dependent proteolysis of cII and HflKC antagonized the FtsH action. These results, together with our previous finding that FtsH and HflKC form a complex, suggest that FtsH is the cII degrading protease and HflKC is a modulator of the FtsH function. We propose that this transmembrane modulation differentiates the FtsH actions to different substrate proteins such as the membrane-bound SecY protein and the cytosolic cII protein. This study necessitates a revision of the prevailing view about the host control over lambda lysogenic decision.

  5. Improving Learning with the Critical Thinking Paradigm: MIBOLC Modules A and B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilman, Jessica H

    2009-01-01

    ...; however, a strong tie to traditional teaching paradigms still remains. In order to effectively train officers to utilize the fundamental knowledge taught in Modules A and B, the reliance on traditional teaching methodology must be destroyed and replaced by a dynamic critical thinking approach.

  6. Development of e-module combining science process skills and dynamics motion material to increasing critical thinking skills and improve student learning motivation senior high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Adie Perdana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning media is one of the most components in the teaching and learning process. This research was conducted to design and develop the electronic modules combining science process skills and dynamics motion content for increasing critical thinking skills and improve student learning motivation for senior high school. The Methods used in this research is Research and Development (R&D. Model research and development using a research 4D Thiagarajan model. Physics module was developed using science process skills approach: observing, formulating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, identify variables, conduct experiments, analyse the data, summarise and communicate. The results showed that: 1 the electronics module has been developed by integrating the science process skills for enhancing critical thinking skills and student motivation. 2 Electronic Module Physics-based science process skills meet the criteria very well, judging from the results of validation content, validation media, validation of peer education and practitioners, with an average value of 3.80 is greater than the minimum eligibility 3.78. 3 effectiveness the modules of science process skills got N-gain value obtained from a large trial in grade samples of 0.67 and 0.59 in the control group were categorised as moderate. 4 Implementation of electronic modules Physics-based science process skills is considered an effective to enhance the students' motivation. Statistical analysis showed a significance value of 0.027 is lower than the significance level α = 0.05, this means that there are significant differences between learning motivation grade sample and the control class. As a result of analysis data obtained from the research, it was seen that the students' motivation that uses Physics module based science process skills better than conventional learning.

  7. Gene Network Construction from Microarray Data Identifies a Key Network Module and Several Candidate Hub Genes in Age-Associated Spatial Learning Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Raihan; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-01-01

    As humans age many suffer from a decrease in normal brain functions including spatial learning impairments. This study aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms in age-associated spatial learning impairment (ASLI). We used a mathematical modeling approach implemented in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to create and compare gene network models of young (learning unimpaired) and aged (predominantly learning impaired) brains from a set of exploratory datasets in rats in the context of ASLI. The major goal was to overcome some of the limitations previously observed in the traditional meta- and pathway analysis using these data, and identify novel ASLI related genes and their networks based on co-expression relationship of genes. This analysis identified a set of network modules in the young, each of which is highly enriched with genes functioning in broad but distinct GO functional categories or biological pathways. Interestingly, the analysis pointed to a single module that was highly enriched with genes functioning in "learning and memory" related functions and pathways. Subsequent differential network analysis of this "learning and memory" module in the aged (predominantly learning impaired) rats compared to the young learning unimpaired rats allowed us to identify a set of novel ASLI candidate hub genes. Some of these genes show significant repeatability in networks generated from independent young and aged validation datasets. These hub genes are highly co-expressed with other genes in the network, which not only show differential expression but also differential co-expression and differential connectivity across age and learning impairment. The known function of these hub genes indicate that they play key roles in critical pathways, including kinase and phosphatase signaling, in functions related to various ion channels, and in maintaining neuronal integrity relating to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Taken together, they

  8. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    server-based system. Open source web technologies and community-based tools are used to facilitate wide dissemination and adaptation by diverse, independent institutions. The new hydrologic learning modules are based on recent developments in hydrologic modeling, data, and resources. The modules are embedded in three regional-scale ecosystems, Coastal Louisiana, Florida Everglades, and Utah Great Salt Lake Basin. These sites provide a wealth of hydrologic concepts and scenarios that can be used in most water resource and hydrology curricula. The study develops several learning modules based on the three hydro-systems covering subjects such as: water-budget analysis, effects of human and natural changes, climate-hydrology teleconnections, and water-resource management scenarios. The new developments include an instructional interface to give critical guidance and support to the learner and an instructor's guide containing adaptation and implementation procedures to assist instructors in adopting and integrating the material into courses and provide a consistent experience. The design of the new hydrologic education developments will be transferable to independent institutions and adaptable both instructionally and technically through a server system capable of supporting additional developments by the educational community.

  9. A Series of MATLAB Learning Modules to Enhance Numerical Competency in Applied Marine Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. M.; Lucieer, V.; Burke, C.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced numerical competency to navigate the massive data landscapes are critical skills students need to effectively explore, analyse and visualize complex patterns in high-dimensional data for addressing the complexity of many of the world's problems. This is especially the case for interdisciplinary, undergraduate applied marine science programs, where students are required to demonstrate competency in methods and ideas across multiple disciplines. In response to this challenge, we have developed a series of repository-based data exploration, analysis and visualization modules in MATLAB for integration across various attending and online classes within the University of Tasmania. The primary focus of these modules is to teach students to collect, aggregate and interpret data from large on-line marine scientific data repositories to, 1) gain technical skills in discovering, accessing, managing and visualising large, numerous data sources, 2) interpret, analyse and design approaches to visualise these data, and 3) to address, through numerical approaches, complex, real-world problems, that the traditional scientific methods cannot address. All modules, implemented through a MATLAB live script, include a short recorded lecture to introduce the topic, a handout that gives an overview of the activities, an instructor's manual with a detailed methodology and discussion points, a student assessment (quiz and level-specific challenge task), and a survey. The marine science themes addressed through these modules include biodiversity, habitat mapping, algal blooms and sea surface temperature change and utilize a series of marine science and oceanographic data portals. Through these modules students, with minimal experience in MATLAB or numerical methods are introduced to array indexing, concatenation, sorting, and reshaping, principal component analysis, spectral analysis and unsupervised classification within the context of oceanographic processes, marine geology and

  10. Opposite monosynaptic scaling of BLP-vCA1 inputs governs hopefulness- and helplessness-modulated spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jin, Sen; Gao, Di; Liu, Nan; Chen, Shan-Ping; Zhang, Sinan; Liu, Qing; Liu, Enjie; Wang, Xin; Liang, Xiao; Wei, Pengfei; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yin; Yue, Chenyu; Li, Hong-Lian; Wang, Ya-Li; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Xie, Qingguo; Xu, Fuqiang; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-07-14

    Different emotional states lead to distinct behavioural consequences even when faced with the same challenging events. Emotions affect learning and memory capacities, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain elusive. Here we establish models of learned helplessness (LHL) and learned hopefulness (LHF) by exposing animals to inescapable foot shocks or with anticipated avoidance trainings. The LHF animals show spatial memory potentiation with excitatory monosynaptic upscaling between posterior basolateral amygdale (BLP) and ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1), whereas the LHL show memory deficits with an attenuated BLP-vCA1 connection. Optogenetic disruption of BLP-vCA1 inputs abolishes the effects of LHF and impairs synaptic plasticity. By contrast, targeted BLP-vCA1 stimulation rescues the LHL-induced memory deficits and mimics the effects of LHF. BLP-vCA1 stimulation increases synaptic transmission and dendritic plasticity with the upregulation of CREB and intrasynaptic AMPA receptors in CA1. These findings indicate that opposite excitatory monosynaptic scaling of BLP-vCA1 controls LHF- and LHL-modulated spatial memory, revealing circuit-specific mechanisms linking emotions to memory.

  11. Opposite monosynaptic scaling of BLP–vCA1 inputs governs hopefulness- and helplessness-modulated spatial learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jin, Sen; Gao, Di; Liu, Nan; Chen, Shan-Ping; Zhang, Sinan; Liu, Qing; Liu, Enjie; Wang, Xin; Liang, Xiao; Wei, Pengfei; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yin; Yue, Chenyu; Li, Hong-lian; Wang, Ya-Li; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Xie, Qingguo; Xu, Fuqiang; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Different emotional states lead to distinct behavioural consequences even when faced with the same challenging events. Emotions affect learning and memory capacities, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain elusive. Here we establish models of learned helplessness (LHL) and learned hopefulness (LHF) by exposing animals to inescapable foot shocks or with anticipated avoidance trainings. The LHF animals show spatial memory potentiation with excitatory monosynaptic upscaling between posterior basolateral amygdale (BLP) and ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1), whereas the LHL show memory deficits with an attenuated BLP–vCA1 connection. Optogenetic disruption of BLP–vCA1 inputs abolishes the effects of LHF and impairs synaptic plasticity. By contrast, targeted BLP–vCA1 stimulation rescues the LHL-induced memory deficits and mimics the effects of LHF. BLP–vCA1 stimulation increases synaptic transmission and dendritic plasticity with the upregulation of CREB and intrasynaptic AMPA receptors in CA1. These findings indicate that opposite excitatory monosynaptic scaling of BLP–vCA1 controls LHF- and LHL-modulated spatial memory, revealing circuit-specific mechanisms linking emotions to memory. PMID:27411738

  12. Creatures of habit (and control: a multi-level learning perspective on the modulation of congruency effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eEgner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The congruency sequence effect (CSE describes the finding that congruency effects in classic probes of selective attention (like the Stroop, Simon, and flanker tasks are smaller following an incongruent than following a congruent trial. The past two decades have generated a large literature on determinants and boundary conditions for the CSE and similar, congruency-proportion based modulations of congruency effects. A prolonged and heated theoretical discussion has been guided primarily by a historically motivated dichotomy between top-down control versus associative bottom-up explanations for these effects. In the present article, I attempt to integrate and contextualize the major empirical findings in this field by arguing that CSEs (and related effects are best understood as reflecting a composite of multiple levels of learning that differ in their level of abstraction. Specifically, learning does not only involve the trial-by-trial encoding, binding, and cued retrieval of specific stimulus-response associations, but also of more abstract trial features, including the spatial and temporal context in which a stimulus occurs, as well as internal states, like the experience of difficulty, and the attentional control settings that were employed in dealing with the stimulus. From this perspective, top-down control and bottom-up priming processes work in concert rather than in opposition. They represent different levels of abstraction in the same learning scheme and they serve a single, common goal: forming memory ensembles that will facilitate fast and appropriate responding to recurring stimuli or events in the environment.

  13. Excretory products of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, modulate in vitro responses of leukocytes from its specific host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsack, Jörn Peter; Gossens, Anabel; Franke, Frederik; Kurtz, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Helminth parasites have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate the immune system of their hosts. During infections of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus prominent immunological changes occur, presumably due to manipulative activity of the parasite. We hypothesise that excretory/secretory products of the parasite are involved in the manipulation of the stickleback's immune system and that this may depend on the individual parasite and its origin. We therefore produced S. solidus conditioned cell culture media (SSCM) with parasites from different origins (Norway, Spain and Germany) and exposed head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from un-infected sticklebacks in cell cultures to SSCM. After in vitro culture, HKL were subjected to differential cell counts (granulocytes/lymphocytes) by means of flow cytometry. Leukocyte sub-populations were analysed for cell viability and changes in cell morphology. The respiratory burst activity was measured with a luminescence assay. Exposure of HKL to SSCM induced an up-regulation of respiratory burst activity after already 1 h, which was still elevated at 24 h, but which was in some cases significantly down-regulated after 96 h. Respiratory burst was positively correlated with the number of live granulocytes in the culture, suggesting that the respiratory burst activity was changed by SSCM effects on granulocyte viability. After 1 h and 24 h of HKL culture, no lymphocyte responses to SSCM were detectable, but after 96 h lymphocyte viability was significantly decreased with SSCM from Spanish S. solidus. In these cultures, residual lymphocytes increased in size, suggesting that cell death and activation might have occurred in parallel. The highest respiratory burst activity was induced by SSCM from Spanish parasites, in particular when they were grown in sympatric sticklebacks. The in vitro HKL responses to SSCM depended on the individual parasite and its population of origin

  14. Flavylium network of chemical reactions in confined media: modulation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavilium reactions by host-guest interactions with cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Nuno; Pina, Fernando

    2014-08-04

    In moderately acidic aqueous solutions, flavylium compounds undergo a pH-, and in some cases, light-dependent array of reversible chemical reactions. This network can be described as a single acid-base reaction involving a flavylium cation (acidic form) and a mixture of basic forms (quinoidal base, hemiketal and cis and trans chalcones). The apparent pK'a of the system and the relative mole fractions of the basic forms can be modulated by the interaction with cucurbit[7]uril. The system is studied by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, flash photolysis, and steady-state irradiation. Of all the network species, the flavylium cation possesses the highest affinity for cucurbit[7]uril. The rate of interconversion between flavylium cation and the basic species (where trans-chalcone is dominant) is approximately nine times lower inside the cucurbit[7]uril. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. CyVerse Data Commons: lessons learned in cyberinfrastructure management and data hosting from the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Walls, R.; Merchant, N.

    2017-12-01

    CyVerse, is a US National Science Foundation funded initiative "to design, deploy, and expand a national cyberinfrastructure for life sciences research, and to train scientists in its use," supporting and enabling cross disciplinary collaborations across institutions. CyVerse' free, open-source, cyberinfrastructure is being adopted into biogeoscience and space sciences research. CyVerse data-science agnostic platforms provide shared data storage, high performance computing, and cloud computing that allow analysis of very large data sets (including incomplete or work-in-progress data sets). Part of CyVerse success has been in addressing the handling of data through its entire lifecycle, from creation to final publication in a digital data repository to reuse in new analyses. CyVerse developers and user communities have learned many lessons that are germane to Earth and Environmental Science. We present an overview of the tools and services available through CyVerse including: interactive computing with the Discovery Environment (https://de.cyverse.org/), an interactive data science workbench featuring data storage and transfer via the Data Store; cloud computing with Atmosphere (https://atmo.cyverse.org); and access to HPC via Agave API (https://agaveapi.co/). Each CyVerse service emphasizes access to long term data storage, including our own Data Commons (http://datacommons.cyverse.org), as well as external repositories. The Data Commons service manages, organizes, preserves, publishes, allows for discovery and reuse of data. All data published to CyVerse's Curated Data receive a permanent identifier (PID) in the form of a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or ARK (Archival Resource Key). Data that is more fluid can also be published in the Data commons through Community Collaborated data. The Data Commons provides landing pages, permanent DOIs or ARKs, and supports data reuse and citation through features such as open data licenses and downloadable citations. The

  16. Validity of Learning Module Natural Sciences Oriented Constructivism with the Contain of Character Education for Students of Class VIII at Yunior Hight School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktarina, K.; Lufri, L.; Chatri, M.

    2018-04-01

    Referring to primary data collected through observation and interview to natural science teachers and some students, it is found that there is no natural science teaching materials in the form of learning modules that can make learners learn independently, build their own knowledge, and construct good character in themselves. In order to address this problem, then it is developed natural science learning module oriented to constructivism with the contain of character education. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct valid module of natural science learning materials. This type of research is a development research using the Plomp model. The development phase of the Plomp model consists of 3 stages, namely 1) preliminary research phase, 2) development or prototyping phase, and 3) assessment phase. The result of the study shows that natural science learning module oriented to constructivism with the contain of character education for students class VIII of Yunior High School 11 Sungai Penuh is valid. In future work, practicality and effectiveness will be investigated.

  17. Aedes aegypti Molecular Responses to Zika Virus: Modulation of Infection by the Toll and Jak/Stat Immune Pathways and Virus Host Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesseinia I. Angleró-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika (ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV are transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. However, the molecular interactions between the vector and ZIKV remain largely unexplored. In this work, we further investigated the tropism of ZIKV in two different Aedes aegypti strains and show that the virus infection kinetics, tissue migration, and susceptibility to infection differ between mosquito strains. We also compare the vector transcriptome changes upon ZIKV or DENV infection demonstrating that 40% of the mosquito’s midgut infection-responsive transcriptome is virus-specific at 7 days after virus ingestion. Regulated genes included key factors of the mosquito’s anti-viral immunity. Comparison of the ZIKV and DENV infection-responsive transcriptome data to those available for yellow fever virus and West Nile virus identified 26 genes likely to play key roles in virus infection of Aedes mosquitoes. Through reverse genetic analyses, we show that the Toll and the Jak/Stat innate immune pathways mediate increased resistance to ZIKV infection, and the conserved DENV host factors vATPase and inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase are also utilized for ZIKV infection.

  18. Modulation of B16-BL6 murine melanoma metastatic phenotype by tyrosine and phenylalanine restriction in the absence of host selection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, C A; Meadows, G G

    1993-01-01

    We previously showed that restriction of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) in vivo dramatically suppresses the metastatic phenotype of B16-BL6 (BL6) murine melanoma. Present results indicate a direct effect of Tyr and Phe restriction on the tumor in the absence of host selection pressures. Lung colonizing ability of BL6 is dramatically suppressed after one passage in vitro in media containing low levels of Tyr and Phe. This antimetastatic effect is immediate, stable for at least 5 in vitro passages in Tyr and Phe restricted media, and evident event after levels of Tyr and Phe are restored to normal. Heterogeneity for lung colonizing ability is suppressed, as evidence by fewer tumor colonies formed by clones following i.v. inoculation into mice fed normal diet. This suppression of BL6 metastatic phenotype is not due to differential clearance and retention in the lung or to decreased growth, but is specific for these two amino acids. As the mechanism(s) for the antitumor effects of Tyr and Phe restriction are detailed, the relevance of Tyr and Phe restriction as an early adjuvant to effective cancer treatment can be explored.

  19. Vitronectin Binds to a Specific Stretch within the Head Region of Yersinia Adhesin A and Thereby Modulates Yersinia enterocolitica Host Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenkamp, Melanie C; Hallström, Teresia; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Linke, Dirk; Rinker, Janina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Singh, Birendra; Leo, Jack C; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Zipfel, Peter F; Schütz, Monika S

    2017-01-01

    Complement resistance is an important virulence trait of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). The predominant virulence factor expressed by Ye is Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), which enables bacterial attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix and additionally allows the acquisition of soluble serum factors. The serum glycoprotein vitronectin (Vn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of the terminal complement complex by inhibiting the lytic pore formation. Here, we show YadA-mediated direct interaction of Ye with Vn and investigated the role of this Vn binding during mouse infection in vivo. Using different Yersinia strains, we identified a short stretch in the YadA head domain of Ye O:9 E40, similar to the 'uptake region' of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII YadA, as crucial for efficient Vn binding. Using recombinant fragments of Vn, we found the C-terminal part of Vn, including heparin-binding domain 3, to be responsible for binding to YadA. Moreover, we found that Vn bound to the bacterial surface is still functionally active and thus inhibits C5b-9 formation. In a mouse infection model, we demonstrate that Vn reduces complement-mediated killing of Ye O:9 E40 and, thus, improved bacterial survival. Taken together, these findings show that YadA-mediated Vn binding influences Ye pathogenesis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Orexin/hypocretin system modulates amygdala-dependent threat learning through the locus coeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Robert M.; Fink, Ann E.; Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Farb, Claudia R.; de Lecea, Luis; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Survival in a dangerous environment requires learning about stimuli that predict harm. Although recent work has focused on the amygdala as the locus of aversive memory formation, the hypothalamus has long been implicated in emotional regulation, and the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) is involved in anxiety states and arousal. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of orexin in aversive memory formation. Using a combination of behavioral pharmacology, slice physiology, and optogenetic techniques, we show that orexin acts upstream of the amygdala via the noradrenergic locus coeruleus to enable threat (fear) learning, specifically during the aversive event. Our results are consistent with clinical studies linking orexin levels to aversive learning and anxiety in humans and dysregulation of the orexin system may contribute to the etiology of fear and anxiety disorders. PMID:24277819

  1. Fear extinction learning can be impaired or enhanced by modulation of the CRF system in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Abiri, Dina; Douglas, Christina E.; Calakos, Katina C.; Barbayannis, Georgia; Roberts, Andrea; Bauer, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is released during periods of anxiety and modulates learning and memory formation. One region with particularly dense concentrations of CRF receptors is the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a critical structure for both Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction. While CRF has the potential to modify amygdala-dependent learning, its effect on fear extinction has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we examined the mo...

  2. Theta oscillations during holeboard training in rats: different learning strategies entail different context-dependent modulations in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeit, M L; Korz, V

    2010-02-03

    A functional connection between theta rhythms, information processing, learning and memory formation is well documented by studies focusing on the impact of theta waves on motor activity, global context or phase coding in spatial learning. In the present study we analyzed theta oscillations during a spatial learning task and assessed which specific behavioral contexts were connected to changes in theta power and to the formation of memory. Therefore, we measured hippocampal dentate gyrus theta modulations in male rats that were allowed to establish a long-term spatial reference memory in a holeboard (fixed pattern of baited holes) in comparison to rats that underwent similar training conditions but could not form a reference memory (randomly baited holes). The first group established a pattern specific learning strategy, while the second developed an arbitrary search strategy, visiting increasingly more holes during training. Theta power was equally influenced during the training course in both groups, but was significantly higher when compared to untrained controls. A detailed behavioral analysis, however, revealed behavior- and context-specific differences within the experimental groups. In spatially trained animals theta power correlated with the amounts of reference memory errors in the context of the inspection of unbaited holes and exploration in which, as suggested by time frequency analyses, also slow wave (delta) power was increased. In contrast, in randomly trained animals positive correlations with working memory errors were found in the context of rearing behavior. These findings indicate a contribution of theta/delta to long-lasting memory formation in spatially trained animals, whereas in pseudo trained animals theta seems to be related to attention in order to establish trial specific short-term working memory. Implications for differences in neuronal plasticity found in earlier studies are discussed. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  3. Soft electronic structure modulation of surface (thin-film) and bulk (ceramics) morphologies of TiO{sub 2}-host by Pb-implantation: XPS-and-DFT characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shur, V.Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kim, S.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and theory demonstrate significant difference between patterns of Pb-ion implantation in TiO{sub 2}. • In bulk TiO{sub 2} Pb-impurities leads formation of PbO phase. • On the surface of TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur formation of PbxOy configurations. • In both bulk and surface TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur decreasing of the bandgap by shift of valence band about 1 eV up. - Abstract: The results of combined experimental and theoretical study of substitutional and clustering effects in the structure of Pb-doped TiO{sub 2}-hosts (bulk ceramics and thin-film morphologies) are presented. Pb-doping of the bulk and thin-film titanium dioxide was made with the help of pulsed ion-implantation without posterior tempering (Electronic Structure Modulation Mode). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) qualification of core-levels and valence bands and Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed in order to study the yielded electronic structure of Pb-ion modulated TiO{sub 2} host-matrices. The combined XPS-and-DFT analysis has agreed definitely with the scenario of the implantation stimulated appearance of PbO-like structures in the bulk morphology of TiO{sub 2}:Pb, whereas in thin-film morphology the PbO{sub 2}-like structure becomes dominating, essentially contributing weak O/Pb bonding (Pb{sub x}O{sub y} defect clusters). The crucial role of the oxygen hollow-type vacancies for the process of Pb-impurity “insertion” into the structure of bulk TiO{sub 2} was pointed out employing DFT-based theoretical background. Both experiment and theory established clearly the final electronic structure re-arrangement of the bulk and thin-film morphologies of TiO{sub 2} because of the Pb-modulated deformation and shift of the initial Valence Base-Band Width about 1 eV up.

  4. Implementation of a Service-Learning Module in Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology Classes at an Undergraduate Liberal Arts University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Larios-Sanz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper-division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics to a real-life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell seen at the clinic and, working in groups, come up with educational material in the form of a display or brochure to be distributed to patients. The material was meant to educate patients about the disease in general terms, as well as how to recognize (symptoms, prevent and treat it. Students were required to keep a reflective journal in the form of a blog throughout the semester, and present their final materials to the class orally. Students were surveyed about their opinion of the experience at the end of the semester. The vast majority of student participants felt that the project was a positive experience and that it helped them develop additional skills beyond what they learn in the classroom and understand how lecture topics relate to every day life. Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics into a real life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell seen at the

  5. Modulation of motor performance and motor learning by transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Fritsch, Brita

    2011-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown preliminary success in improving motor performance and motor learning in healthy individuals, and restitution of motor deficits in stroke patients. This brief review highlights some recent work. Within the past years, behavioural studies have confirmed and specified the timing and polarity specific effects of tDCS on motor skill learning and motor adaptation. There is strong evidence that timely co-application of (hand/arm) training and anodal tDCS to the contralateral M1 can improve motor learning. Improvements in motor function as measured by clinical scores have been described for combined tDCS and training in stroke patients. For this purpose, electrode montages have been modified with respect to interhemispheric imbalance after brain injury. Cathodal tDCS applied to the unlesioned M1 or bihemispheric M1 stimulation appears to be well tolerated and useful to induce improvements in motor function. Mechanistic studies in humans and animals are discussed with regard to physiological motor learning. tDCS is well tolerated, easy to use and capable of inducing lasting improvements in motor function. This method holds promise for the rehabilitation of motor disabilities, although acute studies in patients with brain injury are so far lacking.

  6. Developing a service-learning module for oral health: A needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Service learning (SL) as a pedagogy in higher education must be differentiated from other services with a primarily philanthropic intent. Dental therapy and oral hygiene students at Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, School of Oral Health Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa visit community sites during ...

  7. The Relationship Between Duration of Postrotary Nystagmus and Driver Behavior: Learning Theory Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Suzanne Smith; Young, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that behavior patterns, learned early in life and maintained by almost continuous reinforcement, are determined by basic physiology, which in this study is represented by the duration of postrotary nystagmus (involuntary eyeball movement following rotational stimulation). The Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test was…

  8. Communicating Science Concepts to Individuals with Visual Impairments Using Short Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Anthony S.; Newell, Ryan; Villarreal, Eduardo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Bianco, Elisabeth; Ringe, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Of the 6.7 million individuals in the United States who are visually impaired, 63% are unemployed, and 59% have not attained an education beyond a high school diploma. Providing a basic science education to children and adults with visual disabilities can be challenging because most scientific learning relies on visual demonstrations. Creating…

  9. Learning Management System with Prediction Model and Course-Content Recommendation Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evale, Digna S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: This study is an attempt to enhance the existing learning management systems today through the integration of technology, particularly with educational data mining and recommendation systems. Background: It utilized five-year historical data to find patterns for predicting student performance in Java Programming to generate…

  10. Open Contents Modules Available for E-Learning Multimedia Cartography and Location Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Swiss Virtual Campus (SVC is a federal program, which began in 2000th and was completed in 2008th. Its goal was to improve Internet-based learning in Swiss higher education institutions. One of the projects within the SVC was dedicated to cartography: CartouCHe (Cartography for Swiss Higher Education.

  11. An 8-week interdisciplinary learning module, which focuses on innovation and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brigitte; Andersen, Helle Tvorup; Duus, Lene

    where we want to share our knowledge of learning method and to discuss the academic content and the teaching method. Participants The target audience is anyone interested in the development of teaching methods and interdisci-plinary collaboration in health care. Method The workshop consists of three...

  12. Cholinergic Modulation during Acquisition of Olfactory Fear Conditioning Alters Learning and Stimulus Generalization in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Gooch, Allison; Lee, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in olfactory fear learning. Mice receiving pairings of odor and foot shock displayed fear to the trained odor the following day. Pretraining injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine had no effect on subsequent freezing, while the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly…

  13. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Koot, Hans M

    2014-02-08

    Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are participant's ratings on perceived knowledge, perceived self-confidence, and actual knowledge regarding adolescent suicidality. A randomized controlled trial will be carried out among 154 gatekeepers. After completing the first assessment (pre-test), participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the waitlist control group. One week after completing the first assessment the experimental group will have access to the website Mental Health Online containing the eight e-learning modules and additional information on adolescent suicide prevention. Participants in both conditions will be assessed 4 weeks after completing the first assessment (post-test), and 12 weeks after completing the post-test (follow-up). At post-test, participants from the experimental group are asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire on the modules. The waitlist control group will have access to the modules and additional information on the website after completing the follow-up assessment. Gatekeepers can benefit from e-learning modules on adolescent suicide prevention. This approach allows them to learn about this sensitive subject at their own pace and from any given location, as long as they have access to the Internet. Given the flexible nature of the program, each participant can compose his/her own training creating an instant customized course with the required steps in adolescent suicide prevention. Netherlands Trial Register NTR3625.

  14. Critical Analysis of an e-Learning and Interactive Teaching Module with Respect to the Interpretation of Emergency Computed Tomography of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Michael; Barthe, Käthe Greta; Riemer, Martin; Ernst, Marielle; Herrmann, Jochen; Fiehler, Jens; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik

    2018-04-01

     To compare the learning benefit of three different teaching strategies on the interpretation of emergency cerebral computed tomography (CT) pathologies by medical students.  Three groups of students with different types of teaching (e-learning, interactive teaching, and standard curricular education in neuroradiology) were tested with respect to the detection of seven CT pathologies. The test results of each group were compared for each CT pathology using the chi-square test. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant.  Opposed to the results of the comparison group (curricular education), the e-learning group and interactive teaching tutorial group both showed a significantly better performance in detecting hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (p = 0.001 and p e-learning group, with statistical significance in the latter (p = 0.03 and p e-learning module group with respect to reading CT scans with slightly different advantages. Thus, the introduction of new learning methods in radiological education might be reasonable at an undergraduate stage but requires learning content-based considerations.   · E-learning can offer benefits regarding the reading of cerebral CT scans by students. · Interactive tutorial can offer benefits regarding the reading of cerebral CT scans by students. · E-learning and interactive tutorial feature different strengths for student learning in radiology. · Application of interactive teaching methods in radiology requires learning content-based considerations. · Groth M, Barthe KG, Riemer M et al. Critical Analysis of an e-Learning and Interactive Teaching Module with Respect to the Interpretation of Emergency Computed Tomography of the Brain. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 190: 334 - 340. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Gastrointestinal Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-01-01

    -directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts, based on core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions encourages active participation; small groups also focus on synthesis and application of knowledge through discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy in resident learning.

  16. Development and evaluation of an internet-based blended-learning module in biomedicine for university applicants--Education as a challenge for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klümper, Christian; Neunzehn, Jörg; Wegmann, Ute; Kruppke, Benjamin; Joos, Ulrich; Wiesmann, Hans Peter

    2016-03-25

    Biomedical science, especially biomaterials, is an expanding field in medicine. Universities are being challenged to gain the best students for a later academic career. Pre-university assessment of pupils has become crucial to reach this aim. Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education even though it has not yet been rigorously assessed, especially in the pupil/undergraduate situation. The aim of the study was to develop and preliminarily test a blended-learning system in biomedicine for university applicants. An internet-based blended-learning module in material science was developed in close collaboration between a university (Biomaterials Department, Dresden TU), a German Gymnasium and an internationally oriented medical college (IMC®, Münster). Forty pre-university students were taught by this learning module composed of school education and internet-based knowledge transfer and involved in the evaluation of the utility of this learning tool. Finally, the students took first-year university examinations in order to evaluate the success of this kind of education. The internet-based blended-learning module as a combination of e-learning tutorials and live online lectures which was applied in phase 3 of this study was developed on the basis of the findings of both pre-university studies. The results of the learning behavior regarding the number of invokes and the dwell time of the individual pages of the pre-university learning material, the results of the online evaluation and the results of the pre-phase examination were successively used to optimize the next phase. At the end of the pre-university learning, seven of eight participants were able to pass the first-year university examination followed by nationally accepted credit award. Internet-based blended-learning module proved to be suitable to prepare students for biomedical university education while also giving them the possibility to assess their qualifications for studying

  17. Implementation of an e-learning module improves consistency in the histopathological diagnosis of sessile serrated lesions within a nationwide population screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, Joep E G; Madani, Ariana; Overbeek, Lucy I H; Dekker, Evelien; Nagtegaal, Iris D

    2017-05-01

    Distinguishing premalignant sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) from hyperplastic polyps (HPs) is difficult for pathologists in daily practice. We aimed to evaluate nationwide variability within histopathology laboratories in the frequency of diagnosing an SSL as compared with an HP within the Dutch population-based screening programme for colorectal cancer and to assess the effect of an e-learning module on interlaboratory consistency. Data were retrieved from the Dutch Pathology Registry from the start of the nationwide population screening programme, January 2014, until December 2015. An obligatory e-learning module was implemented among pathologists in October 2014. The ratio between SSL and HP diagnosis was determined per laboratory. Odds ratios (ORs) for the diagnosis of an SSL per laboratory were compared with the laboratory with the median odds (median laboratory), before and after implementation of the e-learning module. In total, 14 997 individuals with 27 879 serrated polyps were included; 6665 (23.9%) were diagnosed as SSLs, and 21 214 as HPs (76.1%). The ratio of diagnosing an SSL ranged from 5% to 47% (median 23%) within 44 laboratories. Half of the laboratories showed a significantly different OR (range 3.47-0.16) for diagnosing an SSL than the median laboratory. Variability decreased after implementation of the e-learning module (P = 0.02). Of all pathology laboratories, 70% became more consistent with the median laboratory after e-learning implementation. We demonstrated substantial interlaboratory variability in the histopathological diagnosis of SSLs, which significantly decreased after implementation of a structured e-learning module. Widespread implementation of education might contribute to more homogeneous practice among pathologists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. "iBIM"--internet-based interactive modules: an easy and interesting learning tool for general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Nader; Shi, Xinzhe; de Gara, Chris; Karmali, Shahzeer; Birch, Daniel W

    2014-04-01

    The increased use of information technology supports a resident- centred educational approach that promotes autonomy, flexibility and time management and helps residents to assess their competence, promoting self-awareness. We established a web-based e-learning tool to introduce general surgery residents to bariatric surgery and evaluate them to determine the most appropriate implementation strategy for Internet-based interactive modules (iBIM) in surgical teaching. Usernames and passwords were assigned to general surgery residents at the University of Alberta. They were directed to the Obesity101 website and prompted to complete a multiple-choice precourse test. Afterwards, they were able to access the interactive modules. Residents could review the course material as often as they wanted before completing a multiple-choice postcourse test and exit survey. We used paired t tests to assess the difference between pre- and postcourse scores. Out of 34 residents who agreed to participate in the project, 12 completed the project (35.3%). For these 12 residents, the precourse mean score was 50 ± 17.3 and the postcourse mean score was 67 ± 14 (p = 0.020). Most residents who participated in this study recommended using the iBIMs as a study tool for bariatric surgery. Course evaluation scores suggest this novel approach was successful in transferring knowledge to surgical trainees. Further development of this tool and assessment of implementation strategies will determine how iBIM in bariatric surgery may be integrated into the curriculum.

  19. Implicit learning of predictable sound sequences modulates human brain responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eLecaignard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deviant stimuli, violating regularities in a sensory environment, elicit the Mismatch Negativity (MMN, largely described in the Event-Related Potential literature. While it is widely accepted that the MMN reflects more than basic change detection, a comprehensive description of mental processes modulating this response is still lacking. Within the framework of predictive coding, deviance processing is part of an inference process where prediction errors (the mismatch between incoming sensations and predictions established through experience are minimized. In this view, the MMN is a measure of prediction error, which yields specific expectations regarding its modulations by various experimental factors. In particular, it predicts that the MMN should decrease as the occurrence of a deviance becomes more predictable. We conducted a passive oddball EEG study and manipulated the predictability of sound sequences by means of different temporal structures. Importantly, our design allows comparing mismatch responses elicited by predictable and unpredictable violations of a simple repetition rule and therefore departs from previous studies that investigate violations of different time-scale regularities. We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset. Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants. We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy. Beside, in this passive study, such perceptual inference appears to be modulated by higher-level implicit learning of sequence statistical structures. Our findings argue for a hierarchical model of auditory processing where predictive coding enables implicit extraction of environmental regularities.

  20. Monetary reward modulates task-irrelevant perceptual learning for invisible stimuli.

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    David Pascucci

    Full Text Available Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.

  1. Monetary reward modulates task-irrelevant perceptual learning for invisible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, David; Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL) shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.

  2. How Environmental Attitudes Interact with Cognitive Learning in a Science Lesson Module

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    Maximiliane F. Schumm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As cognitive knowledge plays a major role in supporting proenvironmental behavior, identification of individual aspects related to knowledge acquisition is essential. Our study monitored knowledge levels before and after a science-based lesson set in relation to self-reported behavior and attitudinal preferences (attitudes towards environmental Preservation and Utilization of 190 students (Mage  ± SD: 15.96 ± 0.55; 51.1% female. A knowledge questionnaire was completed once before and twice after participation. Additionally, (i the 2-MEV (two Major Environmental Values and (ii the GEB (General Ecological Behavior were applied. Girls showed higher Preservation but lower Utilization attitudes than boys did. Learning success was positively related to Preservation preferences (for girls as well as to behavior-based scores (for girls and boys. For boys, high preferences in Utilization were negatively correlated with learning achievement.

  3. Combining D-cycloserine with appetitive extinction learning modulates amygdala activity during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Claudia; Koch, Stefan P; Friedel, Eva; Crespo, Ilsoray; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2017-07-01

    Appetitive Pavlovian conditioning plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of drug addiction and conditioned reward cues can trigger craving and relapse even after long phases of abstinence. Promising preclinical work showed that the NMDA-receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates Pavlovian extinction learning of fear and drug cues. Furthermore, DCS-augmented exposure therapy seems to be beneficial in various anxiety disorders, while the supposed working mechanism of DCS during human appetitive or aversive extinction learning is still not confirmed. To test the hypothesis that DCS administration before extinction training improves extinction learning, healthy adults (n=32) underwent conditioning, extinction, and extinction recall on three successive days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI design. Monetary wins and losses served as unconditioned stimuli during conditioning to probe appetitive and aversive learning. An oral dose of 50mg of DCS or placebo was administered 1h before extinction training and DCS effects during extinction recall were evaluated on a behavioral and neuronal level. We found attenuated amygdala activation in the DCS compared to the placebo group during recall of the extinguished appetitive cue, along with evidence for enhanced functional amygdala-vmPFC coupling in the DCS group. While the absence of additional physiological measures of conditioned responses during recall in this study prevent the evaluation of a behavioral DCS effect, our neuronal findings are in accordance with recent theories linking successful extinction recall in humans to modulatory top-down influences from the vmPFC that inhibit amygdala activation. Our results should encourage further translational studies concerning the usefulness of DCS to target maladaptive Pavlovian reward associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of

  5. Advancing non-directive pregnancy options counseling skills: A pilot Study on the use of blended learning with an online module and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Carla; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Chang, Winnie

    2016-10-01

    Limitations on didactic time pose barriers to teaching non-directive pregnancy options counseling. This study set out to explore the use of an online module to support trainee performance in a pregnancy options counseling standardized-patient exercise implemented among third-year medical students, and to examine the effect of clinical experience on student performance. An online module was developed. A convenience sample of forty-six student performances in a family medicine clerkship participated in a standardized patient exercise. Trained faculty rated performances. Students completed a self-assessment and provided feedback on the online module. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used to analyze data. Three coders qualitatively examined narrative student comments. Thirty-four students passed, 11 achieved a minimal pass, and one failed. The mean global rating from faculty was 2.8 (pass). Students with prior clinical experience significantly outperformed those without on the global rating scale with mean scores of 3.1 compared to 2.7, respectively (p=.044). All students agreed that the online module helped prepare them for the exercise. Qualitative analysis of students' feedback on the module revealed strengths in content and pedagogy. In their self-assessments, all but two students referred to content explicitly conveyed in the module. All students agreed that an online module supported their performance of non-directive pregnancy options counseling skills. Prior clinical experience was associated with improved performance. This module, along with the simulated exercise, can be implemented as a blended learning exercise without additional faculty teaching effort in standardized patient resource centers. Students agreed that an online module facilitates simulated performance of non-directive pregnancy options counseling skills. Future work should compare the impact of this approach to others, and explore the additional training needed to maintain and build on

  6. Chronic epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats via modulation of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2011-10-31

    Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and the existence of evidence for its beneficial effect on cognition and memory, this research study was conducted to evaluate, for the first time, the efficacy of chronic EGCG on alleviation of learning and memory deficits in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, EGCG-treated-control and -diabetic groups. EGCG was administered at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks. Learning and memory was evaluated using Y maze, passive avoidance, and radial 8-arm maze (RAM) tests. Oxidative stress markers and involvement of nitric oxide system were also evaluated. Alternation score of the diabetic rats in Y maze was lower than that of control and a significant impairment was observed in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (pRAM task and EGCG (40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated these changes (pmemory respectively. Meanwhile, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite in diabetic rats significantly reduced due to EGCG treatment (pmemory deficits in STZ-diabetic rats through attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of NO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Genitourinary Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-07-01

    -life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  8. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Psychiatric Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-07-01

    discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  9. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA MODUL DALAM MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR MATA PELAJARAN AKUNTANSI PADA SISWA SMA SE-KOTA BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Purnamasari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of student learning is a combination of various factors that affect the overall learning process. The phenomenon in this study is the lack of student learning outcomes are seen from the results of the national exam on economic subjects, especially the material accounting, one of the causes of the problems in the learning process, namely on how to give lessons conducted by teachers, and the use of instructional media, especially the media module. This study, use the method of the experiment to make a difference between the results of the study on the student teaching and learning by contextual the use of the media, the students are not using the models of the contextual teaching and learning to use media. Results of the analysis of 10 schools in the city of bandung at 8 school with the influence of contextual teaching and learning module, using this hypothesis can be seen from the increase is the result of study to students.

  10. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  11. Learning Touch Preferences with a Tactile Robot Using Dopamine Modulated STDP in a Model of Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Shuo eChou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurorobots enable researchers to study how behaviors are produced by neural mechanisms in an uncertain, noisy, real-world environment. To investigate how the somatosensory system processes noisy, real-world touch inputs, we introduce a neurorobot called CARL-SJR, which has a full-body tactile sensory area. The design of CARL-SJR is such that it encourages people to communicate with it through gentle touch. CARL-SJR provides feedback to users by displaying bright colors on its surface. In the present study, we show that CARL-SJR is capable of learning associations between conditioned stimuli (CS; a color pattern on its surface and unconditioned stimuli (US; a preferred touch pattern by applying a spiking neural network (SNN with neurobiologically inspired plasticity. Specifically, we modeled the primary somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and the insular cortex, which is important for hedonic touch, to process noisy data generated directly from CARL-SJR’s tactile sensory area. To facilitate learning, we applied dopamine-modulated Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP to our simulated prefrontal cortex, striatum and insular cortex. To cope with noisy, varying inputs, the SNN was tuned to produce traveling waves of activity that carried spatiotemporal information. Despite the noisy tactile sensors, spike trains, and variations in subject hand swipes, the learning was quite robust. Further, the plasticity (i.e., STDP in primary somatosensory cortex and insular cortex in the incremental pathway of dopaminergic reward system allowed us to control CARL-SJR’s preference for touch direction without heavily pre-processed inputs. The emerged behaviors we found in this model match animal’s behaviors wherein they prefer touch in particular areas and directions. Thus, the results in this paper could serve as an explanation on the underlying neural mechanisms for developing tactile preferences and hedonic touch.

  12. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

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    Silke eLissek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA or in the acquisition context (AAA. In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC. However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms.

  13. Validity And Practicality of Experiment Integrated Guided Inquiry-Based Module on Topic of Colloidal Chemistry for Senior High School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andromeda, A.; Lufri; Festiyed; Ellizar, E.; Iryani, I.; Guspatni, G.; Fitri, L.

    2018-04-01

    This Research & Development study aims to produce a valid and practical experiment integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry. 4D instructional design model was selected in this study. Limited trial of the product was conducted at SMAN 7 Padang. Instruments used were validity and practicality questionnaires. Validity and practicality data were analyzed using Kappa moment. Analysis of the data shows that Kappa moment for validity was 0.88 indicating a very high degree of validity. Kappa moments for the practicality from students and teachers were 0.89 and 0.95 respectively indicating high degree of practicality. Analysis on the module filled in by students shows that 91.37% students could correctly answer critical thinking, exercise, prelab, postlab and worksheet questions asked in the module. These findings indicate that the integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry was valid and practical for chemistry learning in senior high school.

  14. The effect of category learning on attentional modulation of visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R; Fuller, Kelly; Howard, Dorothy; DePatie, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Learning about visual object categories causes changes in the way we perceive those objects. One likely mechanism by which this occurs is the application of attention to potentially relevant objects. Here we test the hypothesis that category membership influences the allocation of attention, allowing attention to be applied not only to object features, but to entire categories. Participants briefly learned to categorize a set of novel cartoon animals after which EEG was recorded while participants distinguished between a target and non-target category. A second identical EEG session was conducted after two sessions of categorization practice. The category structure and task design allowed parametric manipulation of number of target features while holding feature frequency and category membership constant. We found no evidence that category membership influenced attentional selection: a postero-lateral negative component, labeled the selection negativity/N250, increased over time and was sensitive to number of target features, not target categories. In contrast, the right hemisphere N170 was not sensitive to target features. The P300 appeared sensitive to category in the first session, but showed a graded sensitivity to number of target features in the second session, possibly suggesting a transition from rule-based to similarity based categorization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Interactive Learning Modules: Enabling Near Real-Time Oceanographic Data Use In Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, D. L.; Fundis, A. T.; Risien, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the Education and Public Engagement (EPE) component of the NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is to provide a new layer of cyber-interactivity for undergraduate educators to bring near real-time data from the global ocean into learning environments. To accomplish this, we are designing six online services including: 1) visualization tools, 2) a lesson builder, 3) a concept map builder, 4) educational web services (middleware), 5) collaboration tools and 6) an educational resource database. Here, we report on our Fall 2012 release that includes the first four of these services: 1) Interactive visualization tools allow users to interactively select data of interest, display the data in various views (e.g., maps, time-series and scatter plots) and obtain statistical measures such as mean, standard deviation and a regression line fit to select data. Specific visualization tools include a tool to compare different months of data, a time series explorer tool to investigate the temporal evolution of select data parameters (e.g., sea water temperature or salinity), a glider profile tool that displays ocean glider tracks and associated transects, and a data comparison tool that allows users to view the data either in scatter plot view comparing one parameter with another, or in time series view. 2) Our interactive lesson builder tool allows users to develop a library of online lesson units, which are collaboratively editable and sharable and provides starter templates designed from learning theory knowledge. 3) Our interactive concept map tool allows the user to build and use concept maps, a graphical interface to map the connection between concepts and ideas. This tool also provides semantic-based recommendations, and allows for embedding of associated resources such as movies, images and blogs. 4) Education web services (middleware) will provide an educational resource database API.

  16. Task Complexity Modulates Sleep-Related Offline Learning in Sequential Motor Skills

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    Klaus Blischke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of authors have advocated the introduction of gross motor tasks into research on sleep-related motor offline learning. Such tasks are often designed to be more complex than traditional key-pressing tasks. However, until now, little effort has been undertaken to scrutinize the role of task complexity in any systematic way. Therefore, the effect of task complexity on the consolidation of gross motor sequence memory was examined by our group in a series of three experiments. Criterion tasks always required participants to produce unrestrained arm movement sequences by successively fitting a small peg into target holes on a pegboard. The sequences always followed a certain spatial pattern in the horizontal plane. The targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. The tasks differed with respect to sequence length and structural complexity. In each experiment, half of the participants initially learned the task in the morning and were retested 12 h later following a wake retention interval. The other half of the subjects underwent practice in the evening and was retested 12 h later following a night of sleep. The dependent variables were the error rate and total sequence execution time (inverse to the sequence execution speed. Performance generally improved during acquisition. The error rate was always low and remained stable during retention. The sequence execution time significantly decreased again following sleep but not after waking when the sequence length was long and structural complexity was high. However, sleep-related offline improvements were absent when the sequence length was short or when subjects performed a highly regular movement pattern. It is assumed that the occurrence of sleep-related offline performance improvements in sequential motor tasks is associated with a sufficient amount of motor task complexity.

  17. Therapeutic modulation of the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis: lessons learned from serial imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jordan; Puri, Rishi; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J; Psaltis, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in risk prediction, preventive and therapeutic strategies, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains a major public health challenge worldwide, carrying considerable morbidity, mortality and health economic burden. There continues to be a need to better understand the natural history of this disease to guide the development of more effective treatment, integral to which is the rapidly evolving field of coronary artery imaging. Various imaging modalities have been refined to enable detailed visualization of the pathological substrate of atherosclerosis, providing accurate and reproducible measures of coronary plaque burden and composition, including the presence of high-risk characteristics. The serial application of such techniques, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have uncovered important insights into the progression of coronary plaque over time in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), and its responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Here we review the use of different imaging modalities for the surveillance of coronary atherosclerosis and the lessons they have provided about the modulation of CAD by both traditional and experimental therapies.

  18. E-learning module on chronic low back pain in older adults: evidence of effect on medical student objective structured clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Debra K; Morone, Natalia E; Spallek, Heiko; Karp, Jordan F; Schneider, Michael; Washburn, Carol; Dziabiak, Michael P; Hennon, John G; Elnicki, D Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine has highlighted the urgent need to close undergraduate and graduate educational gaps in treating pain. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common pain conditions, and older adults are particularly vulnerable to potential morbidities associated with misinformed treatment. An e-learning case-based interactive module was developed at the University of Pittsburgh Center of Excellence in Pain Education, one of 12 National Institutes of Health-designated centers, to teach students important principles for evaluating and managing CLBP in older adults. A team of six experts in education, information technology, pain management, and geriatrics developed the module. Teaching focused on common errors, interactivity, and expert modeling and feedback. The module mimicked a patient encounter using a standardized patient (the older adult with CLBP) and a pain expert (the patient provider). Twenty-eight medical students were not exposed to the module (Group 1) and 27 were exposed (Group 2). Their clinical skills in evaluating CLBP were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Mean scores were 62.0 ± 8.6 for Group 1 and 79.5 ± 10.4 for Group 2 (P effect of e-learning modules on more-advanced learners and on improving the care of older adults with CLBP. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Design and evaluation of a digital module with guided peer feedback for student learning biotechnology and molecular life sciences, attitudinal change, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-02

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design was used with 203 students who were randomly assigned to groups of three. They were asked to work on the digital module with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the "pros and cons" on the topic of "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)." The results suggest that the module can be used to foster students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change. Furthermore, the module was evaluated positively in terms of students' motivation and satisfaction with the learning experiences. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):31-39, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Modulation of Speech Motor Learning with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Inferior Parietal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael L. D. Deroche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal lobe (IPL is a region of the cortex believed to participate in speech motor learning. In this study, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the IPL could influence the extent to which healthy adults (1 adapted to a sensory alteration of their own auditory feedback, and (2 changed their perceptual representation. Seventy subjects completed three tasks: a baseline perceptual task that located the phonetic boundary between the vowels /e/ and /a/; a sensorimotor adaptation task in which subjects produced the word “head” under conditions of altered or unaltered feedback; and a post-adaptation perceptual task identical to the first. Subjects were allocated to four groups which differed in current polarity and feedback manipulation. Subjects who received anodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably increasing cortical excitability lowered their first formant frequency (F1 by 10% in opposition to the upward shift in F1 in their auditory feedback. Subjects who received the same stimulation with unaltered feedback did not change their production. Subjects who received cathodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably decreasing cortical excitability showed a 5% adaptation to the F1 alteration similar to subjects who received sham tDCS. A subset of subjects returned a few days later to reiterate the same protocol but without tDCS, enabling assessment of any facilitatory effects of the previous tDCS. All subjects exhibited a 5% adaptation effect. In addition, across all subjects and for the two recording sessions, the phonetic boundary was shifted toward the vowel /e/ being repeated, consistently with the selective adaptation effect, but a correlation between perception and production suggested that anodal tDCS had enhanced this perceptual shift. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated that anodal tDCS could (1 enhance the motor adaptation to a sensory alteration, and (2 potentially affect the

  1. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Modulation of learning and memory by the targeted deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in forebrain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Kaitlin H; Dziema, Heather; Aten, Sydney; Loeser, Jacob; Norona, Frances E; Hoyt, Kari; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-07-15

    A large body of literature has shown that the disruption of circadian clock timing has profound effects on mood, memory and complex thinking. Central to this time keeping process is the master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Of note, within the central nervous system, clock timing is not exclusive to the SCN, but rather, ancillary oscillatory capacity has been detected in a wide range of cell types and brain regions, including forebrain circuits that underlie complex cognitive processes. These observations raise questions about the hierarchical and functional relationship between the SCN and forebrain oscillators, and, relatedly, about the underlying clock-gated synaptic circuitry that modulates cognition. Here, we utilized a clock knockout strategy in which the essential circadian timing gene Bmal1 was selectively deleted from excitatory forebrain neurons, whilst the SCN clock remained intact, to test the role of forebrain clock timing in learning, memory, anxiety, and behavioral despair. With this model system, we observed numerous effects on hippocampus-dependent measures of cognition. Mice lacking forebrain Bmal1 exhibited deficits in both acquisition and recall on the Barnes maze. Notably, loss of forebrain Bmal1 abrogated time-of-day dependent novel object location memory. However, the loss of Bmal1 did not alter performance on the elevated plus maze, open field assay, and tail suspension test, indicating that this phenotype specifically impairs cognition but not affect. Together, these data suggest that forebrain clock timing plays a critical role in shaping the efficiency of learning and memory retrieval over the circadian day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of an e-learning module in delivering a curriculum in radiation protection to undergraduate medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2012-03-01

    Integrating radiation protection (RP) education in the undergraduate medical curriculum is gaining importance and is mandatory in certain jurisdictions. An e-learning module for RP was developed at the authors\\' medical school and was integrated into year 4 of the 5-year undergraduate medical program. The aim of this study was to investigate its impact on RP knowledge, student preferences for various teaching methods, self-assessment of RP knowledge, and perceptions of career prospects in radiology. Likert-type 5-point scale evaluations and general comments about the RP module and various methods of teaching were also obtained.

  4. Postnatal Vitamin D Intake Modulates Hippocampal Learning and Memory in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiujuan; Cai, Chunhui; Duan, Dongxia; Hu, Xinyu; Hua, Wanhao; Jiang, Peicheng; Zhang, Liu; Xu, Jun; Gao, Zhengliang

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) is a neuroactive steroid crucial for brain development, function and homeostasis. Its deficiency is associated with numerous brain conditions. As such, VD and its variants are routinely taken by a broad of groups with/without known VD deficiency. In contrast, the harmful effects of VD overdose have been poorly studied. Similarly, the developmental stage-specific VD deficiency and overdose have been rarely explored. In the present work, we showed that postnatal VD supplementation enhanced the motor function transiently in the young adult, but not in the older one. Postnatal VD intake abnormality did not impact the anxiety and depressive behavior but was detrimental to spatial learning and hippocampus-dependent memory. At the molecular level we failed to observe an obvious and constant change with the neural development and activity-related genes examined. However, disrupted developmental expression dynamics were observed for most of the genes, suggesting that the altered neural development dynamics and therefore aberrant adult plasticity might underlie the functional deficits. Our work highlights the essence of VD homeostasis in neural development and adult brain function. Further studies are needed to determine the short- and long-term effects VD intake status may have on brain development, homeostasis, and diseases.

  5. Does emotion modulate the efficacy of spaced learning in recognition memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mammarella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory for repeated items improves when presentations are spaced during study. Here, two experiments assessed the so-called spacing effect on a yes–no recognition memory task using affective and neutral words. In Experiment 1, a group of participants was asked to orient their attention to semantic features of target words (deep semantic analysis that were consecutively repeated or spaced, while another group was engaged in a graphemic shallow analysis of words (Experiment 2. The depth of word processing approach was meant to highlight the role of repetition priming mechanisms in the generation of spacing effects. We found that spacing effects occurred for both affective and neutral words (Experiment 1. However, following shallow analysis of words, the spacing effect was reduced for both affective and neutral words (Experiment 2. No differences were detected in terms of positive versus negative words. These results suggest that spaced learning operates when the to-be-remembered material is also affectively charged and that, under certain circumstances, it may enhance recognition memory as affective connotation does.

  6. Postnatal Vitamin D Intake Modulates Hippocampal Learning and Memory in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiujuan Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (VD is a neuroactive steroid crucial for brain development, function and homeostasis. Its deficiency is associated with numerous brain conditions. As such, VD and its variants are routinely taken by a broad of groups with/without known VD deficiency. In contrast, the harmful effects of VD overdose have been poorly studied. Similarly, the developmental stage-specific VD deficiency and overdose have been rarely explored. In the present work, we showed that postnatal VD supplementation enhanced the motor function transiently in the young adult, but not in the older one. Postnatal VD intake abnormality did not impact the anxiety and depressive behavior but was detrimental to spatial learning and hippocampus-dependent memory. At the molecular level we failed to observe an obvious and constant change with the neural development and activity-related genes examined. However, disrupted developmental expression dynamics were observed for most of the genes, suggesting that the altered neural development dynamics and therefore aberrant adult plasticity might underlie the functional deficits. Our work highlights the essence of VD homeostasis in neural development and adult brain function. Further studies are needed to determine the short- and long-term effects VD intake status may have on brain development, homeostasis, and diseases.

  7. Motor learning and modulation of prefrontal cortex: an fNIRS assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Noah, Jack Adam; Zhang, Xian; Nomoto, Yasunori; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Prefrontal hemodynamic responses are observed during performance of motor tasks. Using a dance video game (DVG), a complex motor task that requires temporally accurate footsteps with given visual and auditory cues, we investigated whether 20 h of DVG training modified hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex in six healthy young adults. Approach. Fronto-temporal activity during actual DVG play was measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) pre- and post-training. To evaluate the training-induced changes in the time-courses of fNIRS signals, we employed a regression analysis using the task-specific template fNIRS signals that were generated from alternate well-trained and/or novice DVG players. The HRF was also separately incorporated as a template to construct an alternate regression model. Change in coefficients for template functions at pre- and post- training were determined and compared among different models. Main results. Training significantly increased the motor performance using the number of temporally accurate steps in the DVG as criteria. The mean oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔoxyHb) waveform changed from an activation above baseline pattern to that of a below baseline pattern. Participants showed significantly decreased coefficients for regressors of the ΔoxyHb response of novice players and HRF. The model using ΔoxyHb responses from both well-trained and novice players of DVG as templates showed the best fit for the ΔoxyHb responses of the participants at both pre- and post-training when analyzed with Akaike information criteria. Significance. These results suggest that the coefficients for the template ΔoxyHb responses of the novice players are sensitive indicators of motor learning during the initial stage of training and thus clinically useful to determine the improvement in motor performance when patients are engaged in a specific rehabilitation program.

  8. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Pmemory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (Pmemory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Viability of a Web-Based Module for Teaching Electrocardiogram Reading Skills to Psychiatry Residents: Learning Outcomes and Trainee Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, Katrina; Blair, Thomas R; Payne, Samuel T; Wigan, Katherine; Kim, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Web-based instruction in post-graduate psychiatry training has shown comparable effectiveness to in-person instruction, but few topics have been addressed in this format. This study sought to evaluate the viability of a web-based curriculum in teaching electrocardiogram (EKG) reading skills to psychiatry residents. Interest in receiving educational materials in this format was also assessed. A web-based curriculum of 41 slides, including eight pre-test and eight post-test questions with emphasis on cardiac complications of psychotropic medications, was made available to all psychiatry residents via email. Out of 57 residents, 30 initiated and 22 completed the module. Mean improvement from pre-test to post-test was 25 %, and all 22 completing participants indicated interest in future web-based instruction. This pilot study suggests that web-based instruction is feasible and under-utilized as a means of teaching psychiatry residents. Potential uses of web-based instruction, such as tracking learning outcomes or patient care longitudinally, are also discussed.

  10. The use of blended learning to create a module about ill-health during childbirth for pre-registration midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicki; Randall, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Reforms in the way higher education is delivered in order to address the needs of learners in the 21st century are increasingly being considered by university departments. This has led academics to combine e-learning with more traditional classroom based methods of teaching when designing new modules of study, a method commonly called blended learning. This paper will describe the different teaching and learning methods which were blended together to create a module for second year pre-registration midwifery students in England, which focused upon ill-health during pregnancy and childbearing. It is imperative that at the point of registration midwifery students possess the skills to identify deviations from normal, initiate immediate actions and make appropriate referrals. The health of women all over the world is of concern to health care professionals. Midwives are increasingly being upon to provide expert care. Midwives need a sound education to allow them to carry out their roles effectively. The International Confederation of Midwives global standards for midwifery education (2010) attempts to address the need for competent caring midwives to help women and families in every corner of the world. The paper will also cover the pedagogical issues considered when blending together the different elements of learning namely: traditional discursive lectures, small group work, e-learning, formative presentations and the use of simulation during a skills and drills day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of host immunity by tick saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, H.; Lieskovská, J.; Andersen, J. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Chavakis, T.; Kopecký, J.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, OCT 14 2015 (2015), s. 58-68 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adaptive immunity * Innate immunity * Saliva * Salivary glands * Tick Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  12. Nano Approaches to Modulate Host Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Carolina Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (CCNE) is an NCI-funded multidisciplinary collaboration among a range of disciplines using nano approaches for cancer disease management and treatment.

  13. The FPAX fastbus module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlag, S.; Bouquet, B.; Lavigne, B.; Rypko, J.

    1989-07-01

    The FPAX is a Fastbus module with 4 independent, 2 slave and 2 master, ports on two segments. It operates as a normal master on either segment or as a Block-Mover on both. The processor board is based on a 68020 microprocessor. A local/network switch allows operation as a host or as a normal module on the Fastbus network

  14. Approaches to Assessing Preservice Teachers' Learning in Authentic and Rigorous Ways: The Case of an Inclusive Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth; Rusznyak, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Initial teacher education programmes offer inclusive education modules that seek to prepare teachers for teaching diverse learners. While there is growing research on the content and pedagogy of inclusive education modules, relatively less attention has been given to the assessment of these modules. This paper focuses on the challenges of…

  15. Actin-binding protein regulation by microRNAs as a novel microbial strategy to modulate phagocytosis by host cells: the case of N-Wasp and miR-142-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Marion, Sabrina; Pires, David; Santos, Leonor F; Lastrucci, Claire; Carmo, Nuno; Blake, Jonathon; Benes, Vladimir; Griffiths, Gareth; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a successful intracellular pathogen that thrives in macrophages (Mφs). There is a need to better understand how Mtb alters cellular processes like phagolysosome biogenesis, a classical determinant of its pathogenesis. A central feature of this bacteria's strategy is the manipulation of Mφ actin. Here, we examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a potential mechanism in the regulation of actin-mediated events leading to phagocytosis in the context of mycobacteria infection. Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls actin filament assembly to prolong its intracellular survival inside host cells, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis to assess the modulation of miRNAs upon M. smegmatis infection of the murine Mφ cell line, J774A.1. This approach identified miR-142-3p as a key candidate to be involved in the regulation of actin dynamics required in phagocytosis. We unequivocally demonstrate that miR-142-3p targets N-Wasp, an actin-binding protein required during microbial challenge. A gain-of-function approach for miR-142-3p revealed a down-regulation of N-Wasp expression accompanied by a decrease of mycobacteria intake, while a loss-of-function approach yielded the reciprocal increase of the phagocytosis process. Equally important, we show Mtb induces the early expression of miR-142-3p and partially down-regulates N-Wasp protein levels in both the murine J774A.1 cell line and primary human Mφs. As proof of principle, the partial siRNA-mediated knock down of N-Wasp resulted in a decrease of Mtb intake by human Mφs, reflected in lower levels of colony-forming units (CFU) counts over time. We therefore propose the modulation of miRNAs as a novel strategy in mycobacterial infection to control factors involved in actin filament assembly and other early events of phagolysosome biogenesis.

  16. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development, Implementation, and Assessment of Climate Curricular Materials for Introductory Undergraduates: Lessons Learned from the InTeGrate Project's Climate of Change Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B.; Fadem, C. M.; Shellito, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Designing climate change curricular materials suitable for wide adoption across institutions and academic disciplines (including those outside of the geosciences) requires collaboration among faculty at different types of institutions and consideration of a variety of student populations, learning styles, and course formats. The Interdisciplinary Teaching of Geoscience for a Sustainable Future (InTeGrate) project, an NSF STEP Center program, provides opportunities for faculty to develop 2-3 week teaching modules to engage students in understanding the intersections between geoscience topics and societal issues. From 2012-2014, a team of 3 faculty from a liberal arts college, comprehensive university, and community college developed, implemented, assessed, and revised a 2-3 week module for introductory undergraduates entitled "Climate of change: interactions and feedbacks between water, air, and ice". The module uses authentic atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere data from several regions to illustrate how climate impacts human societies and that the climate system has interacting components complicated by feedbacks, uncertainties, and human behavioral decisions. Students also consider past and present human adaptations to climate fluctuations. The module was piloted in introductory geology, meteorology, and oceanography courses during the 2012-2013 academic year, during which time formative and summative assessments were administered and used to modify the curricular materials. We will provide an overview of the module's content, instructional strategies involved in implementing the module, and methods of formative and summative assessment. We will also report on lessons learned during the development, piloting, revision, and publishing process, the importance of fostering partnerships between faculty from different institution types, and design approaches that promote widespread adoption of climate curricular materials.

  18. Convergent modulation of singlet and triplet excited states of phosphine-oxide hosts through the management of molecular structure and functional-group linkages for low-voltage-driven electrophosphorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunmiao; Zhang, Zhensong; Xu, Hui; Xie, Guohua; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yi; Deng, Zhaopeng; Liu, Shiyong; Yan, Pengfei

    2013-01-02

    The controllable tuning of the excited states in a series of phosphine-oxide hosts (DPExPOCzn) was realized through introducing carbazolyl and diphenylphosphine-oxide (DPPO) moieties to adjust the frontier molecular orbitals, molecular rigidity, and the location of the triplet excited states by suppressing the intramolecular interplay of the combined multi-insulating and meso linkage. On increasing the number of substituents, simultaneous lowering of the first singlet energy levels (S(1)) and raising of the first triplet energy levels (T(1), about 3.0 eV) were achieved. The former change was mainly due to the contribution of the carbazolyl group to the HOMOs and the extended conjugation. The latter change was due to an enhanced molecular rigidity and the shift of the T(1) states from the diphenylether group to the carbazolyl moieties. This kind of convergent modulation of excited states not only facilitates the exothermic energy transfer to the dopants in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), but also realizes the fine-tuning of electrical properties to achieve the balanced carrier injection and transportation in the emitting layers. As the result, the favorable performance of blue-light-emitting PHOLEDs was demonstrated, including much-lower driving voltages of 2.6 V for onset and 3.0 V at 100 cd m(-2), as well as a remarkably improved E.Q.E. of 12.6%. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities: a quasi-experimental case-control design study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kineret Sharfi

    Full Text Available Following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF concepts, this study examines body functions such as sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities (LD.One hundred and ten participants, 55 adults with LD and 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years filled in a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Adults/Adolescents Sensory Profile (AASP, and the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ. Chi-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were conducted to examine group differences related to socio-demographic characteristics and body functions. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between body functions.Significant differences were found between the groups in: (a unique socio-demographic variables: high-schools attended, family status and number of children; (b body functions: low registration and sensory sensitivity (p < .001, sensory avoiding (p = .002, sensory seeking (p = .021 and sleep quality (p < .001. Significant correlations were found between AASP subscale scores and the MSQ final score in each group. Regression analysis revealed that for the entire sample (N = 108, low registration accounted for 10.2% of the variance of sleep quality above group membership (p < .001, while in a separate examination of adults with LD (n = 53, low registration accounted for 19.9% of the variance of sleep quality (p < .001.Adults with LD need to be studied through a health-related perspective such as the ICF model to gain further understanding of their unique characteristics and daily needs. Sensory and sleep functions of adults with LD should be further studied in the context of health related quality of life.

  20. Behavioral Correlates of 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats: Progressive Operant Discrimination Learning Reduces Frequency Modulation and Increases Overall Amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yuki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in rats are thought to contain ecological signals reflecting emotional states. These USVs are centered on 50-kHz, and frequency modulation (FM is hypothesized to indicate positive emotion; however, results from recent studies are inconsistent with this hypothesis. We suspected that such inconsistencies might result from ambiguity in defining frequency modulation, and problems with acoustic analyses and behavioral protocols. We addressed these problems by applying quantitative methods for USV analyses and using a food reward operant paradigm. Our results revealed that frequency modulation varied according to the degree of positive outcomes, but the direction of change was opposite to what had been observed in previous studies. The FM in 50-kHz USVs decreased as animals learned the task and obtained more reinforcement, while USV amplitude increased as learning progressed. To reconcile these results with those from prior studies, we suggest that FM in 50-kHz USVs should be taken as an index of reward prediction errors, and USV amplitude should be considered as an index of positive emotion.

  1. Interaktive E-Learning-Module in der Humangenetik: Einsatz und Evaluation im Rahmen der Medizinstudierenden- und Humanbiologen-Ausbildung [Interactive e-learning courses in human genetics: Usage and evaluation by science and medical students at the faculty of medicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oeffner, Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: This study presents our online-teaching material within the k-MED project (Knowledge in Medical Education at the university of Marburg. It is currently organized in five e-learning modules: cytogenetics, chromosomal aberrations, formal genetics, fundamentals of molecular diagnostics, and congenital abnormalities and syndromes. These are basic courses intended to do the educational groundwork, which will enable academic teachers to concentrate on more sophisticated topics during their lectures. Methods: The e-learning modules have been offered to a large group of about 3300 students during four years at the Faculty of Medicine in Marburg. The group consists of science students (human biology and medical students in the preclinical or the clinical period, respectively. Participants were surveyed on acceptance by evaluating user-tracking data and questionnaires. Results and Conclusion: Analysis of the evaluation data proofs the broad acceptance of the e-learning modules during eight semesters. The courses are in stable or even increasing use from winter term 2005/06 until spring term 2009.Conclusion: Our e-learning-model is broadly accepted among students with different levels of knowledge at the Faculty of Medicine in Marburg. If the e-learning courses are maintained thoroughly, minor adaptations can increase acceptance and usage even furthermore. Their use should be extended to the medical education of technical assistances and nurses, who work in the field of human genetics.[german] Einleitung: Die vorliegende Studie beschreibt unser Online-Lehrmaterial Humangenetik im Zusammenhang mit dem k-MED-Projekt (Knowledge in Medical Education an der Philipps-Universität Marburg. Es besteht aus fünf E-Learning-Modulen: Zytogenetik, Chromosomenstörungen, Formalgenetik, Grundlagen der molekularen Diagnostik sowie Kongenitale Abnormitäten und Fehlbildungssyndrome. Diese E-Module sollen ein einheitliches Wissensniveau der

  2. An E-learning Module on Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: Effect on Medical Resident Attitudes, Confidence, Knowledge, and Clinical Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Zachary G; Elnicki, D Michael; Perera, Subashan; Weiner, Debra K

    2018-01-05

    To determine 1) the feasibility of implementing an e-learning module on chronic low back pain (CLBP) in an older adult into an existing internal medicine residency curriculum and 2) the impact of this module on resident attitudes, confidence, knowledge, and clinical skills relating to CLBP. Participants were assigned to complete either the online module (N = 73) or the Yale Office-based curriculum on CLBP (N = 70). Attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were evaluated pre- and postintervention via survey. A retrospective blinded chart review of resident clinic encounters was conducted, wherein diagnosis codes and physical exam documentation were rated as basic or advanced. There was no improvement in overall knowledge scores in either group (60% average on both metrics). There were tendencies for greater improvements in the intervention group compared with controls for confidence in managing fibromyalgia (2.4 to 2.9 vs 2.5 to 2.5, P = 0.06) and leg length discrepancy (1.8 to 2.5 vs 1.5 to 1.9, P = 0.05). Those exposed to the online module also showed an increase in the percentage of physical exam documentation rated as advanced following the intervention (13% to 32%, P = 0.006), whereas the control group showed no change (14% to 12%, P = 0.68). An online module on CLBP in the older adult was a feasible addition to an existing curriculum for internal medicine residents. The module positively and substantively impacted resident clinical behaviors, as evidenced by enhanced sophistication in physical exam documentation; it also was associated with improved confidence in certain aspects of chronic pain management. © 2018 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. The Using of Scientific Based Physics Module in Learning to Enhance High School Students’ Critical Thinking Skills on Rotation Dynamics and Equilibrium of Rigid Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Nur Setyawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using a scientific based physics module to improve high school students' critical thinking skills. This study is a quasi experimental study which uses two classes taken at random experiment consists of one class and the control class. Class experiments using the scientific study using scientific-based modules and classroom experiments using books that have been owned by students. Experimental class numbered 25 students and control class numbered 28 students. The research was conducted in the first half (one Academic Year 2016/2017. The method used is the test method with a pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methods. Data were analyzed using a pretest form of the homogeneity test to find out that the experimental class and controls used homogeneous. Posttest results were analyzed using normality test to determine the normally distributed data, N-gain to determine the increase critical thinking skills, as well as test two parties not bound to determine whether or not there is a difference in the increase in critical thinking skills. Conclusions and recommendations are the use of scientifically-based modules effectively improve the ability to think critically and use physics-based scientific modules should be adjusted to the prevailing syllabus and curriculum so that learning can take place properly.

  4. FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

    1980-11-01

    Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table

  5. Using Instructional Design, Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate, to Develop e-Learning Modules to Disseminate Supported Employment for Community Behavioral Health Treatment Programs in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapana R. Patel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImplementation science lacks a systematic approach to the development of learning strategies for online training in evidence-based practices (EBPs that takes the context of real-world practice into account. The field of instructional design offers ecologically valid and systematic processes to develop learning strategies for workforce development and performance support.ObjectiveThis report describes the application of an instructional design framework—Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE model—in the development and evaluation of e-learning modules as one strategy among a multifaceted approach to the implementation of individual placement and support (IPS, a model of supported employment for community behavioral health treatment programs, in New York State.MethodsWe applied quantitative and qualitative methods to develop and evaluate three IPS e-learning modules. Throughout the ADDIE process, we conducted formative and summative evaluations and identified determinants of implementation using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Formative evaluations consisted of qualitative feedback received from recipients and providers during early pilot work. The summative evaluation consisted of levels 1 and 2 (reaction to the training, self-reported knowledge, and practice change quantitative and qualitative data and was guided by the Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation.ResultsFormative evaluation with key stakeholders identified a range of learning needs that informed the development of a pilot training program in IPS. Feedback on this pilot training program informed the design document of three e-learning modules on IPS: Introduction to IPS, IPS Job development, and Using the IPS Employment Resource Book. Each module was developed iteratively and provided an assessment of learning needs that informed successive modules. All modules were disseminated and evaluated through a learning

  6. Using Instructional Design, Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate, to Develop e-Learning Modules to Disseminate Supported Employment for Community Behavioral Health Treatment Programs in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapana R; Margolies, Paul J; Covell, Nancy H; Lipscomb, Cristine; Dixon, Lisa B

    2018-01-01

    Implementation science lacks a systematic approach to the development of learning strategies for online training in evidence-based practices (EBPs) that takes the context of real-world practice into account. The field of instructional design offers ecologically valid and systematic processes to develop learning strategies for workforce development and performance support. This report describes the application of an instructional design framework-Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) model-in the development and evaluation of e-learning modules as one strategy among a multifaceted approach to the implementation of individual placement and support (IPS), a model of supported employment for community behavioral health treatment programs, in New York State. We applied quantitative and qualitative methods to develop and evaluate three IPS e-learning modules. Throughout the ADDIE process, we conducted formative and summative evaluations and identified determinants of implementation using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Formative evaluations consisted of qualitative feedback received from recipients and providers during early pilot work. The summative evaluation consisted of levels 1 and 2 (reaction to the training, self-reported knowledge, and practice change) quantitative and qualitative data and was guided by the Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation. Formative evaluation with key stakeholders identified a range of learning needs that informed the development of a pilot training program in IPS. Feedback on this pilot training program informed the design document of three e-learning modules on IPS: Introduction to IPS, IPS Job development, and Using the IPS Employment Resource Book . Each module was developed iteratively and provided an assessment of learning needs that informed successive modules. All modules were disseminated and evaluated through a learning management system. Summative evaluation revealed that

  7. Working Together for Better Student Learning: A Multi-University, Multi-Federal Partner Program for Asynchronous Learning Module Development for Radar-Based Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, M. B.; Yu, T.; Palmer, R. D.; Monroy, H.; Ruin, I.; Zhang, G.; Chilson, P. B.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Weiss, C.; Mitchell, K. A.; Fink, L. D.

    2010-01-01

    Students are not exposed to enough real-life data. This paper describes how a community of scholars seeks to remedy this deficiency and gives the pedagogical details of an ongoing project that commenced in the Fall 2004 semester. Fostering deep learning, this multiyear project offers a new active-learning, hands-on interdisciplinary laboratory…

  8. An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhai Rehab

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Public Health (PH course at the medical college of Cairo University is based on traditional lectures. Large enrollment limits students' discussions and interactions with instructors. Aim Evaluate students' learning outcomes as measured by improved knowledge acquisition and opinions of redesigning the Reproductive Health (RH section of the PH course into e-learning and assessing e-course utilization. Methods This prospective interventional study started with development of an e-learning course covering the RH section, with visual and interactive emphasis, to satisfy students' diverse learning styles. Two student groups participated in this study. The first group received traditional lecturing, while the second volunteered to enroll in the e-learning course, taking online course quizzes. Both groups answered knowledge and course evaluation questionnaires and were invited to group discussions. Additionally, the first group answered another questionnaire about reasons for non-participation. Results Students participating in the e-learning course showed significantly better results, than those receiving traditional tutoring. Students who originally shunned the e-course expressed eagerness to access the course before the end of the academic year. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences. Conclusions An online course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student's learning and complement pit-falls of large enrollment traditional tutoring.

  9. An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhai, Rehab; Yassin, Sahar; Ahmad, Mohamad F; Fors, Uno G H

    2012-03-20

    The Public Health (PH) course at the medical college of Cairo University is based on traditional lectures. Large enrollment limits students' discussions and interactions with instructors. Evaluate students' learning outcomes as measured by improved knowledge acquisition and opinions of redesigning the Reproductive Health (RH) section of the PH course into e-learning and assessing e-course utilization. This prospective interventional study started with development of an e-learning course covering the RH section, with visual and interactive emphasis, to satisfy students' diverse learning styles. Two student groups participated in this study. The first group received traditional lecturing, while the second volunteered to enroll in the e-learning course, taking online course quizzes. Both groups answered knowledge and course evaluation questionnaires and were invited to group discussions. Additionally, the first group answered another questionnaire about reasons for non-participation. Students participating in the e-learning course showed significantly better results, than those receiving traditional tutoring. Students who originally shunned the e-course expressed eagerness to access the course before the end of the academic year. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences. An online course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student's learning and complement pit-falls of large enrollment traditional tutoring.

  10. An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Public Health (PH) course at the medical college of Cairo University is based on traditional lectures. Large enrollment limits students' discussions and interactions with instructors. Aim Evaluate students' learning outcomes as measured by improved knowledge acquisition and opinions of redesigning the Reproductive Health (RH) section of the PH course into e-learning and assessing e-course utilization. Methods This prospective interventional study started with development of an e-learning course covering the RH section, with visual and interactive emphasis, to satisfy students' diverse learning styles. Two student groups participated in this study. The first group received traditional lecturing, while the second volunteered to enroll in the e-learning course, taking online course quizzes. Both groups answered knowledge and course evaluation questionnaires and were invited to group discussions. Additionally, the first group answered another questionnaire about reasons for non-participation. Results Students participating in the e-learning course showed significantly better results, than those receiving traditional tutoring. Students who originally shunned the e-course expressed eagerness to access the course before the end of the academic year. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences. Conclusions An online course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student's learning and complement pit-falls of large enrollment traditional tutoring. PMID:22433670

  11. Relative cortico-subcortical shift in brain activity but preserved training-induced neural modulation in older adults during bimanual motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Monteiro, Thiago; Beets, Iseult A M; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Gooijers, Jolien; Pauwels, Lisa; Chalavi, Sima; King, Brad; Albouy, Geneviève; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-10-01

    To study age-related differences in neural activation during motor learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 25 young (mean 21.5-year old) and 18 older adults (mean 68.6-year old) while performing a bimanual coordination task before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 2-week training intervention on the task. We studied whether task-related brain activity and training-induced brain activation changes differed between age groups, particularly with respect to the hyperactivation typically observed in older adults. Findings revealed that older adults showed lower performance levels than younger adults but similar learning capability. At the cerebral level, the task-related hyperactivation in parietofrontal areas and underactivation in subcortical areas observed in older adults were not differentially modulated by the training intervention. However, brain activity related to task planning and execution decreased from pretest to posttest in temporo-parieto-frontal areas and subcortical areas in both age groups, suggesting similar processes of enhanced activation efficiency with advanced skill level. Furthermore, older adults who displayed higher activity in prefrontal regions at pretest demonstrated larger training-induced performance gains. In conclusion, in spite of prominent age-related brain activation differences during movement planning and execution, the mechanisms of learning-related reduction of brain activation appear to be similar in both groups. Importantly, cerebral activity during early learning can differentially predict the amplitude of the training-induced performance benefit between young and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effect of serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein on formation of long-term memory in carps Cyprinus carpio in the model of active avoidance learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garina, D V; Mekhtiev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) that has property of disturbing formation of memory trace in mammals and of learning and memory in teleost fish was studied in the model of active avoidance learning. The experiment was performed in three stages: (1) fry of carps Cyprinus carpio L. was injected intracerebrovenricularly with the SMAP protein at a dose of 0.3 μg/g; control individuals were administered with equal amount of the buffered saline for poikilothermic animals; (2) 24 h after the injection, fish were learnt during 8 sèances for 2 days the conditioned reflex of active avoidance; (3) 48 h after the learning the testing of the skill was performed. The administration of the protein was shown to lead to disturbance of reproduction of the skill in the fish: the latent time of the skill reproduction in experimental individuals exceeded that in control fish more than two times, while the number of individuals succeeding the task in the experimental group was non-significantly lower than in the control group. However, unlike mammals, injection of the SMAP protein in this model produced no effect on the process of learning in carps. Thus, there was first demonstrated the inhibiting effect of the SMAP protein whose concentration correlated positively with the content of the neurotransmitter serotonin in brain on consolidation of memory traces in teleost fish.

  13. A full XML-based approach to creating hypermedia learning modules in web-based environments: application to a pathology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, Pascal; Dufour, Jean -Charles; Joubert, Michel; Michiels, Jean -François; Fieschi, Marius

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, web-based learning services are a key topic in the pedagogical and learning strategies of universities. While organisational and teaching requirements of the learning environment are being evaluated, technical specifications are emerging, enabling educators to build advanced "units of learning". Changes, however, take a long time and cost-effective solutions have to be found to involve our institutions in such actions. In this paper, we present a model of the components of a course. We detail the method followed to implement this model in hypermedia modules with a viewer that can be played on line or from a CD-ROM. The XML technology has been used to implement all the data structures and a client-side architecture has been designed to build a course viewer. Standards of description of content (such as Dublin Core and DocBook) have been integrated into the data structures. This tool has been populated with data from a pathology course and supports other medical contents. The choice of the architecture and the usefulness of the programming tools are discussed. The means of migrating towards a server-side application are presented.

  14. A Study Module in the Logical Structure of Cognitive Process in the Context of Variable-Based Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Galina I.; Katashev, Valery G.

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is increasingly gaining importance in all levels of educational system, particularly in tertiary education. In engineering profiles the core blended learning activity is students' independent work, the efficiency of which is defined by the degree of students' active involvement into the educational process, their ability to absorb…

  15. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  16. The Implementation and Evaluation of a Project-Oriented Problem-Based Learning Module in a First Year Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, Seamus C.; Lawlor, Bob J.; Meehan, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how a circuits-based project-oriented problem-based learning educational model was integrated into the first year of a Bachelor of Engineering in Electronic Engineering programme at Maynooth University, Ireland. While many variations of problem based learning exist, the presented model is closely aligned with the model used in…

  17. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  18. Sticking with the nice guy: trait warmth information impairs learning and modulates person perception brain network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2014-12-01

    Social learning requires inferring social information about another person, as well as evaluating outcomes. Previous research shows that prior social information biases decision making and reduces reliance on striatal activity during learning (Delgado, Frank, & Phelps, Nature Neuroscience 8 (11): 1611-1618, 2005). A rich literature in social psychology on person perception demonstrates that people spontaneously infer social information when viewing another person (Fiske & Taylor, 2013) and engage a network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and precuneus (Amodio & Frith, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(4), 268-277, 2006; Haxby, Gobbini, & Montgomery, 2004; van Overwalle Human Brain Mapping, 30, 829-858, 2009). We investigate the role of these brain regions during social learning about well-established dimensions of person perception-trait warmth and trait competence. We test the hypothesis that activity in person perception brain regions interacts with learning structures during social learning. Participants play an investment game where they must choose an agent to invest on their behalf. This choice is guided by cues signaling trait warmth or trait competence based on framing of monetary returns. Trait warmth information impairs learning about human but not computer agents, while trait competence information produces similar learning rates for human and computer agents. We see increased activation to warmth information about human agents in person perception brain regions. Interestingly, activity in person perception brain regions during the decision phase negatively predicts activity in the striatum during feedback for trait competence inferences about humans. These results suggest that social learning may engage additional processing within person perception brain regions that hampers learning in economic contexts.

  19. Examining the effects of a mindfulness-based distance learning professional training module on personal and professional functioning: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Whitesman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training people to deliver mindfulness-based interventions (MBI is becoming an important activity as mindfulness has been shown to have clinical benefits across a variety of conditions. Training courses must not only address the principles, skills and theory of mindfulness, but the trainers themselves must be able to embody the practice. There is limited research on the ability of teachers-in-training to embody the practice as a result of teacher training programmes. This study explored the extent to which a short course enabled future teachers to embody mindfulness practice. This first module was part of a larger course of four modules to prepare future teachers of MBIs. Methods Qualitative data was obtained from 10 out of 35 end of course written assignments that asked respondents to reflect on their experience of mindfulness practice during the course. These were systematically selected and a focus group interview was also conducted with local participants. Data was analysed by means of the framework method and key themes identified. Results The combination of a retreat and on-line learning was perceived to be effective. Students reported significant changes in personal functioning as a result of daily mindfulness practice: self-awareness, improved relationships, enhanced connectedness, better self-regulation, enhanced compassion and curiosity towards self and others and self-acceptance. Participants began to introduce elements of mindfulness into their professional practice. Conclusions The first module of a post-graduate training programme for health professionals who want to teach MBIs successfully supported students to embody, explore and apply mindfulness in their lives. The integrated teaching modalities of residential retreat and distance-based on-line learning appeared effective.

  20. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  1. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, Richard; Scolnic, Daniel M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Goldstein, Daniel A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Andrea, Chris B.; Nichol, Robert C.; Papadopoulos, Andreas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Sullivan, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, IEEC-CSIC, Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Finley, David A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fischer, John A.; Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kim, Alex G., E-mail: raviryan@gmail.com [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  2. Host Genetics: Fine-Tuning Innate Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fellay, Jacques; Goldstein, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A polymorphism modulating innate immunity signal transduction has recently been shown to influence human susceptibility to many different infections, providing one more indication of the potential of host genetics to reveal physiological pathways and mechanisms that influence resistance to infectious diseases.

  3. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  4. Trainee Teachers' Mental Effort in Learning Spreadsheet through Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasir, Zaidatun; Pin, Ong Chiek

    2012-01-01

    A printed module should consist of media elements, namely text and pictures, which are self-instructional and could cater to the needs of the user. However, the typical platform of such visualization frequently overloads the limited working memory causing split attention and redundancy effects. The purpose of this study is to design and develop a…

  5. Development of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Module on Topic of Reaction Rate for Senior High School Level Grade XI Chemistry Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. R.; Hardeli; Bayharti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to produce chemistry triangle oriented module on topic of reaction rate, and to reveal the validity and practicality level of the generated module. The type of research used is EducationalDesign Research (EDR) with development model is Plompmodel. This model consists of three phases, which are preliminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. The instrument used in this research is questionnaire validity and practicality. The data of the research were analyzed by using Kappa Cohen formula. The chemistry triangle oriented module validation sheet was given to 5 validators consisting of 3 chemistry lecturers and 2 high school chemistry teachers, while the practicality sheet was given to 2 chemistry teachers, 6 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 5 on the small groupevaluation and 25 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 6 on the field test. Based on the questionnaire validity analysis, the validity level of the module is very high with the value of kappa moment 0.87. The level of practicality based on teacher questionnaire response is very high category with a kappa moment value 0.96. Based on the questionnaire of student responses on small group evaluation, the level of practicality is very high category with a kappa moment 0.81, and the practicality is very high category with kappa moment value 0.83 based on questionnaire of student response on field test.

  6. Serpin functions in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing Bao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Serpins are a broadly distributed superfamily of protease inhibitors that are present in all kingdoms of life. The acronym, serpin, is derived from their function as potent serine proteases inhibitors. Early studies of serpins focused on their functions in haemostasis since modulating serine proteases activities are essential for coagulation. Additional research has revealed that serpins function in infection and inflammation, by modulating serine and cysteine proteases activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulating findings and current understanding of the functions of serpins in host-pathogen interactions, serving as host defense proteins as well as pathogenic factors. We also discuss the potential crosstalk between host and pathogen serpins. We anticipate that future research will elucidate the therapeutic value of this novel target.

  7. Odor Learning and Its Experience-Dependent Modulation in the South American Native Bumblebee Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palottini, Florencia; Estravis Barcala, María C.; Farina, Walter M.

    2018-01-01

    Learning about olfactory stimuli is essential in bumblebees’ life since it is involved in orientation, recognition of nest sites, foraging efficiency and food yield for the colony as a whole. To evaluate associative learning abilities in bees under controlled environmental conditions, the proboscis extension response (PER) assay is a well-established method used in honey bees, stingless bees and successfully adapted to bumblebees of the genus Bombus. However, studies on the learning capacity of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), one of the most abundant native species in South America, are non-existent. In this study, we examined the cognitive abilities of worker bees of this species, carrying out an olfactory PER conditioning experiment. Bumblebees were able to learn a pure odor when it was presented in paired association with sugared reward, but not when odor and reward were presented in an unpaired manner. Furthermore, if the bees were preexposed to the conditioned odor, the results differed depending on the presence of the scent either as a volatile in the rearing environment or diluted in the food. A decrement in learning performance results from the non-reinforced pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned odor, showing a latent inhibition phenomenon. However, if the conditioned odor has been previously offered diluted in sugared reward, the food odor acts as a stimulus that improves the learning performance during PER conditioning. The native bumblebee B. atratus is thus a new hymenopteran species capable of being trained under controlled experimental conditions. Since it is an insect increasingly reared for pollination service, this knowledge could be useful in its management in crops. PMID:29755391

  8. Using ESSEA Modules, Local Event Studies and Personal Learning Experiences in an Earth Systems Science Course for Preservice Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Brown, D.

    2008-12-01

    Most science courses, including courses that provide preparation for pre-service K-12 teachers are only taught from a deductive big picture perspective. This method is fine for most abstract learners, but pre- service classroom educators that are being prepared to teach in middle school classrooms will be faced with the challenge of building science content knowledge in students that are concrete learners. For these K-12 students a better pedagogical practice is to use local real-world familiar places, issues and personal experience to connect student learning with more abstract concepts. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite skills and pedagogical content knowledge to build K- 12 student science concept knowledge and science process skills we have integrated ESSEA modules that connect worldwide issues such as global climate change with local event studies chosen by learners. Some recent examples include how such local events such as landfill fires and suburban sprawl impact the local area's air, land, water and life. Course participants are able to choose a more personal route to understanding how their habits impact the global environment by participating in a three week learning experience called the Lifestyle Project. This experience asks students to incrementally reduce their use of heating or air-conditioning, the amount of waste going to landfills, to conserve electricity, drive less and eat less energy intensively. Pre-post content assessments indicate that students in this course scored significantly higher on post course content assessments and reported that by engaging in personal experience to global scale learning experiences they have a new appreciation for how personal choices impact the global environment and how to use local artifacts and issues to enhance K-12 student learning.

  9. THE EFFECT OF USING DIGIMON (SCIENCE DIGITAL MODULE WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH AT THE VISUALIZATIONOF STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENCE AND LEARNING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Syahroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the influence of digimon based scientific approach on independence and learning autcomes of learners. This research has designed as quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this reaserch is learners at 8 E and 8 F on SMP N 1 Magelang in year 2014/2015. The results showed that there was a strong perfect linear relationship between digimon with independent learning or learning outcomes of learners. The result of independent assessment on the experiment group was 85,47 while the result of independent assessment on the control group was 69,94. Digimon based scientific approach are influential 51.93% to the independence of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors. Digimon give influence 39.69% on learning outcomes of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors.This relation is empharized through an independent test (t-test which shows dependent bridge between digimon with independence toward concept understanding of learners in experiment group.

  10. Impact of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agents on Students' Understanding and Motivation in the Learning of Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamisah; Lee, Tien Tien

    2014-01-01

    The Electrochemistry topic is found to be difficult to learn due to its abstract concepts involving macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representation levels. Studies have shown that animation and simulation using information and communication technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance their understanding in learning…

  11. Effectiveness of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agent (IMMPA) in the Learning of Electrochemistry: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Tien; Osman, Kamisah

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemistry is found to be a difficult topic to learn due to its abstract concepts that involve the macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic representation levels. Research showed that animation and simulation using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance students' understanding in learning…

  12. News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

  13. Machine Learning Approaches Toward Building Predictive Models for Small Molecule Modulators of miRNA and Its Utility in Virtual Screening of Molecular Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vinita; Scaria, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a number of pathological processes has suggested that they could act as potential drug targets. RNA-binding small molecules offer an attractive means for modulating miRNA function. The availability of bioassay data sets for a variety of biological assays and molecules in public domain provides a new opportunity toward utilizing them to create models and further utilize them for in silico virtual screening approaches to prioritize or assign potential functions for small molecules. Here, we describe a computational strategy based on machine learning for creation of predictive models from high-throughput biological screens for virtual screening of small molecules with the potential to inhibit microRNAs. Such models could be potentially used for computational prioritization of small molecules before performing high-throughput biological assay.

  14. Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases Modulate Deficits of Reward-Based Reversal Learning in Acute Basal Ganglia Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Seidel

    Full Text Available Besides motor function, the basal ganglia have been implicated in feedback learning. In patients with chronic basal ganglia infarcts, deficits in reward-based reversal learning have previously been described.We re-examined the acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus-reward associations and acquired equivalence in eleven patients with acute basal ganglia stroke (8 men, 3 women; 57.8±13.3 years, whose performance was compared eleven healthy subjects of comparable age, sex distribution and education, who were recruited outside the hospital. Eleven hospitalized patients with a similar vascular risk profile as the stroke patients but without stroke history served as clinical control group.In a neuropsychological assessment 7±3 days post-stroke, verbal and spatial short-term and working memory and inhibition control did not differ between groups. Compared with healthy subjects, control patients with vascular risk factors exhibited significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (F[2,30] = 3.47; p = 0.044; post-hoc comparison between risk factor controls and healthy controls: p = 0.030, but not the acquisition phase (F[2,30] = 1.01; p = 0.376 and the acquired equivalence (F[2,30] = 1.04; p = 0.367 tasks. In all tasks, the performance of vascular risk factor patients closely resembled that of basal ganglia stroke patients. Correlation studies revealed a significant association of the number of vascular risk factors with reversal learning (r = -0.33, p = 0.012, but not acquisition learning (r = -0.20, p = 0.121 or acquired equivalence (r = -0.22, p = 0.096.The previously reported impairment of reward-based learning may be attributed to vascular risk factors and associated diseases, which are enriched in stroke patients. This study emphasizes the necessity of appropriate control subjects in cognition studies.

  15. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3402c enhances mycobacterial survival within macrophages and modulates the host pro-inflammatory cytokines production via NF-kappa B/ERK/p38 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    Full Text Available Intracellular survival plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a process which depends on an array of virulence factors to colonize and replicate within the host. The M. tuberculosis iron regulated open reading frame (ORF rv3402c, encoding a conserved hypothetical protein, was shown to be up-regulated upon infection in both human and mice macrophages. To explore the function of this ORF, we heterologously expressed the rv3402c gene in the non-pathogenic fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis strain, and demonstrated that Rv3402c, a cell envelope-associated protein, was able to enhance the intracellular survival of recombinant M. smegmatis. Enhanced growth was not found to be the result of an increased resistance to intracellular stresses, as growth of the Rv3402c expressing strain was unaffected by iron depletion, H2O2 exposure, or acidic conditions. Colonization of macrophages by M. smegmatis expressing Rv3402c was associated with substantial cell death and significantly greater amount of TNF-α and IL-1β compared with controls. Rv3402c-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production was found to be mediated by NF-κB, ERK and p38 pathway in macrophages. In summary, our study suggests that Rv3402c delivered in a live M. smegmatis vehicle can modify the cytokines profile of macrophage, promote host cell death and enhance the persistence of mycobacterium within host cells.

  17. Evolution of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course: enhanced learning with a new debriefing tool and Web-based module for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Rodgers, David L; van der Jagt, Élise; Eppich, Walter; O'Donnell, John

    2012-09-01

    To describe the history of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course and outline the new developments in instructor training that will impact the way debriefing is conducted during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses. The Pediatric Advanced Life Support course, first released by the American Heart Association in 1988, has seen substantial growth and change over the past few decades. Over that time, Pediatric Advanced Life Support has become the standard for resuscitation training for pediatric healthcare providers in North America. The incorporation of high-fidelity simulation-based learning into the most recent version of Pediatric Advan