Learning motivation plays an important role in students’ English learning process. This thesis first introduces the definition and classification of motivation and then puts forward some measures and strategies that can foster and motivate junior middle school students’ learning motivation.
This study aims to develop a feasible instrument for determining middle school students' motivation to learn technology in South Korea. The authors translated Glynn's motivational instrument and modified it to measure Korean middle school students' motivation to learn technology. The instrument was applied to 441 students of grade 8 and 9 from six…
Bowman, Richard F.
For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…
Remillard, Heather A.
The purpose of this study was to explore cooperative learning and the impact on middle school students overall academic achievement. The study included 47 students from a small private school, ranging from grades sixth through eighth. The researcher examined student perception of cooperative learning, implementation process and the overall impact…
Discussion of learning with technology as well as about technology focuses on a case study of a middle school nature area that uses technology to extend accessibility of environmental data. Highlights include the design of Web pages to describe the nature area; file sharing software; and the use of videoconferencing. (LRW)
Ciullo, Stephen; Mason, Linda
Helping elementary students with learning disabilities (LD) prepare for the rigor of middle school writing is an instructional priority. Fortunately, several standards-based skills in upper elementary school and middle school overlap. Teachers in upper elementary grades, specifically fourth and fifth grades, have the opportunity to provide…
Hartl, Amy C.; DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy
This study examines whether friendship facilitates or hinders learning in a dyadic instructional setting. Working in 80 same-sex pairs, 160 (60 girls, 100 boys) middle school students (M = 12.13 years old) were taught a new computer programming language and programmed a game. Students spent 14 to 30 (M = 22.7) hours in a programming class. At the beginning and the end of the project, each participant separately completed (a) computer programming knowledge assessments and (b) questionnaires ra...
Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike
The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry-oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! The control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference, F(2,91) = 3.6, p hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games in order to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.
San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.
This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge within a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing potential effects on students' interests and choices related to decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to…
McMullen, Rebecca C.; Shippen, Margaret E.; Dangel, Harry L.
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the specific classroom organizational behaviors that middle school inclusive teachers report as expectations for students with learning disabilities. Practicing middle school science and social studies teachers (n = 12) responded to a survey about organization behaviors of students with learning…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation to learn technology, as perceived by South Korean middle school students, on their attitudes toward engineering. Using the instruments of Glynn et al. (2011) and Lee (2008), the study focused on eighth and ninth grade students in four middle schools located in South Korea's…
Weinberg, Andrea E.; Basile, Carole G.; Albright, Leonard
A mixed methods design was used to evaluate the effects of four experiential learning programs on the interest and motivation of middle school students toward mathematics and science. The Expectancy-Value model provided a theoretical framework for the exploration of 336 middle school student participants. Initially, participants were generally…
Boyle, Joseph R.
While today's teachers use a variety of teaching methods in middle-school science classes, lectures and note-taking still comprise a major portion of students' class time. To be successful in these classes, middle-school students need effective listening and note-taking skills. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are poor note-takers, which…
<正>This thesis discusses the relations among English learning motivations, learning strategies and study efficiency under China’s background through reviewing the Chinese and overseas English learning motivation research, analyzing its explanation, characteristics and the questionnaire results. Several suggestions on how to stimulate and foster the students’English learning motivation have been given through the analysis of existing problems in the English study of students. I expect these would be animating English teaching in school.
Zhang, Danhui; Tang, Xing
Informal science learning has been found to have effects on students' science learning. Through the use of secondary data from a national assessment of 7410 middle school students in China, this study explores the relationship among five types of extracurricular science activities, learning interests, academic self-concept, and science…
Boyle, Joseph R.
For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…
Fitzgerald, Tanya; Gunter, Helen
In this article, the authors focus on what is called "middle leadership" in schools in England and "middle management" in New Zealand. Their concern is that despite almost two decades since the introduction of site based management in both countries that devolved significant responsibility for the leadership of learning to…
Evans, Michael A.; Lopez, Megan; Maddox, Donna; Drape, Tiffany; Duke, Rebekah
The concept of connected learning proposes that youth leverage individual interest and social media to drive learning with an academic focus. To illustrate, we present in-depth case studies of Ryan and Sam, two middle-school-age youth, to document an out-of-school intervention intended to direct toward intentional learning in STEM that taps interest and motivation. The investigation focused on how Ryan and Sam interacted with the designed elements of Studio STEM and whether they became more engaged to gain deeper learning about science concepts related to energy sustainability. The investigation focused on the roles of the engineering design process, peer interaction, and social media to influence youth interest and motivation. Research questions were based on principles of connected learning (e.g., self-expression, lower barriers to expertise, socio-technical supports) with data analyzed within a framework suggested by discursive psychology. Analyzing videotaped excerpts of interactions in the studio, field notes, interview responses, and artifacts created during the program resulted in the following findings: problem solving, new media, and peer interaction as designed features of Studio STEM elicited evidence of stimulating interest in STEM for deeper learning. Further research could investigate individual interest-driven niches that are formed inside the larger educational setting, identifying areas of informal learning practice that could be adopted in formal settings. Moreover, aspects of youth's STEM literacy that could promote environmental sustainability through ideation, invention, and creativity should be pursued.
A study of a single-sex learning environment was conducted in a public school, Edward Hand Middle School in Lancaster, Pennsylvania; sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students were grouped homogeneously by sex for all major subjects for a period of one semester and grouped heterogeneously for one semester. The study examined the effects that the…
Ogbuehi, Philip I.; Fraser, Barry J.
This study of middle-school students in California focused on the effectiveness of using innovative teaching strategies for enhancing the classroom environment, students' attitudes and conceptual development. A sample of 661 students from 22 classrooms in four inner city schools completed modified forms of the Constructivist Learning Environment…
McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla
The present study examined the extent to which middle school students' (N = 90) learning strategies mediated the relationship between their motivational orientations and academic achievement. Survey data revealed that higher degrees of intrinsic motivation predicted the use of both deep and surface learning strategies, whereas higher degrees of…
Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…
Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.
San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.
This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge from a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing their potential effects on decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to postsecondary years, I leverage…
Doud, Janet M.
An integral part of 21st century learning for middle school students included the daily use of mobile device technology. The problem with mobile devices, full of their interactive interfaces, was how did the student personally discover which features and tools within the device will best benefit the student's style and needs, thus enhancing…
This study aimed at modifying a teaching and learning model for a geographic inquiry to enhance both the subject-related skills of geography and so-called twenty-first century skills in middle-school students (14-15 years old). The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the user experiences concerning certain tools for learning…
Godzicki, Linda; Godzicki, Nicole; Krofel, Mary; Michaels, Rachel
This action research project report was conducted in order to increase motivation and engagement in elementary and middle school students through technology-supported learning environments. The study was conducted from August 27, 2012, through December 14, 2012 with 116 participating students in first-, fourth-, fifth- and eighth-grade classes. To…
Taylor, Gregory S.; Hord, Casey
An exploratory study of a middle school curriculum directly aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards was conducted with a focus on how the curriculum addresses the instructional needs of students with learning disabilities. A descriptive analysis of a lesson on speed and velocity was conducted and implications discussed for students with…
This qualitative study explored educators' sense making of and responses to No Child Left Behind and the Common Core State Standards at one urban Expeditionary Learning middle school. Sense-making theory (Spillane, Reiser, & Reimer, 2002) and inquiry as stance (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009) were used as complementary conceptual frameworks…
Morris-Bryant, Edye Darlene
The purpose of this single case study is to describe and document the implementation of a 1:1 laptop program for a middle school with a unique school-university partnership. The goal of this study is two-fold; one being to describe the implementation of a 1:1 laptop program and to document the lessons learned in leading a 1:1 laptop program. This…
Winter, Joshua W.
Flipped learning is a teaching approach that promotes collaboration by using technology to 'flip' traditional instruction. Content is delivered outside of class in the individual space (online) and the group space (classroom) is used to engage in collaborative activities. Flipped learning shifts the teacher's role toward facilitation. Research on…
Conklin, Hilary G.
The author presents findings from the first phase of a longitudinal, comparative case study that investigates what teachers learn about intellectually demanding social studies teaching at the middle school level from two distinctive teacher education pathways: a specialized middle school teacher education program and a secondary social studies…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…
As schools continue to become more diverse, it is important to look at science teaching methods that will meet the needs of all students. In this study, 172 students in a middle school in Northwestern Illinois were taught using two methods of teaching science. Half of the students were taught using project-based science (PBS) and the other half of…
Lee, Soo Youn
This study examined the effect of middle school students’ perceived parenting style on their school life adjustment focusing on the mediation effect of selfesteem and learning attitude. The author carried out analysis of covariance structure using the 1st wave(2010) data of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey(KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute and consists of 2,351 first year middle school students and their parents. The results indicated that when middle school studen...
Dulin, Charles Dewitt
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of uniform dress codes on a school's climate for student behavior and learning in four middle schools in North Carolina. The research will compare the perceptions of parents, teachers, and administrators in schools with uniform dress codes against schools without uniform dress codes. This…
Saloumeh Khodabakhshi; Ali Rahimi
The present research aimed to investigate the problems of teaching and learning English in middle schools in Esfahan, Iran. These problems are associated with the learner, teacher, textbook, syllabus, and language policy. The instrument used was a self-constructed likert scale questionnaire. All the variables had a hand in the problems among which textbook, syllabus and language policy had the most effect. Twenty five problems were distinguished among which some are as follows: students do no...
This article presents findings from the School Reform and Student Diversity Study, a 4-year project to locate and analyze schools offering exemplary science and mathematics programs to middle school students with limited proficiency in English. In contrast to the vast majority of schools, the four schools described in this article give these students access to stimulating science and mathematics curricula by instructing them either in the students' primary language or in English using shelter...
Grover, Shuchi; Pea, Roy; Cooper, Stephen
The focus of this research was to create and test an introductory computer science course for middle school. Titled "Foundations for Advancing Computational Thinking" (FACT), the course aims to prepare and motivate middle school learners for future engagement with algorithmic problem solving. FACT was also piloted as a seven-week course on Stanford's OpenEdX MOOC platform for blended in-class learning. Unique aspects of FACT include balanced pedagogical designs that address the cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal aspects of "deeper learning"; a focus on pedagogical strategies for mediating and assessing for transfer from block-based to text-based programming; curricular materials for remedying misperceptions of computing; and "systems of assessments" (including formative and summative quizzes and tests, directed as well as open-ended programming assignments, and a transfer test) to get a comprehensive picture of students' deeper computational learning. Empirical investigations, accomplished over two iterations of a design-based research effort with students (aged 11-14 years) in a public school, sought to examine student understanding of algorithmic constructs, and how well students transferred this learning from Scratch to text-based languages. Changes in student perceptions of computing as a discipline were measured. Results and mixed-method analyses revealed that students in both studies (1) achieved substantial learning gains in algorithmic thinking skills, (2) were able to transfer their learning from Scratch to a text-based programming context, and (3) achieved significant growth toward a more mature understanding of computing as a discipline. Factor analyses of prior computing experience, multivariate regression analyses, and qualitative analyses of student projects and artifact-based interviews were conducted to better understand the factors affecting learning outcomes. Prior computing experiences (as measured by a pretest) and math ability were
Zhang, Danhui; Tang, Xing
Informal science learning has been found to have effects on students' science learning. Through the use of secondary data from a national assessment of 7410 middle school students in China, this study explores the relationship among five types of extracurricular science activities, learning interests, academic self-concept, and science achievement. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the influence of students' self-chosen and school-organised extracurricular activities on science achievement through mediating interests and the academic self-concept. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether there was an opportunity gap in the student's engagement in extracurricular activities. The students' volunteer and school-organised participation in extracurricular science activities had a positive and indirect influence on their science achievement through the mediating variables of their learning interests and academic self-concept. However, there were opportunity gaps between different groups of students in terms of school location, family background, and especially the mother's education level. Students from urban areas with better-educated mothers or higher socioeconomic status are more likely to access diverse science-related extracurricular activities.
Lei, Jing; Zhou, Jingye; Wang, Qiu
Based on data collected from middle school students in a U.S. school (N = 159) and a Chinese school (N = 183), this study compared Internet use in school and at home between American students and Chinese students, explored what affected students' use of the Internet, and examined how students' Internet use related to their learning. Results reveal…
Economically disadvantaged students are being outperformed by their non-disadvantaged peers in middle school mathematics. This problem is evidenced by 2013 data from a national middle school mathematics assessment which revealed an achievement gap of 27 scale score points. Closing this gap is important to schools with high populations of…
Rosenblatt, Jennifer L.; Elias, Maurice J.
A number of studies have documented a normative decline in academic achievement across the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school. The current study examined the effectiveness of varying levels of a social-emotional learning intervention, "Talking with TJ," in limiting achievement loss across transition. Data were…
Wolf, Stephen J.; Fraser, Barry J.
This study compared inquiry and non-inquiry laboratory teaching in terms of students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment, attitudes toward science, and achievement among middle-school physical science students. Learning environment and attitude scales were found to be valid and related to each other for a sample of 1,434 students in…
Principal Leadership, 2010
It is no accident that the staff at Fieldale-Collinsville Middle School adopted a central tenet of "Breaking Ranks in the Middle"--to banish anonymity by creating a personalized learning environment for all of its students. The school was created six years ago when the four middle schools in Henry County, VA, were consolidated into two…
Peters, Vanessa L.; Songer, Nancy Butler
This paper reports the results of a three-stage usability test of a modeling tool designed to support learners' deep understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The design process involved repurposing an existing modeling technology used by professional scientists into a learning tool specifically designed for middle school students. To evaluate usability, we analyzed students' task performance and task completion time as they worked on an activity with the repurposed modeling technology. In stage 1, we conducted remote testing of an early modeling prototype with urban middle school students (n = 84). In stages 2 and 3, we used screencasting software to record students' mouse and keyboard movements during collaborative think-alouds (n = 22) and conducted a qualitative analysis of their peer discussions. Taken together, the study findings revealed two kinds of usability issues that interfered with students' productive use of the tool: issues related to the use of data and information, and issues related to the use of the modeling technology. The study findings resulted in design improvements that led to stronger usability outcomes and higher task performance among students. In this paper, we describe our methods for usability testing, our research findings, and our design solutions for supporting students' use of the modeling technology and use of data. The paper concludes with implications for the design and study of modeling technologies for science learning.
Jain, S.; Baker, T.; Crofton-Macdonald, J.; Scott, M.
Teaching environmental topics, such as sustainability and ecosystem management, to students through the lens of computational thinking provides unique educational opportunities. Environmental topics are an excellent source for multidisciplinary learning, as questions concerning human well-being, environmental policy, science, and mathematics can naturally be incorporated into educational discussions and activities. The use of computational modeling allows students to critically reason about and explore environmental concepts by envisioning complexity, and asking and investigating a series of "what if" questions. Students can furthermore reflect on their own relationship with their local ecology. For the past five years, we have tested and developed activities for middle school students. Through in-class activities, workshop, and summer clubs, we have explored these ideas. We plan to present examples from our work and a tentative framework for a new approach to environmental education, one reinforced by computational thinking and creative learning.
Grover, Shuchi; Pea, Roy; Cooper, Stephen
The focus of this research was to create and test an introductory computer science course for middle school. Titled "Foundations for Advancing Computational Thinking" (FACT), the course aims to prepare and motivate middle school learners for future engagement with algorithmic problem solving. FACT was also piloted as a seven-week course…
Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.
There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.
Miatun, A.; Muntazhimah
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of learning models on mathematics achievement viewed from student’s self-regulated learning. The learning model compared were discovery learning and problem-based learning. The population was all students at the grade VIII of Junior High School in Boyolali regency. The samples were students of SMPN 4 Boyolali, SMPN 6 Boyolali, and SMPN 4 Mojosongo. The instruments used were mathematics achievement tests and self-regulated learning questionnaire. The data were analyzed using unbalanced two-ways Anova. The conclusion was as follows: (1) discovery learning gives better achievement than problem-based learning. (2) Achievement of students who have high self-regulated learning was better than students who have medium and low self-regulated learning. (3) For discovery learning, achievement of students who have high self-regulated learning was better than students who have medium and low self-regulated learning. For problem-based learning, students who have high and medium self-regulated learning have the same achievement. (4) For students who have high self-regulated learning, discovery learning gives better achievement than problem-based learning. Students who have medium and low self-regulated learning, both learning models give the same achievement.
Pieraccioni, Fabio; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Gioncada, Anna
Some volcanic processes occur at pressures and temperatures very different from daily experience. Such extreme conditions, unreproducible in the classroom, can lead children to build concepts about volcanic phenomena very different from the reality (Greca & Moreira, 2000; Dove, 1998). The didactic goals of this learning sequence concern the relationships between the viscosity of magmas and types of erupted materials and their consequences on volcano shapes, to favour pupils' comprehension of what a volcano is. Viscosity and its temperature dependence can be easily experimented in class with analogue materials at room temperature (Baker et al., 2004). Our research aims are to observe the development of the thought of pupils of middle schools on volcanic phenomena; this allowed to put in evidence the benefits of this approach and to give suggestions to avoid possible critical points. We have experimented a hands-on learning sequence about volcanoes in four third classes of Tuscan middle schools, for an amount of 95 pupils, 48 females and 47 males. Sharing the principles of constructivism, we think useful that pupils start from their own direct experience for understanding natural phenomena not directly observable. Therefore, we start from the experiences and knowledge of children to build a inquiry-based itinerary (Minner et al., 2010; Pieraccioni et al., 2016). The learning sequence begins with a practical activity in which we employ common and well-known materials to introduce the concept of viscosity in order to relate various kinds of magma to the shape of volcanoes. One of the benefits of this approach is to overcome the problems of introducing complex concepts such as acidity of magmas or silica content, far from the pupils' experience and knowledge. These concepts are often used in Italian middle school textbooks to describe and classify volcanoes. The result is a list of names to learn by heart. On the contrary, by using oil, ketchup, peanut butter or honey
Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario
In many countries around the world, there has been an increasing emphasis on improving science education. Recent reform efforts in the USA call for teachers to integrate scientific and engineering practices into science teaching; for example, science teachers are asked to provide learning experiences for students that apply crosscutting concepts (e.g., patterns, scale) and increase understanding of disciplinary core ideas (e.g., physical science, earth science). Engineering practices and engineering design are essential elements of this new vision of science teaching and learning. This paper presents a research study that evaluates the effects of an engineering design-based science curriculum on student learning and attitudes. Three middle school life science teachers and 275 seventh grade students participated in the study. Content assessments and attitude surveys were administered before and after the implementation of the curriculum unit. Statewide mathematics test proficiency scores were included in the data analysis as well. Results provide evidence of the positive effects of implementing the engineering design-based science unit on student attitudes and learning.
Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.
Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.
The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…
Balfanz, Robert; Mac Iver, Doug
Two developers of the Talent Development Middle School model discuss 10 lessons from implementing, refining, and evaluating this model in 5 high-poverty middle schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and describe obstacles encountered and breakthroughs experienced in developing the knowledge base, materials, and infrastructure of the model. (SLD)
Zinicola, Debra Ann
Reformers call for change in how science is taught in schools by shifting the focus towards conceptual understanding for all students. Constructivist learning is being promoted through the dissemination of National and State Science Standards that recommend group learning practices in science classrooms. This study examined the science learning and interactions, using case study methodology, of one collaborative group of 4 students in an urban middle school. Data on science talk and social interaction were collected over 9 weeks through 12 science problem solving sessions. To determine student learning through peer interaction, varied group structures were implemented, and students reflected on the group learning experience. Data included: field notes, cognitive and reflective journals, audiotapes and videotapes of student talk, and audiotapes of group interviews. Journal data were analyzed quantitatively and all other data was transcribed into The Ethnograph database for qualitative analysis. The data record was organized into social and cognitive domains and coded with respect to interaction patterns to show how group members experienced the social construction of science concepts. The most significant finding was that all students learned as a result of 12 talk sessions as evidenced by pre- and post-conceptual change scores. Interactions that promoted learning involved students connecting their thoughts, rephrasing, and challenging ideas. The role structure was only used by students about 15% of the time, but it started the talk with a science focus, created awareness of scientific methods, and created an awareness of equitable member participation. Students offered more spontaneous, explanatory talk when the role structure was relaxed, but did not engage in as much scientific writing. They said the role structure was important for helping them know what to do in the talk but they no longer needed it after a time. Gender bias, status, and early adolescent
Werner, Linda; McDowell, Charlie; Denner, Jill
Educational data mining can miss or misidentify key findings about student learning without a transparent process of analyzing the data. This paper describes the first steps in the process of using low-level logging data to understand how middle school students used Alice, an initial programming environment. We describe the steps that were…
Lewis, Andrea D.
The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…
Newman, Jane L.; Dantzler, John; Coleman, April N.
The purpose of Science in Action (SIA) was to examine the relationship between implementing quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) service-learning (SL) projects and the effect on students' academic engagement in middle school science, civic responsibility, and resilience to at-risk behaviors. The innovative project funded by…
Giacalone, Valarie A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at
Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.
The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k
Progressive Architecture, 1979
The architectural design of Jackie Robinson Middle School in New Haven, Connecticut, minimizes the school's size by siting it to reveal only one level at its entrance. Extensive use of transparent and translucent materials projects openness and light. (Author/MLF)
Nolan, C. J. Patrick; McKinnon, David H.
New Zealand school education through the middle years appears to be in crisis. Sutton (2000) reports that students in the age range from 13-15 years (Years 9 and 10 of schooling) experience the crisis most poignantly. Their teachers increasingly say children in this age range are difficult to motivate, that they present them with their greatest…
Robin H. Kay
Full Text Available The current study offers a formative analysis of the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Five reliable and valid measure of effectiveness were used to examine the impact of learning objects from the perspective of 262 students and 8 teachers (14 classrooms in science or mathematics. The results indicate that teachers typically spend 1-2 hours finding and preparing for learning-object based lesson plans that focus on the review of previous concepts. Both teachers and students are positive about the learning benefits, quality, and engagement value of learning objects, although teachers are more positive than students. Student performance increased significantly, over 40%, when learning objects were used in conjunction with a variety of teaching strategies. It is reasonable to conclude that learning objects have potential as a teaching tool in a middle school environment. L’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire : une analyse formative Résumé : Cette étude présente une analyse formative de l’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire. Cinq mesures de rendement fiables et valides ont été exploitées pour examiner l’effet des objets d’apprentissage selon 262 élèves et 8 enseignants (414 classes en science ou mathématiques. Les résultats indiquent que les enseignants passent typiquement 1-2 heures pour trouver des objets d’apprentissage et préparer les leçons associées qui seraient centrées sur la revue de concepts déjà vus en classe. Quoique les enseignants aient répondu de façon plus positive que les élèves, les deux groupes ont répondu positivement quant aux avantages au niveau de l’apprentissage, à la qualité ainsi qu’à la valeur motivationnelle des objets d’apprentissage. Le rendement des élèves aurait aussi augment
Pace, Jesse R.; Mellard, Daryl F.
This study evaluated the effects of a blended learning instructional experience for sixth-grade students in an English/language arts (ELA) course. Students at two treatment schools participated in a blended learning instructional paradigm, and their ELA test scores were compared to one comparison school that used a face-to-face delivery. Other…
Jung, Eun Sook
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cognitive and attitudinal aspects of learning science, concentrating mainly on the influence of cognitive understanding and learning difficulty on attitudes to science. This theme is selected, in particular, because it is reported that Korean students at secondary level do not enjoy studying science and have not enough confidence, although their achievements are high. Johnstone's information processing model (1993) is used to account for cognitive aspects of science education. Learning processes are understood in terms of student's own knowledge construction through the operation of perception filters, processing in working memory space and storing in long term memory. In particular, the overload of student's working memory space is considered as the main factor causing learning difficulty and, in consequence, learning failure. The research took place in one middle school located in Seoul, the capital city in South Korea. 364 students aged 13 and 350 aged 15 participated. In order to try to find relationships between cognitive and affective factors of science learning, individual student's working memory space was measured and a questionnaire designed to gather information about students' attitudes was prepared and given to all students. To determine the working memory space capacity of the students, the Figural Intersection Test (F.I.T), designed by Pascual-Leone, was used. Two kinds of analysis, comparison and correlation, were performed with data from the Figural Intersection Test and the questionnaire applied to students. For the comparison of attitudes between age 13 and 15, the distributions of frequencies of responses were analyzed for each particular statement in a question. The Chi-square (?) test was applied to judge the statistically significant differences in responses of the two groups. The levels of significance used were 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001. In order to see whether there is
Loper, Suzanna Jane
Two important goals in science education are teaching students about the nature of science and teaching students to do scientific inquiry. Learning about scientific models is central to both of these endeavors, but studies have shown that students have very flawed and limited understandings of the nature and purposes of scientific models (Carey & Smith, 1993; Grosslight, Unger, & Jay, 1991; Lederman, 1992). In this dissertation I investigate the processes of teaching and learning about scientific models in an 8th grade classroom in an urban middle school. In order to do so, I examine recordings of student and teacher talk about models across a period of two months in which students completed two independent inquiry projects, using the Inquiry Island software and curriculum (Eslinger, 2004; Shimoda, White, & Frederiksen, 2002; White, Shimoda, & Frederiksen, 2000). My analysis draws on video records of small-group work and whole-class interactions, as well as on students' written work. I find that in this classroom, students struggled to understand the nature and purpose of scientific models. I analyze episodes in the classroom talk in which models appeared to be a source of trouble or confusion, and describe the ways in which the teacher attempted to respond to these troubles. I find that in many cases students appeared to be able to produce scientific models of the proper form, yet still struggled with displaying an understanding of what a model was, or of the functions of models in scientific research. I propose directions for further research and curriculum development in order to build on these findings. In particular, I argue, we need to design ways to help students engage in scientific modeling as a social and communicative practice, and to find ways to build from their everyday reasoning and argumentation practices. My research also reinforces the importance of looking at classroom talk, not just pre- and post-assessments, in order to understand teaching and
The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools has been largely explored in relation to how students' use ICT at school. In addition students' lives and experiences with technology beyond school have also begun to be explored. However, the nexus between the two is still an underdeveloped research area. Anecdotally…
Jansen, Amanda; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Smith, John P., III
Transitions from middle school to high school mathematics programs can be problematic for students due to potential differences between instructional approaches and curriculum materials. Given the minimal research on how students experience such differences, we report on the experiences of two students as they moved out of an integrated,…
The approaches and interpretations of a class of 6th graders and a class of 8th graders in a U.S. middle school asked to engage in tasks that involved using observations to describe and classify samples is the subject of this paper. Overall 8th graders were better able to perform the tasks, suggesting a developmental advantage aspect. However, the…
Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…
A study has been conducted to obtain a depiction of middle school students’ critical thinking skills improvement through the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model in science instruction. A quasi-experimental study with the pretest-posttest control group design was used to engage 55 eighth-year middle school students in Tasikmalaya, which was divided into the experimental and control group respectively were 28 and 27 students. Critical thinking skills were measured using a critical thinking skills test in multiple-choice with reason format questions that administered before and after a given instruction. The test was 28 items encompassing three essential concepts, vibration, waves and auditory senses. The critical thinking skills improvement was determined by using the normalized gain score and statistically analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test.. The findings showed that the average of students’ critical thinking skills normalized gain score of both groups were 59 and 43, respectively for experimental and control group in the medium category. There were significant differences between both group’s improvement. Thus, the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model could further improve middle school students’ critical thinking skills than conventional learning.
Buescher, Eileen M.
This dissertation explores the experiences of middle childhood pre-service teachers (PST) across two academic years as they learn to teach English language arts to diverse students from conflicting sociocultural contexts. To help PSTs navigate the tensions across contexts, this study introduced culturally relevant (Ladson-Billings, 1995; 2014) and…
Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…
Mandell, Brian E.
The purpose of the present embedded mixed method study was to examine the self-regulatory processes used by high, average, and low achieving seventh grade students as they learned about a complex science topic from a hypermedia learning environment. Thirty participants were sampled. Participants were administered a number of measures to assess their achievement and self-efficacy. In addition, a microanalytic methodology, grounded in Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulated learning, was used to assess student self-regulated learning. It was hypothesized that there would be modest positive correlations between Zimmerman's three phases of self-regulated learning, that high achieving science students would deploy more self-regulatory subprocesses than average and low achieving science students, that high achieving science students would have higher self-efficacy beliefs to engage in self-regulated learning than average and low achieving science students, and that low achieving science students would over-estimate their self-efficacy for performance beliefs, average achieving science students would slightly overestimate their self-efficacy for performance beliefs, and high achieving science students would under-estimate their self-efficacy for performance beliefs. All hypotheses were supported except for the high achieving science students who under-estimated their self-efficacy for performance beliefs on the Declarative Knowledge Measure and slightly overestimated their self-efficacy for performance beliefs on the Conceptual Knowledge Measure. Finally, all measures of self-regulated learning were combined and entered into a regression formula to predict the students' scores on the two science tests, and it was revealed that the combined measure predicted 91% of the variance on the Declarative Knowledge Measure and 92% of the variance on the Conceptual Knowledge Measure. This study adds hypermedia learning environments to the contexts that the microanalytic
Bedard, Kelly; Do, Chan
While nearly half of all school districts have adopted middle schools, there is little quantitative evidence of the efficacy of this educational structure. We estimate the impact of moving from a junior high school system, where students stay in elementary school longer, to a middle school system for on-time high school completion. This is a…
Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.
Gruber, Lucinda; Griffith, Connor; Young, Ethan; Sullivan, Adriann; Schuler, Jeff; Arnold-Christian, Susan; Warren, Steve
Learning experiences for middle school girls are an effective means to steer young women toward secondary engineering curricula that they might not have otherwise considered. Sponsorship of such experiences by a collegiate student group is worthwhile, as it gives the group common purpose and places college students in a position to mentor these young women. This paper addresses learning experiences in different areas of bio-medical engineering offered to middle school girls in November 2008 via a day-long workshop entitled "Engineering The Body." The Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) worked with the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP) to design and sponsor these experiences, which addressed the areas of joint mechanics, electrocardiograms, membrane transport, computer mouse design, and audio filters for cochlear implants. Fifty five middle-school girls participated in this event, affirming the notion that biomedical engineering appeals to young women and that early education and recruitment efforts have the potential to expand the biomedical engineering talent pool.
Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.
The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.
Full Text Available Internet is the most important product for the computer technology and it began to be used in many fields. Especially in the recent years, the usage of Internet has increased in the fields of communication, entertainment, advertisement, media, and technology. In Turkey, the usage of Internet is not used very common and active in primary and secondary education. The fast developments of the new technologies and the Web-Based Education Systems must be increased the importance of giving courses. In this study, the information to be aimed at is to introduce the WebQuest system, which was developed at San Diego State University by Bernie Dodge. A webQuest can be used web-based math learning tool for Turkish middle school students. Therefore, an example of geometry education WebQuest is given to introduce WebQuest system because WebQuest will be active in geometry teaching similar to the other subjects. An overview of WebQuest technology application and several resources for teachers and students interested in creating WebQuests can be found on The WebQutest Page (Dodge, 2001. Table 1 lists web sites that have many of these resources.
Stanley, P D; Dai, Y; Nolan, R F
Although generalizations from research are helpful in guiding problem identification and interventions in a school setting, characteristics of specific groups must not be overlooked if all students are to be served effectively. Differences in the areas of self-reported self-esteem and depression are frequently pertinent to decisions and recommendations educational professionals are called on to make. The current study examined differences in the level of self-reported self-esteem and depression between learning disabled and behavior disordered middle school students. Sixty-one participants completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Similarities and differences between learning disabled and behavior disordered students were identified.
Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard
Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child…
Grant, Brooke L.; Liu, Xiufeng; Gardella, Joseph A.
This paper examines the roles that 52 university Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students play in an Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Partnership that connects several middle schools, high schools, institutions of higher learning, businesses, and community institutions. It also examines the support these students…
Belland, Brian R.
A critical step in problem-based learning (PBL) units occurs when groups present their solution to the central problem. This is challenging for middle school students because it involves the creation of an evidence-based argument (Krajcik et al., "Journal of the Learning Sciences" 7:313-350, 1998). Using a mixed method design, this study…
Belland, Brian R.; Glazewski, Krista D.; Richardson, Jennifer C.
Students engaged in problem-based learning (PBL) units solve ill-structured problems in small groups, and then present arguments in support of their solution. However, middle school students often struggle developing evidence-based arguments (Krajcik et al., "J Learn Sci" 7:313-350, 1998). Using a mixed method design, the researchers examined the…
Jones, Paul; Garner, Arthur E.
Compares pupil control ideology--discipline policy--of middle school classroom teachers with the intent of finding what attributes are needed for middle school teachers and the particular type classroom environment that facilitates optimum learning conditions for middle school children. (Author/RK)
This study examines the potential structural impediments to the reform movement of Project Based Learning (PBL) that are presented to teachers by the inherent nature of the school system, as well as the ways in which teachers address these systemic barriers when attempting to implement PBL in their classrooms. Much of the current research that is aimed at investigating the transition from traditional teacher-centered learning to student-centered PBL---whether PBL as problem based or project based learning---has focused on the transition issues at the level of individual teacher/student. Systemic barriers, on the other hand, are those features that are inherent to the structure of the system, and that pose---by their very nature---physical and/or political circumstances that are inconsistent with the student-centered and collaborative goals of PBL. It is not enough for teachers, parents, students, and administrators to be philosophically aligned with PBL, if the encompassing school system is structurally incompatible with the method. This study attempts to make the structural impediments to PBL explicit, to determine whether or not the existing school system is amenable to the successful implementation of PBL. Because the universal features of PBL coupled with the ubiquity of factory-model schools is likely to create recurring themes, it is plausible that this study may in fact be analytically generalizable to situations beyond those described by the populations and contexts in this set of purposive, multiple cases. One of the themes that emerged from this study was the role of rural poverty as an underlying cause of student apathy. More research may be needed to see whether science, as taught through PBL and in collaboration with practical arts courses, might be able to address some of the social, gendered, and educational needs of impoverished rural students and their families.
Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.
Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.
Trevorrow, Tracy; Zhou, Eric S; Dietch, Jessica R; Gonzalez, Brian D
The Society of Behavioral Medicine recommends school officials start middle and high school classes at 8:30 am or later. Such a schedule promotes students' sleep health, resulting in improvements in physical health, psychological well-being, attention and concentration, academic performance, and driving safety. In this position statement, we propose a four-tiered approach to promote later school start times for middle and high schools.
Hollifield, John H.
The first Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools (CREM) report describes the structures and practices currently used at all school levels for staffing, grouping, and scheduling. The report assesses the effects of departmentalization, tracking, ability grouping, and grade spans on student learning and development. (MLH)
In response to the solicitation of the National Institute on Drug Use (NIDA) (NIDA, 2006) for the Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Teaching about the Impact of Drug Abuse on the Brain, a virtual brain exhibit was developed by the joint venture of Entertainment Science, Inc. and Virtual Heroes, Inc.. This exhibit included a virtual reality learning environment combined with a video game, aiming at improving the neuroscience literacy of the general public, conveying knowledge about the impacts of methamphetamine abuse on the brain to the population, and establishing a stronger concept of drug use prevention among children. This study investigated the effectiveness of this interactive exhibit on middle school students' understanding and attitudes toward drug use. Three main research questions are addressed: (1) What do students learn about basic concepts of neuroscience and the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain via the exhibit? (2) How are students' attitudes toward methamphetamine use changed after exposure to the exhibit? (3) What are students' experiences and perceptions of using the exhibit to learn the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain? A mixed-method design, including pre/post/delayed-post test instruments, interviews, and video recordings, was conducted for 98 middle school students ranging from sixth to eighth grades to investigate these questions. The results show that students' understanding of the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain significantly improved after exposure to the exhibit regardless of grade or gender. Their pre-existing knowledge and their understanding after the exhibit indicated a tendency of progression. Most of the students consistently expressed negative attitudes toward general methamphetamine use regardless of whether it was before or after exposure to the exhibit. However, this exhibit gave them a better reason and made them feel more confident to refuse drugs. Finally, student learning
The purpose of this study was to determine if the marking period grades of middle school science students are correlated with their perception of the classroom learning environment, and if so could such an indicator be used in feedback loops for ongoing classroom learning environment evaluation and evolution. The study examined 24 classrooms in three districts representing several different types of districts and a diverse student population. The independent variable was the students' perceptions of their classroom learning environment (CLE). This variable was represented by their responses on the WIHIC (What Is Happening In This Class) questionnaire. The dependent variable was the students' marking period grades. Background data about the students was included, and for further elaboration and clarification, qualitative data was collected through student and teacher interviews. Middle school science students in this study perceived as most positive those domains over which they have more locus of control. Perceptions showed some variance by gender, ethnicity, teacher/district, and socio-economic status when viewing the absolute values of the domain variables. The patterns of the results show consistency between groups. Direct correlation between questionnaire responses and student grades was not found to be significant except for a small significance with "Task Orientation". This unexpected lack of correlation may be explained by inconsistencies between grading schemes, inadequacies of the indicator instrument, and/or by the one-time administration of the variables. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data led to the conclusion that this instrument is picking up information, but that revisions in both the variables and in the process are needed. Grading schemes need to be decomposed, the instrument needs to be revised, and the process needs to be implemented as a series of regular feed-back loops.
Campos, Helena; Moreira, Rute
This article is based on an experiment using the game 'Caminhando e Calculando' (Moving and Calculating) in order to analyse the potential of the game as an educational resource for the teaching and learning of mathematics in Portuguese middle schools, where most students are 10 or 11 years old. Students' data obtained during the games will be used to analyse the different options used for solving the game, identifying its potential and its weaknesses. We start with a theoretical analysis of games as an inherent element of human culture. Combining our innate desire for fun with the different types of teaching and learning styles allows for fun and knowledge to be combined into more efficient and meaningful types of knowledge. Playing games are a primordial aspect of what it means to be a child and they develop within a motivating environment; therefore, not to take advantage of games as a learning resource would be to neglect an important asset. With regard to mathematics, emphasis will be given to the advantages that this teaching and learning tool provides for certain mathematical processes, such as problem-solving.
Tippett, Christine Diane
Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed
Callan, Gregory L; Cleary, Timothy J
This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) measures situated in mathematics. The sample included 100 eighth graders from a diverse, urban school district. Four measurement formats were examined including, 2 broad-based (i.e., self-report questionnaire and teacher ratings) and 2 task-specific measures (i.e., SRL microanalysis and behavioral traces). Convergent validity was examined across task-difficulty, and the predictive validity was examined across 3 mathematics outcomes: 2 measures of mathematical problem solving skill (i.e., practice session math problems, posttest math problems) and a global measure of mathematical skill (i.e., standardized math test). Correlation analyses were used to examine convergent validity and revealed medium correlations between measures within the same category (i.e., broad-based or task-specific). Relations between measurement classes were not statistically significant. Separate regressions examined the predictive validity of the SRL measures. While controlling all other predictors, a SRL microanalysis metacognitive-monitoring measure emerged as a significant predictor of all 3 outcomes and teacher ratings accounted for unique variance on 2 of the outcomes (i.e., posttest math problems and standardized math test). Results suggest that a multidimensional assessment approach should be considered by school psychologists interested in measuring SRL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gomaa, Omema Mostafa Kamel
This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction using multiple intelligences on achievement in and attitudes towards science in middle school students with learning disabilities. A total of 61 students identified with LD participated. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n= 31 boys )and control (n=…
Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…
Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia
This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade…
Cobb, Tiffany R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and further understand the ways in which middle school and high school students perceive their school experiences within the school environment. School has an important impact on the social development of children (Milsom, 2006). Learning is not done individually as classrooms are inherently social…
The main goal of school science is to enable learners to become scientifically literate through their participation in scientific discourses (McNeill & Krajcik, 2009). One of the key elements of scientific discourses is the ability to construct scientific explanations that consist of valid claims supported by appropriate evidence (e.g., McNeill & Krajcik, 2006, Sadler, 2004; Sandoval & Reiser, 2004). Curricula scaffolds may help students construct scientific explanations and achieve their learning goals. This dissertation study is part of a larger study designed to support fifth through seventh grade students' learning about genetic inheritance through curricula scaffolds. Seventh grade students in this study interacted with a Web Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) unit called "From Genotype to Phenotype" that had curricula scaffolds. Informed by the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration, two versions of the unit were developed around concepts on genetic inheritance. Version one of the units was explicit on explaining to students how to make a claim and support it with appropriate evidence. Although the science concepts covered were the same, Version two was not explicit on claims and evidence use. Embedded in the units were scaffolding supports in the form of prompts. This dissertation study explored students' responses to the scaffolding support prompts using a knowledge integration (KI) rubric as described by Linn and His (2000). Two teachers, each with about 150 students in five classes of about 25 each, participated in the study. Each teacher had three classes of students that received a version one and the other two classed received version two of "From Genotype to Phenotype" unit. Using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), I explored whether students' scores, as measured by the KI rubric, varied by the unit version the students received or by the teacher they had. The findings suggested that the two versions of the unit were equally
Long, Chunmei; Ming, Zhu; Chen, Liping
Motivation plays an important role in foreign language learning. Learning motivation is to promote and guide and maintain learning activities which have been conducted an internal strength or internal mechanism. Learning motivation once formed, the student will use an active learning attitude to learn, and express a keen interest in learning, and…
Parkison, Paul T.
Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…
Monet, Julie A.; Etkina, Eugenia
This paper describes the analysis of teachers’ journal reflections during an inquiry-based professional development program. As a part of their learning experience, participants reflected on what they learned and how they learned. Progress of subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge was assessed though surveys and pre- and posttests. We found that teachers have difficulties reflecting on their learning and posing meaningful questions. The teachers who could describe how they reasoned from evidence to understand a concept had the highest learning gains. In contrast those teachers who seldom or never described learning a concept by reasoning from evidence showed the smallest learning gains. This analysis suggests that learning to reflect on one’s learning should be an integral part of teachers’ professional development experiences.
Barilla, Rosemary; Brown, Tina Boyer
Rosemary Barilla, a middle-grade language arts teacher, inspired by her own dedication to the arts, describes the ways she integrates the fine arts into her classroom program that is designed to teach reading and writing. Tina Boyer Brown, a founding teacher at The Chicago High School for the Arts (ChiArts®), describes the school as a place where…
This case study explored dog-assisted reading with three middle-school special education students in a self-contained alternative school. Data collection conducted over a 15-month period included observations, interviews, and artifacts. In this study, reading with therapy dogs and their handlers, helped three adolescent readers with their reading…
Schmitz, Judith R.
This practicum was designed to increase middle-level teaching teams' understanding of cognitively guided instructional strategies or brain-based learning theories and to promote the incorporation of these strategies into the teaching of cross-curriculum thematic units. Twelve staff development modules based on a new perspective of learning which…
Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson
With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…
Votaw, Nikki L.
Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact
Gose, Robin Margaretha
English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.
Peterson, Norman K.; Orde, Barbara J.
The University of Wyoming conducted a study at its lab school on the use of multimedia in education. Discussion includes the center and the curriculum; the type of data collected; results in terms of behavior, instructional materials, and management; as well as observations and recommendations. (AEF)
Modern Schools, 1976
The dramatic use of bold colors in the interior design of the Greenhill Middle School in Dallas, Texas, is an example of how a learning environment can stimulate student interest and enthusiasm. (Author/MLF)
Burnham, J. J.; Wright, V. H.
Cyberbullying is a growing concern because youth are technologically savvy. Much is to be learned about this pervasive phenomenon, especially during the middle school years when cyberbullying often peaks. This focus group study examined cyberbullying attitudes, beliefs, and opinions among middle school students in Alabama and describes…
Starling, A. Leyf Peirce; Lo, Ya-Yu; Rivera, Christopher J.
This study evaluated the differential effects of three different science teaching methods, namely engineering teaching kit (ETK), explicit instruction (EI), and a combination of the two methods (ETK+EI), in two sixth-grade science classrooms. Twelve students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…
Roberts, Greg; Scammacca, Nancy; Osman, David J.; Hall, Colby; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Vaughn, Sharon
Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text (PACT) and similar team-based models directly engage and support students in learning situations that require cognitive elaboration as part of the processing of new information. Elaboration is subject to metacognitive control, as well (Karpicke, "Journal of Experimental…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.; Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Haynes, Martha
The authors examined the effects of team-based learning (TBL) implemented in Grade 8 social studies classes on student content acquisition. Twenty-four classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison blocking on teacher. In the treatment classes teachers integrated TBL practices in the content instruction. The authors examined teacher…
Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario
In many countries around the world, there has been an increasing emphasis on improving science education. Recent reform efforts in the USA call for teachers to integrate scientific and engineering practices into science teaching; for example, science teachers are asked to provide learning experiences for students that apply crosscutting concepts…
This article reports the results of an ethnographic research about the multimodal science discourse in a sixth-grade sheltered classroom involving English Language Learners (ELLs) only. Drawing from the perspective of multimodality, this study examines how science learning is constructed in science lectures through multiple semiotic resources,…
Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William
Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…
Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer
Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…
Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.
This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…
Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Jackson, Christa; Miller, Maranda; Walcott, Bruce; Little, David L.; Speler, Lydia; Schooler, William; Schroeder, D. Craig
It is a well-known fact that, in general, many students have a lack of interest and proficiency in mathematics and science. Therefore, it is imperative that we prepare and inspire all students, specifically students of underrepresented populations, to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content. Now in its fourth year,…
Mclaughlin, Cheryl Althea
A professional learning community (PLC) typically consists of practitioners who systematically examine and problematize their practice with the intention of development and improvement. The collaborative practices inherent in PLCs mirror the way scientists work together to develop new theories, and are particularly valuable for science teachers who could draw from these experiences to improve the quality of student learning. Gaps in the science education literature support the need for research to determine how interactions within PLCs support science teacher development. Additionally, issues of power that may constrain or encourage meaningful interactions are largely overlooked in PLC studies. This qualitative study examines, from a Foucauldian perspective, interactions within a PLC comprising middle school science teachers preparing to implement reform curriculum. Specifically, the study analyzes interactions within the PLC to determine opportunities created for professional learning and development. Audiotaped transcripts of teacher interactions were analyzed using discourse analysis building tasks designed to identify opportunities for learning and to examine the exercise of power within the PLCs. The discourse analytical tools integrated theories of Gee (2011) and Foucault (1972), and were used to deconstruct and interrogate the data. The events were subsequently reconstructed through the lens of social constructivism and Foucault theories on power. The findings identified several processes emerging from the interactions that contributed to the negotiation of an understanding of the reform curriculum. These include reflection on practice, reorganization of cognitive structures, reinvention of practice, and refinement of instructional strategies. The findings also indicated that the exercise of power by entities both external to, and within the PLCs influenced the process of meaning negotiation among the science teachers. The consensus achieved by the teachers
Sheldon, Peter; Wellington, Tracey
The Physics Department at Randolph-Macon Woman's College, a liberal arts women's college of 720, has traditionally turned out approximately 0.6 majors/year. We have invigorated the program by adding community (e.g. SPS, physical space, organized activities), adding a significant technical component (e.g. web-assisted and computer interfaced labs and more technology in the classes ), and incorporating new learning techniques (JITT, Physlets, Peer Instruction , Interactive DVD's, and using the Personal Response System ). Students have responded well as evidenced by significant increases in enrollments as well as strong scores on the FCI. As an offshoot of this original project supported by the NSF, we have applied some of these teaching methods to teach younger children and teachers of younger children. In this presentation, we will discuss the implementation of the new curricular developments and the specific changes we have seen and hope to see in student learning.  This work is supported in part by the NSF CCLI Program under grant DUE-9980890.  See, for example, the project Galileo website http://galileo.harvard.edu for a description of all of these techniques.  The Personal Response System is a wireless response system made by Educue, www.educue.com.
School Science Review, 1984
Presents (1) suggestions on teaching volume and density in the elementary school; (2) ideas for teaching about floating and sinking; (3) a simple computer program on color addition; and (4) an illustration of Newton's second law of motion. (JN)
Hirst, Ronald K.
You see them every day in middle schools: students who seem to spend more time in the office than they do in class. In Florida, middle school students are more likely than elementary or high school students to be suspended, according to the Florida Department of Education (2001). While many adolescents go through their middle school years…
There are fundamental differences between an on-line course and a traditional face to face classroom course offering. On-line courses are front-loaded, that is, students taking on-line courses first have to navigate an unfamiliar website as they become familiar with the organization of the course. In addition, students in an on-line course in many cases have the stress of having to relate with an instructor and collaborate with colleagues that they may never meet. Many may be unfamiliar with the use of telecommunications technology. These forces can combine to produce students that become disillusioned with the on-line learning process, and consequently drop the course. The stress associated with an on-line course can be significantly reduced by the methods used by the facilitator of the course. Therefore, facilitation of an on-line course can be a key to student retention in on-line courses, and strengthen learning experiences for all students. The Earth System Science Education Alliance on-line course for practicing middle school teachers begins with a three week non-graded module designed to permit the facilitator and students to introduce themselves, provides opportunities to participants to explore the website, and allows participants to practice working with each other to develop Earth systems interactions. These group products are evaluated by the facilitator, and returned with detailed comments to the participants. Once graded work begins during the fourth week of the on-line course, it is guided by rubrics that assign higher value to products that contain multiple examples of supporting evidence of scientific assertions, are accurate, and express depth of reasoning. The facilitator guides participant learning through group threaded discussions, providing feedback for individual journal entries, and on-line comments and suggestions regarding classroom activities developed by the participants. Post-course evaluations suggest that K-12 teacher participants in
Shannon, Ted R.; Polloway, Edward A.
Middle school students with learning disabilities were successfully taught the COPS monitoring strategy to revise and correct writing mistakes. Steps in the strategy include capitalization of appropriate letters, overall appearance of paper, punctuation used correctly, and spelling accuracy. (JDD)
This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...... that the 'creators' of the laws received at the major centres of learning in Europe, and address a number of important questions concerning the creation and development of legal professions and the dynamics between legal practice and theoretical, learned approaches to jurisprudence. Contributors to this volume...
George, Paul S.
Over the past 30 years, Florida's 500 middle schools have become more sizeable, racially segregated, and security conscious. Other features include interdisciplinary team organization, warring curricula, block schedules, integrated technology, inclusion, ability grouping, corporate practices, and female and minority principals committed to…
Zhang, Hongxia; Chang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoying; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Renlai
Working memory (WM) deficit is considered the key cause of learning difficulties (LDs). Studies have shown that WM is plastic and thus can be improved through training. This positive effect is transferable to fluid intelligence and academic performance. This study investigated whether WM updating ability and academic performance in children with LDs could be improved through WM updating training and explored the effects of this training on the children's brain activity. We used a running memory task lasting approximately 40 min per day for 28 days to train a group of 23 children with LDs (TLDs group). We also selected two control groups of 22 children with LDs (CLDs group) and 20 children without LDs (normal control [NC] group). The behavioral results of a pretest indicated that WM updating ability and academic performance in the TLDs and CLDs groups were significantly lower than those in the NC group before training. Compared with the CLDs group, the TLDs group exhibited significant performance improvement in a 2-back WM task, as well as in mathematical ability. Event-related potentials (ERPs) results suggested that the amplitudes of N160 (representative of visual recognition) and P300 (representative of updating processing, which is a valid index for updating WM) in the TLDs and CLDs groups were markedly lower than those in the NC group before training. In the TLDs group, these two components increased considerably after training, approaching levels similar to those in the NC group. The results of this study suggest that WM updating training can improve WM updating ability in children with LDs and the training effect can transfer to mathematical performance in such children. Furthermore, the participants' brain activity levels can exhibit positive changes. This article provides experimental evidence that WM updating training could mitigate the symptoms of LDs to a certain degree.
Principal Leadership, 2012
This article features Lesher Middle School, a school of choice, as are all of the schools in the Poudre School District in Ft. Collins, Colorado. In 2004, it was a traditional junior high school with a declining enrollment that housed an application-based International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IB MYP) that resulted in tracking…
The transition to middle school is an educational milestone, marking significant and sometimes unspoken changes in expectations. The overriding expectation is that students will become more independent. This article discusses some tips that will help teachers in teaching organizational skills to middle school students. Middle school teachers…
The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/
Nelson, Joseph Derrick
Background/Context: Positive teacher-student relationships are critical for Black boys' learning across single-sex and coeducational environments. Limited attention to these relationships by school professionals is rooted in deficit-oriented conceptions of boyhood and Black masculinity. The popular message of deficiency and pathology is clear:…
Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü
Contemporary research on instructional leadership has largely concerned itself with developing concrete instructional leadership models and investigating the association of such leadership practices with teaching and learning. Yet there is little research on how the internal school community reacts to the notion of principals influencing classroom…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.
Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions…
Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William
This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…
Rothwell, Jennifer; Levy, Tedd; Manaster, Jane; Bernson, Mary Hammond
Presents a pull-out section that includes four brief articles and accompanying learning activities. The articles include an architectural examination of the move from medieval fort to Renaissance palace, interdisciplinary biographical writing assignments, a look at the portrayal of people with disabilities in juvenile literature, and material on…
Tomlinson, Carol Ann
A variety of beliefs and practices central to middle schools may cause special difficulties for gifted learners. Such practices often focus on potentially competing goals of student competencies versus student excellence and include such practices as heterogeneous grouping, cooperative learning, and an absence of clearly defined middle school…
De Avila, Elizabeth
Issues of sexual assault have become pervasive across all social strata in American society. Citizens need to start having conversations regarding these issues. To combat the issue of sexual assault, children need to be educated regarding the multifaceted aspects of sex through sex education in order to understand consent and resources they have available to them. Utilizing grounded theory methodology, this thesis analyzes sex education literature provided to Palm Beach County Middle School students. Using Burke's theory of terministic screens and Foucauldian theories of power and control; an understanding of the ideological underpinnings of this literature and discourse were acquired. After analysis, suggestions for disclosure and sex education programs are provided.
This research study considers the status of middle school students in the 21st century in terms of their tendency to multitask in their daily lives and the overall influence this multitasking has on teaching and learning environments. Student engagement in the learning environment and students' various learning styles are discussed as primary…
McWright, Cynthia Nicole
For decades science educators and educational institutions have been concerned with the status of science content being taught in K-12 schools and the delivery of the content. Thus, educational reformers in the United States continue to strive to solve the problem on how to best teach science for optimal success in learning. The constructivist movement has been at the forefront of this effort. With mandatory testing nationwide and an increase in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) jobs with little workforce to fulfill these needs, the question of what to teach and how to teach science remains a concern among educators and all stakeholders. The purpose of this research was to determine if students' chemistry knowledge and interest can be increased by using the 5E learning cycle in a middle school with a high population of English language learners. The participants were eighth-grade middle school students in a large metropolitan area. Students participated in a month-long chemistry unit. The study was a quantitative, quasi-experimental design with a control group using a traditional lecture-style teaching strategy and an experimental group using the 5E learning cycle. Students completed a pre-and post-student attitude in science surveys, a pretest/posttest for each mini-unit taught and completed daily exit tickets using the Expert Science Teaching Educational Evaluation Model (ESTEEM) instrument to measure daily student outcomes in main idea, student inquiry, and relevancy. Analysis of the data showed that there was no statistical difference between the two groups overall, and all students experienced a gain in content knowledge overall. All students demonstrated a statistically significant difference in their interest in science class, activities in science class, and outside of school. Data also showed that scores in writing the main idea and writing inquiry questions about the content increased over time.
Brogan, Deirdre T.
The process of educational and vocational development does not occur at a single point in time. Many indicators of dropping out of high school, for example, are present by middle school (Alexander et al., 1997; Balfanz et al., 2007). Yet, research and practice focus almost exclusively on enriching the learning and work experiences of high school…
Middle school reading teachers in a south Texas school district were surveyed to obtain a clearer understanding of one-to-one mobile device usage in the middle school reading classroom specifically regarding collaborative and active learning environments. The theoretical framework reviewed emerging learning theories that have steered effective…
The purpose of this pilot study is to gain more insight into learner factors prominent in high-poverty urban schools and to suggest pedagogical approaches appropriate to this environment. To this end, three surveys were administered to students attending a high-poverty, urban middle school in order to measure their learning style preferences,…
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to (a) identify 5 top developments in educational technology that will be available to California's public middle schools in the next 5 years, (b) determine the likelihood of implementing these technological developments in California's public middle schools in the next 5 years, (c) determine the impact these…
Selvans, M. M.; Spafford, C. D.
Many Earth Science phenomena cannot be observed directly because they happen slowly (e.g., Plate Motion) or at large spatial scales (e.g., Weather Patterns). Such topics are investigated by scientists through analysis of large data sets, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies that isolate aspects of the overall phenomena. Middle school students have limited time and lab equipment in comparison, but can employ authentic science practices through investigations using interactive digital simulations (sims). Designing a sim aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) allows students to explore and connect to science ideas in a seamless and supportive way that also deepens their understanding of the phenomena. We helped develop seven units, including the two above, that cover the middle school Earth Science Disciplinary Core Ideas and give students exposure to the other two dimensions of the NGSS (science practices and cross-cutting concepts). These units are developed by the Learning Design Group and Amplify Science. Sims are key to how students engage in 3D learning in these units. For example, in the Rock Transformations Sim students can investigate the ideas that energy from the sun and from Earth's interior can transform rock, and that the transformation processes change the Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales (ESS2.A). Students can choose and selectively apply transformation processes (melting, weathering, etc.) or energy sources to rock in a cross-section landscape to explore their effects. Students are able to plan steps for making a particular rock transformation happen and carry out their own investigations. A benefit of using a digital platform for student learning is the ability to embed formative assessment. When students plan and carry out missions to achieve specific objectives, the digital platform can capture a record of their actions to measure how they apply science ideas from instruction. Data of these actions, combined
Uses the example of award-winning Black Hawk Middle School in Minnesota to examine: (1) developing a middle school architecture; (2) benefits of the house concept; (3) the need for staff involvement in school design; (4) assembling houses into schools; (5) reduced discipline problems; (6) fostering teacher collaboration; and (7) measuring success.…
Kohler, Elizabeth A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Edmonson, Stacey L.
Although many studies have been conducted regarding (a) school violence in middle schools and (b) the size of schools, to date, no researcher appears to have examined the role that the size of the middle school plays in determining incidents of violence specifically fighting, assaults, and aggravated assaults. Thus, the purpose of this study was…
Schnabel, Stephanie L.
Collaboration between school libraries and classroom teachers can have a powerful impact on student learning. School librarians routinely collaborate with English language arts and social studies curriculum and less frequently with areas in STEM education. This research examines middle school mathematics teachers' extent of or willingness to…
Hagevik, Rita Anne
This study investigated the effects of using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to improve middle school students' and their teachers' understanding of environmental content and GIS. Constructivism provided the theoretical framework with Bonnstetter's inquiry evolution and Swartz's problem solving as the conceptual framework for designing these GIS units and interpreting the results. Teachers from nine schools in five counties attended a one-week workshop and follow-up session, where they learned how to teach the online Mapping Our School Site (www.ncsu.edu/scilink/studysite) and CITYgreen GIS inquiry-based problem-solving units. Two years after the workshop, two teachers from the workshop taught the six week Mapping Our School Site (MOSS) unit in the fall and one teacher from a different school taught the MOSS unit in the fall and the CITYgreen GIS unit in the spring. The students in the MOSS experimental group (n = 131) and the CITYgreen GIS comparison group (n = 33) were compared for differences in understanding of environmental content. Other factors were investigated such as students' spatial abilities, experiences, and learning preferences. Teachers and students completed the online Learning Styles Inventory (LSI), Spatial Experience Survey (SES), and the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations (PSVT:R). Using qualitative and quantitative analyses, results indicated that the CITYgreen GIS group learned the environmental content better than the MOSS group. The MOSS group better understood how to design experiments and to use GIS to analyze problem questions. Both groups improved in problem identification and problem solving, data accuracy, and hypothesis testing. The spatial reasoning score was compared to learning style as reported on the LSI, and other spatial experiences as reported on the SES. Males scored higher than females on the spatial reasoning test, the more computer games played the higher the score, and the fewer shop classes taken the
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…
Alexander, William M.
A review of the goals and issues in the development and evaluation of the middle school concept is presented. Although there has been a great increase in the number of middle schools, many seem to be organized without careful planning of goals, programs and evaluation strategies. A review of the problems involved led to the formation of fifteen…
Howard, K. L.; Suchy-Mabrouk, A.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Ewing-Taylor, J.
A growing need for broad dissemination of current scientific research and improved scientific literacy requires new models of professional development that allow for direct collaboration between educators and university researchers. One example is a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of a study titled, "Reconstructing 2500 years of environmental change at the periphery of Rome: Integrating paleoecology and socioeconomic history to understand human response to climate." This project involves a team of middle school teachers working with researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) to gain first-hand knowledge in multidisciplinary research connecting science and society, and applies a similar approach in the classroom. In 2013, the team's science teacher traveled to Italy as a member of the science research group. A series of workshops introduced the remaining teachers to the research project. Teachers collaborated to develop a Project Based Learning (PBL) unit that incorporated Next Generation Science Standards and encompassed English, Social Studies, Math, and Science curricula using a pedagogical approach different from the single subject-based PBL's usually taught in their school district. The PBL unit draws on the NSF study and focuses on exploring the balance between economic and environmental issues surrounding local wetlands. In May 2014, 160 middle school students worked in groups to create and test a question about physio-chemical parameters in a nearby wetland and used these data to discuss local economic development. Initially, students claimed polarized views of environmental issues or economic development interests; however, during a multimedia session showcasing results, students communicated more informed perspectives that clearly incorporated knowledge gained from their own research. Some students were able to make recommendations for good practices involving planned economic development near the wetland
This article explores the role of green schools in promoting education for sustainability by reflecting on a university-middle school partnership focused on sustainable design. Undergraduates and middle school students met weekly for a semester to learn about sustainability through simple design projects and activities that focused on…
Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol
Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…
Lenhart, Sara Talley
This study investigated the relationship between middle school math teacher pedagogical content knowledge as gathered from a teacher assessment and student Standards of Learning scores. Nine middle-school math teachers at two rural schools were assessed for their pedagogical content knowledge in geometry and measurement in the specific area of…
Mehas, Kay; Boling, Kevin; Sobieniak, Sharon; Sprague, Jeffrey; Burke, Mack D.; Hagan, Shanna
This article describes a school-wide violence prevention program at one Oregon middle school. The school implemented the Second Step curriculum, which teaches students nonviolent alternatives to address conflict and concepts of empathy, impulse control, problem solving, and anger management. The process used to select, implement, and evaluate the…
Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen
Systems thinking is a holistic approach that puts the study of wholes before that of parts. This study explores systems thinking among school middle leaders--teachers who have management responsibility for a team of teachers or for an aspect of the school's work. Interviews were held with 93 school coordinators, among them year heads, heads of…
Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Leinhardt, Gaea
Examines the map-making process of middle-school students to determine which actions influence their accuracy, how prior knowledge helps their map construction, and what lessons can be learned from map making. Indicates that instruction that focuses on recognition of interconnections between map elements can promote map reasoning skills. (DSK)
Johnson, Gordon; Laughran, Laura; Tamppari, Ray; Thomas, Perry
Science teachers naturally rely on their university science experiences as a foundation for teaching middle school science. This foundation consists of knowledge far too complex for the middle level students to comprehend. In order for middle school science teachers to utilize their university science training they must search for ways to adapt their college experiences into appropriate middle school learning experience. The criteria set forth above provide broad-based guidelines for translating university science laboratory experiences into middle school activities. These guidelines are used by preservice teachers in our project as they identify, test, and organize a resource file of hands-on inquiry activities for use in their first year classrooms. It is anticipated that this file will provide a basis for future curriculum development as the teacher becomes more comfortable and more experienced in teaching hands-on science. The presentation of these guidelines is not meant to preclude any other criteria or considerations which a teacher or science department deems important. This is merely one example of how teachers may proceed to utilize their advanced science training as a basis for teaching middle school science.
Brooks. Benita R.
House Bill (HB) 2237 (80th Legislature), Section 6: Adolescent Reading Assessment requires districts and public charter schools to administer the Texas Middle School Fluency Assessment (TMSFA) or some other state approved alternative assessment to students in grade seven who do not demonstrate reading proficiency on the grade six state reading…
Slattery, W.; Brown, D.
Most science courses, including courses that provide preparation for pre-service K-12 teachers are only taught from a deductive big picture perspective. This method is fine for most abstract learners, but pre- service classroom educators that are being prepared to teach in middle school classrooms will be faced with the challenge of building science content knowledge in students that are concrete learners. For these K-12 students a better pedagogical practice is to use local real-world familiar places, issues and personal experience to connect student learning with more abstract concepts. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite skills and pedagogical content knowledge to build K- 12 student science concept knowledge and science process skills we have integrated ESSEA modules that connect worldwide issues such as global climate change with local event studies chosen by learners. Some recent examples include how such local events such as landfill fires and suburban sprawl impact the local area's air, land, water and life. Course participants are able to choose a more personal route to understanding how their habits impact the global environment by participating in a three week learning experience called the Lifestyle Project. This experience asks students to incrementally reduce their use of heating or air-conditioning, the amount of waste going to landfills, to conserve electricity, drive less and eat less energy intensively. Pre-post content assessments indicate that students in this course scored significantly higher on post course content assessments and reported that by engaging in personal experience to global scale learning experiences they have a new appreciation for how personal choices impact the global environment and how to use local artifacts and issues to enhance K-12 student learning.
Stevens, Preston, Jr.
The proposed Niskey Lake Middle School is designed to have solar heating in half of the building, solar water heating for the entire facility, and solar cooling for the administration area. (Author/MLF)
McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.
Safe, developmentally appropriate play is difficult to achieve when middle schools move into the competitive interscholastic arena. Problems associated with middle-level sports programs include students' predisposition to physical injury, psychological unreadiness, high attrition rates, improper coaching, and liability issues. Improving…
Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Liao, Chen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Chen-Feng
To well prepare pre-service teachers for their future teaching, researchers and teacher-educators have been employing information and communication technology to improve pre-service teachers' learning of subject-matter knowledge, pedagogies, classroom-management skills, and so on. This study illustrates a service-learning project we conducted to…
Schielack, Janie; Seeley, Cathy L.
In the move from elementary to middle school mathematics, students encounter major changes in instructional materials and approaches, work expectations, school structure, and general level of difficulty in material. Research shows that, in general, students suffer significant declines in academic achievement in the transition from elementary…
Suspended "between childhood and the adult world, pre-teens have been called the toughest to teach." Indeed, one can't touch middle school without hearing about "raging hormones." By all accounts, middle schools are a weak link in the chain of public education. Is it the churn of ill-conceived attempts at reform that's causing all the problems? Is…
Cogger, Steven D.; Miley, Daniel H.
This paper proposes that project-based active learning is a key part of engineering education at the middle school level. One project from a comprehensive middle school engineering curriculum developed by the authors is described to show how active learning and state frameworks can coexist. The theoretical basis for learning and assessment in a…
Sullivan, Sarah; Gnesdilow, Dana; Puntambekar, Sadhana; Kim, Jee-Seon
Physical and virtual experimentation are thought to have different affordances for supporting students' learning. Research investigating the use of physical and virtual experiments to support students' learning has identified a variety of, sometimes conflicting, outcomes. Unanswered questions remain about how physical and virtual experiments may impact students' learning and for which contexts and content areas they may be most effective. Using a quasi-experimental design, we examined eighth grade students' (N = 100) learning of physics concepts related to pulleys depending on the sequence of physical and virtual labs they engaged in. Five classes of students were assigned to either the: physical first condition (PF) (n = 55), where students performed a physical pulley experiment and then performed the same experiment virtually, or virtual first condition (VF) (n = 45), with the opposite sequence. Repeated measures ANOVA's were conducted to examine how physical and virtual labs impacted students' learning of specific physics concepts. While we did not find clear-cut support that one sequence was better, we did find evidence that participating in virtual experiments may be more beneficial for learning certain physics concepts, such as work and mechanical advantage. Our findings support the idea that if time or physical materials are limited, using virtual experiments may help students understand work and mechanical advantage.
Schneider, Stephanie H.; Duran, Lauren
In 2007-08 and 2008-09, 2,500 randomly-selected middle school students completed an annual survey on school climate and character development. In examining differences based upon grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school, and length of program participation, significant differences were found for all but length of program participation. Responses of…
Rustaman, N. Y.; Afianti, E.; Maryati, S.
A study using one group pre-post-test experimental design on Life organization system topic was carried out to investigate student’s tendency in learning abstract concept, their creativity and collaboration in designing and producing cell models through STEM-based learning. A number of seventh grade students in Cianjur district were involved as research subjects (n=34). Data were collected using two tier test for tracing changes in student conception before and after the application of STEM-based learning, and rubrics in creativity design (adopted from Torrance) and product on cell models (individually, in group), and rubric for self-assessment and observed skills on collaboration adapted from Marzano’s for life-long learning. Later the data obtained were analyzed qualitatively by interpreting the tendency of data presented in matrix sorted by gender. Research findings showed that the percentage of student’s scientific concept mastery is moderate in general. Their creativity in making a cell model design varied in category (expressing, emergent, excellent, not yet evident). Student’s collaboration varied from excellent, fair, good, less once, to less category in designing cell model. It was found that STEM based learning can facilitate students conceptual change, creativity and collaboration.
Bennett, Cory A.
Much attention is placed on helping students develop as complex and creative thinkers, yet many classrooms continue to use learning structures without examining their effectiveness. This is often the case with homework. Research findings on the effectiveness of homework are mixed, and few studies have examined students' and educators' perspectives…
Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.
A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Rose, Chad A.; Polanin, Joshua R.
This 3-year study evaluated the effectiveness of the Second Step-Student Success Through Prevention (SS-SSTP) social-emotional learning program on increasing prosocial behaviors that could serve as protective factors against peer conflict and bullying among students with disabilities. Participants included 123 students with disabilities across 12…
Baker, Dale R.; Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Uysal, Sibel; Purzer, Senay; Lang, Michael; Baker, Perry
This study describes the effect of embedding content in the Communication in Inquiry Science Project professional development model for science and language arts teachers. The model uses four components of successful professional development (content focus, active learning, extended duration, participation by teams of teachers from the same school…
The increasingly ubiquitous nature of mobile devices among K-12 students has led many to argue for and against the inclusion of mobile devices in K-12 classrooms. Some have conjectured that access to mobile devices may enable student self-directed learning. This research used a mixed-method approach to explore the relationships between mobile devices and student achievement and self-directed learning during a Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (STEM) activity in a middle schoo...
White, Kara Morgan
The concepts and ideas of mathematics is a major element of educational curriculum. Many different instructional strategies are implemented in mathematics classrooms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an instructional model utilizing hands-on learning and use of manipulatives on mathematics achievement of middle school…
Shapiro, Michael N.
This dissertation investigated the reasons that school districts chose to change the structure of their middle grades learning environments from the traditional junior high school to the newer middle school model. The study answers the following research questions: According to the perceptions of teachers, school and district administrators, and…
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther
Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article analyses dropout in three of the four main alternative lower secondary school programmes in Honduras over a three-year period for a cohort of roughly 5,500 students. The results show that these programmes are indeed reaching a vulnerable population in the country, but dropout rates are generally very high - upwards of 50 per cent in some cases - between Grades 7 and 9. Furthermore, even in the control school comparison samples made up of formal lower secondary schools, about 25 per cent of children leave school between Grades 7 and 9. The authors' analysis includes propensity score matching (PSM) methods that make more focused comparisons between students in alternative programmes and control samples. These results show that dropout rates in alternative programmes are not much different than in control schools, and only significant in one programme comparison, when taking into account family background characteristics like socioeconomic status (SES). Multivariate analysis within alternative programme samples finds that attrition is lower in those learning centres which have adopted key features of formal schools, such as university-educated teachers. The results highlight the tremendous variation in the alternative middle school sector in terms of programme features, school quality and student outcomes, as well as the challenges of expanding this sector to meet the growing demand for lower secondary schooling in Honduras.
Groundwater-Smith, Susan, Ed.; Mockler, Nicole, Ed.
"Big Fish, Little Fish: Teaching and Learning in the Middle Years" provides pre-service and early career teachers with a pathway to understanding the needs of students as they make the important transition from primary to secondary schooling. The book explores contemporary challenges for teaching and learning in the middle years, with a…
Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.
Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…
Hmelo-Silver, C.; Gray, S.; Jordan, R.
Complex systems surround us, and as Sabelli (2006) has argued, understanding complex systems is a critical component of science literacy. Understanding natural and designed systems are also prominent in the new draft science standards (NRC, 2010) and therefore of growing importance in the science classroom. Our work has focused on promoting an understanding of one complex natural system, aquatic ecosystems, which given current events, is fast becoming a requisite for informed decision-making as citizens (Jordan et al. 2008). Learners have difficulty understanding many concepts related to complex natural systems (e.g., Hmelo-Silver, Marathe, & Liu, 2007; Jordan, Gray, Liu, Demeter, & Hmelo-Silver, 2009). Studies of how students think about complex ecological systems (e.g; Hmelo-Silver, Marathe, & Liu, 2007; Hogan, 2000, Hogan & Fisherkeller, 1996: Covitt & Gunkel, 2008) have revealed difficulties in thinking beyond linear flow, single causality, and visible structure. Helping students to learn about ecosystems is a complex task that requires providing opportunities for students to not only engage directly with ecosystems but also with resources that provide relevant background knowledge and opportunities for learners to make their thinking visible. Both tasks can be difficult given the large spatial and temporal scales on which ecosystems operate. Additionally, visible components interact with often invisible components which can obscure ecosystem processes for students. Working in the context of aquatic ecosystems, we sought to provide learners with representations and simulations that make salient the relationship between system components. In particular, we provided learners with opportunities to experience both the micro-level and macro-level phenomena that are key to understanding ecosystems (Hmelo-Silver, Liu, Gray, & Jordan, submitted; Liu & Hmelo-Silver, 2008; Jacobson & Wilensky, 2006). To accomplish this, we needed to help learners make connections across
Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.
Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic…
Petzko, Vicki N.; Clark, Donald C.; Valentine, Jerry W.; Hackmann, Donald G.; Nori, John R.; Lucas, Stephen E.
Principals of all 14,107 middle-level schools in the U.S. were invited to participate in the year 2000 online survey. More than 1,400 responded. Responses are compared with previous studies conducted in 1965; 1980, and 1992. Discusses the implications and recommendations for recruiting, initial training, and continuing professional development of…
Brown, Deborah Sardo
Case studies described 12 middle-school teachers' instructional yearly, unit, weekly, and daily planning on the basis of a background questionnaire, interview protocols, an analysis of written plans, think-aloud typescripts, and a questionnaire. A process model best characterized teachers long-term planning, while an agenda-formulation model fit…
Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…
Weast, Jerry D.; And Others
A Sioux Falls (South Dakota) project that supplied middle school teachers with Macintosh computers and training to use them showed gratifying results. Easy access to portable notebook computers made teachers more active computer users, increased teacher interaction and collaboration, enhanced teacher productivity regarding management tasks and…
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona
This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…
Alder, Nora I.; Moulton, Margaret R.
A year-long interpretive study, framed by the theory of symbolic interactionism, examined the meanings of care to middle school students. Five themes emerged: care as control, equality, forgiveness, concern, and good teaching. Findings indicated not only some agreement between students and teachers on meanings and symbolic acts of care, but also…
Duffield, Stacy Kay
A Midwestern state allocated grant funding to encourage more accessible alternative programming at the middle level. Seventeen schools were approved for this grant and used the funds to supplement the operation of a new or existing program. This study provides policymakers and educators with an overview of the various types of alternative middle…
Shares results of a study showing that even in grade 8, "journalism kids do better." Surveys 225 parents about positive aspects of middle school journalism--results show that students improved in critical thinking, writing ability, ethical sense, leadership skills, and working with others. Finds negatives in the small number of students…
The purpose of this article is to describe the various ways in which the developmental needs of middle school students can be met in a physical education program. The themes of exploration and individualization appear throughout the article to emphasize the importance of providing a variety of sports, games and physical activity options for middle…
Teacher Enhancement Program. The money will be used to help students explore career opportunities and and career development by giving them access to people working in local businesses and government Middle School Receives School-to-Career Grant For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs
Kazemek, Francis E.
Argues that classic authors can and should still be kept at the center of the literature curricula in the middle school. Uses Leo Tolstoy as an example, describing briefly some of Tolstoy's works that are especially appropriate for early middle school readers, later middle schoolers of average reading ability, and the most able middle school…
Middle school general music is an experience that numerous music educators feel underprepared to teach. Because many undergraduate programs spend little time on this teaching scenario and because the challenges of middle school general music are different from those of elementary general music or middle school ensembles, teachers often lack the…
What Types of Instructional Shifts Do Students Experience? Investigating Active Learning in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Classes across Key Transition Points from Middle School to the University Level
Full Text Available Despite the need for a strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM workforce, there is a high attrition rate for students who intend to complete undergraduate majors in these disciplines. Students who leave STEM degree programs often cite uninspiring instruction in introductory courses, including traditional lecturing, as a reason. While undergraduate courses play a critical role in STEM retention, little is understood about the instructional transitions students encounter upon moving from secondary to post-secondary STEM courses. This study compares classroom observation data collected using the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM from over 450 middle school, high school, introductory-level university, and advanced-level university classes across STEM disciplines. We find similarities between middle school and high school classroom instruction, which are characterized by a large proportion of time spent on active-learning instructional strategies, such as small-group activities and peer discussion. By contrast, introductory and advanced university instructors devote more time to instructor-centered teaching strategies, such as lecturing. These instructor-centered teaching strategies are present in classes regardless of class enrollment size, class period length, or whether or not the class includes a separate laboratory section. Middle school, high school, and university instructors were also surveyed about their views of what STEM instructional practices are most common at each educational level and asked to provide an explanation of those perceptions. Instructors from all levels struggled to predict the level of lecturing practices and often expressed uncertainty about what instruction looks like at levels other than their own. These findings suggest that more opportunities need to be created for instructors across multiple levels of the education system to share their active-learning teaching practices and
Soo Youn, Lee
Full Text Available Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010 data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPSconducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school studentsperceived their parents’parenting style positively, thelevelof their self-esteem andself-directedlearningattitudewere high,and this,in turn,had positive effects on their school lifeadjustment. Especially, self-esteem andlearning attitudemediated the effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parenting style on school life adjustment. Theseresults demonstrate that the mothers’ affectionate,monitoryandrationalparentingstyle will contribute greatly to the successfulstudents’school lifewith a sense ofself-esteem andself-directedlearningattitude.
Clark, Lynette M.
This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These theories emphasize social and learning experiences that may impact the science-related attitudes of middle school girls. The research questions examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who participate in a science-related mentoring program. The hypotheses suggested that there are significant differences that exist between the attitudes of middle school female participants in a science-related mentoring program and female participants in a traditional mentoring program. The quantitative data were collected through a survey entitled the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) which measures science-related attitudes. The population of interest for this study is 11-15 year old middle school girls of various racial and socio-economic backgrounds. The sample groups for the study were middle school girls participating in either a science-focused mentoring program or a traditional mentoring program. Results of the study indicated that no significant difference existed between the science-related attitudes of middle school girls in a science-related mentoring program and the attitudes of those in a traditional mentoring program. The practical implications for examining the concerns of the study would be further investigations to increase middle school girls' science-related attitudes.
Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne
the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...
Tiemensma, Britt Due
This paper outlines the changing discourse on school gardens as a learning object as well as a learning environment in urban and rural schools in Denmark and Norway, two small states in Northern Europe. School and community gardens are to be found all over the world, and in Scandinavian...... they are not only regarded as a source of health and fresh food for the students and their families, but also as an alternative arena for learning to cope with issues like sustainability, innovation and democracy. The success of school gardening was always based on dedicated teachers who saw the added value...... of children learning to plant and care for plants in a school garden....
Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.
This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…
Delgado, Manuel Lopez
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the implementation of a democratic approach to lead and manage middle schools in Chihuahua, Mexico. This research was based on a Likert questionnaire and semistructured interviews to explore the level of involvement of students, teachers, and parents in schools participating in a programme…
Soo Youn, Lee
Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010) data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPS)conducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school...
Mcguire, Saundra Y.
The Alabama A and M University Elementary and Middle School Science Improvement Project (Project SIP) was instituted to improve the science knowledge of elementary and middle school teachers using the experimental or hands-on approach. Summer workshops were conducted during the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1988 in the areas of biology, chemistry, physics, and electricity, and magnetism. Additionally, a manual containing 43 lessons which included background information, experiments and activities for classroom and home use was provided to each teacher. During the course of the project activities, the teachers interacted with various university faculty members, scientists, and NASA staff. The administrative aspects of the program, the delivery of the services to participating teachers, and the project outcome are addressed.
Gilchrist, Pamela O.; Alexander, Alonzo B.
This paper will describe the curriculum development process employed to develop a solar cell and photonics curriculum unit for students underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields. Information will explain how the curriculum unit was piloted with middle and high school teachers from public schools in North Carolina, high school students from underrepresented groups in an informal science program, and workshop settings. Measures used to develop the curriculum materials for middle school students will be presented along with program findings documenting students' urban versus rural interest in STEM, career aspirations, and 21st century learning skills in informal learning settings.
Sarah C. Fankhauser
Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.
Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S
Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.
Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.
Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first...
The prevalence of cyberbullying among teenagers even children has increased in recent years. While bullying defines like repeated and deliberate aggressive behaviours among people have imbalance of power, cyberbullying refers to bullying via electronic communication tools. Some researchers assert that teenagers who are living psychosocial maladjustment incline to be a cyberbully/ cybervictim. In this study, cyberbully/cybervictim behaviours of middle school students were investigated in rela...
Chaney, Maura Chase
The purpose of this case study was to examine the transition from junior high school to a middle school as experienced in two middle schools from a mid-sized urban school district located in the Rocky Mountains. The overarching question that guided data collection for this study centered on the factors that influenced school culture before,…
Principal Leadership, 2012
This article features Oscar F. Smith Middle School, a challenging school in Chesapeake, Virginia. When Principal Linda Scott exclaims, "Oscar F. Smith Middle School is "hot"!" to visitors, she is not referring to the inside temperature of the bustling school of grades 6-8 located in the historic South Norfolk borough of…
KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill
Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…
Gordon, Barrie; Jacobs, Jenn M.; Wright, Paul M.
This study examined a long-term afterschool leadership program situated in a Midwestern university town in the US. The activity-based program for boys considered to be disengaged with school and at risk for dropping out of education, was based on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model. The program curriculum was strongly…
Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew
The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…
Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Caldwell, Kathryn A.
In this 2-year longitudinal study (n=242), the authors examined relations of having a reciprocated friend and characteristics of a reciprocated friend to students' social and academic adjustment to middle school. With respect to having a friend, 6th-grade students without friends showed lower levels of prosocial behavior, academic achievement, and…
This design-based research case study applied a networked learning approach to a seventh grade science class at a public school in the southeastern United States. Students adapted emerging Web applications to construct personal learning environments for in-depth scientific inquiry of poisonous and venomous life forms. The personal learning environments constructed used Application Programming Interface (API) widgets to access, organize, and synthesize content from a number of educational Internet resources and social network connections. This study examined the nature of personal learning environments; the processes students go through during construction, and patterns that emerged. The project was documented from both an instructional and student-design perspective. Findings revealed that students applied the processes of: practicing digital responsibility; practicing digital literacy; organizing content; collaborating and socializing; and synthesizing and creating. These processes informed a model of the networked student that will serve as a framework for future instructional designs. A networked learning approach that incorporates these processes into future designs has implications for student learning, teacher roles, professional development, administrative policies, and delivery. This work is significant in that it shifts the focus from technology innovations based on tools to student empowerment based on the processes required to support learning. It affirms the need for greater attention to digital literacy and responsibility in K12 schools as well as consideration for those skills students will need to achieve success in the 21st century. The design-based research case study provides a set of design principles for teachers to follow when facilitating student construction of personal learning environments.
Does working during the school year result in lowered perceptions of school climate and connectedness for middle school students? According to outcomes from a Rocky Mountain Region School District's (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing literature on youth employment…
Zimmerman, Marc A.; Eisman, Andria B.; Reischl, Thomas M.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Stoddard, Sarah; Miller, Alison L.; Hutchison, Pete; Franzen, Susan; Rupp, Laney
We report on an effectiveness evaluation of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) program. YES applies empowerment theory to an after-school program for middle school students. YES is an active learning curriculum designed to help youth gain confidence in themselves, think critically about their community, and work with adults to create positive…
Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.
Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1
Yildiz, Sevda Göktepe; Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü
The purpose of this study was to develop a test to determine spatial ability of middle school students. The participants were 704 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade) who were studying at different schools from Istanbul. Item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis were used to analyse the data.…
Robbins, Chris; Searby, Linda
Adolescents present a unique collection of characteristics and challenges which middle school interdisciplinary teams were designed to address. This article describes a research study which explored parental involvement strategies employed by interdisciplinary teaching teams from three very different middle schools: an affluent suburban school, a…
Zidack, Astri Marie
This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther
Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article…
Smith, Stephanie; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' satisfaction with the school lunch experience, using two validated surveys; the Middle/Junior High School Student Participation Survey and the Middle/Junior High School Student Non-Participation Survey, both developed by the National Food Service Management…
This study aimed to investigate the process of constructing a "fast-protocol" for violin instruction. Since learning string instruments has not been common, and because there are limited hours for music in Japanese schools, the author, a violinist, collaborated with the general music teacher at a middle school in the Tokyo metropolitan…
Wu, Min Lun
This qualitative case study reports descriptive findings of digital game-based learning involving 15 Taiwanese middle school students' use of computational thinking skills elicited through programmed activities in a game design workshop. Situated learning theory is utilized as framework to evaluate novice game designers' individual advancement in…
Chi, Shaohui; Liu, Xiufeng; Gardella, Joseph A.
Service learning typically involves university students in teaching and learning activities for middle and high school students, however, measurement of university students' self-efficacy in science communication is still lacking. In this study, an instrument to measure university students' perceived self-efficacy in communicating science to…
Joki, Jarkko; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle; Aksela, Maija
The aim of this study was to design a novel and holistic way to teach chemical bonding at the middle school level according to research on the teaching and learning of bonding. A further aim was to investigate high achieving middle school students' conceptual structures concerning chemical bonding by using a systemic perspective. Students in one…
Hanson, Thomas; Voight, Adam
A growing number of states and school districts use school climate assessments in progress reporting systems and are interested in incorporating these assessments into accountability systems. This analysis of response data from middle school students and teachers on the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey examines the…
The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.
Learning "how to be a Haut Gap student" is one of the basics at Charleston's Haut Gap Middle School. Along with reading, science, and mathematics classes, every student at Haut Gap Middle School takes a course in how to be a Haut Gap student. For most students, the class is 40 minutes a day for nine weeks. But it can last 18 weeks for…
King, Donna; Ginns, Ian
Engaging middle school students in science continues to be a challenge in Australian schools. One initiative that has been tried in the senior years but is a more recent development in the middle years is the context-based approach. In this ethnographic study, we researched the teaching and learning transactions that occurred in one ninth grade…
... and do better in school. You can help boost your child's attention span, concentration, and memory by ... interested in his or her education. Keep in mind, though, that while some middle school students like ...
Sanchez, Jafeth E.; Yoxsimer, Andrew; Hill, George C.
This study investigated public middle school students' opinions on the benefits of wearing a school uniform. A review of related literature is provided along with results of the opinions obtained from 604 seventh- and eighth-grade middle school students attending a public school in Nevada that had recently initiated a school uniform policy.…
Ciccarelli, Marina; Portsmouth, Linda; Harris, Courtenay; Jacobs, Karen
Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. This has increased students' screen-based exposure and the potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Describe the framework for a planned school-based health promotion program to encourage healthy computing behaviours among middle school students. This planned program uses a community- based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students' knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers' and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The health promotion program is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments.
Donoghue, Christopher; Almeida, Angela; Brandwein, David; Rocha, Gabriela; Callahan, Ian
Becoming a victim of verbal and social bullying in middle school can lead to illness, psychological stress, and maladjustment. The coping strategies that students utilize when they are bullied may influence the likelihood and severity of these negative effects. In this study, we examined the predictions made by students in two middle schools about…
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the impact a robotics curriculum might have on the experiences and perceptions of middle school girls in two California classrooms. The research found that middle school girls in two different California classrooms felt that their experiences with robotics were personalized experiences…
Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel
The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…
Russo, Maria; Hecht, Deborah; Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael; Saxman, Laura
The National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project "Mathematics, Science, and Technology Partnership" (MSTP) developed a multidisciplinary instructional model for connecting mathematics to science, technology and engineering content areas at the middle school level. Specifically, the model infused mathematics into middle school curriculum…
Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe
The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…
Valois, Robert F.; Paxton, Raheem J.; Zullig, Keith J.; Huebner, E. Scott
We explored relationships between violent behaviors and perceived life satisfaction among 2,138 middle school students in a southern state using the CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (MSYRBS) and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS). Logistic regression analyses and multivariate models constructed…
Middle school students are not reading for pleasure as frequently as they formally have, due to the influx of video games, cell phones, MP3 players, and other electronic device. This is not even to mention the common stresses of the average middle school student. Current research on reading motivation finds that as children move from upper…
In this article, the author examines organizational skills from a developmental perspective and provides middle school teachers with strategies to help students manage academic tasks. An underlying assumption in middle school is that students are old enough to juggle multiple assignments, plan and organize projects, and regulate their time and…
Yesildere-Imre, Sibel; Basturk-Sahin, Burcu Nur
This research examines middle school mathematics teachers' views regarding implementation of mathematical tasks and their enactments. We compare their views on tasks and their implementation, and determine the causes of difference between the two using qualitative research methods. We interview sixteen middle school mathematics teachers based on…
Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald
Understanding middle school students' perceptions regarding STEM dispositions, and the role attitudes play in establishing STEM career aspirations, is imperative to preparing the STEM workforce of the future. Data were gathered from more than 800 middle school students participating in a hands-on, real world application curriculum to examine the…
Scheerens, Jaap; Creemers, Bert P.M.
Middle school evaluations provide a case in point when the influence of political and organizational contextual conditions on evaluations is considered. This is illustrated by means of a description of the experiences with the middle school evaluation in the Netherlands and a brief sketch of the
Temkin, Deborah A.; Princiotta, Daniel; Ryberg, Renee; Lewin, Daniel S.
Background: Although adolescents generally get less than the recommended 9 hours of sleep per night, research and effort to delay school start times have generally focused on high schools. This study assesses the relation between school start times and sleep in middle school students while accounting for potentially confounding demographic…
Cavanaugh, Barbara Harlow
This study determines the relative strength of predictors of school violence among a sample of 229 girls enrolled in a single middle school. The four-part questionnaire, comprising sociodemographic items, a school violence inventory, a self-esteem scale, and an attitudes toward violence scale, measured school violence in terms of suspendable…
Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.
This study is back grounded by the importance of self-regulated learning as an affective aspect that determines the success of students in learning mathematics. The purpose of this research is to see how the improvement of junior high school students' self-regulated learning through computer based learning is reviewed in whole and school level. This research used a quasi-experimental research method. This is because individual sample subjects are not randomly selected. The research design used is Pretest-and-Posttest Control Group Design. Subjects in this study were students of grade VIII junior high school in Bandung taken from high school (A) and middle school (B). The results of this study showed that the increase of the students' self-regulated learning who obtain learning with computer-based learning is higher than students who obtain conventional learning. School-level factors have a significant effect on increasing of the students' self-regulated learning.
Aksoy, Esra; Narli, Serkan; Idil, Feriha Hande
The aim of this study is to examine middle school students’ attitude towards mathematics in the context of their mathematic learning preferences using data mining which is data analysis methodology that has been successfully used in different areas including educational domains. ‘How do I actually learn?’ questionnaire and attitude scale were applied to 702 middle school students studying in three different cities of Turkey. Demographic data (gender, grade level, parents’ education level, pre...
Seed, Allen H.; Watts, Cherry
The Middle School Concept brings together good teaching practices with the unique needs of pre-adolescent students. Since the passing of the NCLB, more and more attention has been generated on the results of high stakes testing. The question of what happens to the middle school concept when it confronts the demands of this new age of testing is…
Skinner, Ellen A; Pitzer, Jennifer R; Steele, Joel S
How children and youth deal with academic challenges and setbacks can make a material difference to their learning and school success. Hence, it is important to investigate the factors that allow students to cope constructively. A process model focused on students' motivational resources was used to frame a study examining whether engagement in the classroom shapes students' academic coping, and whether coping in turn contributes to subsequent persistence on challenging tasks and learning, which then feed back into ongoing engagement. In fall and spring of the same school year, 880 children in 4th through 6th grades and their teachers completed measures of students' engagement and disaffection in the classroom, and of their re-engagement in the face of obstacles and difficulties; students also reported on 5 adaptive and 6 maladaptive ways of academic coping; and information on a subset of students' classroom grades was collected. Structural analyses, incorporating student-reports, teacher-reports, and their combination, indicated that the model of motivational processes was a good fit for time-ordered data from fall to spring. Multiple regressions examining each step in the process model also indicated that it was the profile of coping responses, rather than any specific individual way of coping, that was most centrally connected to changes in engagement and persistence. Taken together, findings suggest that these internal dynamics may form self-perpetuating cycles that could cement or augment the development of children's motivational resilience and vulnerability across time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wilson, Nance; Battistich, Victor; Syme, S Leonard; Boyce, W Thomas
To assess whether alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use in elementary school may have serious implications for continued ATOD use in middle school and beyond. Longitudinal analyses were conducted on questionnaire data from 331 middle school students who had previously provided ATOD-use data during elementary school. Non-school personnel administered questionnaires in three participating school districts in three different states. The sample of students was ethnically and geographically diverse, including students from a range of low socioeconomic status backgrounds living in rural, urban or inner-city environments. Middle school alcohol use was almost three times as likely to occur if alcohol use had occurred in elementary school (OR = 2.94, p Elementary school use of tobacco and marijuana also greatly increased the likelihood of middle school use (OR = 5.35, p elementary school, during the middle childhood years.
Middle school students interested in nursing need clarification of the nursing role. Students choose nursing as a career because they want to help others, yet they are often unaware of the need to for arduous secondary education preparation to become a nurse. Middle school students, if not properly exposed to the career during their formative years, may choose another career or not have enough time for adequate nursing school preparation. This integrative review examined seven studies from years 2007 to 2016, which utilized various recruitment strategies to increase the awareness of nursing as a career in middle school and address the need for academic rigor. Implications of the review: there is a need for collaboration between nurses and school counselors to design more robust longitudinal studies of middle school interventions for students interested in nursing as a career. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.
Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found
Ogurek, Douglas J.
At the original Hubble Middle School, neither the views (a congested Roosevelt Road and glimpses of downtown Wheaton) nor the century-old facility that offered them was very inspiring. Built at the start of the 20th century, the 250,000-square-foot building was converted from Wheaton Central High School to Hubble Middle School in the early 1980s.…
Lu, Ting; Li, Ling; Niu, Li; Jin, Shenghua; French, Doran C.
The concurrent and longitudinal associations between popularity, likeability, and prosocial behavior were evaluated in this three-year study of middle school and high school Chinese adolescents. The initial sample included 766 middle school (mean age = 13.3 years) and 668 high school participants (mean age = 16.6 years); there were 880 (399 girls)…
Full Text Available Aim. In Italy, a handbook has been developed based on the principles of cooperative learning, life skills, self-effectiveness, and problem-solving at high school level. Early studies have shown the handbook’s effectiveness. It has been hypothesized that the revised handbook could be more effective in middle schools. Method. The study design is a “pre- and posttest” that compares the results obtained from 91 students of the high schools with those of the 38 students from middle schools. The assessment was made through “self-reporting” questionnaires of (a learning skills including problem-solving and (b perceived self-efficacy in managing emotions, dysfunctional beliefs, and unhealthy behaviours (i.e., drinking/smoking. Results. Significant improvements were observed in both groups with the exceptions of perceived self-efficacy in managing emotions. The improvement of dysfunctional beliefs and the learning of problem-solving skills were better in middle schools. Conclusion. The results confirm the authors’ hypothesis that the use of this approach is much more promising in middle school.
Veltro, Franco; Ialenti, Valentina; Morales García, Manuel Alejandro; Bonanni, Emiliana; Iannone, Claudia; D'Innocenzo, Marinella; Gigantesco, Antonella
In Italy, a handbook has been developed based on the principles of cooperative learning, life skills, self-effectiveness, and problem-solving at high school level. Early studies have shown the handbook's effectiveness. It has been hypothesized that the revised handbook could be more effective in middle schools. The study design is a "pre- and posttest" that compares the results obtained from 91 students of the high schools with those of the 38 students from middle schools. The assessment was made through "self-reporting" questionnaires of (a) learning skills including problem-solving and (b) perceived self-efficacy in managing emotions, dysfunctional beliefs, and unhealthy behaviours (i.e., drinking/smoking). Significant improvements were observed in both groups with the exceptions of perceived self-efficacy in managing emotions. The improvement of dysfunctional beliefs and the learning of problem-solving skills were better in middle schools. The results confirm the authors' hypothesis that the use of this approach is much more promising in middle school.
Pamelasari, S. D.; Nurkhalisa, S.; Laksmana, S. I.
This paper presents a comparison between the instruction in international school and state school in the middle level in Indonesia to find out the strength and weakness of each school in order to identify some professional development needs. The observation and interview were conducted to see the instruction of each school. Some pedagogy aspects consisting of attitude, strategy, and practice were observed to get the overview of instruction. Through this study, it has been found that the teachers apply an active learning approach that created an enthusiastic atmosphere of students’ participation. However, the different circumstance found is in the aspect of the number of students, the language of instruction and students’ characteristics between those schools.
Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward
During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal social and developmental contexts of the range of middle grade public schools US students attend. Using a cross-sectional dataset from the eighth grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, the current study examines the middle grade school social context from the perspectives of administrators and teachers in public schools with typical grade configurations (k-8 schools, middle schools, and junior high schools) and how it relates to students' perceptions of school climate. We find that administrators and teachers in k-8 schools perceive a more positive school social context, controlling for school structural and demographic characteristics. This school social context, in turn, is associated with students' perceptions of their schools' social and academic climate. Implications for educational policy and practice are discussed.
Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark
There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school girls.…
Xing, Xiu-Ya; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Xu, Shao-Jun; Su, Pu-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Hui
This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement, bullying, low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school. An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years). An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide, bullying involvement and learning performance. Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively. In total, 10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey. Multiple logistic-regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic variables, was used to analyze if underachievement, bullying, low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors. 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months. Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (chi2 = 11.39, P = 0.023). Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs. 15.8% , P bullying, lower school life satisfaction and low self conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide. Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in Anhui province. It is of importance to improve the school' s environments to reduce the risk of attempted suicide among this group.
Gibbs-Harper, Nzinga A.
The purpose of this research study was to determine if a relationship exists between teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behaviors and middle school teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, this study sought to assess whether principal's instructional leadership skills were predictors of middle school teachers' satisfaction with work itself. This study drew from 13 middle schools in an urban Mississippi school district. Participants included teachers who taught science. Each teacher was given the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS; Hallinger, 2011) and the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ; Lester, 1987) to answer the research questions. The study was guided by two research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between the independent variables Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program and the dependent variable Work Itself?; (b) Are Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program predictors of Work Itself? The Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis were utilized to examine the relationship between the three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. The data revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation between all three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. However, the multiple regression analysis determined that teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional management skills is a slight predictor of Defining the School's Mission only.
Lambert, Edna Earl White
In the wake of No Child Left Behind, schools continue to be evaluated according to standardized test results. Researchers suggest that technology can assist students with development and school achievement. While laptop initiative (LI) technology was being implemented by South Carolina districts in the middle schools classrooms, educational…
Crawford, Amy K.
The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to use Self-Determination Theory as a framework to analyze middle school mathematics teachers' motivation to attain effective professional development concerning Ohio's Learning Standards as well as other instructional aspects that affect the classroom. Teachers are exceptionally busy meeting…
A previously reported botanical data retrieval application has been improved to make it better suited for use in middle-and high-school science classes. This search interface is ring-structured and treats multi-faceted metadata intuitively, enabling students not only to search for plant names but also to learn about the morphological features and…
Megowan-Romanowicz, M. Colleen; Middleton, James A.; Ganesh, Tirupalavanam; Joanou, Jamie
In this article we examine how students engage in learning mathematical concepts in the middle grades of an urban public school in the Southwestern United States. In the context of a 3-year National Science Foundation-funded longitudinal study of the development of students' rational number understanding, we encountered differing levels of…
Hsu, Pi-Sui; Van Dyke, Margot; Smith, Thomas J.
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the effect of varied gender groupings on argumentation skills among middle school students in Taiwan and the United States in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented computer-assisted application (GOCAA). A total of 43 students comprised the treatment condition…
Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie
This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…
Natarajan, Chitra; Chunawala, Sugra; Apte, Swapna; Ramadas, Jayashree
Students' alternative conceptions arise out of an interconnected system of beliefs: about the nature of science, of learning, of the natural and social world. Cross-cultural perspectives on these world views are therefore essential. This study probed middle school students' conceptions about plants. Tribal students were found to have a richer and…
Hossain, Mokter; Wiest, Lynda R.
This paper explores the use of blogs, a simple application of Web 2.0 technologies, in middle school geometry instruction. Specifically, it provides an overview of the interactive features of Web 2.0 technologies and the feasibility of using Web 2.0 technologies in geometry teaching and learning, as well as a proposed model for creating a…
Friedman, Lawrence B.; Margolin, Jonathan; Swanlund, Andrew; Dhillon, Sonica; Liu, Feng
Playground Physics is a technology-based application and accompanying curriculum designed by New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) to support middle school students' science engagement and learning of force, energy, and motion. The program includes professional development, the Playground Physics app, and a curriculum aligned with New York State…
Dinkins, Elizabeth G.; Englert, Patrick
This paper uses a case study approach to examine how the heteronormative nature of one middle school setting and classroom environment shapes the climate of safety, support and learning for LGBTQ students when they are engaged in studying a novel with a gay character. Heteronormative environments inform and shape positioning of and by students and…
Mason, Jack L.; Cantrell, Joseph S.
This collection of teaching activities was developed to provide teachers with guidance in presenting solar energy education to students of middle school age. The unit provides activities presenting learning opportunities involving: (1) passive solar collectors, (2) active solar collectors, (3) concentrating collectors, and (4) photovoltaic cell…
Perry, William C.
To counter gender bias effects and improve student learning, staff at a Virginia middle school decided to group eighth-grade students by gender for math and science instruction. Girls felt freer to speak out. Grade point averages in gender-based science and math classes for both girls and boys were higher than in coeducational classes. (MLH)
Sproatt, Rod H.
The middle school originated out of an understanding for the need of a learning environment geared specifically to the needs of the early adolescent. The transition from concrete to formal operational thought and the affective and psychomotor developmental stages demonstrate the uniqueness of the early adolescent experience. (JN)
Slavin, Robert E.
Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…
Oct 27, 2012 ... on the learning achievement of senior secondary school students. Three research ... On the other hand, the control group was taught the same ... scientific, industrial, technological and social progress of a society. It is a ... also designed to assist middle and secondary school students who have difficulty ...
Watts, Cherry; Seed, Allen H.; Franceschini, Louis A., III
In 2009, the Tennessee Professors of Middle Level Education (TPOMLE) examined how Tennessee schools implemented the middle school concept. Of concern was the impact that emphasis on accountability and achievement had on the middle school concept which emphasizes the development of the whole child. A survey was developed based on the tenets of…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...
Haden, C.; Styers, M.; Asplund, S.
Music and the performing arts can be a powerful way to engage students in learning about science. Research suggests that content-rich songs enhance student understanding of science concepts by helping students develop content-based vocabulary, by providing examples and explanations of concepts, and connecting to personal and situational interest in a topic. Building on the role of music in engaging students in learning, and on best practices in out-of-school time learning, the NASA Discovery and New Frontiers program in association with Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center, and KidTribe developed Space School Musical. Space School Musical consists of a set of nine songs and 36 educational activities to teach elementary and middle school learners about the solar system and space science through an engaging storyline and the opportunity for active learning. In 2014, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory contracted with Magnolia Consulting, LLC to conduct an evaluation of Space School Musical. Evaluators used a mixed methods approach to address evaluation questions related to educator professional development experiences, program implementation and perceptions, and impacts on participating students. Measures included a professional development feedback survey, facilitator follow-up survey, facilitator interviews, and a student survey. Evaluation results showed that educators were able to use the program in a variety of contexts and in different ways to best meet their instructional needs. They noted that the program worked well for diverse learners and helped to build excitement for science through engaging all learners in the musical. Students and educators reported positive personal and academic benefits to participating students. We present findings from the evaluation and lessons learned about integration of the arts into STEM education.
Coutts, Trudi E.
This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students’ interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the change in interest seems to modulate student motivation, which ultimately leads to fewer children choosing not only science classes in the future but science careers. Research studies have identified numerous factors that affect student interest in science; however, this study incorporated the lived experience of the child and looked at this interest in science through the lens of the child. The study design was a collective cross-case study that was multi-site based. This study utilized a sample of children in fifth grade classes of three different elementary schools, two distinct seventh grade classes of different middle schools, and ninth grade children from one high school in the State of Illinois. The phenomenon was investigated through student interviews. The use of one-on-one semi-structured interviews limited to 45 minutes in length provided the researcher with data of each child’s description of science interest. All interviews were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was collected and analyzed in order to identify themes, and finally checked for validity. The most significant findings of this study, and possible factors contributing to science interest in children as they progress from elementary to high school, were those findings relating to hands-on activities, the degree to which a student was challenged, the offering of new versus previously studied topics in the curriculum, the perceived relevance of the curricular materials to personal life, and the empowerment children felt when they were allowed to make choices related to their learning experiences. This study’s possible implications for
Felker, Susan B.
Three summer workshops on web development, virtual reality, and robotics will offer aspiring middle school web designers, writers, and computer scientists a high-tech learning adventure designed to teach skills in math, science, computers, and oral and written communication. Virginia Tech's Continuing and Professional Education and the Center for Instructional Technology Solutions in Industry and Education developed the workshops with support from Montgomery County and Salem schools. Classes ...
Finch, Curtis R.; Mooney, Marianne
Interviews with 28 middle school staff regarding school-to-work STW curriculum implementation, focus, outcomes, and issues found a range of benefits provided to students. STW experiences contributed to young adolescent development, self-understanding, confidence, self-esteem, motivation, and responsibility--in other words, what middle schools were…
MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN
Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...
Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald
This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity.
Full Text Available Although the middle school English teaching has gotten a lot of achievements in China, some problems still exist, such as too much emphasis on words, grammars and structures. Perceptive teaching can be helpful for English teaching from a new perspective. There are three teaching procedures in the perceptive teaching: eliciting to acquire text meaning, creating situation to experience and comprehending to get the internal values in individuals. This thesis did the experimental research on English perspective teaching in middle school in China. The results show that in perceptive teaching, learners’ cognitive abilities can be improved; learners can show great interests in learning and shape positive attitudes; their learning methods can greatly be promoted. For different level learners, it shows that middle level learners can gain more benefit than the high level or low level learners in English perceptive teaching.
The Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are grouped into the broad disciplinary areas of Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences, and Engineering, Technology and Application of Science, and feature learning progressions based on endpoint targets for each grade band. Since the Middle School DCIs build on the expected learning achievements to be reached by the end of Fifth Grade, and High School DCI similarly build on the expected learning achievements expected for the end of Eighth Grade, the Middle School grade band is of particular importance as the bridge between the Elementary and High School curriculum. In states where there is not a special Middle School Certification many of these science classes are taught by teachers prepared to teach at the Elementary level (and who may have limited content background). As a result, some pre-service and in-service teachers have expressed reduced self-confidence in both their own science content knowledge and their ability to apply it in the NGSS-based classroom, while decades of research has demonstrated the pervasiveness of science misconceptions among teachers. Thus the adoption of NGSS has the potential to drive talented teachers out of the profession who feel that they are ill-prepared for this sweeping transition. The key is providing rigorous education in both content and pedagogy for pre-service teachers and quality targeted professional development for in-service teachers. This report focuses on the Middle School Space Sciences grade band DCIs and presents research on specific difficulties, misconceptions and uncertainties with the material demonstrated by pre-service education students over the past four years in a required university science content course, as well as two year-long granted workshop series for current Middle School teachers. This information is relevant to the development of both new content courses aligned with NGSS for pre
Daniel, Larry G.
A frame of reference for studying culture in middle schools was developed. Items for the Middle School Description Survey (MSDS), which was designed to test elements of the ideal middle school culture, were created based on middle school advocacy literature. The items were conceptually categorized according to E. H. Schein's (1985) cultural…
Cupp, Garth Meichel
An underrepresentation of females exists in the STEM fields. In order to tackle this issue, work begins early in the education of young women to ensure they are interested and have the confidence to gain a career in the STEM fields. It is important to engage girls in STEM opportunities in and out of school to ignite their interest and build their confidence. Brigid Barron's learning ecology perspective shows that girls pursuing STEM outside of the classroom is critical to their achievement in the STEM pipeline. This study investigated the impact after-school STEM learning opportunities have on middle school girls by investigating (a) how the length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the confidence of female students in their science and math abilities; (b) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the interest of female students in attaining a career in STEM; (c) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect interest in science and math classes; and (d) how length of engagement can affect how female students' view gender parity in the STEM workforce. The major findings revealed no statistical significance when comparing confidence in math or science abilities or the perception that gender plays a role in attaining a career in STEM. The findings revealed statistical significance in the areas when comparing length of engagement in the girls' interest in their math class and attaining a career in three of the four STEM fields: science, technology, and engineering. The findings showed that multiple terms of engagement in the after-school STEM programs appear to be an effective catalyst to maintain the interest of girls pursuing STEM-related careers, in addition to allowing their interest in a topic to provide a new lens for the way they see their math work during the school day. The implications of this study show that schools must engage middle school girls who are interested in STEM in a multitude of settings
When middle school students are asked about our changing earth system, their responses likely include terms like global warming, climate change, and greenhouse gases. However, many students struggle to understand how it all fits together, and sometimes they hear conflicting information or myths about climate change. This activity allows students to explore the impacts of warming oceans and oceans' absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) through a student planned and carried out investigation that begins with a pre-laboratory engagement and exploration piece, includes a laboratory component, and concludes with an explanation where students analyze their data and interpret their results through the claim-evidence-reasoning framework. It's a Gassy World was developed with three-dimensional instruction in mind to introduce middle school students to the relationship between warming oceans and changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in the oceans. Students explore disciplinary core ideas in the Earth and Space Sciences discipline of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices. Specifically, students study CO2 as a greenhouse gas and the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 levels on global climate change by planning and carrying out their own investigations. We structured this activity in a 5E format that can take place in four to five days during a climate change unit. After piloting this activity in over 20 formal classrooms and with 5 informal education groups, we have seen how It's a Gassy World helps support inquiry in the classroom and allows students to experience crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices in NGSS. We found that students were engaged and actively learning throughout the activity. Student work and pilot teacher feedback indicated that, through this activity, many students increased their understanding of CO2 as a greenhouse gas and recognized that warmer oceans will
Middle school students with intellectual disabilities often have difficulties achieving independence with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); therefore, these skills must be taught in school. IADLs are a complex component of skills that require a higher level of cognitive reasoning such as community mobility, shopping, meal…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca
School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…
Herges, Rebecca M.; Duffield, Stacy; Martin, William; Wageman, Justin
Mathematics achievement among K-12 students has been a long-standing concern in schools across the United States. A possible solution to this mathematics achievement problem is student motivation. A survey was administered to 65 mathematics students at a Midwestern middle school to determine their beliefs and attitudes related to motivation and…
Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…
Waters, Stewart; Mashburn, Natalie
The researchers in this study investigated rural middle school teachers' perspectives regarding bullying. The researchers gathered information about the teachers' definitions of bullying, where bullying occurs in their school, and how to prevent bullying. Peer-reviewed literature associated with this topic was studied in order to achieve a broader…
Johnston, William F.
Isolation, limited access to colleges and universities, and financial constraints restrict staff development opportunities for rural school systems. Recognizing these problems, the Virginia Middle School Association has adopted a regional conference structure that shifts meeting locations throughout seven major areas. The "hot topics"…
Davis, Keith M.; Lambie, Glenn W.
Early adolescence is a period of intrapersonal and interpersonal transformation; thus, middle school counselors need to provide services that appropriately match their students' and families' developmental needs. A collaborative, systemic approach is one way that counselors can work with other school-based professionals to support…
Curry, Steven James
This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…
Watson, Nathaniel F; Martin, Jennifer L; Wise, Merrill S; Carden, Kelly A; Kirsch, Douglas B; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Olson, Eric J; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Rowley, James A; Weaver, Terri E; Chervin, Ronald D
During adolescence, internal circadian rhythms and biological sleep drive change to result in later sleep and wake times. As a result of these changes, early middle school and high school start times curtail sleep, hamper a student's preparedness to learn, negatively impact physical and mental health, and impair driving safety. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that delaying school start times positively impacts student achievement, health, and safety. Public awareness of the hazards of early school start times and the benefits of later start times are largely unappreciated. As a result, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine is calling on communities, school boards, and educational institutions to implement start times of 8:30 AM or later for middle schools and high schools to ensure that every student arrives at school healthy, awake, alert, and ready to learn. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Denmon, Jennifer; Owens, Ruchelle; Lindstrom, Krista
This yearlong qualitative multisite case study investigated ways middle and high school transition supports foster a developmentally responsive transition for students. A total of 23 participants engaged in this study, including 4 students, 4 middle school teachers, 13 high school teachers, 1 middle school principal, and 1 high school principal.…
A K-12 school district located in southern California was faced with overcrowding at 1of its middle schools for the 2011-2012 school year. This project study was designed to explore if an elementary or middle school campus was best in supporting students' academics while they were in transition to 6th grade middle school. Maslow's hierarchy of…
Hough, David L.
The study presented here is the first large scale effort on a national level to examine the relationship between K-8 Elemiddle Schools and 6-8 Middle Schools. From a population of more than 2,000 middle grades schools in 49 public school districts across 26 states, a sample of 542 Elemiddle and 506 Middle Schools was drawn. Both regression and…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Polanin, Joshua R.
Social-emotional learning programs are increasingly being implemented in U.S. schools to address a wide range of problematic behaviors (e.g., bullying, delinquency) and to promote academic success. The current study examined the direct and indirect impact of the Second Step Middle School Program (Committee for Children, 2008) on bullying,…
Full Text Available Becoming a victim of verbal and social bullying in middle school can lead to illness, psychological stress, and maladjustment. The coping strategies that students utilize when they are bullied may influence the likelihood and severity of these negative effects. In this study, we examined the predictions made by students in two middle schools about the ways that they would cope with becoming a victim of verbal and social bullying. We also analyzed influences for coping strategies and student willingness to seek help with bullying at school. The results show that middle school students generally expect that they will utilize adaptive approach strategies in trying to solve the problem or obtain support from others, but those who had been victimized in the last month were more likely than those not involved in bullying, to predict that they would engage in maladaptive avoidance coping strategies if victimized in the future. Willingness to seek help was found to be enhanced by approach coping strategies, less aggressive attitudes, and lower perceptions of school bullying. Policy implications for efforts to encourage approach coping strategies in middle school students through educational interventions and school counseling are discussed.
Idil, Feriha Hande; Narli, Serkan; Aksoy, Esra
The aim of this study is to examine middle school students' attitude towards mathematics in the context of their mathematic learning preferences using data mining which is data analysis methodology that has been successfully used in different areas including educational domains. "How do I actually learn?" questionnaire and attitude scale…
Beaver, Melanie S.
This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
Hughes, Joan E.; Read, Michelle F.; Jones, Sara; Mahometa, Michael
This study used multiple regression to identify predictors of middle school students' Web 2.0 activities out of school, a construct composed of 15 technology activities. Three middle schools participated, where sixth- and seventh-grade students completed a questionnaire. Independent predictor variables included three demographic and five computer…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul; Rudolph, Erin
The present study investigates links between early adolescents' subjective experiences of stress associated with the middle school transition and their academic outcomes. Seventh and eighth grade students (N?=?774) were surveyed about their experiences during their transition to middle school. Students answered questions about stress…
Middle school is a critical period in the cognitive and academic development of young women, and a time when their performance and interest in science may decline. After school programs play a key role in engaging youth in learning by providing opportunities to increase health and wellness, set goals, and strategize problem solving. Skills…
Choi, Jung-hyun; Yu, Mi
Gratitude disposition is positively associated with happiness. The purpose of this study was to identify influencing factors on gratitude disposition by gender differences in middle school students. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires were administered to participants (n=372) aged between 13 ∼ 15 years in Seoul and Chungnam Province in Korea. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18.0 statistical program, and frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis were used in the research. The mean score of family abuse of boys was significantly higher than girls' score (t=3.016, p=0.003). In subscales of development assets, empowerment (t=2.264, p=0.024), boundaries and expectation (t=2.476, p=0.014), and commitment to learning (t=1.971, p=0.049) were significantly higher in boys. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 0.334, CI 0.130∼0.862), peer relationship (OR 2.280, CI 1.124∼4.623), social support (OR 2.584, CI 1.176∼5.676), positive identity (OR 3.138, CI 1.256∼7.840) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for boys, while school violence (OR 0.050, CI 0.003∼0.907) and positive identity (OR 2.937, CI 1.313∼6.567) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for girls. This study suggests that it is important to protect adolescents from family abuse and school violence, furthermore, developmental assets should be developed to increase to gratitude disposition.
Yang, Chunyan; Sharkey, Jill D.; Reed, Lauren A.; Chen, Chun; Dowdy, Erin
Bullying is the most common form of school violence and is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including traumatic responses. This study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the multilevel moderating effects of school climate and school level (i.e., elementary, middle, and high schools) on the association between bullying…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I.; Watson, Kathleen B.
Purpose/Objective: Providing a school breakfast to students may be a practical intervention that improves energy balance, nutrient intake, and school academic achievement variables. This purpose of this pilot study was to identify the ecological factors influencing middle school student school breakfast participation and possible strategies to…
Washington, Ahmad Rashad
This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of five (5) middle school African American adolescent men from two different schools in the same school district to explore their perceptions of and experiences with their professional school counselors. Phenomenological qualitative methodology was used to complete this study. To gather research…
This study analyzed treatment of geometric transformations in presently available middle grades (6, 7, 8) student mathematics textbooks. Fourteen textbooks from four widely used textbook series were evaluated: two mainline publisher series, Pearson (Prentice Hall) and Glencoe (Math Connects); one National Science Foundation (NSF) funded curriculum…
Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it
Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo
The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Earle, James E.; Fraser, Barry J.
The main objective of this research was to use learning environment and attitude scales in evaluating online resource materials for supporting a traditional mathematics curriculum. The sample consisted of 914 middle-school students in 49 classes. A second research focus was the validation of the chosen learning environment questionnaire, the…
Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.
Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…
With the increasingly ubiquitous nature of mobile devices among K-12 students, many argue for and against the inclusion of these devices in K-12 classrooms. Arguments in favor cite instant access to information and collaboration with others as positive affordances made possible through mobile devices. Self-directed learning, a process where…
This dissertation examines motivation in middle school girls involved in one STEM OST program. Specifically, motivation is examined through four distinct components. These components are attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. Although these components are unique, they cumulatively create a holistic picture of motivation in program design. The middle school girl participants were observed at program workshops and personal interviews. Exploring program design elements through this lens of motivation was a qualitative effort to both understand how participants respond to design elements, and what might encourage future participation in STEM activities.
The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...
Suthers, D.D.; Verbert, K.; Suthers, D.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Ochoa, X.
Learning Analytics, an emerging field concerned with analyzing the vast data "given off" by learners in technology supported settings to inform educational theory and practice, has from its inception taken a multidisciplinary approach that integrates studies of learning with technological
What is active learning and what does it look like in the classroom? If students are participating in active learning, they are playing a more engaged role in the learning process and are not overly reliant on the teacher (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003; Petress, 2008). The purpose of this article is to propose a framework to describe and…
Sudler, Dawn M.
This study compared the differences in the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics and science achievement scores of boys and girls in Grade 7 at two urban middle schools. The data allowed the researcher to determine to what degree boys and girls in Grade 7 differ in their mathematics and science achievements within a single-gender environment versus a coeducational learning environment. The study compared any differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a single-gender environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. The study also compared differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a coeducational environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. Two middle schools were used within the study. One middle school was identified as a single-gender school (Middle School A); the other was identified as a coeducational school (Middle School B). This quantitative study applied the use of a descriptive research design. In addition, CRCT scores for the subjects of mathematics and science were taken during the spring of 2008 from both middle schools. Data were measured using descriptive statistics and independent t test calculations. The frequency statistics proceeded to compare each sample performance levels. The data were described in means, standard deviations, standard error means, frequency, and percentages. This method provided an excellent description of a sample scored on the spring 2008 CRCT mathematics and science assessments.
Wheaton, Anne G; Ferro, Gabrielle A; Croft, Janet B
Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are more likely to be overweight; not engage in daily physical activity; suffer from depressive symptoms; engage in unhealthy risk behaviors such as drinking, smoking tobacco, and using illicit drugs; and perform poorly in school. However, insufficient sleep is common among high school students, with less than one third of U.S. high school students sleeping at least 8 hours on school nights. In a policy statement published in 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged middle and high schools to modify start times as a means to enable students to get adequate sleep and improve their health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. AAP recommended that "middle and high schools should aim for a starting time of no earlier than 8:30 a.m.". To assess state-specific distributions of public middle and high school start times and establish a pre-recommendation baseline, CDC and the U.S. Department of Education analyzed data from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Among an estimated 39,700 public middle, high, and combined schools* in the United States, the average start time was 8:03 a.m. Overall, only 17.7% of these public schools started school at 8:30 a.m. or later. The percentage of schools with 8:30 a.m. or later start times varied greatly by state, ranging from 0% in Hawaii, Mississippi, and Wyoming to more than three quarters of schools in Alaska (76.8%) and North Dakota (78.5%). A school system start time policy of 8:30 a.m. or later provides teenage students the opportunity to achieve the 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep recommended by AAP and the 8-10 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation.
The proportion of eighth graders in United States public schools enrolled in algebra or a more advanced mathematics course doubled between 1990 and 2011. This article uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study's Kindergarten Cohort data to consider the selection process into advanced middle school mathematics courses and estimate the effects of advanced courses on students' mathematics achievement (n = 6,425; mean age at eighth grade = 13.7). Eighth-grade algebra and geometry course placements are academically selective, but considerable between-school variation exists in students' odds of taking these advanced courses. While analyses indicate that advanced middle school mathematics courses boost student achievement, these effects are most pronounced in content areas closely related to class content and may be contingent on student academic readiness. © 2014 The Author. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hsu, P.-S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States and sixth graders in an urban school in Taiwan developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application (GOCAA). A total of 42…
MiJeong Park, PhD, RN
Conclusion: Findings indicate that depression, academic stress, and grade (second grade influence aggression. To decrease aggressive behavior, it is necessary to provide systematic and political programs in schools and local communities that can ameliorate negative emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression.
Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…
Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred
Schools and kindergartens are particularly suitable for the implementation of violence prevention programs. Many German schools and kindergartens have securely established the violence prevention curriculum Faustlos. The Faustlos programs for kindergartens and elementary schools are now complemented with the version for middle schools. As the kindergarten- and elementary school versions the middle school program too focuses on the theoretically profound, age group-tailored promotion of empathy, impulse control and anger management. These dimensions are subdivided into the five themes "understanding the problem" "training for empathy"; "anger management", "problem solving" and "applying skills" and taught stepwise, highly structured and based on several video sequences in 31 lessons. US-American evaluation studies proof the effectiveness and the violence prevention potential of the program. With the curriculum for middle schools a comprehensive Faustlos program package is now made available to sustainably promote core violence prevention competences of children and adolescents on a developmentally appropriate level and with a consistent didactic approach.
Michaud, C; Feur, E; Gerbouin-Rérolle, P; Leynaud-Rouaud, C; Chateil, S; Gourdon, M
Reports from the French Ministry of Education warn of a decrease in the use of school food services, especially in sensitive urban areas. They also suggest that this decline has led to cases of malnutrition. This article describes the characteristics of the current supply of school meals and measures the evolution of demand observed between 1992 and 1996 in relation to the economic situation of students' families. The study was carried out in 3 departments in France: Doubs, Herault, and Val de Marne. The administrators of all public and private middle and high schools in the 3 departments received a questionnaire asking them to describe the services offered in their cafeterias and to provide the corresponding statistical and accounting data. External food services near the schools were also taken into account. Seventy-nine percent of schools responded to the survey. Concerning the services offered, 91% of schools have their own cafeterias, of which 81% are managed by the schools. Concerning the evolution of utilisation, a significant decrease in the number of meals served in seen in middle schools. On the other hand, high schools have observed stable utilisation. The positive changes in utilisation are linked, in middle schools, to characteristics of the schools' internal food services (self-service, choice of main courses, modulation of seats). In high schools, positive changes in the utilisation of school services are linked to the lack of external food services near the schools. As middle schools and high schools control the logistics and management of food services offered to students, they are potentially in a position to influence a policy on this issue. The evolution in utilisation is very different among departments and between middle and high schools. While economic precariousness has a negative structural effect on utilisation, it doesn't seem to be a major factor in the evolution of the decrease observed over the past few years.
Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn
Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.
Torres Irribarra, D.; Freund, R.; Fisher, W.; Wilson, M.
Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting.
Irribarra, D Torres; Freund, R; Fisher, W; Wilson, M
Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting
Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.
Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the
Holfeld, Brett; Grabe, Mark
This study explored the nature and extent of middle school students' (n = 665) experiences with cyber bullying. Approximately one in five students reported being cyber bullied in the past year, with 55% of those students being repeatedly victimized within the past 30 days. Female students were more likely to be involved in cyber bullying (victim,…
Shippen, Margaret E.; Houchins, David E.; Puckett, DaShaunda; Ramsey, Michelle
This study compared the preferred writing topics of urban and rural middle school students. Eighth graders (n = 205) responded to a brief survey of preferred writing topics in the descriptive writing genres of real or imagined stories, reports, and opinions. While some preferred writing topics were divergent such as society, crime, and violence,…
Yarnell, Lisa M.; Brown, H. Shelton, III; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.
Objectives: To investigate whether smoking prevalence in grade-level networks influences individual smoking, suggesting that peers are important social multipliers in teen smoking. Methods: We measured gender-specific, grade-level recent and life-time smoking among urban middle-school students who participated in Project Northland Chicago in a…
Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan
In spite of being readily available, photographs have played a minor and passive role in science classes. In our study, we present an active way of using photographs in classroom discussions with the use of a classroom response system (CRS) in middle school astronomy classes to teach the concepts of day-night and seasonal change. In this new…
In a local middle school, students were not meeting standards on the state mathematics tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore mathematics teachers' perspectives on effective mathematics instruction vis-a-vis the principles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Within this framework, the 6 principles in the…
Principal Leadership, 2013
The well-known lyrics may be "The Eyes of Texas Are Upon You," but at Scott Morgan Johnson Middle School in McKinney, TX, it's definitely the "eye of the tiger" that sets the bar for Tiger PRIDE (perseverance, respect, integrity, determination, and excellence). This article describes how those ideals have been infused…
Alspaugh, John W.; Harting, Roger D.
Studied the effects of interdisciplinary teaming versus departmentalization on student achievement in middle schools. Found no significant differences for reading, math, science, and social studies achievement. Results suggest that team teaching merits further investigation as a potential strategy for mediating the student achievement loss…
Eshach, Haim; Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study investigated if and to what extent grade 8 and 9 students in Taiwan attributed materialistic properties to sound concepts, and whether they hold scientific views in parallel with materialistic views. Taiwanese middle school students are a special population since their scores in international academic comparison tests such as TIMSS and…
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Fredrick, Stephanie Secord; Summers, Kelly Hodgson
This study explored the relations among self-reported bully participant role behaviors (i.e., bullying, assisting, experiencing victimization, defending, and outsider behavior) and self-reported social skills (i.e., cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self-control) among boys and girls. The sample consisted of 636 middle school students (52%…
Englehart, Joshua M.
Too often, teachers encountering difficulties with classroom management focus only on the students rather than critically examining the influence of their own approaches on student behavior. Given the particular challenges that middle school students present, certain practices and expectations exacerbate management issues, and a lack of awareness…
The present study investigated age differences in reactions to the perceptions of dating violence using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus groups were conducted to develop age and culturally appropriate questionnaires for each age group (college and middle school). The questionnaires consisted of common dating scenarios that…
Trusty, Jerry; Spenser, Niles; JoLynn, Camey V.
In this article, the authors emphasize a comprehensive and developmental view of education career planning, with special emphasis on middle schools. Research findings that underscore the need for effective education-career planning are presented, followed by the variables and data that are salient for planning. The article includes a framework for…
Royster, Otelia; Reglin, Gary L.; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a professional development model on regular education middle school teachers' knowledge of best practices for teaching inclusive classes and attitudes toward teaching these classes. There were 19 regular education teachers who taught the core subjects. Findings for Research Question 1…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…
Dickenson, Karen Nadean
The purpose of this pretest-posttest control group experimental study was to see the effect of classroom walkthroughs on middle school teacher motivation. The independent variable was; classroom walkthroughs and the four dependent variables were teachers' self-concept of the ability to affect student achievement, teachers' attitude toward the…
Edwards, Laura L; Hunt, Abby; Cope-Barnes, Doug; Hensel, Devon J; Ott, Mary A
Middle school youth (N = 1472) in Central Indiana completed a survey about parent-adolescent sexual communication. Being older, female, mixed race, ever had sex, ever arrested, and higher HIV knowledge were associated with more frequent sexual communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The integration of technology into educational environments has become more prominent over the years. The combination of technology and face-to-face interaction with instructors allows for a thorough, more valuable educational experience. "Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction in Middle Schools" addresses the concerns associated with…
Esch, Laura; Zullig, Keith J.
Background: Previous research has posited that significant relationships exist between health status and psychological measures of health (e.g., self-esteem). Less is known about the relationship between perceived quality of life (e.g., life satisfaction), weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors, particularly among middle school adolescents.…
This study explored Turkish students' experience of cyberbullying and their use of social networking tools. A total of 756 7th-grade students participated from eight different middle schools in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A 15-item questionnaire was used in a classroom environment to collect data. Results revealed that male students were…
Rourke, James; Boone, Elizabeth
"Webster needs an extreme makeover," students told Principal Joan Brixey upon her arrival at Daniel Webster Middle School in Waukegan, Illinois, three short years ago. The message came in a student-produced video that highlighted things that needed repair at Webster. Brixey was already a firm believer in the proposition that students…
Vaughn, Christy H.
This qualitative study addressed the perceptions toward the study of mathematics by middle school students who had formerly been in a remedial mathematics program. The purpose of the study was to explore the past experiences of nine students in order to determine what is needed for them to feel successful in mathematics. The conceptual framework…
Robinson, George D.
The aim of this study is to evaluate industrial approaches to management development programs to ascertain the applicability of using similar schooling techniques in Air Force managerial development. The primary emphasis is on where the Air Force might benefit from industry's experience in the middle manager area. An additional objective is the…
Examines Piaget's concrete and formal operational stages of intellectual development in relation to the middle school learner. Presents teaching strategies requiring the learner to use concrete and formal operational forms of thought in dealing with a social studies unit about Quebec. (Author/JK)
Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon
Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and…
Wright, Robert J.
During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…
Jones, Brian Kirby
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.
Olufajo, Olubode Ademola; Agaku, Israel Terungwa
To obtain nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at U.S. schools, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at school among U.S. middle and high school students using data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey comprising of 18,866 students spread across all the U.S. states.…
Eres, Figen; Bilasa, Pinar
The aim of this research is to measure the perception of middle school students in Ankara regarding the quality of school life. According to the findings obtained, the students have moderate level perceptions about the quality of school life. Their perceptions about sub-dimensions vary. While the students have the highest perceptions about…
Watson, Joshua C.
With data collected from 254 middle grade (5-8) students enrolled in a rural, southern school district, this study sought to determine the influence of self-esteem, mattering, and school connectedness on students' overall wellness. Using a two-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the author found that school connectedness significantly…
McEnroe, James D.
The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…
This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy. Standardized…
Varjas, Kris; Henrich, Christopher C.; Meyers, Joel
This study examined 427 urban middle school students' perceptions of bullying, cyberbullying, and school safety utilizing the Student Survey of Bullying Behavior-Revised 2 (Varjas, Meyers, & Hunt, 2006). A unique finding is that cyberbullying may represent a unique modality of victimization and bullying compared with other school-based…
Smith, Richard Alan; Sassi, Anthony
In 1985, Apple Computer, Inc., and the Houston Independent School District began a project to create a model School of the Future at the F. M. Black Middle School. As described in this guide, the project was designed to demonstrate how microcomputers and related technology can make the process of instruction more efficient and effective. The…
Wegner, Molly F.
As students begin middle school, they are expected to possess and apply a wide array of nonfiction reading strategies if they are to comprehend new concepts from nonfiction texts. Although strategies and resource guides for fiction reading are available, an effective nonfiction reading comprehension resource guide tailored to middle school science teachers is lacking. The conceptual framework guiding this study is based on schema theory that supports the use of prior knowledge as a foundation for learning. The purpose of this project study was to address this local problem by providing middle school science teachers with a user-friendly resource for nonfiction reading comprehension strategies in a science context. The research question examined nonfiction reading comprehension strategies that could supplement middle school science teachers' instructional practices to increase student comprehension in science, as reflected on the results of state standardized tests. This project study consulted science and language arts teachers using a Delphi questionnaire technique to achieve a consensus through multiple iterations of questionnaires. Science teachers identified 7 areas of concern as students read nonfiction texts, and language arts teachers suggested effective reading comprehension strategies to address these areas. Based on the consensus of reading comprehension strategies and review of literature, a resource guide for middle school science teachers was created. By improving reading comprehension in content areas, teachers may not only increase student learning, but also underscore the importance of literacy relating to life-long learning through future occupations, academic endeavors, and society as well.
Johnson, Ashleigh B; Montgomery, Chelsea M; Dillard, Wesley A; Morrill, Kenneth; Hoesli, Coral; Gillette, Wesley M; Johnson, Brandon K; Nathaniel, Thomas I
Community stroke awareness initiatives have traditionally been used to expand knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors to high-risk adult populations. Here, we use a novel unfettered, visual art-based approach for an elementary school initiative to raise stroke awareness. Seventh graders in a middle school art class received stroke awareness training during the course of the 2015 to 2016 school year through their teacher in the visual arts class. In turn, they used this training to develop their own artistic interpretations of key stroke awareness concepts via project-based learning and then present their projects to raise awareness about stroke. We evaluated our predata and postdata to determine whether the visual art school-based stroke intervention was effective in both educating students about stroke and enabling them to effectively disseminate this information to parents and other adults in their community. The pretest evaluation indicates a fair or good knowledge about stroke, and no student indicated an "outstanding" or "excellent" knowledge. The posttest evaluation indicated a higher degree of stroke awareness because students were rated as having an "outstanding," "excellent," or "very good" performance especially in the ability to translate knowledge of stroke awareness lessons learned in their art class into a well-articulated stroke-related project and presentation. Pearson χ test reveals significant difference (P art teacher to lead the educational component in the intervention indicates that expertise in neurology or stroke is not necessary to facilitate understanding of stroke and highlights the importance of creativeness in stroke education for children.
... Information Act Office Public Health Image Library (PHIL) E-cigarette use triples among middle and high school students ... ET Contact: Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Current e-cigarette use among middle and high school students tripled ...
The language used to construct knowledge, beliefs, and worldviews in school science is distinct from the social language that students use in their everyday ordinary life. This difference is a major source of reading difficulty for many students, especially struggling readers and English-language learners. This article identifies some of the linguistic challenges involved in reading middle-school science texts and suggests several teaching strategies to help students cope with these challenges. It is argued that explicit attention to the unique language of school science should be an integral part of science literacy pedagogy.
M.Ed. (Psychology of Education) This research study originated from the belief that teachers in general, and secondary school teachers in particular, are under an inordinate amount of stress brought about largely as a result of their work as teachers and educators. Moving from that basic premise the research unfolded towards exploring at both theoretical and empirical level, the major causes and management of stress in education within a South African educational context. The study starts ...
Aloush, Sami; Tubaishat, Ahmad; ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Suliman, Mohammad; Alrimawi, Intima; Al Sabah, Ashraf; Banikhaled, Yousef
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a basic life support (BLS) educational course given to 110 middle school children, using a pretest posttest design. In the pretest, students were asked to demonstrate BLS on a manikin to simulate a real-life scenario. After the pretest, a BLS training course of two sessions was provided, followed by posttest on the same manikin. Students were assessed using an observational sheet based on the American Heart Association's BLS guidelines. In the pretest, students showed significant weakness in the majority of guidelines. In the posttest, they demonstrated significant improvement in their BLS skills. BLS training in the middle school was effective, considering the lack of previous skills. It is recommended that BLS education be compulsory in the school setting.
Landry, Melinda; Smith, Cynthia; Greene, Joy
Prince William County Public Schools and George Mason University in Virginia, USA, partnered to provide Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences (MWEEs) for over 25,000 middle and high school students (11-18 year olds) across 34 schools. This school district, situated in a rapidly growing region 55 km southwest of Washington DC, has over 82,000 K-12 students. As native forest cover has been replaced with farming and urbanization, water quality has significantly degraded in the 166,534 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. This project was designed to increase student awareness of their impact on the land and waters of the largest estuary in the United States. MWEE is a long-term comprehensive project that incorporates a classroom preparation phase, a hands-on outdoor field investigation, and a reflection and data-sharing component. Training and technical assistance enhances the capacity of teachers of 6th grade, high school Earth Science and Environmental Science to deliver MWEEs which includes schoolyard stewardship, inquiry driven field study, use of hand-held technology and computer based mapping and analysis, project sharing and outreach. George Mason University researchers worked closely with K-12 science educators to create a comprehensive watershed-focused curriculum. Graduate and undergraduate students with strong interests in environmental science and education were trained to deliver the field investigation component of the MWEE. Representative teachers from each school were provided 3 days of professional development and were responsible for the training of their school's science education team. A comprehensive curriculum provided teachers with activities and tools designed to enhance students' mastery of state science objectives. Watershed concepts were used as the unifying theme to support student understanding of curriculum and STEM objectives including: scientific investigation, data collection and communication, chemistry, energy, erosion, human
Desai, Karna Mahadev; Yang, Jing; Hemann, Jason
The Foundations in Science and Mathematics (FSM) is a graduate student led summer program designed to help middle school and high school students strengthen their knowledge and skills in mathematics and science. FSM provides two-week-long courses over a broad spectrum of disciplines including astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer programming, geology, mathematics, and physics. Students can chose two types of courses: (1) courses that help students learn the fundamental concepts in basic sciences and mathematics (e.g., "Precalculus"); and (2) knowledge courses that might be excluded from formal schooling (e.g., "Introduction to Universe"). FSM has served over 500 students in the Bloomington, IN, community over six years by acquiring funding from Indiana University and the Indiana Space Grant Consortium. FSM offers graduate students the opportunity to obtain first hand experience through independent teaching and curriculum design as well as leadership experience.We present the design of the program, review the achievements, and explore the challenges we face. We are open to collaboration with similar educational outreach programs. For more information, please visit http://www.indiana.edu/~fsm/ .
Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Hinton, Tracy Barger
With the large expected growth in STEM-related careers in American industries, there are not enough graduates to fill these positions (United States Department of Labor, 2015). Increased efforts are being made to reform STEM education from early childhood to college level studies, mainly through increased efforts to incorporate new technologies and project-based learning activities (Hegedorn & Purnamasari, 2012). At the middle school level, a robotics educational platform can be a worthwhile activity that provides hands-on learning as students learn basic programming and engineering skills (Grubbs, 2013). Based on the popularity of LEGO toys, LEGO Education developed an engaging and effective way to learn about computer programming and basic engineering concepts (Welch & Huffman, 2011). LEGO MINDSTORMS offers a project-based learning environment that engages students in real-life, problem-solving challenges. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the instructional use of a robotics educational curriculum on middle school students' attitudes toward and interests in STEM and their experiences with LEGO Robotics activities. Participants included 23 seventh grade students who were enrolled in a Career Cluster Technologies I class in a suburban middle school. Data for the study were collected from three focus group interviews, open-ended surveys, classroom observations, and the Career Cruising program. Findings revealed that the robotics activities led to an increased interest and higher self-efficacy in STEM tasks. If students continue to nurture and develop their STEM interests, it is possible that many of them may develop higher confidence and eventually set personal goals related to STEM classes and careers. While other studies have been conducted on similar topics, this qualitative research is unique because it contributed to the gap in research that investigates the impact of an in-class robotics curriculum on middle school students' attitudes
McKittrick, Terence R; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
To examine the frequency of toothbrushing or cleaning among middle school students from 44 low- and middle-income countries. Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from 146,462 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2003 and 2010. In 39 of the 44 countries, more than 80% of students reported brushing or cleaning their teeth at least once each day. In 23 countries, more than 5% of participants reported brushing their teeth less than once a day or never. In 37 countries, boys reported a significantly lower frequency of toothbrushing or cleaning than did girls. Countries where miswak (chewing stick) use is common reported lower toothbrushing or cleaning frequency, perhaps because the questionnaire item did not clarify that this counts as a form of tooth cleaning. School-based dental health education programmes that target early adolescents may help students to develop habits that improve their immediate and long-term health. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…
Sample McMeeking, Laura B.; Orsi, Rebecca; Cobb, R. Brian
The effect of a 15- to 24-month in-service professional development (PD) program on state accountability mathematics test scores for middle school students was examined using a quasi-experimental design. Middle level mathematics teachers (n = 128) from 7 school districts and 64 middle schools volunteered for a PD sequence of content-oriented…
Lorimer, Maureen Reilly
To address arts education disparities in middle level schools, this paper explores evidence that infusing the visual and performing arts into language arts, math, science, and history/social studies courses is a pedagogical approach that meets the developmental needs of early adolescents and fosters a relevant, challenging, integrative, and…
都, 基鳳; 全, 宰一; 野島, 一彦; Do, Giebong; Jun, Jaeil; Nojima, Kazuhiko
The purpose of this study is to prepare effective measures to successfully cope with school violence by examining student experiences of school violence and its causes. The participants were middle school students in Korea. An investigation was made into how male and female students are different from each other in patterns of violence experienced or committed and the causes of that violence. The results are as follows: 1) Students who were victims of school violence suffered more than those ...
Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.
A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE
Miller, Leslie M; Moreno, Janette; Estrera, Vicky; Lane, David
Can web-based technology be used to effectively introduce or reinforce aspects of microbiology to middle school students? This central hypothesis examines whether brief exposure to a web adventure format containing virtual lab experiments and computer games within an engaging story line can impact student learning. An episodic adventure series, MedMyst (http://medmyst.rice.edu), focuses on infectious diseases and the microbes that cause them. The website is not intended to replace classroom instruction, but rather to engage students in problem-solving activities not likely to be encountered elsewhere. It also provides scientists with a resource to introduce microbiology to adolescent audiences through outreach activities. In the online adventure, the player (student) enters a futuristic world in which he or she becomes a "Reconstructor," a member of an elite team charged with preventing the spread of infectious disease. The series consists of three "missions," each lasting approximately 30 to 40 minutes and designed to address a limited set of learning objectives. Middle school students participated in the creation of the characters and the stylized design through focus groups. Classroom teachers oversaw the alignment of the web adventure objectives with the National Science Content Standards. Scientists and clinicians reviewed the web adventure for content and accuracy. A field test involving over 700 students from nine different schools assessed the knowledge gains attributable to playing MedMyst. Gain scores from pretest to posttest indicated that middle school students retained important information by interacting with the online material for as little as 30 minutes per adventure; however, gains for high school students were less persuasive, perhaps indicating a different learning tool or content is required for this age audience.
Full Text Available Can web-based technology be used to effectively introduce or reinforce aspects of microbiology to middle school students? This central hypothesis examines whether brief exposure to a web adventure format containing virtual lab experiments and computer games within an engaging story line can impact student learning. An episodic adventure series, MedMyst (http://medmyst.rice.edu, focuses on infectious diseases and the microbes that cause them. The website is not intended to replace classroom instruction, but rather to engage students in problem-solving activities not likely to be encountered elsewhere. It also provides scientists with a resource to introduce microbiology to adolescent audiences through outreach activities. In the online adventure, the player (student enters a futuristic world in which he or she becomes a “Reconstructor,” a member of an elite team charged with preventing the spread of infectious disease. The series consists of three “missions,” each lasting approximately 30 to 40 minutes and designed to address a limited set of learning objectives. Middle school students participated in the creation of the characters and the stylized design through focus groups. Classroom teachers oversaw the alignment of the web adventure objectives with the National Science Content Standards. Scientists and clinicians reviewed the web adventure for content and accuracy. A field test involving over 700 students from nine different schools assessed the knowledge gains attributable to playing MedMyst. Gain scores from pretest to posttest indicated that middle school students retained important information by interacting with the online material for as little as 30 minutes per adventure; however, gains for high school students were less persuasive, perhaps indicating a different learning tool or content is required for this age audience.
Owens, Marcia Allen
This dissertation study assessed the environmental literacy of 292 urban, middle school teachers using the Wisconsin Environmental Literacy Survey (WELS). Environmental literacy may be defined in terms of observable behaviors. Specifically, the study examined four dimensions of participants' environmental literacy: (a) attitudes toward the environment, (b) beliefs about their own power and responsibility to affect environmental change, (c) personal behaviors and actions toward the environment, and (d) knowledge regarding ecology and environmental issues. The WELS measures these components of environmental literacy through a Likert-type attitude survey, a self-reporting behavior instrument, and a multiple choice measure of cognitive learning outcomes or environmental knowledge. These scores were combined to derive a total environmental literacy score. In addition, the study explored differences between African American and European American female teachers' environmental literacy; interactions between demographic variables; and patterns of frequently missed questions, environmental attitudes, or environmental behaviors. Differences in teachers' environmental literacy were examined relative to gender, racial/ethnic background, number of preservice environmental courses taken, number of inservice environmental courses taken, years of teaching experience, and subject area taught. Overall, teachers in the present study demonstrated nominal environmental literacy. Significant differences in scores on various subscales were found among teachers according to racial/ethnic background, subject area taught, and years of teaching experience. Taking preservice and inservice environmental courses appears to have a positive impact on environmental behavior, environmental sensitivity, awareness and values, but not appear to impact environmental knowledge. This study underscores the need for further descriptive environmental literacy research on urban, minority, and poor students
Morris, Rebecca J.
Innovative, well-designed school library programs can be critical resources for helping students meet high standards of college and career readiness. In "School Libraries and Student Learning", Rebecca J. Morris shows how school leaders can make the most of their school libraries to support ambitious student learning. She offers…
Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran
The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.
Rhee, Hyekyun; McQuillan, Brenda; Chen, Ding-Geng; Atis, Shannska
To examine interpersonal relationships involving peers and teachers and perceptions about school environment among middle school students with asthma in comparison to their healthy counterparts. The study also assesses asthma prevalence in a large sample of middle school students representing different geographic locations. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1059 middle school students in grades 6-8 enrolled in schools in a northeastern region of the United States. Students reported their chronic health conditions including asthma and completed questionnaires measuring perceptions about their relationships with peers and teachers as well as school environment. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to compare students with asthma and their healthy counterparts in the study variables. Asthma was reported by 16.5% of the sample (n = 169). The rate was higher among minority students (23%) than their white counterparts (15%). Greater proportion of urban students (28%) reported asthma than rural (18%) and suburban (14%) students. Students with asthma reported significantly poorer relationships with peers (B = -1.74, p asthma prevalence was substantially higher than the national average of adolescent asthma, particularly those residing in the urban area. Poor perceptions of interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers among students with asthma may indicate compromised quality of life. Suboptimal interpersonal relationships and school environment need to be identified and adequately addressed, given their implications for asthma management at the school setting among middle school students.
Hughes, Jan N; Im, MyungHee; Kwok, Oi-Man; Cham, Heining; West, Stephen G
Participants were 204 academically at-risk Latino students recruited into a study when in first grade and followed for 9 years. Using piecewise latent growth curve analyses, we investigated trajectories of teacher-rated behavioral engagement and student-reported school belonging during elementary school and middle school and the association between trajectories and enrollment in bilingual education classes in elementary school and a change in school ethnic congruence across the transition to middle school. Overall, students experienced a drop in school belonging and behavioral engagement across the transition. A moderating effect of ethnic congruence on bilingual enrollment was found. A decline in ethnic congruence was associated with more positive trajectories for students previously enrolled in bilingual classes but more negative trajectories for non-bilingual students.
Danker, Stephanie; French, Kelley
Art can provide a vehicle for animating learning. Teachers bring ideas to life through curriculum, while artists realize their ideas through images, often translating between forms, media and spaces. This paper describes the context, content and format of a residential Summer Arts Academy for gifted and talented middle and high school students,…
LaConte, Michael A.; And Others
Investigated effects of participation in developmentally appropriate affective education program. Middle school students (n=23), identified as high risk for dropping out and also as learning disabled or emotionally disturbed, were assigned to experimental and control conditions. Participants in affective education group met for 15 weeks.…
Haas, Eric; Goldman, Julie; Faltis, Christian
Improving the writing of middle-school English learners can improve their academic thinking, literacy, and content knowledge. The Writing Reform and Innovation for Teaching Excellence (WRITE) program uses six high-leverage writing practices and develops teacher capacity through professional learning activities anchored in the group grading of…
Román, Diego; Busch, K. C.
Middle school students are learning about climate change in large part through textbooks used in their classes. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the language employed in these materials frames this topic. To this end, we used systemic functional analysis to study the language of the chapters related to climate change in four sixth grade…
Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Stephenson, Grant W.; Hauth, Clara
Six middle school students identified as having a specific learning disability or at risk for mathematical difficulties were taught how to solve multi-step equations by using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model of instruction. A multiple-probe-across-pairs design was used to evaluate instructional effects. Instruction was provided…
Roschelle, Jeremy; Shechtman, Nicole; Tatar, Deborah; Hegedus, Stephen; Hopkins, Bill; Empson, Susan; Knudsen, Jennifer; Gallagher, Lawrence P.
The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasi-experiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. The studies evaluated the SimCalc approach, which integrates an interactive representational technology, paper curriculum,…
Tarlow, Lynn D.
This study documents the change in teaching practices of a group of mathematics teachers in urban middle schools as they participated in a program of professional development to promote standards-based learning environments. The teachers made a shift in their classroom practice from a traditional, didactic lecture approach towards a role of…
Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec
Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.
Brandi E. JOHNSON
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Brandi E. Johnson
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Cohen, Juliana F W; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S Bryn; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B
The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policymakers, students, and their families. Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a 2-year pilot study (2007-2009) in which a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percentage of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in these Boston middle schools. For most meal components, substantially less than 85% was consumed. There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards, and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students might benefit if additional focus were given to the quality and palatability of school meals. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S. Bryn; Economos, Christina D.; Rimm, Eric B.
Background The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policy makers, students, and their families. Purpose Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Methods Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a two-year pilot study (2007-2009) where a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percent of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Results Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in Boston middle schools. For most meal components, significantly less than 85% was consumed. Conclusions There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students would benefit if additional focus was given to the quality and palatability of school meals. PMID:23332326
Alcott, Benjamin; Rose, Pauline
In many low- and lower-middle-income countries, private schools are often considered to offer better quality of education than government schools. Yet, there is a lack of evidence to date on their role in reducing inequalities: namely, the extent to which private schooling improves learning among the most disadvantaged children. Our paper uses…
Yang, Chunyan; Sharkey, Jill D; Reed, Lauren A; Chen, Chun; Dowdy, Erin
Bullying is the most common form of school violence and is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including traumatic responses. This study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the multilevel moderating effects of school climate and school level (i.e., elementary, middle, and high schools) on the association between bullying victimization and student engagement. Participants included 25,896 students in 4th to 12th grades from 114 schools. Results indicated that, after controlling for student and school demographic factors, positive school climate was associated with higher behavioral/cognitive and emotional engagement of students across all grades. This highlights the critical and fundamental role of positive school climate in bullying prevention and intervention, among students across all grade levels, including those with frequent bullying victimization experience. Results also showed that negative associations between student-level bullying victimization and engagement were intensified in more positive school climates. This finding suggests that, in comparison with students in schools with less positive school climates, the engagement of bullying victims in schools with a more positive school climate might be more negatively influenced by their victimization experience. Additionally, the relation between student-level bullying victimization and emotional engagement was significantly different across middle and high schools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik
The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.
Sakiz, Gonul; Pape, Stephen J; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk
The purpose of the present study was to explore the importance of perceived teacher affective support in relation to sense of belonging, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in middle school mathematics classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 317 seventh- and eighth-grade students in 5 public middle schools. Structural equation modeling indicated significant associations between perceived teacher affective support and middle school students' motivational, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. The structural model explained a significant proportion of variance in students' sense of belonging (42%), academic enjoyment (43%), self-efficacy beliefs (43%), academic hopelessness (18%), and academic effort (32%) in mathematics classrooms. In addition to providing the basis for a concise new measure of perceived teacher affective support, these findings point to the importance of students' perceptions of the affective climate within learning environments for promoting academic enjoyment, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in mathematics. Copyright Â© 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grills, Amie E.
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...
Glasser, Howard M.
The U.S. Department of Education's amended regulations to Title IX have attempted to expand the circumstances in which single-sex classes are permissible in public schools. This ethnographic study uses grounded theory to investigate aspects of one single-sex offering at a public, coeducational middle school. Applying elements of postmodern, queer, and sociocultural lenses, it examines the perspectives for this offering, shedding insight into the cultures of two single-sex classrooms and what it meant to be a boy or girl in this setting. Additionally, it focuses attention on the all-boy and all-girl science classes that were taught by the same teacher and examines what it meant to learn science as boys and girls in this program. Although participants supplied financial, socio-emotional, and academic reasons for these classes, the initial motivation for these classes stemmed from the teachers' desire to curb the amount of sex talk and related behaviors that were exhibited in their classrooms. Through these conversations and classroom events, the girls were constructed as idealized students, academically and behaviorally, who needed to be protected from boys' behaviors---both boys' dominating classroom behaviors and aggressive (hetero)sexual behaviors. Conversely, boys were constructed as needing help both academically and behaviorally, but in the specific discipline of science boys were identified as the sex that was more interested in the content and gained greater exposure to skills that could assist them in future science courses and careers. Overall, boys and girls, and the culture of their two classrooms, were regularly defined relative to each other and efforts were made to maintain these constructed differences. As a result, the classes and students were hierarchically ranked in ways that often pitted one sex of students, or the entire class, as better or worse than the other. The theory emerging from this study is that single-sex policies arise and survive
Zalles, D. R.; Quellmalz, E.; Rosenquist, A.; Kreikemeier, P.
Under funding from the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Federal Government's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Program (GLOBE), SRI International has developed and piloted web-accessible performance assessments that measure K-12 students' abilities to use learning technologies to reason with scientific information and communicate evidence-based conclusions to scientific problems. This presentation will describe the assessments that pertain to geoscience at the middle school level. They are the GLOBE Assessments and EPA Phoenix, an instantiation of SRI's model of assessment design known as Integrative Performance Assessments in Technology (IPAT). All are publicly-available on the web. GLOBE engages students in scientific data collection and observation about the environment. SRI's classroom assessments for GLOBE provide sample student assessment tools and frameworks that allow teachers and students to assess how well students can use the data in scientific inquiry projects. Teachers can use classroom assessment tools on the site to develop integrated investigations for assessing GLOBE within their particular science curricula. Rubrics are provided for measuring students' GLOBE-related skills, and alignments are made to state, national, and international science standards. Sample investigations are provided about atmosphere, hydrology, landcover, soils, earth systems, and visualizations. The IPAT assessments present students with engaging problems rooted in science or social science content, plus sets of tasks and questions that require them to gather relevant information on the web, use reasoning strategies to analyze and interpret the information, use spreadsheets, word processors, and other productivity tools, and communicate evidence-based findings and recommendations. In the process of gathering information and drawing conclusions, students are assessed on how well they can operate
The purpose of this study was to understand how science teachers reacted to the high stakes accountability and standardized testing in California. In a multiple case study of middle and intermediate schools in Southern California, four research questions focused on the perceptions of secondary science teachers and how they responded to the changes in the accountability specifically geared towards science as a content area, the pedagogical skills teachers were using both outside and inside of the classroom that impact instruction, the pedagogical training received that related specifically to the content standards, the tools or impediments that existed for teachers to successfully utilize these pedagogical methods and types of support and assistance the school site administration and/or school district offered in learning about the California Science Standards and the STAR test. Interviews were conducted with multiple middle/intermediate school teachers, science department chairpersons and school site administrators to gather information about what the classroom teachers were doing pedagogically to improve student performance on the STAR tests. Moreover, the study described the issues that supported the professional development of the teacher and what schools and districts were doing to support them.
Cunningham, Valerie G.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
This paper provides an extensive literature review on how society, families, and schools are entwined in a student's educational development and how these interactions influence the student's opinion of the value of education. It provides middle-school administrators and teachers a working guide for an educational environment that addresses the…
The author examined the simultaneous influence of Japanese middle school student and school socioeconomic status (SES) on student math achievement with two-level multilevel analysis models by utilizing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Japan data sets. The theoretical framework used in this study was…
Losen, Daniel J.; Martinez, Tia Elena
In this first of a kind breakdown of data from over 26,000 U.S. middle and high schools, the authors estimate that well over two million students were suspended during the 2009-2010 academic year. This means that one out of every nine secondary school students was suspended at least once during that year. As other studies demonstrate, the vast…
Miller, Janice Williams; Nickell, Linda K.
This study presents the development and basic psychometric characteristics of the "School Safety and Security Questionnaire" (SSSQ). This new measure was constructed to assess middle grade students' perceptions of safety and security during the school year. The content validity of the theoretically-based instrument was assessed and the measure was…
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of team teaching middle school mathematics in urban schools. The research questions focused on student academic performance and the impact that team teaching may have from the perspective of teachers. The theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner formed the theoretical foundation…
Mundy, Alma Christienne
The purpose of this mixed method study is to explain the ecology Black males experience as they transition from elementary school to middle school in terms of behavior. The Black male graduation rate is well below 50% nationally (Orfield, Losen, Wald, & Swanson, 2004; Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010). Graduating from high school…
Toldson, Ivory A.; Crowell, Candice
The purpose of this project is to provide an analysis of policy issues affecting middle school and high school-aged boys and young men of color in the areas of education, health, and pathways to employment. This policy scan and subsequent recommendations will provide valuable background knowledge to inform the future direction of policy efforts…
Lieury, Alain; Lorant, Sonia; Trosseille, Bruno; Champault, Françoise; Vourc'h, Ronan
Video games are a very common leisure activity among teenagers and the aim of this study is to analyse their relations with cognitive and school performances. This study is part of a broad survey, conducted on 27,000 French teenagers (14.5 years old) in middle school (9th grade). The survey contained both a questionnaire on leisure activities…
Wheaton, Anne G; Jones, Sherry Everett; Cooper, Adina C; Croft, Janet B
Insufficient sleep among children and adolescents is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, attention and behavior problems, and poor academic performance (1-4). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has recommended that, for optimal health, children aged 6-12 years should regularly sleep 9-12 hours per 24 hours and teens aged 13-18 years should sleep 8-10 hours per 24 hours (1). CDC analyzed data from the 2015 national, state, and large urban school district Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration (school nights among middle school and high school students in the United States. In nine states that conducted the middle school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire, the prevalence of short sleep duration among middle school students was 57.8%, with state-level estimates ranging from 50.2% (New Mexico) to 64.7% (Kentucky). The prevalence of short sleep duration among high school students in the national YRBS was 72.7%. State-level estimates of short sleep duration for the 30 states that conducted the high school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire ranged from 61.8% (South Dakota) to 82.5% (West Virginia). The large percentage of middle school and high school students who do not get enough sleep on school nights suggests a need for promoting sleep health in schools and at home and delaying school start times to permit students adequate time for sleep.
Corey, Chad; Babo, Gerard
Data regarding the type of instructional scheduling utilized along with the use of teaming and common planning at the middle school level has not been collected nor reported on the New York State School Report Card, and therefore it is not known whether and how middle schools are implementing these three school supports. Consequently, the purpose…
Quasha, Scott; McCabe, Paul C.; Ortiz, Samuel O.
This program review examined a middle school Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) club within a northeastern suburban school situated in a large metropolitan area. The GSA was the first in the region to start exclusively in a standalone middle school. The review was accomplished through a staff survey comparing school climates for lesbian, gay, bisexual,…
Principal Leadership, 2011
This article features Smokey Road Middle School, a Title I school serving 850 middle level students in grades 6-8. The school is located on the outskirts of Newnan, Georgia, a historic city of approximately 27,000 residents. The growth and development of the Coweta County School District is largely attributed to its close proximity to Atlanta. In…
McEwan, Patrick J.; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Torres Irribarra, David; Aguilar, Claudia; Rápalo, Renán
This article evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of offering an innovative middle school model--the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial (SAT)--to Honduran villages instead of traditional middle schools. We identified a matched sample of villages with either type of school and collected baseline data among primary school graduates eligible to…
Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony
This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…
Seung Won Park
Full Text Available Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.
Park, Seung Won; Jang, Hye Won; Choe, Yon Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Ahn, Yong Chan; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Kyunghoon; Han, Taehee
In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM) were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM's experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM's efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.
Smiley, Bettie Ann Pickens
For more than thirty years the gender gap in science and related careers has been a key concern of researchers, teachers, professional organizations, and policy makers. Despite indicators of progress for women and girls on some measures of achievement, course enrollment patterns, and employment, fewer women than men pursue college degrees and careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. According to the results of national assessments, the gender gap in science achievement begins to be evident in the middle school years. Gender and school science achievement involve a complex set of factors associated with schools and child/family systems that may include school leadership, institutional practices, curriculum content, teacher training programs, teacher expectations, student interests, parental involvement, and cultural values. This ethnographic case study was designed to explore the context for science education reform and the participation of middle school girls. The study analyzed and compared teaching strategies and female student engagement in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade science classrooms. The setting was a middle school situated in a district that was well-known for its achievement in reading, math, and technology. Findings from the study indicated that while classroom instruction was predominantly organized around traditional school science, the girls were more disciplined and outperformed the boys. The size of the classrooms, time to prepare for hands-on activities, and obtaining resources were identified as barriers to teaching science in ways that aligned with recent national science reform initiatives. Parents who participated in the study were very supportive of their daughters' academic progress and career goals. A few of the parents suggested that the school's science program include more hands-on activities; instruction designed for the advanced learner; and information related to future careers. Overall the teachers and
Breitenbach, Edward C.
School safety is a very important issue for school staff, parents, and students. When school safety is lacking, students suffer in emotional, academic, and social areas. One recent intervention middle schools are examining is the student uniform policy. In some cases, school uniforms have been shown to have a profound effect on school safety,…
Drake, Christopher; Nickel, Chelsea; Burduvali, Eleni; Roth, Thomas; Jefferson, Catherine; Pietro, Badia
To develop a measure of daytime sleepiness suitable for middle-school children and examine the relationship between daytime sleepiness and school-related outcomes. Self-report questionnaire. Four hundred fifty, 11- to 15-year-old students, from grades 6, 7, and 8 of a public middle school in Dayton, Ohio. A pediatric daytime sleepiness questionnaire was developed using factor analysis of questions regarding sleep-related behaviors. Results of the sleepiness questionnaire were then compared across other variables, including daily sleep patterns, school achievement, mood, and extracurricular activities. Factor analysis on the 13 questions related to daytime sleepiness yielded 1 primary factor ("pediatric daytime sleepiness"; 32% of variance). Only items with factor loadings above .4 were included in the final sleepiness scale. Internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha) for the final 8-item scale was .80. Separate one-way analyses of variance and trend analyses were performed comparing pediatric daytime sleepiness scores at the 5 different levels of total sleep time and academic achievement. Participants who reported low school achievement, high rates of absenteeism, low school enjoyment, low total sleep time, and frequent illness reported significantly higher levels of daytime sleepiness compared to children with better school-related outcomes. The self-report scale developed in the present work is suitable for middle-school-age children and may be useful in future research given its ease of administration and robust psychometric properties. Daytime sleepiness is related to reduced educational achievement and other negative school-related outcomes.
Biddle, Julie K.
The goal of the Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) is to develop schools in which all children achieve at high levels and all members of the school community engage in developing and fulfilling the school's vision. But to fully implement the ASP model, a school must become a learning community that stresses relationships, shared values, and a…
Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.; Lindner, James R.
This study investigated the comprehension and effectiveness of teaching formal, probabilistic decision-making skills to middle school students. Two specific objectives were to determine (1) if middle school students can comprehend a probabilistic decision-making approach, and (2) if exposure to the modeling approaches improves middle school…
Rice, Eric; Gibbs, Jeremy; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rhoades, Harmony; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
It is unknown if "sexting" (i.e., sending/receiving sexually explicit cell phone text or picture messages) is associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behavior among early adolescents, as has been found for high school students. To date, no published data have examined these relationships exclusively among a probability sample of middle school students. A probability sample of 1285 students was collected alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles middle schools. Logistic regressions assessed the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual activity and risk behavior (ie, unprotected sex). Twenty percent of students with text-capable cell phone access reported receiving a sext and 5% reported sending a sext. Students who text at least 100 times per day were more likely to report both receiving (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4) and sending (OR: 4.5) sexts and to be sexually active (OR: 4.1). Students who sent sexts (OR: 3.2) and students who received sexts (OR: 7.0) were more likely to report sexual activity. Compared with not being sexually active, excessive texting and receiving sexts were associated with both unprotected sex (ORs: 4.7 and 12.1, respectively) and with condom use (ORs: 3.7 and 5.5, respectively). Because early sexual debut is correlated with higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancies, pediatricians should discuss sexting with young adolescents because this may facilitate conversations about sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention. Sexting and associated risks should be considered for inclusion in middle school sex education curricula. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cole, Merryn L.
This dissertation employed a mixed-methods approach to examine the relationship between spatial reasoning ability and understanding of chemistry content for both middle school students and their science teachers. Spatial reasoning has been linked to success in learning STEM subjects (Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2009). Previous studies have shown a correlation between understanding of chemistry content and spatial reasoning ability (e.g., Pribyl & Bodner, 1987; Wu & Shah, 2003: Stieff, 2013), raising the importance of developing the spatial reasoning ability of both teachers and students. Few studies examine middle school students' or in-service middle school teachers' understanding of chemistry concepts or its relation to spatial reasoning ability. The first paper in this dissertation addresses the quantitative relationship between mental rotation, a type of spatial reasoning ability, and understanding a fundamental concept in chemistry, the particulate nature of matter. The data showed a significant, positive correlation between scores on the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test of Rotations (PSVT; Bodner & Guay, 1997) and the Particulate Nature of Matter Assessment (ParNoMA; Yezierski, 2003) for middle school students prior to and after chemistry instruction. A significant difference in spatial ability among students choosing different answer choices on ParNoMA questions was also found. The second paper examined the ways in which students of different spatial abilities talked about matter and chemicals differently. Students with higher spatial ability tended to provide more of an explanation, though not necessarily in an articulate matter. In contrast, lower spatial ability students tended to use any keywords that seemed relevant, but provided little or no explanation. The third paper examined the relationship between mental reasoning and understanding chemistry for middle school science teachers. Similar to their students, a significant, positive correlation between
Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.
Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…
Gruber, James E; Fineran, Susan
The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on six health outcomes among middle school girls were compared to these outcomes among high school girls. High school girls experienced more bullying and sexual harassment and poorer health outcomes than their middle school counterparts, but the impact of these experiences was less among high school students. Differences in outcomes may be the result of better support systems and coping mechanisms among high school girls and/or challenging developmental changes during middle school. Sexual orientation, race, and disability had some notable relationships to bullying and sexual harassment experiences as well as health outcomes.
Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda
This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…
Hulsbos, Frank Arnoud; Evers, Arnoud Theodoor; Kessels, Joseph Willem Marie
In recent years policy makers' interest in the professional development of school leaders has grown considerably. Although we know some aspect of formal educational programs for school leaders, little is known about school leaders' incidental and non-formal learning in the workplace. This study aims to grasp what workplace learning activities…
Pringle, Rose M.; Mesa, Jennifer; Hayes, Lynda
Preparing teachers to teach science consistent with current reforms in science education is a daunting enterprise given a lack of high-quality science professional development (PD) adaptable across various contexts (Wilson 2013). This study examines the impact of a comprehensive professional development program on middle school teachers' disciplinary content knowledge and instructional practices. In this mixed methods investigation, data sources included classroom observations, content knowledge assessments, surveys, and a range of interviews. The teachers in the program showed significant improvements in their disciplinary content knowledge and demonstrated through their enactment of a reform-based curriculum, a range of ability levels to translate their knowledge into instructional practices consistent with the principles espoused in the PD. We conclude that programs that attend to elements of effective PD identified in the literature can positively impact middle school science teachers' enactment of reform-based science teaching. Our findings extend these elements to include the strategic engagement of school and district leadership and the provision of a safe learning space for teachers to collectively engage in reciprocal learning and critical practice. This study has worldwide implications for designing PD for science teachers and for extending our understanding of the impact of each element.
Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
Objectives. We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. Methods. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator–victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). Results. In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator–victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators–victims. Conclusions. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters. PMID:25602905
Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator-victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator-victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators-victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators-victims. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters.
The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle school teachers' interest, familiarity, conceptual understanding, performance, misconception identification, and pedagogical ideas for light. Sixty six (66) middle school science teachers enrolled in three math and science teacher professional development projects at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. This study used mixed-methods approach to collect and analyze data. The participants responded in writing to four different instruments: Familiarity and Interest Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge Test, Two-tier Performance Test, and Misconceptions Identification Questionnaire. Data was analyzed quantitatively by conducting non-parametric (Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (paired samples, independent samples, and One-Way ANOVA) tests. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis and open coding to identify emerging themes and categories. The results showed that the teachers reported high levels of familiarity with and interest in learning more about light concepts. However, they had low conceptual knowledge and performance on light concepts. As such, middle school teachers' perceived knowledge of light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of light. To some extent, the teachers identified students' misconceptions expressed in some scenarios on light and also suggested pedagogical ideas for addressing such misconceptions in middle school science classrooms. However, most teachers did not provide details on their pedagogical ideas for light. Correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual understanding, and performance
Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko
In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…
Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…
For the majority of Polish students school is a source of negative experiences and therefore may increase the risk of adolescent problem behaviors. The results of the study conducted in Warsaw middle schools (N=2244, 54% girls) indicated that changes for worse (between 7 and 8 grade) in students' behavior increase the risk of drug use. However, changes for better in students' perception of school value and school achievements are risk factors, too (even when family and peer risk factors are controlled). PMID:21152104
Sebanc, Anne M.; Guimond, Amy B.; Lutgen, Jeff
This study investigates whether friendship quality, academic achievement, and mastery goal orientation predict each other across the transition to middle school. Participants were 146 Latino students (75 girls) followed from the end of elementary school through the first year of middle school. Measures included positive and negative friendship…
Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn
Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…
Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Dempsey, Kathleen; Tweed, Anne
In the transition to middle school, and during the middle school years, students' motivation for mathematics tends to decline from what it was during elementary school. Formative assessment strategies in mathematics can help support motivation by building confidence for challenging tasks. In this study, the authors developed and piloted a…
Babb, Corbett A.
The purpose of this exploratory quantitative research study was to determine if middle schools in which higher levels of servant leadership are evident perform better on school effectiveness measures than middle schools that exhibit lower degrees of servant leadership. Furthermore, it sought to identify contextual factors that were correlated with…
Bulu, Sanser; Numanoglu, Mustafa; Keser, Hafize
This study aims to identify middle school students` general attitudes towards social media. Participants of this descriptive study were middle school students from three public schools (n = 367) in Ankara. Data was collected using "Demographic Information Form" and "Social Media Attitudes Survey for Students" developed by…
Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…
Effects of traditional teaching vs a multisensory instructional package on the science achievement and attitudes of English language learners middle-school students and English-speaking middle-school students
This research was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a Multi-sensory Instructional Package (MIP) (Dunn & Dunn, 1992) versus Traditional Teaching (TT) on the science achievement- and attitude-test scores of middle-school English Language Learner (ELL) and English-speaking sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade middle-school students. The dependent variables were students' science- and attitude-test scores. The independent variables were the two instructional strategies, ELL and English-speaking (Non-ELL) status, and three grade levels. The sample consisted of 282 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade ELL and Non-ELL middle-school students. Learning Styles: The Clue to You! (LS: CY) (Burke & Dunn, 1998) was administered to determine learning-style preferences. The control groups were taught sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade science lessons traditionally and the experimental groups were instructed on the same units using MIPs. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. All three groups experienced both traditional and multi-sensory instruction in all three sub-units. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of an MIP rather than a traditional approach for teaching science content to both ELLs and English-speaking middle-school students. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores. Furthermore, the students indicated significantly more positive attitudes when instructed with an MIP approach.
Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Leve, Leslie D
Girls in foster care may face difficulties across the transition to middle school. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to examine trajectories and predictors of academic competence and aggression from and against peers for 75 girls in foster care from the end of elementary school to the 2(nd) year of middle school. Across the transition to middle school, academic competence increased. Poor self-regulation was associated with decreased academic competence, and higher caregiver support was associated with increased academic competence. Frequency of aggression from peers decreased across the transition, with perceived school competence predicting smaller decreases. Aggression against peers dropped initially and then increased to pretransition levels by the end of the 2(nd) year of middle school. Lower caregiver support was associated with higher rates of aggression against peers at the end of the 1(st) year of middle school. The results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions for girls in foster care.
Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Okamoto, Janet; Taylor, Bruce G; Stein, Nan
To pilot a study of social networks informing contextual analyses of sexual harassment and peer violence (SH/PV). Seventh and 8th grade students (N = 113) in an urban middle school were surveyed via a Web-based instrument. Boys and girls reported SH/PV victimization and perpetration at comparable rates. The proportion of nominated friends who reported SH/ PV outcomes was greater in boys' than in girls' social networks. Structural descriptors of social networks were not significant predictors of SH/PV outcomes. Collection of sensitive relationship data via a school-based Web survey is feasible. Full-scale studies and greater flexibility regarding the number of friendship nominations are recommended for subsequent investigations of potential sex differences.
Golden, B. W.
Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which
Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.
Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.
Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam
Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.
Full Text Available Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.
Fields, Karl B; Bright, Jacob
Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been used in the school setting to successfully resuscitate students, staff, and visitors. All public high schools in North Carolina have an AED. However, the number of North Carolina public middle schools with an AED is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of AEDs at public middle schools in North Carolina and to estimate the cost associated with providing an AED to all public middle schools currently without one. All 547 middle schools in North Carolina's 117 public school systems were surveyed in 2009 via e-mail, fax, and, when necessary, telephone about whether an AED was present on site. For middle schools without AEDs, we estimated the cost of purchase and for 1 year of maintenance. A total 66.6% of public middle schools responded to 1 of 3 survey mailings. The remaining schools were contacted by telephone, so that 100% were included in data collection. At the time of the survey, at least 1 AED was present in 334 schools (61.1%). Of the 213 schools without AEDs, 57 (26.8%) were in school systems in which some middle schools had AEDs, and 156 (73.2%) were in systems in which no middle school had an AED. On the basis of a start-up cost of $1,200 per AED, the cost of providing an AED to each school without one is approximately $255,600. These data are based on self-report, and we could not verify whether AEDs were functional. Cost estimates do not include charges for ongoing maintenance and staff training. Two hundred and thirteen North Carolina public middle schools (38.9%) do not have an AED on site.
Madjar, Nir; Cohen-Malayev, Maya
The implications of the transition from elementary to middle school are of major concern for educators and researchers worldwide. Previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings; some have indicated negative outcomes of school transition, whereas others have demonstrated null or even positive effects. The aim of the current research was to explore the impact of school transition on students' perceived educational climate while distinguishing between transition effects and age-related effects by comparing students who transitioned to middle schools at the end of the sixth grade versus those who did not. The research included 2 complementary studies. Study 1 was based on a large-scale national survey in Israel (N = 71,739) that compared students from fifth to eighth grades using a cross-sectional design, in which the students completed a survey once in the middle of the school year. Study 2 followed a sample of 415 students across 2 years including 4 waves of survey completion, at the beginning and the end of 2 consecutive school years, during which 55% of the students experienced a transition and 45% remained in elementary school. In both studies, the students completed self-report surveys assessing the perceived school climate. Both multilevel and nonlinear growth-curve analyses consistently indicated that the students who transitioned reported positive perceptions of the school climate before the transition that declined more quickly and become equal to or lower than those of the nontransitioning students. Teachers should apply practices that enhance students' sense of support, specifically following school transitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Science research courses have been around for years at the university and high school level. As inquiry based learning has become more and more a part of the science teacher's vocabulary, many of these courses have adopted an inquiry model for studying science. Learners of all ages benefit from learning through the natural process of inquiry. I participated in the CIRES Earthworks program for science teachers (Colorado University) in the summer of 2007 and experienced, first hand, the value of inquiry learning. With the support and vision of my school administration, and with the support and commitment of community partners, I have developed a Middle School Science Research Program that is transforming how science is taught to students in my community. Swift Creek Middle School is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are approximately 1000 students in this suburban public school. Students at Swift Creek are required to take one science class each year through 8th grade. As more emphasis is placed on learning a large number of scientific facts and information, in order to prepare students for yearly, standardized tests, there is a concern that less emphasis may be placed on the process and nature of science. The program I developed draws from the inquiry model followed at the CIRES Earthworks program, utilizes valuable community partnerships, and plays an important role in meeting that need. There are three major components to this Middle School Research Program, and the Center for Integrated Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) at Florida State University is playing an important role in all three. First, each student will develop their own research question and design experiments to answer the question. Scientists from the NHMFL are serving as mentors, or "buddy scientists," to my students as they work through the process of inquiry. Scientists from the CIRES - Earthworks program, Florida State University, and other
Blanchard, Sarah; Judy, Justina; Muller, Chandra; Crawford, Richard H; Petrosino, Anthony J; White, Christina K; Lin, Fu-An; Wood, Kristin L
Beyond Blackboards is an inquiry-centered, after-school program designed to enhance middle school students' engagement with engineering through design-based experiences focused on the 21 st Century Engineering Challenges. Set within a predominantly low-income, majority-minority community, our study aims to investigate the impact of Beyond Blackboards on students' interest in and understanding of engineering, as well as their ability to align their educational and career plans. We compare participants' and nonparticipants' questionnaire responses before the implementation and at the end of the program's first academic year. Statistically significant findings indicate a school-wide increase in students' interest in engineering careers, supporting a shift in school culture. However, only program participants showed increased enjoyment of design-based strategies, understanding of what engineers do, and awareness of the steps for preparing for an engineering career. These quantitative findings are supported by qualitative evidence from participant focus groups highlighting the importance of mentors in shaping students' awareness of opportunities within engineering.
Pfeiffer, Linda E.
Few things strike fear in the hearts of parents like sending their child off to middle school. Parents of gifted learners fear for their child's safety--both emotional and physical--and their academic well-being. Having survived this transition, it occurred to the author that this experience would make an interesting research project and,…
Middle school students from military families face unique challenges, especially when their parents are deployed. Among the challenges they experience are frequent relocations; issues that affect academic achievement; uncertainty; and changes in roles, responsibilities, and relationships at home. Reunification involves issues of the returning…
Schwartz, Sandra M.
Vocal demands of teaching are significant, and this challenge is compounded for choral directors who depend on the voice for communicating information or demonstrating music concepts. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and intensity of middle and high school choral directors' voices and to compare choral directors' voices with…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine
This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.
Jagers, Robert J; Lozada, Fantasy T; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Guillaume, Casta
This study used short-term longitudinal data to examine the contributions of democratic teaching practices (e.g., the Developmental Designs approach) and equitable school climate to civic engagement attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among 515 Black and Latino middle school students (47.9% male). Concurrent experiences of democratic homeroom and classroom practices, and equitable school climate were associated with higher scores on each civic engagement component. The relation between classroom practices and civic attitudes was more robust when school climate was seen as more equitable. Longitudinally, homeroom practices and equitable school climate predicted higher civic attitudes 1 year later. Discussion focuses on civic attitudes and future research on school experiences that support civic engagement among youth of color. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Alkhateeb, H M; Jumaa, M
This study compared the effects of two instructional strategies, small heterogeneous cooperative learning experience versus lecture and discussion, on students' attitudes toward mathematics. 54 boys and 57 girls in Grade 8 of four middle-school mathematics classes participated. Two classes (57 students) were taught using a cooperative learning method and the other two classes (54 students) were taught using traditional lecture and discussion. Differences between attitudes of boys and girls were also investigated and discussed in the light of Arabic culture. The results suggested that cooperative learning might be a valuable method with which to teach mathematics concepts to boys.
Bathgate, Meghan Elizabeth
While motivational decline towards science is common during adolescence, this dissertation asks if there are beneficial science experiences that buffer against the loss of motivation and even promote its growth. The dissertation consists of two papers (Chapter 2 & 3) with additional analyses in Chapter 4 and a summary of findings in Chapter 5. The first paper examines whether classroom science experiences are differentially associated with motivational change and science content knowledge. Using self-reports from a sample of approximately 3,000 middle school students, this study investigates the influence of perceived science classroom experiences (student engagement & perceived success), on motivational change (fascination, values, competency belief) and content learning. Controlling for demographic information, school effects, and initial levels of motivation and content knowledge, we find that dimensions of engagement (affect, behavioral-cognitive) and perceived success are differentially associated with changes in particular motivational constructs and learning. The second paper examines one of these motivational outcomes (value) in more detail. Valuing science is associated with positive learning outcomes and is often used to motivate engagement in the sciences, but less is known about what influences its development and maintenance, particularly during the critical middle school years. Using multinomial regression applied to longitudinal data from approximately 2,600 middle-school students, I test the relationship of the perceived science experiences examined in Paper 1 (affective engagement, behavioral-cognitive engagement, & perceived success) and optional formal and optional informal experiences to changes in science utility value. Furthermore, we address whether the same factors that predict growth in science value also predict absence of decline. Overall, we find that all five factors are associated with changes in value, but some have different
Kara S. Finnigan
Full Text Available The focus on “school turnaround” has become central to policy and practice in the United States as a result of school accountability, yet little remains known about school improvement under sanction. This study uses theories of organizational learning to understand the processes through which educators search for and adopt reform strategies, as well as the extent to which these schools’ organizational culture and climate are conducive to this type of learning. Our mixed methods study involves document analysis, intensive case studies, and a survey of teachers in schools under sanction in a large urban school district in the USA. We found limited evidence of organizational learning, and instead evidence suggested superficial use of restructuring planning, rare diagnoses of root causes of low performance, and limited engagement in learning processes of school staff. In addition, schools relied on exploitation resulting in the recycling of previous practices. In part, the limited organizational learning in evidence was the result of structures and climates within these low-performing schools that inhibited a more learning-oriented approach to reform. Our study has implications for school improvement under accountability policies as it uncovers important challenges that limit organizational learning and, as a result, school improvement under sanction.
Raviv, Ayala; Cohen, Sarit; Aflalo, Ester
Despite the inherent potential of cooperative learning, there has been very little research into its effectiveness in middle school laboratory classes. This study focuses on an empirical comparison between cooperative learning and individual learning in the school science laboratory, evaluating the quality of learning and the students' attitudes. The research included 67 seventh-grade students who undertook four laboratory experiments on the subject of "volume measuring skills." Each student engaged both in individual and cooperative learning in the laboratory, and the students wrote individual or group reports, accordingly. A total of 133 experiment reports were evaluated, 108 of which also underwent textual analysis. The findings show that the group reports were superior, both in terms of understanding the concept of "volume" and in terms of acquiring skills for measuring volume. The students' attitudes results were statistically significant and demonstrated that they preferred cooperative learning in the laboratory. These findings demonstrate that science teachers should be encouraged to implement cooperative learning in the laboratory. This will enable them to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory learning while using a smaller number of experimental kits. Saving these expenditures, together with the possibility to teach a larger number of students simultaneously in the laboratory, will enable greater exposure to learning in the school science laboratory.
Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey
Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning
Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam
This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students’ punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators’ choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents,
Azizul Ghofar Candra Wicaksono
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of science motivation and nature of science (NoS and the relationship between science motivation and nature of science in middle school students located in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The design of this study was survey followed by the correlation study to discover the relationship between science motivation level and nature of science comprehension. This research included 113 students as sample. The instrument used for data collection was SMQ and seven essay test from NoS indicator. This study revealed that the students had a median score of science motivation and the low score in nature of science comprehension. There were students’ science motivation and nature of science comprehension urgently need to be improved. It can be done by developing learning process and any support from school or family.
Moser Opitz, Elisabeth; Freesemann, Okka; Prediger, Susanne; Grob, Urs; Matull, Ina; Hußmann, Stephan
As empirical studies have consistently shown, low achievement in mathematics at the secondary level can often be traced to deficits in the understanding of certain basic arithmetic concepts taught in primary school. The present intervention study in middle schools evaluated whether such learning deficits can be reduced effectively and whether the type of instruction influences students' progress. The sample consisted of 123 students in 34 classes, split among one control group and two intervention groups: (a) small group instruction and (b) independent work partially integrated into regular classrooms. Over a period of 14 weeks, students were taught basic concepts, such as place value and basic operations. In addition, they practiced fact retrieval and counting (in groups). Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that the interventions can be used to reduce given deficits.
High school students in the United States are apathetic about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and the workforce pipeline in these areas is collapsing. The lack of understanding of basic principles of biology means that students are unable to make educated decisions concerning their personal health. To address these issues, we have developed a simple, inquiry-based outreach lesson centered on a mouse dissection. Students learn key concepts in immunology and enhance their understanding of human organ systems. The experiment highlights aspects of the scientific method and authentic data collection and analysis. This hands-on activity stimulates interest in biology, personal health and careers in STEM fields. Here, we present all the information necessary to execute the lesson effectively with middle and high school students.
Pilot Project to Integrate Community and Clinical Level Systems to Address Health Disparities in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity among Ethnic Minority Inner-City Middle School Students: Lessons Learned
Full Text Available Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B’N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program. New implementation and programming strategies were developed and tested to increase the proportion of students screened, support the linkage of students to care, and streamline the integration of program clinical and afterschool components into routine services already offered at the school. We report on our initial implementation activities using the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI framework using hybrid outcomes combining the Reach element from the RE-AIM framework with a newly conceptualized Wellness Cascade.
Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Emily C; Richardson, Jennifer
In this research the authors examined middle school special education teachers' perceptions of assistive technology during literacy instruction with students with high incidence disabilities. A survey explored the use, effectiveness, and factors impacting use or effectiveness of assistive technology for literacy teaching and learning. Results suggested teachers' perceived assistive technology to be an effective tool for literacy, but use it minimally. When assistive technology was used, teachers indicated it was an effective literacy support. Teachers also reported barriers to using assistive technology in literacy including cost, usability, and lack of training/experience. However, factors such as previous successful experiences with assistive technology and assistive technology supporting students' learning encouraged assistive technology use. The consistency of teachers' reports of needing more experience and knowledge in assistive technology to fully use it suggests implications for preservice preparation such as providing additional experiences and information on assistive technology.
Severance, Sara E.
This research was conducted by an urban middle school science teacher who sought to investigate the effects of self-assessment on student performance. A group of students were asked to give themselves a score on each learning target assessed in class and to provide evidence for their decision. Student self-assessment scores were compared to scores given by the teacher to see if students who accurately assessed their own learning scored higher on final assessments than students who did not. Assessment scores between groups of students who completed the self-assessment preparation and students who did not were also analyzed. The data indicates no correlation between the ability to self-assess and achievement. However, further implications on self-assessment at the secondary level are discussed.
Keegan, Edward W.
Recent literature casts unfavorable light upon the middle school as the most appropriate grade configuration in which to effectively educate young adolescents. The current criticism of middle schools may be fueled, in part, by "A Nation at Risk," the "No Child Left Behind Act," and a growing subsequent emphasis on…
Lamey, Jack Harley, Sr.
The purpose of this case study was to understand non-mastery for students in the mBolden Academic Model at Piedmont City Middle School (PCMS). The following research questions guided this study: How does the mBolden Academic Model influence student success at Piedmont City Middle School? Furthermore, this study has answered the following…
Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; San Pedro, Maria Ofelia; Lai, Huei-yi; Baker, Ryan S.; Borgen, Fred
Research suggests that trajectories toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emerge early and are influenced by multiple factors. This paper presents a longitudinal study, which uses data from 76 high school students to explore how a student's vocational self-efficacy and interest are related to his or her middle school behavioral and affective engagement. Measures of vocational self-efficacy and interest are drawn from STEM-related scales in CAPAExplore, while measures of middle school performance and engagement in mathematics are drawn from several previously validated automated indicators extracted from logs of student interaction with ASSISTments, an online learning platform. Results indicate that vocational self-efficacy correlates negatively with confusion, but positively with engaged concentration and carelessness. Interest, which also correlates negatively with confusion, correlates positively with correctness and carelessness. Other disengaged behaviors, such as gaming the system, were not correlated with vocational self-efficacy or interest, despite previous studies indicating that they are associated with future college attendance. We discuss implications for these findings, which have the potential to assist educators or counselors in developing strategies to sustain students' interest in STEM-related careers.
Mostafaei, Helia; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Hadi
Background and aims Recently, digital research is very popular in schools. The capacity of students to do an effective search is unclear which can lead to utilization of unacceptable evidence in their research. Aims To evaluate middle school students' effective search skills. Methods This survey was done during the summer school of Farzanegan talented students middle school. The self-administrated questionnaire studied 30 items about effective search and digital research skills of students. O...
Acree, Lauren; Gibson, Theresa; Mangum, Nancy; Wolf, Mary Ann; Kellogg, Shaun; Branon, Suzanne
This study provides a mixed-methods case-study design evaluation of the Leadership in Blended Learning (LBL) program. The LBL program uses blended approaches, including face-to-face and online, to prepare school leaders to implement blended learning initiatives in their schools. This evaluation found that the program designers effectively…
The transition from middle school to high school can be difficult for many students due to increases in school size, the structure of an academic schedule, and the complexity of social interactions in high school. However, Black boys face unique challenges during this transition period due to racism and structural inequalities. In response to…
Tyler, Kenneth M.; Burris, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Sean T.
Disruptive classroom behaviors are a major schooling dilemma in urban schools. While several contextual and motivational factors have been statistically associated with disruptive classroom behaviors, one overlooked factor has been home-school dissonance. The current study examined the relationship between 260 middle school students' reports of…
Cordell, Ralph L; Cordeira, Kelly L; Cohen, Laurence P; Bensyl, Diana M
This report describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention programs that expose students to epidemiology and public health sciences (EPHS). The Science Ambassador workshop targets middle and high school teachers and promotes teaching EPHS in the classroom. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event is an extracurricular science competition for middle and high school students based on investigations of outbreaks and other public health problems. The Epidemiology Elective Program provides experiential learning activities for veterinary and medical students. As of 2016, 234 teachers from 37 states and territories and three other countries participated in SA workshops. Several are teaching units or entire courses in EPHS. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event exposed approximately 15,000 middle and high school students to EPHS during the 2015-2016 school year. The Epidemiology Elective Program has exposed 1,795 veterinary and medical students to EPHS. Students can master fundamental concepts of EPHS as early as middle school and educators are finding ways to introduce this material into their classrooms. Programs to introduce veterinary and medical students to EPHS can help fill the gap in exposing older students to the field. Professional organizations can assist by making their members aware of these programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The Citizen Science Program "H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean—Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change" teaches middle and high school students about ocean threats related to climate change through hands-on activities and learning experiences in the field. This is a continuation of the Program presented last year at the Poster Session.
Weiss, N. K.; Wood, J. H.
TThe Citizen Science Program H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean—Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change, teaches middle and high school students about ocean threats related to climate change through hands-on activities and learning experiences in the field. During each session (in-class or after-school as a club), students build an understanding about how climate change impacts our oceans using resources provided by ExplorOcean (hands-on activities, presentations, multi-media). Through a student leadership model, students present lessons to each other, interweaving a deep learning of science, 21st century technology, communication skills, and leadership. After participating in learning experiences and activities related to 6 key climate change concepts: 1) Introduction to climate change, 2) Increased sea temperatures, 3) Ocean acidification, 4) Sea level rise, 5) Feedback mechanisms, and 6) Innovative solutions. H2O SOS- Operation Climate change participants select one focus issue and use it to design a multi-pronged campaign to increase awareness about this issue in their local community. The campaign includes social media, an interactive activity, and a visual component. All participating clubs that meet participation and action goals earn a field trip to Ocean Quest where they dive deeper into their selected issue through hands-on activities, real-world investigations, and interviews or presentations with experts. In addition to self-selected opportunities to showcase their focus issue, teams will participate in one of several key events identified by Ocean Quest.
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora
Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…
Frehywot, Seble; Vovides, Yianna; Talib, Zohray; Mikhail, Nadia; Ross, Heather; Wohltjen, Hannah; Bedada, Selam; Korhumel, Kristine; Koumare, Abdel Karim; Scott, James
In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators "AND" and "OR" to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. E-learning in medical education is a means to an end
Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E-learning
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles, India (14, Egypt (10 and South Africa (10. While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58% reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles of which computer-assisted learning (CAL comprised the majority (45 articles. Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles, web-based learning (14 articles, and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles. Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities
Aker, Leanna B.
Researchers and educational practitioners have long been concerned with declines in science engagement reported by students as they transition into the middle school setting. Though the operationalization of engagement is still nascent, an emerging consensus on a three-faceted model of student engagement has recently emerged in the research literature (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Thus, a synthesis of existing primary research of early adolescents' science engagement under this emerging conceptualization was warranted. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that instructional methods, class characteristics and competence predictors had the strongest relationship with self-reported science engagement in early adolescence. These predictors also show the strongest relationship with affective and cognitive engagement sub-types. Though affective and cognitive engagement were well represented in primary studies, behavioral engagement was underrepresented in student self-reports.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
In vocational education and training the school and the workplace are two different learning environments. But how should we conceive of a learning environment, and what characterizes the school and the workplace respectively as learning environments? And how can the two environ-ments be linked......? These questions are treated in this paper. School and workplace are assessed us-ing the same analytical approach. Thereby it is pointed out how different forms of learning are en-couraged in each of them and how different forms of knowledge are valued. On this basis sugges-tions are made about how to understand...
Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha
This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…