WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning lexical decisions

  1. Unfolding Visual Lexical Decision in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

  2. Lexically guided perceptual learning in Mandarin Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchfield, L.A.; Luk, S.H.K.; Antoniou, M.; Cutler, A.

    2017-01-01

    Lexically guided perceptual learni ng refers to the use of lexical knowledge to retune sp eech categories and thereby adapt to a novel talker's pronunciation. This adaptation has been extensively documented, but primarily for segmental-based learning in English and Dutch. In languages with lexical

  3. The Metamorphosis of the Statistical Segmentation Output: Lexicalization during Artificial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tania; Kolinsky, Regine; Ventura, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    This study combined artificial language learning (ALL) with conventional experimental techniques to test whether statistical speech segmentation outputs are integrated into adult listeners' mental lexicon. Lexicalization was assessed through inhibitory effects of novel neighbors (created by the parsing process) on auditory lexical decisions to…

  4. The effects of bilateral presentations on lateralized lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran

    2007-06-01

    We investigated how lateralized lexical decision is affected by the presence of distractors in the visual hemifield contralateral to the target. The study had three goals: first, to determine how the presence of a distractor (either a word or a pseudoword) affects visual field differences in the processing of the target; second, to identify the stage of the process in which the distractor is affecting the decision about the target; and third, to determine whether the interaction between the lexicality of the target and the lexicality of the distractor ("lexical redundancy effect") is due to facilitation or inhibition of lexical processing. Unilateral and bilateral trials were presented in separate blocks. Target stimuli were always underlined. Regarding our first goal, we found that bilateral presentations (a) increased the effect of visual hemifield of presentation (right visual field advantage) for words by slowing down the processing of word targets presented to the left visual field, and (b) produced an interaction between visual hemifield of presentation (VF) and target lexicality (TLex), which implies the use of different strategies by the two hemispheres in lexical processing. For our second goal of determining the processing stage that is affected by the distractor, we introduced a third condition in which targets were always accompanied by "perceptual" distractors consisting of sequences of the letter "x" (e.g., xxxx). Performance on these trials indicated that most of the interaction occurs during lexical access (after basic perceptual analysis but before response programming). Finally, a comparison between performance patterns on the trials containing perceptual and lexical distractors indicated that the lexical redundancy effect is mainly due to inhibition of word processing by pseudoword distractors.

  5. Effects of Emotional Experience in Lexical Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Siakaluk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has examined the effects of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotion information in semantic categorization, word naming, and Stroop tasks (Moffat, Siakaluk, Sidhu, & Pexman, 2015; Newcombe, Campbell, Siakaluk, & Pexman, 2012; Siakaluk, Knol, & Pexman, 2014. However, to date there are no published reports on whether emotional experience influences performance in the lexical decision task (LDT. In the present study, we examined the influence of emotional experience in LDT using three different stimulus sets. In Experiment 1 we used a stimulus set used by both Kousta, Vinson, and Vigliocco (2009; Experiment 1 and Yap and Seow (2014 that is comprised of 40 negative, 40 positive, and 40 neutral words; in Experiment 2 we used a stimulus set comprised of 150 abstract nouns; and in Experiment 3 we used a stimulus set comprised of 373 verbs. We observed facilitatory effects of emotional experience in each of the three experiments, such that words with higher emotional experience ratings were associated with faster response latencies. These results are important because the influence of emotional experience: (a is observed in stimulus sets comprised of different types of words, demonstrating the generalizability of the effect in LDT; (b accounts for LDT response latency variability above and beyond the influences of valence and arousal, and is thus a robust dimension of conceptual knowledge; (c suggests that a richer representation of emotional experience provides more reliable evidence that a stimulus is a word, which facilitates responding in LDT; and (d is consistent with grounded cognition frameworks that propose that emotion information may be grounded in bodily experience with the world (Barsalou, 2003, 2009; Vigliocco, Meteyard, Andrews, & Kousta, 2009.

  6. A diffusion decision model analysis of evidence variability in the lexical decision task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillman, Gabriel; Osth, Adam F.; van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Heathcote, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The lexical-decision task is among the most commonly used paradigms in psycholinguistics. In both the signal-detection theory and Diffusion Decision Model (DDM; Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, Psychological Review, 111, 159–182, 2004) frameworks, lexical-decisions are based on a continuous source of

  7. Automatic Priming Effects for New Associations in Lexical Decision and Perceptual Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pecher (Diane); J.G.W. Raaijmakers (Jeroen)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractInformation storage in semantic memory was investigated by looking at automatic priming effects for new associations in two experiments. In the study phase word pairs were presented in a paired-associate learning task. Lexical decision and perceptual identification were used to examine

  8. A Model for Evidence Accumulation in the Lexical Decision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Steyvers, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G. W.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2004-01-01

    We present a new model for lexical decision, REM-LD, that is based on REM theory (e.g., Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997). REM-LD uses a principled (i.e., Bayes' rule) decision process that simultaneously considers the diagnosticity of the evidence for the 'WORD' response and the 'NONWORD' response. The model calculates the odds ratio that the presented…

  9. Nonword repetition in lexical decision: support for two opposing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zeelenberg, René; Steyvers, Mark; Shiffrin, Richard; Raaijmakers, Jeroen

    2004-10-01

    We tested and confirmed the hypothesis that the prior presentation of nonwords in lexical decision is the net result of two opposing processes: (1) a relatively fast inhibitory process based on global familiarity; and (2) a relatively slow facilitatory process based on the retrieval of specific episodic information. In three studies, we manipulated speed-stress to influence the balance between the two processes. Experiment 1 showed item-specific improvement for repeated nonwords in a standard "respond-when-ready" lexical decision task. Experiment 2 used a 400-ms deadline procedure and showed performance for nonwords to be unaffected by up to four prior presentations. In Experiment 3 we used a signal-to-respond procedure with variable time intervals and found negative repetition priming for repeated nonwords. These results can be accounted for by dual-process models of lexical decision.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoking on lexical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C R; Gentry, M V; Meliska, C J

    1999-02-01

    10 habitual smokers, aged 19-25 yr., were randomly assigned to smoke either a very low nicotine "Placebo" cigarette (.05-mg nicotine delivery as estimated by the FTC method) or a Nicotine cigarette (.7-mg estimated nicotine delivery). Each participant was asked to abstain from smoking for 4 to 7 hr. prior to testing. After completing a presmoking test of lexical decision-making, participants smoked either a Nicotine or Placebo cigarette and were then retested for reaction times and accuracy on the lexical decision test. When presented the most difficult lexical decisions, participants responded significantly faster after smoking a Nicotine cigarette than they did before smoking; smoking a Placebo cigarette did not affect reaction times. Response accuracy was unaffected by smoking either kind of cigarette. These results suggest that smoking a nicotine cigarette may improve attention or memory retrieval after several hours of smoking abstinence.

  11. Lexical Decision and Oral Reading by Poor and Normal Readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, W.H.J. van; Tooren, P.H.; Eekelen, K.W.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare a paper-and-pencil version of the lexical decision task, which can be administered groupwise, with reading aloud a differently ordered list of the same words and pseudowords. Participants were first and second graders (“normal readers”) and students from

  12. A diffusion decision model analysis of evidence variability in the lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Gabriel; Osth, Adam F; van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Heathcote, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The lexical-decision task is among the most commonly used paradigms in psycholinguistics. In both the signal-detection theory and Diffusion Decision Model (DDM; Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, Psychological Review, 111, 159-182, 2004) frameworks, lexical-decisions are based on a continuous source of word-likeness evidence for both words and non-words. The Retrieving Effectively from Memory model of Lexical-Decision (REM-LD; Wagenmakers et al., Cognitive Psychology, 48(3), 332-367, 2004) provides a comprehensive explanation of lexical-decision data and makes the prediction that word-likeness evidence is more variable for words than non-words and that higher frequency words are more variable than lower frequency words. To test these predictions, we analyzed five lexical-decision data sets with the DDM. For all data sets, drift-rate variability changed across word frequency and non-word conditions. For the most part, REM-LD's predictions about the ordering of evidence variability across stimuli in the lexical-decision task were confirmed.

  13. Concreteness and context availability in lexical decision tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Drori, Shelly; Henik, Avishai

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to elucidate the origins of the concreteness (C) effect in a lexical decision task. The first experiment was a replication of the work of Schwanenflugel et al. (1988) and Van Hell and De Groot (1998), who presented the context availability (CA) hypothesis. In this experiment CA seemed to be a dominant factor. Familiarity (FAM) was not incorporated in the ANOVA, but a regression analysis and negative correlation between C and FAM in the groups matched on CA showed that FAM could explain the disappearance of the C effect. Experiment 2 controlled FAM and revealed a C effect, although concrete and abstract words were matched on CA. Experiment 3 controlled C and FAM and revealed a CA effect. The current data emphasize the importance of controlling FAM and CA in examining the C effect in a lexical decision task and support a revised version of the dual-coding theory.

  14. Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Graham; O'Donnell, Patrick; Sereno, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion–frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency nega...

  15. Cognitive Effort Requirements in Recall, Recognition, and Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    that the amount of integrative processing required for an item is a function of its preexisting or baseline familiarity level . Low frequency words... Lockhart , Craik , & Jacoby, 1976). In the present study, increased effort, and possibly increased distinctiveness, does not influence hit rates, which are...ing of items. Second, a lexical decision task, which does not require elabo- rative processing , leads to an overall poor level of recall. Furthermore

  16. Nonword Repetition Priming in Lexical Decision Reverses as a Function of Study Task and Speed Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…

  17. The Role of Low-Spatial Frequencies in Lexical Decision and Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, C.; Giaschi, D.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial frequency filtering was used to test the hypotheses that low-spatial frequency information in printed text can: (1) lead to a rapid lexical decision or (2) facilitate word recognition. Adult proficient readers made lexical decisions in unprimed and masked repetition priming experiments with unfiltered, low-pass, high-pass and notch…

  18. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  19. Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion-frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency negative words demonstrated a similar advantage. In Experiments 2a and 2b, explicit categories ("positive," "negative," and "household" items) were specified to participants. Positive words again elicited faster responses than did neutral words. Responses to negative words, however, were no different than those to neutral words, regardless of their frequency. The overall pattern of effects indicates that positive words are always facilitated, frequency plays a greater role in the recognition of negative words, and a "negative" category represents a somewhat disparate set of emotions. These results support the notion that emotion word processing may be moderated by distinct systems.

  20. Responding to Nonwords in the Lexical Decision Task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Balota, David A.; Ratcliff, Roger; Rueckl, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word-frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, since a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance, and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords. Item-level regression analyses reveal that nonword response time was positively correlated with number of letters, number of orthographic neighbors, number of affixes, and baseword number of syllables, and negatively correlated with Levenshtein orthographic distance and baseword frequency. Participant-level analyses also point to within- and between-session stability in nonword responses across distinct sets of items, and intriguingly reveal that higher vocabulary knowledge is associated with less sensitivity to some dimensions (e.g., number of letters) but more sensitivity to others (e.g., baseword frequency). The present findings provide well-specified and interesting new constraints for informing models of word recognition and lexical decision. PMID:25329078

  1. Are there mental lexicons? The role of semantics in lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Katia; McClelland, James L; Plaut, David C

    2010-12-13

    What is the underlying representation of lexical knowledge? How do we know whether a given string of letters is a word, whereas another string of letters is not? There are two competing models of lexical processing in the literature. The first proposes that we rely on mental lexicons. The second claims there are no mental lexicons; we identify certain items as words based on semantic knowledge. Thus, the former approach - the multiple-systems view - posits that lexical and semantic processing are subserved by separate systems, whereas the latter approach - the single-system view - holds that the two are interdependent. Semantic dementia patients, who have a cross-modal semantic impairment, show an accompanying and related lexical deficit. These findings support the single-system approach. However, a report of an SD patient whose impairment on lexical decision was not related to his semantic deficits in item-specific ways has presented a challenge to this view. If the two types of processing rely on a common system, then shouldn't damage impair the same items on all tasks? We present a single-system model of lexical and semantic processing, where there are no lexicons, and performance on lexical decision involves the activation of semantic representations. We show how, when these representations are damaged, accuracy on semantic and lexical tasks falls off together, but not necessarily on the same set of items. These findings are congruent with the patient data. We provide an explicit explanation of this pattern of results in our model, by defining and measuring the effects of two orthogonal factors - spelling consistency and concept consistency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  3. Visual-Attentional Span and Lexical ­Decision in Skilled Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Dawson, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association between visual-attentional span and lexical decision in skilled adult readers. In the span tasks, an array of letters was presented briefly and recognition or production of a single cued letter (partial span) or production of all letters (whole span) was required. Independently of letter…

  4. Category Priming in the Lexical Decision Task and Evidence of Repetition Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanza, James

    Semantic priming is the process by which a subject performing a lexical decision task is prepared for a target word through the presentation of a semantically related word. Repetition of a given word at specific intervals is one form of priming that has been shown to reduce subject reaction time in word recognition tasks. A study was conducted to…

  5. An explicit statistical model of learning lexical segmentation using multiple cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çöltekin, Ça ̆grı; Nerbonne, John; Lenci, Alessandro; Padró, Muntsa; Poibeau, Thierry; Villavicencio, Aline

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an unsupervised and incremental model of learning segmentation that combines multiple cues whose use by children and adults were attested by experimental studies. The cues we exploit in this study are predictability statistics, phonotactics, lexical stress and partial lexical

  6. Functional MRI assessment of hemispheric language dominance with using a lexical decision task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Park, Eui Dong; You, Jin Jong; Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Sam Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to compare the fMRIs (functional magnetic resonance images) obtained during a lexical decision task and also during a word generation task, and we wanted to evaluate the usefulness of using a lexical decision task for the visualization of the brain language area and for the determination of language dominance. Sixteen patients (9 women and 7 men) who had had undergone the Wada test were included in our study. All the patients were left dominant for language, as tested for on the Wada test. The functional maps of the brain language area were obtained in all the subjects during the performance of a lexical decision task and also during the performance of a word generation task. The MR examinations were performed with a 1.5 T scanner and with using the EPI BOLD technique. We used the SPM program for the postprocessing of the images. The threshold for significance was set at ρ <0.001 or ρ <0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in each hemispheric region (the whole hemisphere, the frontal lobe and the temporoparietal lobe), and the hemispheric language dominance was assessed by the lateralization index; the results were then compared with those results of the Wada test. The differences for the lateralization of the language area were analyzed with regard to the stimulation tasks and the regions used for the calculation of the lateralization indices. The number of activated pixels during the lexical decision task was significantly smaller than that of the word generation task. The language dominance based on the activated signals in each hemisphere, was consistent with the results of the Wada test for the word generation tasks in all the subjects. On the lexical decision task, the language dominance, as determined by the activated signals in each hemisphere and the temporoparietal lobe, correlated for 94% of the patients. The mean values of the lateralization index for the lexical decision task were higher than those

  7. Functional MRI assessment of hemispheric language dominance with using a lexical decision task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Park, Eui Dong; You, Jin Jong [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to compare the fMRIs (functional magnetic resonance images) obtained during a lexical decision task and also during a word generation task, and we wanted to evaluate the usefulness of using a lexical decision task for the visualization of the brain language area and for the determination of language dominance. Sixteen patients (9 women and 7 men) who had had undergone the Wada test were included in our study. All the patients were left dominant for language, as tested for on the Wada test. The functional maps of the brain language area were obtained in all the subjects during the performance of a lexical decision task and also during the performance of a word generation task. The MR examinations were performed with a 1.5 T scanner and with using the EPI BOLD technique. We used the SPM program for the postprocessing of the images. The threshold for significance was set at {rho} <0.001 or {rho} <0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in each hemispheric region (the whole hemisphere, the frontal lobe and the temporoparietal lobe), and the hemispheric language dominance was assessed by the lateralization index; the results were then compared with those results of the Wada test. The differences for the lateralization of the language area were analyzed with regard to the stimulation tasks and the regions used for the calculation of the lateralization indices. The number of activated pixels during the lexical decision task was significantly smaller than that of the word generation task. The language dominance based on the activated signals in each hemisphere, was consistent with the results of the Wada test for the word generation tasks in all the subjects. On the lexical decision task, the language dominance, as determined by the activated signals in each hemisphere and the temporoparietal lobe, correlated for 94% of the patients. The mean values of the lateralization index for the lexical decision task were higher than

  8. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  9. Single- versus dual-process models of lexical decision performance: insights from response time distributional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Cortese, Michael J; Watson, Jason M

    2006-12-01

    This article evaluates 2 competing models that address the decision-making processes mediating word recognition and lexical decision performance: a hybrid 2-stage model of lexical decision performance and a random-walk model. In 2 experiments, nonword type and word frequency were manipulated across 2 contrasts (pseudohomophone-legal nonword and legal-illegal nonword). When nonwords became more wordlike (i.e., BRNTA vs. BRANT vs. BRANE), response latencies to nonwords were slowed and the word frequency effect increased. More important, distributional analyses revealed that the Nonword Type = Word Frequency interaction was modulated by different components of the response time distribution, depending on the specific nonword contrast. A single-process random-walk model was able to account for this particular set of findings more successfully than the hybrid 2-stage model. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahdavirad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidance included an explanation of the necessary structural and lexical patterns employed to express the learners’ views while developing a comparison-and-contrast paragraph in each task. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the participants produced a written product with a greater lexical complexity in their performance of the task in the form-focused strategic planning condition. The findings emphasize the importance of guided strategic planning as a task condition in syllabus design for task-based language teaching and the necessity of incorporating this task feature for accomplishing lexical complexity in decision-making writing tasks.

  11. Learning from Failed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences and dilemmas posed by learning issues for decision making are discussed. Learning requires both awareness of barriers and a coping strategy. The motives to hold back information essential for learning stem from perverse incentives, obscure outcomes, and the hindsight bias. There is little awareness of perverse incentives that…

  12. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavirad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidanc...

  13. Beyond the initial 140 ms, lexical decision and reading aloud are different tasks: An ERP study with topographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Gwendoline; Zesiger, Pascal; Laganaro, Marina

    2015-11-15

    Most of our knowledge on the time-course of the mechanisms involved in reading derived from electrophysiological studies is based on lexical decision tasks. By contrast, very few ERP studies investigated the processes involved in reading aloud. It has been suggested that the lexical decision task provides a good index of the processes occurring during reading aloud, with only late processing differences related to task response modalities. However, some behavioral studies reported different sensitivity to psycholinguistic factors between the two tasks, suggesting that print processing could differ at earlier processing stages. The aim of the present study was thus to carry out an ERP comparison between lexical decision and reading aloud in order to determine when print processing differs between these two tasks. Twenty native French speakers performed a lexical decision task and a reading aloud task with the same written stimuli. Results revealed different electrophysiological patterns on both waveform amplitudes and global topography between lexical decision and reading aloud from about 140 ms after stimulus presentation for both words and pseudowords, i.e., as early as the N170 component. These results suggest that only very early, low-level visual processes are common to the two tasks which differ in core processes. Taken together, our main finding questions the use of the lexical decision task as an appropriate paradigm to investigate reading processes and warns against generalizing its results to word reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive status, lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Learning and memory are two high level cognitive performances in human that hearing loss influences them. In our study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE and Ray auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT was conducted to study cognitive stat us and lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 30 available congenitally deaf adults using sign language in Persian and 46 normal adults aged 19 to 27 years for both sexes, with a minimum of diploma level of education. After mini-mental state examination, Rey auditory-verbal learning test was run through computers to evaluate lexical learning and memory with visual presentation. Results: Mean scores of mini-mental state examination and Rey auditory-verbal learning test in congenitally deaf adults were significantly lower than normal individuals in all scores (p=0.018 except in the two parts of the Rey test. Significant correlation was found between results of two tests just in the normal group (p=0.043. Gender had no effect on test results. Conclusion: Cognitive status and lexical memory and learning in congenitally deaf individuals is weaker than in normal subjects. It seems that using sign language as the main way of communication in deaf people causes poor lexical memory and learning.

  15. Lexical Learning in Bilingual Adults: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Phonological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses…

  16. Learning new vocabulary during childhood: effects of semantic training on lexical consolidation and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1 week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A further examination of word frequency and age-of-acquisition effects in English lexical decision task performance: The role of frequency trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Yap, Melvin J; Raoul, Akila; Kaye, Micaela

    2018-04-23

    Word frequency is an important predictor of lexical-decision task performance. The current study further examined the role of this variable by exploring the influence of frequency trajectory. Frequency trajectory is measured by how often a word occurs in childhood relative to adulthood. Past research on the role of this variable in word recognition has produced equivocal results. In the current study, words were selected based on their frequencies in Grade 1 (child frequency) and Grade 13 (college frequency). In Experiment 1, four frequency trajectory conditions were factorially examined in a lexical-decision task with English words: high-to-high (world), high-to-low (uncle), low-to-high (brain) and low-to-low (opera). an interaction between Grade 1 and college frequency demonstrated that words in the low-to-high condition were processed significantly faster and more accurately than words in the low-to-low condition, whereas the high-to-high and high-to-low conditions did not differ significantly. In Experiment 2, an advantage for words with an increasing frequency trajectory was also supported in regression analyses on both lexical decision and naming times for 3,039 items selected from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007). This was replicated in Experiment 3, based on a regression analysis of 2,680 words from the British Lexicon Project (BLP; Keuleers, Lacey, Rastle, & Brysbaert, 2012). In all analyses, rated age-of-acquisition also significantly impacted word recognition. Together, the results suggest that the age at which a word is initially learned as well as its frequency trajectory across childhood impact performance in the lexical-decision task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

    2004-01-01

    Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

  19. Lesions to the left lateral prefrontal cortex impair decision threshold adjustment for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Riès, Stéphanie; Van Maanen, Leendert; Alario, F-Xavier

    Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data. We also compare the results to healthy speakers. Analysis of the cognitive parameters indicates an impairment of the PFC patients to appropriately adjust their decision threshold, in order to handle the increased item difficulty that is introduced by semantic interference. Also, the modelling contributes to other topics in psycholinguistic theory, in which specific effects are observed on the cognitive parameters according to item familiarization, and the opposing effects of priming (lower threshold) and semantic interference (lower drift) which are found to depend on repetition. These results are developed for the blocked-cyclic picture naming paradigm, in which pictures are presented within semantically homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) blocks, and are repeated several times per block. Overall, the results are in agreement with a role of the left PFC in adjusting the decision threshold for lexical selection in language production.

  20. Contralateral white noise selectively changes left human auditory cortex activity in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behne, Nicole; Wendt, Beate; Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André

    2006-04-01

    In a previous study, we hypothesized that the approach of presenting information-bearing stimuli to one ear and noise to the other ear may be a general strategy to determine hemispheric specialization in auditory cortex (AC). In that study, we confirmed the dominant role of the right AC in directional categorization of frequency modulations by showing that fMRI activation of right but not left AC was sharply emphasized when masking noise was presented to the contralateral ear. Here, we tested this hypothesis using a lexical decision task supposed to be mainly processed in the left hemisphere. Subjects had to distinguish between pseudowords and natural words presented monaurally to the left or right ear either with or without white noise to the other ear. According to our hypothesis, we expected a strong effect of contralateral noise on fMRI activity in left AC. For the control conditions without noise, we found that activation in both auditory cortices was stronger on contralateral than on ipsilateral word stimulation consistent with a more influential contralateral than ipsilateral auditory pathway. Additional presentation of contralateral noise did not significantly change activation in right AC, whereas it led to a significant increase of activation in left AC compared with the condition without noise. This is consistent with a left hemispheric specialization for lexical decisions. Thus our results support the hypothesis that activation by ipsilateral information-bearing stimuli is upregulated mainly in the hemisphere specialized for a given task when noise is presented to the more influential contralateral ear.

  1. Making Things Difficult in Lexical Decision: The Impact of Pseudohomophones and Transposed-Letter Nonwords on Frequency and Semantic Priming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Performance in a lexical decision task is crucially dependent on the difficulty of the word-nonword discrimination. More wordlike nonwords cause not only a latency increase for words but also, as reported by Stone and Van Orden (1993), larger word frequency effects. Several current models of lexical decision making can explain these types of…

  2. How strongly do word reading times and lexical decision times correlate? Combining data from eye movement corpora and megastudies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Victor; Drieghe, Denis; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assess the amount of shared variance between three measures of visual word recognition latencies: eye movement latencies, lexical decision times, and naming times. After partialling out the effects of word frequency and word length, two well-documented predictors of word recognition latencies, we see that 7-44% of the variance is uniquely shared between lexical decision times and naming times, depending on the frequency range of the words used. A similar analysis of eye movement latencies shows that the percentage of variance they uniquely share either with lexical decision times or with naming times is much lower. It is 5-17% for gaze durations and lexical decision times in studies with target words presented in neutral sentences, but drops to 0.2% for corpus studies in which eye movements to all words are analysed. Correlations between gaze durations and naming latencies are lower still. These findings suggest that processing times in isolated word processing and continuous text reading are affected by specific task demands and presentation format, and that lexical decision times and naming times are not very informative in predicting eye movement latencies in text reading once the effect of word frequency and word length are taken into account. The difference between controlled experiments and natural reading suggests that reading strategies and stimulus materials may determine the degree to which the immediacy-of-processing assumption and the eye-mind assumption apply. Fixation times are more likely to exclusively reflect the lexical processing of the currently fixated word in controlled studies with unpredictable target words rather than in natural reading of sentences or texts.

  3. Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

  4. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs.

  5. Lexical learning in mild aphasia: gesture benefit depends on patholinguistic profile and lesion pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Klaus-Martin; Kraft, Indra; Regenbrecht, Frank; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2013-01-01

    Gestures accompany speech and enrich human communication. When aphasia interferes with verbal abilities, gestures become even more relevant, compensating for and/or facilitating verbal communication. However, small-scale clinical studies yielded diverging results with regard to a therapeutic gesture benefit for lexical retrieval. Based on recent functional neuroimaging results, delineating a speech-gesture integration network for lexical learning in healthy adults, we hypothesized that the commonly observed variability may stem from differential patholinguistic profiles in turn depending on lesion pattern. Therefore we used a controlled novel word learning paradigm to probe the impact of gestures on lexical learning, in the lesioned language network. Fourteen patients with chronic left hemispheric lesions and mild residual aphasia learned 30 novel words for manipulable objects over four days. Half of the words were trained with gestures while the other half were trained purely verbally. For the gesture condition, rootwords were visually presented (e.g., Klavier, [piano]), followed by videos of the corresponding gestures and the auditory presentation of the novel words (e.g., /krulo/). Participants had to repeat pseudowords and simultaneously reproduce gestures. In the verbal condition no gesture-video was shown and participants only repeated pseudowords orally. Correlational analyses confirmed that gesture benefit depends on the patholinguistic profile: lesser lexico-semantic impairment correlated with better gesture-enhanced learning. Conversely largely preserved segmental-phonological capabilities correlated with better purely verbal learning. Moreover, structural MRI-analysis disclosed differential lesion patterns, most interestingly suggesting that integrity of the left anterior temporal pole predicted gesture benefit. Thus largely preserved semantic capabilities and relative integrity of a semantic integration network are prerequisites for successful use of

  6. False memories and lexical decision: even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2002-03-01

    Semantic priming effects are usually obtained only if the prime is presented shortly before the target stimulus. Recent evidence obtained with the so-called false memory paradigm suggests, however, that in both explicit and implicit memory tasks semantic relations between words can result in long-lasting effects when multiple 'primes' are presented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these effects would generalize to lexical decision. In four experiments we showed that even as many as 12 primes do not cause long-term semantic priming. In all experiments, however, a repetition priming effect was obtained. The present results are consistent with a number of other results showing that semantic information plays a minimal role in long-term priming in visual word recognition.

  7. Heterogeneity in semantic priming effect with a lexical decision task in patients after left hemisphere stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Steffen Holderbaum

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Investigations on the semantic priming effect (SPE in patients after left hemisphere (LH lesions have shown disparities that may be explained by the variability in performance found among patients. The aim of the present study was to verify the existence of subgroups of patients after LH stroke by searching for dissociations between performance on the lexical decision task based on the semantic priming paradigm and performance on direct memory, semantic association and language tasks. All 17 patients with LH lesions after stroke (ten non-fluent aphasics and seven non aphasics were analyzed individually. Results indicated the presence of three groups of patients according to SPE: one exhibiting SPE at both stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs, one with SPE only at long SOA, and another, larger group with no SPE.

  8. Is pupillary response a reliable index of word recognition? Evidence from a delayed lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Juan; Guasch, Marc; Vallès, Blanca; Ferré, Pilar

    2017-10-01

    Previous word recognition studies have shown that the pupillary response is sensitive to a word's frequency. However, such a pupillary effect may be due to the process of executing a response, instead of being an index of word processing. With the aim of exploring this possibility, we recorded the pupillary responses in two experiments involving a lexical decision task (LDT). In the first experiment, participants completed a standard LDT, whereas in the second they performed a delayed LDT. The delay in the response allowed us to compare pupil dilations with and without the response execution component. The results showed that pupillary response was modulated by word frequency in both the standard and the delayed LDT. This finding supports the reliability of using pupillometry for word recognition research. Importantly, our results also suggest that tasks that do not require a response during pupil recording lead to clearer and stronger effects.

  9. Lexical decision making in adults with dyslexia: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Waldie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p37   Performance on a lexical decision task was investigated in 12 English speaking adults with dyslexia.  two age-matched comparison groups of unimpaired readers were included: 14 monolingual adults and 15 late proficient bilinguals. The aim of the study was to determine the timing of neural events with event-related potentials (ErPs during lexical decision-making between individuals with dyslexia and unimpaired readers (both unilingual and bilingual. ErPs were calculated for posterior sites in the left and right hemispheres and the P1 and n170 components were compared between groups. Event-related EEG  coherence (measuring  the synchrony of neural events during lexical tasks both between and within cerebral hemispheres was also calculated for seven electrode pairs (three pairs at symmetrical locations between hemispheres, and two pairs within each hemisphere. We chose to recruit two comparison groups of unimpaired readers to better clarify the findings resulting from the right hemisphere (EEG coherence analysis. That is, both late-proficient bilinguals and adults with dyslexia are thought to rely on right hemisphere resources during reading. We hypothesized that those with dyslexia would show less within-hemisphere coherence and more between-hemisphere coherence than bilingual individuals. dyslexics had both lower amplitude and longer latency n170 activation than unimpaired readers, suggesting asynchronous neural activity. Dyslexics showed greater synchrony between hemispheres in gamma range frequencies whereas the bilingual group showed greater synchrony in the theta frequency band (both within and between hemispheres. This study demonstrates that individuals with developmental dyslexia have reduced amplitudes in the n170 and higher synchrony between hemispheres during a reading task. The differences may be due to an asynchrony of neuronal activity at the point where

  10. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wang

    Full Text Available Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English and morpho-syllabic (Chinese writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.

  11. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.

  12. Tracking lexical consolidation with ERPs: Lexical and semantic-priming effects on N400 and LPC responses to newly-learned words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Iske; Takashima, Atsuko; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2015-12-01

    Novel words can be recalled immediately and after little exposure, but require a post-learning consolidation period to show word-like behaviour such as lexical competition. This pattern is thought to reflect a qualitative shift from episodic to lexical representations. However, several studies have reported immediate effects of meaningful novel words on semantic processing, suggesting that integration of novel word meanings may not require consolidation. The current study synthesises and extends these findings by showing a dissociation between lexical and semantic effects on the electrophysiological (N400, LPC) response to novel words. The difference in N400 amplitude between novel and existing words (a lexical effect) decreased significantly after a 24-h consolidation period, providing novel support for the hypothesis that offline consolidation aids lexicalisation. In contrast, novel words preceded by semantically related primes elicited a more positive LPC response (a semantic-priming effect) both before and after consolidation, indicating that certain semantic effects can be observed even when words have not been fully lexicalised. We propose that novel meanings immediately start to contribute to semantic processing, but that the underlying neural processes may shift from strategic to more automatic with consolidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An RT distribution analysis of relatedness proportion effects in lexical decision and semantic categorization reveals different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the semantic priming effect is known to increase as the proportion of related prime-target pairs in an experiment increases. This relatedness proportion (RP) effect was studied in a lexical decision task at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (240 ms), which is widely assumed to preclude strategic prospective usage of the prime. The analysis of the reaction time (RT) distribution suggested that the observed RP effect reflected a modulation of a retrospective semantic matching process. The pattern of the RP effect on the RT distribution found here is contrasted to that reported in De Wit and Kinoshita's (2014) semantic categorization study, and it is concluded that the RP effect is driven by different underlying mechanisms in lexical decision and semantic categorization.

  14. Lexical Learning in Sung and Spoken Story Script Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Theresa A.; Winn, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Although most children seem to love music, our understanding of the role it plays in facilitating speech and language learning is limited, as is research validating its efficacy in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to examine how singing affects children's quick incidental learning (QUIL) of novel vocabulary terms. Sixteen…

  15. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Peters, Kristina; Kocher, Anne; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC) in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N = 104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs), direct and indirect priming), COMT was not significantly related to priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 and 14.5% of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  16. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N=104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs, direct and indirect priming, COMT was not significantly related to masked priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 to 14.5 % of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  17. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2017-06-01

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  18. The effects of associative and semantic priming in the lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Rosa, Eva

    2002-08-01

    Four lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine under which conditions automatic semantic priming effects can be obtained. Experiments 1 and 2 analyzed associative/semantic effects at several very short stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs), whereas Experiments 3 and 4 used a single-presentation paradigm at two response-stimulus intervals (RSIs). Experiment 1 tested associatively related pairs from three semantic categories (synonyms, antonyms, and category coordinates). The results showed reliable associative priming effects at all SOAs. In addition, the correlation between associative strength and magnitude of priming was significant only at the shortest SOA (66 ms). When prime-target pairs were semantically but not associatively related (Experiment 2), reliable priming effects were obtained at SOAs of 83 ms and longer. Using the single-presentation paradigm with a short RSI (200 ms, Experiment 3), the priming effect was equal in size for associative + semantic and for semantic-only pairs (a 21-ms effect). When the RSI was set much longer (1,750 ms, Experiment 4), only the associative + semantic pairs showed a reliable priming effect (23 ms). The results are interpreted in the context of models of semantic memory.

  19. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. L2-L1 Translation Priming Effects in a Lexical Decision Task: Evidence From Low Proficient Korean-English Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhyoung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in bilingual lexical representation is whether L1 processing is facilitated by L2 words. In this study, we conducted two experiments using the masked priming paradigm to examine how L2-L1 translation priming effects emerge when unbalanced, low proficiency, Korean-English bilinguals performed a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, we used a 150 ms SOA (50 ms prime duration followed by a blank interval of 100 ms and found a significant L2-L1 translation priming effect. In contrast, in Experiment 2, we used a 60 ms SOA (50 ms prime duration followed by a blank interval of 10 ms and found a null effect of L2-L1 translation priming. This finding is the first demonstration of a significant L2-L1 translation priming effect with unbalanced Korean-English bilinguals. Implications of this work are discussed with regard to bilingual word recognition models.

  1. Learning Probabilistic Decision Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Dalgaard, Jens; Silander, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    efficient representations than Bayesian networks. In this paper we present an algorithm for learning PDGs from data. First experiments show that the algorithm is capable of learning optimal PDG representations in some cases, and that the computational efficiency of PDG models learned from real-life data...

  2. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Mental Imagery as Facilitator to Lexical Learning-Blocked and Random Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Bhatnagar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing an effective treatment plan that promotes learning-generalization beyond treated stimuli remains a challenging task in language rehabilitation. Many specific treatments have been used to document therapeutic gains in learned lexical behaviors and now learning generalizations beyond practiced stimuli are being forged (Boyle, 2004 and Kiran & Thompson, 2003.Accordingly, generalization beyond practiced structures still remains an exciting therapeutic strategy. As major elements of cognitive processing, the perceptual representations embedded within mental imagery (MI, have long been recognized for their healing potential (Thomas, 2008, and training mindfulness. MI is also known to modulate the brain’s neural-circuitry in new learning (Davidson, 2000. It also acts as a mean to access memories and passes undistorted through mental resistances (Singer 1974. Purpose We integrated blocked and random presentations of MI with our treatment of anomia with three goals in mind: (1 to evaluate whether activation of the neural circuitry through controlled MI facilitated word finding skills; (2 to determine if the blocked or random modes of MI presentation facilitate learning equally or not; and, (3 to evaluate if the effects of evoked MI generalize to untrained lexical items. Subject The participating subject was a three-year post-onset, right-handed, 68-year old University-educated male with chronic aphasia secondary to a MRI confirmed large left temporal-parietal infarct in addition to an earlier left frontal infarct. These strokes resulted in moderately impaired comprehension and verbal expression. He made gains in both aspects of language following two years of SLP treatment. However, he continued to exhibit moderate to severe word finding (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1983. Methods We incorporated MI with random and blocked presentations in ABA format to explore the learning and generalization of trained mental representations that comprised of both

  4. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Gilchrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~ 3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem is now thought to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate.To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies. We consider possible interpretation in terms of cortical activity and perceptual mechanisms.

  5. Topological self-organization and prediction learning support both action and lexical chains in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Ferro, Marcello; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2014-07-01

    A growing body of evidence in cognitive psychology and neuroscience suggests a deep interconnection between sensory-motor and language systems in the brain. Based on recent neurophysiological findings on the anatomo-functional organization of the fronto-parietal network, we present a computational model showing that language processing may have reused or co-developed organizing principles, functionality, and learning mechanisms typical of premotor circuit. The proposed model combines principles of Hebbian topological self-organization and prediction learning. Trained on sequences of either motor or linguistic units, the network develops independent neuronal chains, formed by dedicated nodes encoding only context-specific stimuli. Moreover, neurons responding to the same stimulus or class of stimuli tend to cluster together to form topologically connected areas similar to those observed in the brain cortex. Simulations support a unitary explanatory framework reconciling neurophysiological motor data with established behavioral evidence on lexical acquisition, access, and recall. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

  7. THE PROCESS OF FORMING OF ENGLISH-LANGUAGE LEXICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN TOURISM BASED ON LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Потюк

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of mastering the English-language lexical competence in unlinguistic educational establishment, which appears an integral component of professionally directed communicative competence of the student, provides future specialists’ knowledge with professional vocabulary and forms ability to recognize and understand it with the help of learning strategies, have been analyzed in the article. The theoretical aspects of research, the basic methodical aspects of forming the English-language lexical competence and results of the verification of efficiency of the offered methodology have been highlighted and characterized by the author.

  8. The Chinese Lexicon Project: A megastudy of lexical decision performance for 25,000+ traditional Chinese two-character compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Chan, Yuen-Lai; Sze, Wei Ping; Shaoul, Cyrus; Lin, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database. First, we compared the proportion of variance in lexical decision performance accounted for by six word frequency measures and established that the best predictor was Cai and Brysbaert's (PLoS One, 5, e10729, 2010) contextual diversity subtitle frequency. Second, we ran virtual replications of three previously published lexical decision experiments and found convergence between the original experiments and the present megastudy. Finally, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the effects of theoretically important lexical variables in our normative data. This is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese two-character compound word processing, which should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  9. The (null impact of pseudohomophones in lexical decision: No phonological activation in semantic dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A. Wilson

    2014-04-01

    The results in controls reproduce those found in literature (Braun et al., 2009. The general impairment and the lack of lexicality effect are also in line with current literature on svPPA and are likely explained by semantic impairment (Rogers et al., 2004. Interestingly, the novel result here is the absence of PsH effect in svPPA. This suggests that phonology is not correctly activated and that O-P mappings are also impaired in svPPA.

  10. Age of acquisition predicts naming and lexical-decision performance above and beyond 22 other predictor variables: an analysis of 2,342 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Michael J; Khanna, Maya M

    2007-08-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) ratings were obtained and were used in hierarchical regression analyses to predict naming and lexical-decision performance for 2,342 words (from Balota, Cortese, Sergent-Marshall, Spieler, & Yap, 2004). In the analyses, AoA was included in addition to the set of predictors used by Balota et al. (2004). AoA significantly predicted latency performance on both tasks above and beyond the standard predictor set. However, AoA was more strongly related to lexical-decision performance than to naming performance. Finally, the previously reported effect of imageability on naming latencies by Balota et al. was not significant with AoA included as a factor. These results are consistent with the idea either that AoA has a semantic/lexical locus or that AoA effects emerge primarily in situations in which the input-output mapping is arbitrary.

  11. LEXICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERB COOK AND LEARNING VOCABULARY: A CORPUS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Priyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb COOK using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties covering the area of syntax, semantics, and collocation suggesting uniqueness of its behaviours that are distinguishable from other verbs. Having found the lexical properties of COOK, this article concludes that the acquisition of lexicon should include lexical properties that reflect their level of competence. It also argues that the acquisition of lexical properties should be implicit, not through meta-linguistic knowledge. This would render early grammar teaching unnecessary. The acquisition of lexical properties should take place through subconscious process, not explicit grammar instruction. Many of these are grammatical aspects such as word order, sentence construction, grammatical and lexical collocations.

  12. Lexical Decision with Left, Right and Center Visual Field Presentation: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Regular Readers by Means of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differences in processing between regular and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different visual field presentations (left, right, and center). The research utilized behavioral measures that provide information on accuracy and reaction time and electro-physiological measures that permit the examination of brain…

  13. Meta-learning in decision tree induction

    CERN Document Server

    Grąbczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on different variants of decision tree induction but also describes  the meta-learning approach in general which is applicable to other types of machine learning algorithms. The book discusses different variants of decision tree induction and represents a useful source of information to readers wishing to review some of the techniques used in decision tree learning, as well as different ensemble methods that involve decision trees. It is shown that the knowledge of different components used within decision tree learning needs to be systematized to enable the system to generate and evaluate different variants of machine learning algorithms with the aim of identifying the top-most performers or potentially the best one. A unified view of decision tree learning enables to emulate different decision tree algorithms simply by setting certain parameters. As meta-learning requires running many different processes with the aim of obtaining performance results, a detailed description of the experimen...

  14. Learning to Make Decisions Through Constructive Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjosvold, Dean

    Students must make decisions about their lifestyle, future careers, academic pursuits, and classroom and school issues. Learning to make effective decisions for themselves and for society is an important aspect of competence. They can learn decision making through interacting and solving problems with others. A central ingredient for successful…

  15. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudowords and real words: an event-related fMRI study on auditory lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuangwei; Zhang, John X; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Renhua; Hu, Xiaoping; Weng, Xuchu; Tan, Li Hai

    2005-06-01

    After Newman and Twieg and others, we used a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design and contrasted the lexical processing of pseudowords and real words. Participants carried out an auditory lexical decision task on a list of randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. The pseudowords were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical code properties. Processing of pseudowords and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudowords than for real words. This result disconfirms a popular view that this area plays a role in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, as such a conversion process was unnecessary in our task with auditory stimulus presentation. An alternative view was supported that attributes increased activity in left IFG for pseudowords to general processes in decision making, specifically in making positive versus negative responses. Activation in left supramarginal gyrus was of a much larger volume for real words than for pseudowords, suggesting a role of this region in the representation of phonological or semantic information for two-character Chinese words at the lexical level.

  16. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Menoth Mohan

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs. Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs, and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  17. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  18. Symbolic Machine Learning: A Different Answer to the Problem of the Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge from Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Sébillot

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One relevant way to structure the domain of lexical knowledge (e.g. relations between lexical units acquisition from corpora is to oppose numerical versus symbolic techniques. Numerical approaches of acquisition exploit the frequential aspect of data, have been widely used, and produce portable systems, but poor explanations of their results. Symbolic approaches exploit the structural aspect of data. Among them, the symbolic machine learning (ML techniques can infer efficient and expressive patterns of a target relation from examples of elements that verify this relation. These methods are however far less known, and the aim of this paper is to point out their interest through the description of one precise experiment. To remove their supervised characteristic, and instead of opposing them to numerical approaches, we finally show that it is possible to combine one symbolic ML technique to one numerical one, and keep advantages of both (meaningful patterns, efficient extraction, portability.

  19. The segmentation of sub-lexical morphemes in English-learning 15-month-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toben H. Mintz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In most human languages, important components of linguistic structure are carried by affixes, also called bound morphemes. The affixes in a language comprise a relatively small but frequently occurring set of forms that surface as parts of words, but never occur without a stem. They combine productively with word stems and other grammatical entities in systematic and predictable ways. For example, the English suffix –ing occurs on verb stems, and in combination with a form of the auxiliary verb be, marks the verb with progressive aspect (e.g., was walking. In acquiring a language, learners must acquire rules of combination for affixes. However, prior to learning these combinatorial rules, learners are faced with discovering what the sub-lexical forms are over which the rules operate. That is, they have to discover the bound morphemes themselves. It is not known when English-learners begin to analyze words into morphological units. Previous research with learners of English found evidence that 18-month-olds have started to learn the combinatorial rules involving bound morphemes, and that 15-month-olds have not. However, it is not known whether 15-month-olds nevertheless represent the morphemes as distinct entities. This present study demonstrates that when 15-month-olds process words that end in ¬–ing, they segment ¬the suffix from the word, but they do not do so with endings that are not morphemes. Eight-month olds do not show this capacity. Thus, 15-month-olds have already started to identify bound morphemes and actively use them in processing speech.

  20. Priming effects in early readers. A quantitative study of children's response times in visual lexical decision-making in their first and second language.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitjar, Camilla Lausund

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Literacy studies This thesis investigates the effects of various conditions of open priming on children in a series of lexical decision tasks in their first and second language. The primes are related through meaning and/or form to the target words in the experiments. The five conditions used are same word priming, meaning-related, shared first syllable, shared last syllable or unrelated. In addition, the experiment consists of 50% pseudo-words. There are two experim...

  1. Lexical decision performance in developmental surface dysgraphia: Evidence for a unitary orthographic system that is used in both reading and spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Andreas; Hanley, J Richard

    The relationship between spelling, written word recognition, and picture naming is investigated in a study of seven bilingual adults who have developmental surface dysgraphia in both Greek (their first language) and English (their second language). Four of the cases also performed poorly at orthographic lexical decision in both languages. This finding is consistent with similar results in Italian that have been taken as evidence of a developmental impairment to a single orthographic system that is used for both reading and spelling. The remaining three participants performed well at orthographic lexical decision. At first sight, preserved lexical decision in surface dysgraphia is less easy to explain in terms of a shared orthographic system. However, the results of subsequent experiments showed clear parallels between the nature of the reading and spelling difficulties that these three individuals experienced, consistent with the existence of a single orthographic system. The different patterns that were observed were consistent with the claims of Friedmann and Lukov (2008. Developmental surface dyslexias. Cortex, 44, 1146-1160) that several distinct sub-types of developmental surface dyslexia exist. We show that individual differences in spelling in surface dysgraphia are also consistent with these sub-types; there are different developmental deficits that can give rise, in an individual, to a combination of surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Finally, we compare the theoretical framework used by Friedmann and her colleagues that is based upon the architecture of the DRC model with an account that relies instead upon the Triangle model of reading].

  2. The assessment of premorbid intellectual ability following right-hemisphere stroke: reliability of a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David C; Bowen, Audrey; Foster, Jonathan K

    2012-01-01

    Comparing current with estimated premorbid performance helps identify acquired cognitive deficits after brain injury. Tests of reading pronunciation, often used to measure premorbid ability, are inappropriate for stroke patients with motor speech problems. The Spot-the-Word Test (STWT), a measure of lexical decision, offers an alternative approach for estimating premorbid capacity in those with speech problems. However, little is known about the STWT's reliability. In the present study, a consecutive sample of right-hemisphere stroke (RHS) patients (n = 56) completed the STWT at 4 and 16 weeks poststroke. A control group, individually matched to the patients for age and initial STWT score, also completed the STWT on two occasions. More than 80% of patients had STWT scores at retest within 2 scaled score points of their initial score, suggesting that the STWT is a reliable measure for most individuals with RHS. However, RHS patients had significantly greater score change than controls. Limits of agreement analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 7 patients obtained abnormally large STWT score improvements at retest. It is concluded that although the STWT is a useful assessment tool for stroke clinicians, this instrument may significantly underestimate premorbid level of ability in approximately 14% of stroke patients.

  3. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  4. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  5. Contrasting effects of self-schema priming on lexical decisions and interpersonal stroop task performance: evidence for a cognitive/interactionist model of interpersonal dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F; Ng, H Mei; Gallagher, Heather A; Kloss, Deanna M; Regier, Natalie G

    2005-06-01

    Four experiments tested a key tenet of Bornstein's (1992, 1993) cognitive/interactionist (C/I) model of interpersonal dependency: that priming the helpless self-schema (HSS) alters processing of dependency-related information in dependent--but not nondependent--individuals. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of subliminal lexical priming and an emotional priming manipulation on lexical decision (LD) judgments for dependency-related words and control words. Experiments 3 and 4 assessed the effects of these same priming procedures on Interpersonal Stroop Task (IST) performance. As predicted, priming the HSS produced contrasting effects on different outcome measures, decreasing LD latencies, but increasing IST response times. Results are discussed in the context of the C/I model, and suggestions for future studies are offered.

  6. Lexical Analysis of the Verb "COOK" and Learning Vocabulary: A Corpus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyono

    2011-01-01

    English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb "COOK" using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties…

  7. Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: "pressure", "select", "adapt", "need", and "must". We utilized a new technological tool known as the…

  8. Second Language Idiom Learning: The Effects of Lexical Knowledge and Pedagogical Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyzik, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of Spanish idioms in a classroom setting that was supplemented with explicit instruction over a 10-week period. The research design manipulated two variables: prior lexical knowledge and idiom organization. Sixty-five second language (L2) learners completed pre- and posttests that measured their ability to…

  9. A longitudinal study of lexical development in children learning Vietnamese and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n = 33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n=33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. PMID:23869741

  11. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H. D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EE...

  12. Replication Studies: Vocabulary Knowledge in Relation to Memory and Analysis--An Approximate Replication of Milton's (2007) Study on Lexical Profiles and Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approximate replication of Milton's (2007) study on lexical profiles and learning style. Milton investigated the assumption that more frequent words are acquired before less frequent ones. Using a vocabulary recognition test ("X-Lex") to measure vocabulary size, Milton found that L2 English group profiles show…

  13. Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool In this paper a concept of lexical need is introduced and its application in research of cognitive aspects of translation is discussed. Further discussion elaborates mechanisms of development of translator’s lexical space in the course of translation. Authors discuss the importance and special nature of low-frequency lexical units and difficulties encountered when studying their usage and suggest that the lexical need concept help these studies. Lexical need analysis can be also used to learn specifics of translator’s lexical space and then to take measures for selection of translators and improvement of their skills.

  14. Effects of valence and origin of emotions in word processing evidenced by event related potential correlates in a lexical decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT. We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects’ task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375ms at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670ms. The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words.

  15. LEXICAL KNOWLEDGE IN INSTRUCTED LANGUAGE LEARNING: THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Miralpeix

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the possible effects of Age of Onset (AO, Cognitive Maturity (Age at Testing-AT- and Amount of Exposure (AE on the productive vocabularies of learners of English as a Foreign Language (FL. Three groups of bilingual Catalan/Spanish students were tested towards the end of Secondary Education. The groups differed in AO (8 vs. 11 years, AT (16 vs.17 and AE (726 vs. 800 hours. They performed four different tasks: three oral (an interview, a storytelling and a roleplay and one written (a composition. The tasks were analysed with measures extrinsic to the learners’ production. Firstly, their Lexical Frequency Profiles were computed with VocabProfile (Nation, 1995. Secondly, P_Lex (Meara, 2001 was used to assess the lexical richness of the texts. Furthermore, Anglo-Saxon and Greco-Latin Cognate indices were obtained for each of the tasks. Results show that an early AO does not necessarily suppose an advantage for Early Starters (ES, as Late Starters’ (LS productive vocabularies are very similar to those of their younger peers.

  16. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  17. Learning Markov Decision Processes for Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Hua; Chen, Yingke; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    . The proposed learning algorithm is adapted from algorithms for learning deterministic probabilistic finite automata, and extended to include both probabilistic and nondeterministic transitions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed and evaluated by learning system models of slot machines. The evaluation......Constructing an accurate system model for formal model verification can be both resource demanding and time-consuming. To alleviate this shortcoming, algorithms have been proposed for automatically learning system models based on observed system behaviors. In this paper we extend the algorithm...... on learning probabilistic automata to reactive systems, where the observed system behavior is in the form of alternating sequences of inputs and outputs. We propose an algorithm for automatically learning a deterministic labeled Markov decision process model from the observed behavior of a reactive system...

  18. [Connection between the evaluation of positive or negative valence and verbal responses to a lexical decision making task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Thibaut; Syssau, Arielle

    2005-12-01

    motivational systems and consequently, positive verbal responses for approach and negative responses for avoidance. To validate this hypothesis, we are re-using both versions of the lexical decision task proposed by Wentura (2000). The classic version leads participants to a positive response for words, and the modified version leads to a no response. This experiment, carried out with thirty-two participants, measures the influence on response time of two experimental factors, the intrasubject valence of words (positive and negative) and the inter-subject factor (yes and no responses to words). Results show an interaction between the type of response and word valence. It is temporally more onerous to give a no response to positive words than to negative words. This result confirms that there is a direct relation between the evaluation of a valence stimulus and the response to this stimulus, a relation that had up to now been essentially observed with motor behaviours, and more rarely with verbal responses. We propose integrating the existence of this link between evaluation and verbal response (yes and no) in interpreting the effects of affective priming.

  19. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: The role of cognitive control and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Crowther

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span, lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference, and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle were negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production.

  20. [Mathematical models of decision making and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Computational models of reinforcement learning have recently been applied to analysis of brain imaging and neural recording data to identity neural correlates of specific processes of decision making, such as valuation of action candidates and parameters of value learning. However, for such model-based analysis paradigms, selecting an appropriate model is crucial. In this study we analyze the process of choice learning in rats using stochastic rewards. We show that "Q-learning," which is a standard reinforcement learning algorithm, does not adequately reflect the features of choice behaviors. Thus, we propose a generalized reinforcement learning (GRL) algorithm that incorporates the negative reward effect of reward loss and forgetting of values of actions not chosen. Using the Bayesian estimation method for time-varying parameters, we demonstrated that the GRL algorithm can predict an animal's choice behaviors as efficiently as the best Markov model. The results suggest the usefulness of the GRL for the model-based analysis of neural processes involved in decision making.

  1. Acquisition of locative utterances in Norwegian: structure-building via lexical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Natalia; Westergaard, Marit

    2018-03-15

    This paper focuses on the acquisition of locative prepositional phrases in L1 Norwegian. We report on two production experiments with children acquiring Norwegian as their first language and compare the results to similar experiments conducted with Russian children. The results of the experiments show that Norwegian children at age 2 regularly produce locative utterances lacking overt prepositions, with the rate of preposition omission decreasing significantly by age 3. Furthermore, our results suggest that phonologically strong and semantically unambiguous locative items appear earlier in Norwegian children's utterances than their phonologically weak and semantically ambiguous counterparts. This conclusion is confirmed by a corpus study. We argue that our results are best captured by the Underspecified P Hypothesis (UPH; Mitrofanova, 2017), which assumes that, at early stages of grammatical development, the underlying structure of locative utterances is underspecified, with more complex functional representations emerging gradually based on the input. This approach predicts that the rate of acquisition in the domain of locative PPs should be influenced by the lexical properties of individual language-specific grammatical elements (such as frequency, morphological complexity, phonological salience, or semantic ambiguity). Our data from child Norwegian show that this prediction is borne out. Specifically, the results of our study suggest that phonologically more salient and semantically unambiguous items are mastered earlier than their ambiguous and phonologically less salient counterparts, despite the higher frequency of the latter in the input (Clahsen et al., 1996).

  2. Effects of valence and arousal on emotional word processing are modulated by concreteness: Behavioral and ERP evidence from a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhao; Yu, Deshui; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Xiangru; Guo, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether the effects of valence and arousal on emotional word processing are modulated by concreteness using event-related potentials (ERPs). The stimuli included concrete words (Experiment 1) and abstract words (Experiment 2) that were organized in an orthogonal design, with valence (positive and negative) and arousal (low and high) as factors in a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the impact of emotion on the effects of concrete words mainly resulted from the contribution of valence. Positive concrete words were processed more quickly than negative words and elicited a reduction of N400 (300-410ms) and enhancement of late positive complex (LPC; 450-750ms), whereas no differences in response times or ERPs were found between high and low levels of arousal. In Experiment 2, the interaction between valence and arousal influenced the impact of emotion on the effects of abstract words. Low-arousal positive words were associated with shorter response times and a reduction of LPC amplitudes compared with high-arousal positive words. Low-arousal negative words were processed more slowly and elicited a reduction of N170 (140-200ms) compared with high-arousal negative words. The present study indicates that word concreteness modulates the contributions of valence and arousal to the effects of emotion, and this modulation occurs during the early perceptual processing stage (N170) and late elaborate processing stage (LPC) for emotional words and at the end of all cognitive processes (i.e., reflected by response times). These findings support an embodied theory of semantic representation and help clarify prior inconsistent findings regarding the ways in which valance and arousal influence different stages of word processing, at least in a lexical decision task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lexmeter: validation of an automated system for the assessment of lexical competence of medical students as a base for an adaptive e-learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eConsorti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning is used in medical education, even if some recent meta-analyses indicated that it is no more effective than traditional methods. To exploit the technological capabilities, adaptive distance learning systems aim to bridge the gap between the educational offer and the learner’s need. A decrease of lexical competence has been noted in many western countries, so lexical competence could be a possible target for adaptation. The Adaptive message learning project (Am-learning is aimed at designing and implementing an adaptive e-learning system, driven by lexical competence. The goal of the project is to modulate texts according to the estimated skill of learners, to allow a better comprehension. Lexmeter is the first of the four modules of the Am-learning system. It outlines an initial profile of the learner’s lexical competence and can also produce cloze tests, a test based on a completion task.A validation test of Lexmeter was run on 443 medical students of the 1st, 3rd and 6th year at the University Sapienza of Rome. Six cloze tests were automatically produced, with ten gaps each. The tests were different for each year and with varying levels of difficulty. A last cloze test was manually created as a control. The difference of the mean score between the easy tests and the tests with a medium level of difficulty was statistically significant for the 3rd year students but not for 1st and 6th year. The score of the automatically generated tests showed a slight but significant correlation with the control test. The reliability (Cronbach alpha of the different tests fluctuated under and above .60, as an acceptable level. In fact, classical item analysis revealed that the tests were on the average too simple.Lexical competence is a relevant outcome and its assessment allows an early detection of students at risk. Cloze tests can also be used to assess specific knowledge of technical jargon and to train reasoning skill.

  4. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çağrı

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jutta L; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

  6. A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study of lexical decision task supports the dual route model and the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Itamar; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Onaral, Banu

    2014-01-01

    The dual route model (DRM) of reading suggests two routes of reading development: the phonological and the orthographic routes. It was proposed that although the two routes are active in the process of reading; the first is more involved at the initial stages of reading acquisition, whereas the latter needs more reading training to mature. A number of studies have shown that deficient phonological processing is a core deficit in developmental dyslexia. According to the DRM, when the Lexical Decision Task (LDT) is performed, the orthographic route should also be involved when decoding words, whereas it is clear that when decoding pseudowords the phonological route should be activated. Previous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) studies have suggested that the upper left frontal lobe is involved in decision making in the LDT. The current study used fNIR to compare left frontal lobe activity during LDT performance among three reading-level groups: 12-year-old children, young adult dyslexic readers, and young adult typical readers. Compared to typical readers, the children demonstrated lower activity under the word condition only, whereas the dyslexic readers showed lower activity under the pseudoword condition only. The results provide evidence for upper left frontal lobe involvement in LDT and support the DRM and the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia.

  7. Minding the gaps: literacy enhances lexical segmentation in children learning to read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havron, Naomi; Arnon, Inbal

    2017-11-01

    Can emergent literacy impact the size of the linguistic units children attend to? We examined children's ability to segment multiword sequences before and after they learned to read, in order to disentangle the effect of literacy and age on segmentation. We found that early readers were better at segmenting multiword units (after controlling for age, cognitive, and linguistic variables), and that improvement in literacy skills between the two sessions predicted improvement in segmentation abilities. Together, these findings suggest that literacy acquisition, rather than age, enhanced segmentation. We discuss implications for models of language learning.

  8. The comparative impact of lexical translation and lexical inferencing on EFL learners’ vocabulary retention

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim Shangarfam; Neda Ghorbani; Ehsan Safarpoor; Mahshid Maha

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the comparative effects of lexical translation and lexical inferencing techniques on Female intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary retention. For this purpose, 90 female learners attending the Jahad Daneshgahi Center in Qom took a piloted sample KET test, 60 of whom were selected as homogenous learners. They were randomly divided into two experimental groups-one learning new vocabulary items through lexical translation technique and the other with...

  9. Induced lexical categories enhance cross-situational learning of word meanings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alishahi, A.; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we bring together two sources of information that have been proposed as clues used by children acquiring word meanings. One mechanism is cross-situational learning which exploits co-occurrences between words and their referents in perceptual context accompanying utterances. The other

  10. Performance of a sample of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy elderly on a lexical decision test (LDT) as a measure of pre-morbid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Valéria Trunkl; Brucki, Sônia Maria Dozzi; Campanholo, Kenia Repiso; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Nitrini, Ricardo; Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the performance of healthy elderly patients with aging-related pathologies (MCI) and patients with AD on a lexical decision test. Methods: The study included 38 healthy elderly subjects, 61 MCI and 26 AD patients from the Neurology Department of the Hospital das Clinicas, Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Group. The neuropsychological instruments included the episodic memory test (RAVLT), subtests from the WAIS-III (Matrix Reasoning and...

  11. WORDS AS “LEXICAL UNITS” IN LEARNING/TEACHING VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Almela

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of what should be taught and how it should be taught. Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often or of words-in-context (more recently. In the first case, words are treated as self-contained receptacles of meaning, and in the second case, they are considered as nodes of semantic relationships. However, recent directions in corpus-driven lexicology are exploring the gulf between the concept of a “word” and that of a “semantic unit”. The main purpose of this paper is to update some implications of this discussion for one of the applied disciplines, namely FL/L2 vocabulary teaching and learning.

  12. Mobile Learning Games for Critical Decision Making and Crisis Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview about different approaches of the mobile learning group of the Welten Institute regarding the design and evaluation of mobile learning games for critical decision making and crisis simulation.

  13. Real-time lexical comprehension in young children learning American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kyle; LaMarr, Todd; Corina, David; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne

    2018-04-16

    When children interpret spoken language in real time, linguistic information drives rapid shifts in visual attention to objects in the visual world. This language-vision interaction can provide insights into children's developing efficiency in language comprehension. But how does language influence visual attention when the linguistic signal and the visual world are both processed via the visual channel? Here, we measured eye movements during real-time comprehension of a visual-manual language, American Sign Language (ASL), by 29 native ASL-learning children (16-53 mos, 16 deaf, 13 hearing) and 16 fluent deaf adult signers. All signers showed evidence of rapid, incremental language comprehension, tending to initiate an eye movement before sign offset. Deaf and hearing ASL-learners showed similar gaze patterns, suggesting that the in-the-moment dynamics of eye movements during ASL processing are shaped by the constraints of processing a visual language in real time and not by differential access to auditory information in day-to-day life. Finally, variation in children's ASL processing was positively correlated with age and vocabulary size. Thus, despite competition for attention within a single modality, the timing and accuracy of visual fixations during ASL comprehension reflect information processing skills that are important for language acquisition regardless of language modality. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Learning a decision maker's utility function from (possibly) inconsistent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    developed for learning the probabilities from a database.However, methods for learning the utilities have only received limitedattention in the computer science community. A promising approach for learning a decision maker's utility function is to takeoutset in the decision maker's observed behavioral...... patterns, and then find autility function which (together with a domain model) can explainthis behavior. That is, it is assumed that decision maker's preferences arereflected in the behavior. Standard learning algorithmsalso assume that the decision maker is behavioralconsistent, i.e., given a model ofthe...... decision problem, there exists a utility function which canaccount for all the observed behavior. Unfortunately, this assumption israrely valid in real-world decision problems, and in these situationsexisting learning methods may only identify a trivial utilityfunction. In this paper we relax...

  15. Concurrent Learning of Control in Multi agent Sequential Decision Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-17

    Concurrent Learning of Control in Multi-agent Sequential Decision Tasks The overall objective of this project was to develop multi-agent reinforcement... learning (MARL) approaches for intelligent agents to autonomously learn distributed control policies in decentral- ized partially observable... learning of policies in Dec-POMDPs, established performance bounds, evaluated these algorithms both theoretically and empirically, The views

  16. Developing Decision-Making Skill: Experiential Learning in Computer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt A. April; Katja M. J. Goebel; Eddie Blass; Jonathan Foster-Pedley

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the value that computer and video games bring to learning and leadership and explores how games work as learning environments and the impact they have on personal development. The study looks at decisiveness, decision-making ability and styles, and on how this leadership-related skill is learnt through different paradigms. The paper compares the learning from a lecture to the learning from a designed computer game, both of which have the same content through the use of a s...

  17. Reinforcement and Systemic Machine Learning for Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement and Systemic Machine Learning for Decision Making There are always difficulties in making machines that learn from experience. Complete information is not always available-or it becomes available in bits and pieces over a period of time. With respect to systemic learning, there is a need to understand the impact of decisions and actions on a system over that period of time. This book takes a holistic approach to addressing that need and presents a new paradigm-creating new learning applications and, ultimately, more intelligent machines. The first book of its kind in this new an

  18. Automated Sleep Stage Scoring by Decision Tree Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanaoka, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a waveform recognition method that extracts characteristic parameters from wave- forms and a method of automated sleep stage scoring using decision tree learning that is in...

  19. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2014-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices

  20. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile

  1. Online learning algorithm for ensemble of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2011-01-01

    We describe an online learning algorithm that builds a system of decision rules for a classification problem. Rules are constructed according to the minimum description length principle by a greedy algorithm or using the dynamic programming approach

  2. "Accelerated Perceptron": A Self-Learning Linear Decision Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zuev, Yu. A.

    2003-01-01

    The class of linear decision rules is studied. A new algorithm for weight correction, called an "accelerated perceptron", is proposed. In contrast to classical Rosenblatt's perceptron this algorithm modifies the weight vector at each step. The algorithm may be employed both in learning and in self-learning modes. The theoretical aspects of the behaviour of the algorithm are studied when the algorithm is used for the purpose of increasing the decision reliability by means of weighted voting. I...

  3. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Learning to make collective decisions: the impact of confidence escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Bahrami, Bahador

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how people learn to take into account others' opinions in joint decisions. To address this question, we combined computational and empirical approaches. Human dyads made individual and joint visual perceptual decision and rated their confidence in those decisions (data previously published). We trained a reinforcement (temporal difference) learning agent to get the participants' confidence level and learn to arrive at a dyadic decision by finding the policy that either maximized the accuracy of the model decisions or maximally conformed to the empirical dyadic decisions. When confidences were shared visually without verbal interaction, RL agents successfully captured social learning. When participants exchanged confidences visually and interacted verbally, no collective benefit was achieved and the model failed to predict the dyadic behaviour. Behaviourally, dyad members' confidence increased progressively and verbal interaction accelerated this escalation. The success of the model in drawing collective benefit from dyad members was inversely related to confidence escalation rate. The findings show an automated learning agent can, in principle, combine individual opinions and achieve collective benefit but the same agent cannot discount the escalation suggesting that one cognitive component of collective decision making in human may involve discounting of overconfidence arising from interactions.

  5. Decision theory, reinforcement learning, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Peter; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2008-12-01

    Decision making is a core competence for animals and humans acting and surviving in environments they only partially comprehend, gaining rewards and punishments for their troubles. Decision-theoretic concepts permeate experiments and computational models in ethology, psychology, and neuroscience. Here, we review a well-known, coherent Bayesian approach to decision making, showing how it unifies issues in Markovian decision problems, signal detection psychophysics, sequential sampling, and optimal exploration and discuss paradigmatic psychological and neural examples of each problem. We discuss computational issues concerning what subjects know about their task and how ambitious they are in seeking optimal solutions; we address algorithmic topics concerning model-based and model-free methods for making choices; and we highlight key aspects of the neural implementation of decision making.

  6. Are baboons learning "orthographic" representations? Probably not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Linke

    Full Text Available The ability of Baboons (papio papio to distinguish between English words and nonwords has been modeled using a deep learning convolutional network model that simulates a ventral pathway in which lexical representations of different granularity develop. However, given that pigeons (columba livia, whose brain morphology is drastically different, can also be trained to distinguish between English words and nonwords, it appears that a less species-specific learning algorithm may be required to explain this behavior. Accordingly, we examined whether the learning model of Rescorla and Wagner, which has proved to be amazingly fruitful in understanding animal and human learning could account for these data. We show that a discrimination learning network using gradient orientation features as input units and word and nonword units as outputs succeeds in predicting baboon lexical decision behavior-including key lexical similarity effects and the ups and downs in accuracy as learning unfolds-with surprising precision. The models performance, in which words are not explicitly represented, is remarkable because it is usually assumed that lexicality decisions, including the decisions made by baboons and pigeons, are mediated by explicit lexical representations. By contrast, our results suggest that in learning to perform lexical decision tasks, baboons and pigeons do not construct a hierarchy of lexical units. Rather, they make optimal use of low-level information obtained through the massively parallel processing of gradient orientation features. Accordingly, we suggest that reading in humans first involves initially learning a high-level system building on letter representations acquired from explicit instruction in literacy, which is then integrated into a conventionalized oral communication system, and that like the latter, fluent reading involves the massively parallel processing of the low-level features encoding semantic contrasts.

  7. Active Learning of Markov Decision Processes for System Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2012-01-01

    deterministic Markov decision processes from data by actively guiding the selection of input actions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed by learning system models of slot machines, and it is demonstrated that the proposed active learning procedure can significantly reduce the amount of data required...... demanding process, and this shortcoming has motivated the development of algorithms for automatically learning system models from observed system behaviors. Recently, algorithms have been proposed for learning Markov decision process representations of reactive systems based on alternating sequences...... of input/output observations. While alleviating the problem of manually constructing a system model, the collection/generation of observed system behaviors can also prove demanding. Consequently we seek to minimize the amount of data required. In this paper we propose an algorithm for learning...

  8. Endogenous Risks and Learning in Climate Change Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, B.C.; Ermoliev, Y.; Ermolieva, T.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the effects of risks and learning on climate change decisions. A two-stage, dynamic, climate change stabilization problem is formulated. The explicit incorporation of ex-post learning induces risk aversion among ex-ante decisions, which is characterized in linear models by VaR- (Value at Risk) and CVaR-type risk (Conditional Value at Risk) measures. Combined with explicit introduction of 'safety' constraints, it creates a 'hit-or-miss' type decision making situation and shows that, even in linear models, learning may lead to either less or more restrictive ex-ante emission reductions. We analyze stylized elements of the model in order to identify the key factors driving outcomes, in particular, the critical role of quantiles of probability distributions characterizing key uncertainties

  9. Deciphering mirror neurons: rational decision versus associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Elias L

    2014-04-01

    The rational-decision approach is superior to the associative-learning approach of Cook et al. at explaining why mirror neurons fire or do not fire - even when the stimulus is the same. The rational-decision approach is superior because it starts with the analysis of the intention of the organism, that is, with the identification of the specific objective or goal that the organism is trying to maximize.

  10. Lexical neighborhood effects in pseudoword spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Bosse, Marie-Line; Roberts, Daniel J; Valdois, Sylviane; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbors on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, adult participants typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French-speaking literate adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknownst to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbor. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French) were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbor with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from "crapaud," /krapo/) than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbors (e.g., /frøpo/). In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbors as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that information from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced.

  11. LEXICAL NEIGHBOURHOOD EFFECTS IN PSEUDOWORD SPELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josephe eTainturier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbours on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, subjects typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French speaking literature adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknown to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbour. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbour with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from crapaud, /krapo/ than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbours (e.g., /frøpo/. In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbours as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that the activation from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced.

  12. A Support for Decision Making: Cost-Sensitive Learning System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůha, I.; Kočková, Sylva

    č. 6 (1994), s. 67-82 ISSN 0933-3657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/93/0781 Keywords : learning algorithm * noisy environment * inductive algorithm * decision rule * cost-sensitive inference * evaluating function Impact factor: 0.672, year: 1994

  13. Online learning algorithm for ensemble of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We describe an online learning algorithm that builds a system of decision rules for a classification problem. Rules are constructed according to the minimum description length principle by a greedy algorithm or using the dynamic programming approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Practical secure decision tree learning in a teletreatment application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, Sebastiaan; Schoenmakers, Berry; Chen, Ping; op den Akker, Harm

    In this paper we develop a range of practical cryptographic protocols for secure decision tree learning, a primary problem in privacy preserving data mining. We focus on particular variants of the well-known ID3 algorithm allowing a high level of security and performance at the same time. Our

  15. Practical secure decision tree learning in a teletreatment application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogh, de S.J.A.; Schoenmakers, B.; Chen, Ping; Op den Akker, H.; Christin, N.; Safavi-Naini, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a range of practical cryptographic protocols for secure decision tree learning, a primary problem in privacy preserving data mining. We focus on particular variants of the well-known ID3 algorithm allowing a high level of security and performance at the same time. Our

  16. A Debate and Decision-Making Tool for Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Garcia, Diego A.; Mateo Sanguino, Tomás de J.; Cortés Ancos, Estefania; Fernández de Viana González, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Debates have been used to develop critical thinking within teaching environments. Many learning activities are configured as working groups, which use debates to make decisions. Nevertheless, in a classroom debate, only a few students can participate; large work groups are similarly limited. Whilst the use of web tools would appear to offer a…

  17. Assessment of lexical semantic judgment abilities in alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... Keywords. Alcoholism; brain; fMRI; language processing; lexical; semantic judgment .... (English for all subjects) and hours spent reading one/both languages. ..... and alcoholism on verbal and visuospatial learning. J. Nerv.

  18. People learn other people's preferences through inverse decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, Alan; Lucas, Christopher G; Kemp, Charles

    2017-11-01

    People are capable of learning other people's preferences by observing the choices they make. We propose that this learning relies on inverse decision-making-inverting a decision-making model to infer the preferences that led to an observed choice. In Experiment 1, participants observed 47 choices made by others and ranked them by how strongly each choice suggested that the decision maker had a preference for a specific item. An inverse decision-making model generated predictions that were in accordance with participants' inferences. Experiment 2 replicated and extended a previous study by Newtson (1974) in which participants observed pairs of choices and made judgments about which choice provided stronger evidence for a preference. Inverse decision-making again predicted the results, including a result that previous accounts could not explain. Experiment 3 used the same method as Experiment 2 and found that participants did not expect decision makers to be perfect utility-maximizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptual learning effect on decision and confidence thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Guillermo; Shalom, Diego; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Sigman, Mariano

    2016-10-01

    Practice can enhance of perceptual sensitivity, a well-known phenomenon called perceptual learning. However, the effect of practice on subjective perception has received little attention. We approach this problem from a visual psychophysics and computational modeling perspective. In a sequence of visual search experiments, subjects significantly increased the ability to detect a "trained target". Before and after training, subjects performed two psychophysical protocols that parametrically vary the visibility of the "trained target": an attentional blink and a visual masking task. We found that confidence increased after learning only in the attentional blink task. Despite large differences in some observables and task settings, we identify common mechanisms for decision-making and confidence. Specifically, our behavioral results and computational model suggest that perceptual ability is independent of processing time, indicating that changes in early cortical representations are effective, and learning changes decision criteria to convey choice and confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Lexical Stress Influence 17-Month-Olds' Mapping of Verbs and Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer; Mihalicz, Patrick; Thiessen, Erik; Curtin, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    English-learning infants attend to lexical stress when learning new words. Attention to lexical stress might be beneficial for word learning by providing an indication of the grammatical class of that word. English disyllabic nouns commonly have trochaic (strong-weak) stress, whereas English disyllabic verbs commonly have iambic (weak-strong)…

  1. Semantic Analysis of Verbal Collocations with Lexical Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbukh, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This book is written for both linguists and computer scientists working in the field of artificial intelligence as well as to anyone interested in intelligent text processing. Lexical function is a concept that formalizes semantic and syntactic relations between lexical units. Collocational relation is a type of institutionalized lexical relations which holds between the base and its partner in a collocation. Knowledge of collocation is important for natural language processing because collocation comprises the restrictions on how words can be used together. The book shows how collocations can be annotated with lexical functions in a computer readable dictionary - allowing their precise semantic analysis in texts and their effective use in natural language applications including parsers, high quality machine translation, periphrasis system and computer-aided learning of lexica. The books shows how to extract collocations from corpora and annotate them with lexical functions automatically. To train algorithms,...

  2. Neural Basis of Reinforcement Learning and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeol; Seo, Hyojung; Jung, Min Whan

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is an adaptive process in which an animal utilizes its previous experience to improve the outcomes of future choices. Computational theories of reinforcement learning play a central role in the newly emerging areas of neuroeconomics and decision neuroscience. In this framework, actions are chosen according to their value functions, which describe how much future reward is expected from each action. Value functions can be adjusted not only through reward and penalty, but also by the animal’s knowledge of its current environment. Studies have revealed that a large proportion of the brain is involved in representing and updating value functions and using them to choose an action. However, how the nature of a behavioral task affects the neural mechanisms of reinforcement learning remains incompletely understood. Future studies should uncover the principles by which different computational elements of reinforcement learning are dynamically coordinated across the entire brain. PMID:22462543

  3. Shared mechanisms of perceptual learning and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-Tat; Gold, Joshua I

    2010-04-01

    Perceptual decisions require the brain to weigh noisy evidence from sensory neurons to form categorical judgments that guide behavior. Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological findings suggesting that at least some forms of perceptual learning do not appear to affect the response properties of neurons that represent the sensory evidence. Instead, improved perceptual performance results from changes in how the sensory evidence is selected and weighed to form the decision. We discuss the implications of this idea for possible sites and mechanisms of training-induced improvements in perceptual processing in the brain. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. The Influence of Parents' Backgrounds, Beliefs about English Learning, and a Dialogic Reading Program on Thai Kindergarteners' English Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchprasert, Anongnad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…

  5. Use of Emotional Cues for Lexical Learning: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Angela John; McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi; Channell, Marie Moore; Mastergeorge, Ann; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the ability of males with fragile X syndrome (FXS), nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or typical development to learn new words by using as a cue to the intended referent an emotional reaction indicating a successful (excitement) or unsuccessful (disappointment) search for a novel object. Performance for all…

  6. ERP measures of partial semantic knowledge: left temporal indices of skill differences and lexical quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A; Perfetti, Charles A; Westbury, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of early event-related potentials (ERPs) to degrees of word semantic knowledge. Participants with strong, average, or weak vocabulary skills made speeded lexical decisions to letter strings. To represent the full spectrum of word knowledge among adult native-English speakers, we used rare words that were orthographically matched with more familiar words and with pseudowords. Since the lexical decision could not reliably be made on the basis of word form, subjects were obliged to use semantic knowledge to perform the task. A d' analysis suggested that high-skilled subjects adopted a more conservative strategy in response to rare versus more familiar words. Moreover, the high-skilled participants showed a trend towards an enhanced "N2c" to rare words, and a similar posterior temporal effect reached significance approximately 650 ms. Generators for these effects were localized to left temporal cortex. We discuss implications of these results for word learning and for theories of lexical semantic access.

  7. Intuition in decision making and learning: Individual and organisational perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Cinla.

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been written about the role of rational/analytical ways of knowing in decision making and problem solving in management, comparatively little is known about the way intuitive cognition manifests itself in organisations in general and in relation to organisational learning in particular. Several conceptualisations have been offered in respect to the ways in which managers perceive, make sense and act in the social settings of business organisations. Intuition and organisation...

  8. Lexical and semantic representations of L2 cognate and noncognate words acquisition in children : evidence from two learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-01-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyze the effect of two learning methods (picture-based vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and noncognates) in early stages of children’s L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age= 10.87 years; SD= 0....

  9. Lexical restructuring in the absence of literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturaa, Paulo; Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandesa, Sandra; Queridoa, Luís; Morais, José

    2007-11-01

    Vocabulary growth was suggested to prompt the implementation of increasingly finer-grained lexical representations of spoken words in children (e.g., [Metsala, J. L., & Walley, A. C. (1998). Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading ability. In J. L. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 89-120). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.]). Although literacy was not explicitly mentioned in this lexical restructuring hypothesis, the process of learning to read and spell might also have a significant impact on the specification of lexical representations (e.g., [Carroll, J. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2001). The effects of global similarity between stimuli on children's judgments of rime and alliteration. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 327-342.]; [Goswami, U. (2000). Phonological representations, reading development and dyslexia: Towards a cross-linguistic theoretical framework. Dyslexia, 6, 133-151.]). This is what we checked in the present study. We manipulated word frequency and neighborhood density in a gating task (Experiment 1) and a word-identification-in-noise task (Experiment 2) presented to Portuguese literate and illiterate adults. Ex-illiterates were also tested in Experiment 2 in order to disentangle the effects of vocabulary size and literacy. There was an interaction between word frequency and neighborhood density, which was similar in the three groups. These did not differ even for the words that are supposed to undergo lexical restructuring the latest (low frequency words from sparse neighborhoods). Thus, segmental lexical representations seem to develop independently of literacy. While segmental restructuring is not affected by literacy, it constrains the development of phoneme awareness as shown by the fact that, in Experiment 3, neighborhood density modulated the phoneme deletion performance of both illiterates and ex-illiterates.

  10. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  11. Decision Making in the Connected Learning Environment (CLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Belahcen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, we have witnessed to an increasingly heightened awareness of the potential benefits of a challenging and promising educational research area : Adaptive Learning [1]. It has become one of the central technologies in education [2] and was recently named, by Gartner, as the number one strategic technology to impact education in 2015 [3]. In fact, adaptive learning systems become more accessible to educational institutions, corporations, and individuals, however, the challenges encountered are more structural and operational rather than technological [4]. While a lot of research has focused on development and evaluation of technological aspects [5], serious questions remain about the motivation of learners [6],[7] and also the design of the content (or domain model [8],[9] including the learner's autonomy issues [9],[10],[11] and the lack of the learner's control [9],[12],[13]. In order to overcome those challenges, we propose CLE “Connected Learning Environment” which is an ubiquitous learning environment [14] that provide to the learners of this generation a learning environment adapted to their expectations and their lifestyle habits and stimulate also their motivation. As a pedagogical approach, CLE adopts the connectivism [15] and take advantage from its benefits (adaptation to the current technological advances [16], management of learning in communities [17], openness with respect to external resources[18], etc. and adapts this approach in a formal context even though the connectivism was conceived as an informal pedagogical approach [19][20]. CLE introduces a new pedagogical process including four phases detailed later (Knowledge construction, Decision making, Validation, Evaluation and the knowledge construction phase is characterized by the collaboration and communication between heterogeneous communities composed of humans and smart objects [14]. However, the ability to distinguish relevant information among the

  12. Balancing Generalization and Lexical Conservatism: An Artificial Language Study with Child Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…

  13. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  14. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  15. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  16. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  17. Lexical and articulatory interactions in children’s language production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e., a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI). A word learning paradigm was developed so that we could compare children’s production with and without lexical representation. The variability and accuracy of productions were examined using speech kinematics as well as traditional phonetic accuracy measures. Results showed that phonetic forms with lexical representation were produced with more articulatory stability than phonetic forms without lexical representation. Using more traditional transcription measures, a paired lexical referent generally did not influence segmental accuracy (percent consonant correct and type token ratio). These results suggest that lexical and articulatory levels of representation are not completely independent. Implications for models of language production are discussed. PMID:20712738

  18. Lexical and articulatory interactions in children's language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e. a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI). A word learning paradigm was developed so that we could compare children's production with and without lexical representation. The variability and accuracy of productions were examined using speech kinematics as well as traditional phonetic accuracy measures. Results showed that phonetic forms with lexical representation were produced with more articulatory stability than phonetic forms without lexical representation. Using more traditional transcription measures, a paired lexical referent generally did not influence segmental accuracy (percent consonant correct and type token ratio). These results suggest that lexical and articulatory levels of representation are not completely independent. Implications for models of language production are discussed.

  19. Transfer of learning in binary decision making problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Robotti, O. P.

    2007-01-01

    Transfer, the use of acquired knowledge, skills and abilities across tasks and contexts, is a key and elusive goal of learning. Most evidence available in literature is based on a limited number of tasks, predominantly open-ended problems, game-like problems and taught school subjects (e.g. maths, physics, algebra). It is not obvious that findings from this work can be extended to the domain of decision making problems. This thesis, which aims to broaden the understanding of enhancing and lim...

  20. Controlling Uncertainty Decision Making and Learning in Complex Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Controlling Uncertainty: Decision Making and Learning in Complex Worlds reviews and discusses the most current research relating to the ways we can control the uncertain world around us.: Features reviews and discussions of the most current research in a number of fields relevant to controlling uncertainty, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science and engineering; Presents a new framework that is designed to integrate a variety of disparate fields of research; Represents the first book of its kind to provide a general overview of work related to understanding control

  1. Sensorimotor learning biases choice behavior: a learning neural field model for decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klaes

    Full Text Available According to a prominent view of sensorimotor processing in primates, selection and specification of possible actions are not sequential operations. Rather, a decision for an action emerges from competition between different movement plans, which are specified and selected in parallel. For action choices which are based on ambiguous sensory input, the frontoparietal sensorimotor areas are considered part of the common underlying neural substrate for selection and specification of action. These areas have been shown capable of encoding alternative spatial motor goals in parallel during movement planning, and show signatures of competitive value-based selection among these goals. Since the same network is also involved in learning sensorimotor associations, competitive action selection (decision making should not only be driven by the sensory evidence and expected reward in favor of either action, but also by the subject's learning history of different sensorimotor associations. Previous computational models of competitive neural decision making used predefined associations between sensory input and corresponding motor output. Such hard-wiring does not allow modeling of how decisions are influenced by sensorimotor learning or by changing reward contingencies. We present a dynamic neural field model which learns arbitrary sensorimotor associations with a reward-driven Hebbian learning algorithm. We show that the model accurately simulates the dynamics of action selection with different reward contingencies, as observed in monkey cortical recordings, and that it correctly predicted the pattern of choice errors in a control experiment. With our adaptive model we demonstrate how network plasticity, which is required for association learning and adaptation to new reward contingencies, can influence choice behavior. The field model provides an integrated and dynamic account for the operations of sensorimotor integration, working memory and action

  2. Distinct Roles of Dopamine and Subthalamic Nucleus in Learning and Probabilistic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Elizabeth J.; Bogacz, Rafal; Javed, Shazia; Mooney, Lucy K.; Murphy, Gillian; Keeley, Sophie; Whone, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    Even simple behaviour requires us to make decisions based on combining multiple pieces of learned and new information. Making such decisions requires both learning the optimal response to each given stimulus as well as combining probabilistic information from multiple stimuli before selecting a response. Computational theories of decision making…

  3. Lexical Link Analysis (LLA) Application: Improving Web Service to Defense Acquisition Visibility Environment (DAVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    1 LEXICAL LINK ANALYSIS (LLA) APPLICATION: IMPROVING WEB SERVICE TO DEFENSE ACQUISITION VISIBILITY ENVIRONMENT(DAVE) May 13-14, 2015 Dr. Ying...REPORT DATE MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lexical Link Analysis (LLA) Application...Making 3 2 1 3 L L A Methods • Lexical Link Analysis (LLA) Core – LLA Reports and Visualizations • Collaborative Learning Agents (CLA) for

  4. Object Permanence and Relational Words: A Lexical Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Farrar, Michael Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Describes a lexical training program developed to teach object, visible movement, and invisible movement words to children at stage 5 (N=7) and stage 6 (N=16) object permanence development. Stage 6 children learned all three types of words equally well, while stage 5 children learned object and visible movement but not invisible movement words.…

  5. Novel second language words and asymmetric lexical access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Hayes-Harb, R.; Mitterer, H.

    2008-01-01

    The lexical and phonetic mapping of auditorily confusable L2 nonwords was examined by teaching L2 learners novel words and by later examining their word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. During word learning, two groups of highly proficient Dutch learners of English learned 20 English

  6. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information such as verbal argument structure and selectional restrictions, corresponding nominal semantic class, verbal aspectual class...

  7. A Lexical Analysis Tool with Ambiguity Support

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Luis; Berzal, Fernando; Cortijo, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical ambiguities naturally arise in languages. We present Lamb, a lexical analyzer that produces a lexical analysis graph describing all the possible sequences of tokens that can be found within the input string. Parsers can process such lexical analysis graphs and discard any sequence of tokens that does not produce a valid syntactic sentence, therefore performing, together with Lamb, a context-sensitive lexical analysis in lexically-ambiguous language specifications.

  8. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barca

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects.

  9. Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  10. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects.

  11. An Analysis of Lexical Errors of Korean Language Learners: Some American College Learners' Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Manjin

    2014-01-01

    There has been a huge amount of research on errors of language learners. However, most of them have focused on syntactic errors and those about lexical errors are not found easily despite the importance of lexical learning for the language learners. The case is even rarer for Korean language. In line with this background, this study was designed…

  12. Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

  13. How we learn to make decisions: rapid propagation of reinforcement learning prediction errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olav E; Hassall, Cameron D; Handy, Todd C

    2014-03-01

    Our ability to make decisions is predicated upon our knowledge of the outcomes of the actions available to us. Reinforcement learning theory posits that actions followed by a reward or punishment acquire value through the computation of prediction errors-discrepancies between the predicted and the actual reward. A multitude of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that rewards and punishments evoke neural responses that appear to reflect reinforcement learning prediction errors [e.g., Krigolson, O. E., Pierce, L. J., Holroyd, C. B., & Tanaka, J. W. Learning to become an expert: Reinforcement learning and the acquisition of perceptual expertise. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1833-1840, 2009; Bayer, H. M., & Glimcher, P. W. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron, 47, 129-141, 2005; O'Doherty, J. P. Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 769-776, 2004; Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109, 679-709, 2002]. Here, we used the brain ERP technique to demonstrate that not only do rewards elicit a neural response akin to a prediction error but also that this signal rapidly diminished and propagated to the time of choice presentation with learning. Specifically, in a simple, learnable gambling task, we show that novel rewards elicited a feedback error-related negativity that rapidly decreased in amplitude with learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of a reward positivity at choice presentation, a previously unreported ERP component that has a similar timing and topography as the feedback error-related negativity that increased in amplitude with learning. The pattern of results we observed mirrored the output of a computational model that we implemented to compute reward

  14. Reusable Lexical Representations for Idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I introduce (1) a technically simple and highly theory-independent way for lexically representing flexible idiomatic expressions, and (2) a procedure to incorporate these lexical representations in a wide variety of NLP systems. The method is based on Structural EQuivalence Classes

  15. Lexical Resources and Their Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerstam, Martin

    This paper discusses computer-based resources for lexical data and their uses. First, the kinds of lexical data available are described, including those related to form (spelling, pronunciation, inflection, word class), meaning (definition/equivalent, synonyms/antonyms/hyperonyms, thesaurus classification), context (grammatical collocations,…

  16. Handling risk attitudes for preference learning and intelligent decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent decision support should allow integrating human knowledge with efficient algorithms for making interpretable and useful recommendations on real world decision problems. Attitudes and preferences articulate and come together under a decision process that should be explicitly modeled...

  17. The Three-Part Harmony of Adult Learning, Critical Thinking, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…

  18. Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

  19. THE DOMAINS FOR THE MULTI-CRITERIA DECISIONS ABOUT E-LEARNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Pasa UYSAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in computer and information technologies continue to give opportunities for designing advanced E-learning systems while entailing objective and technical evaluation methodologies. Design and development of E-learning systems require time-consuming and labor-intensive processes; therefore any decision about these systems and their analysis needs systematic and structured guidance to lead to better decisions. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA techniques are applicable in instructional technology-related research areas as well as in other academic disciplines. In this study, a conceptual domain model and a decision activity framework is proposed for E-learning systems. Instructional, technological, and administrative decision domains are included in this model. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show that AHP is an effective MCDA method for E-learning-related decisions.

  20. [The effects of case-based learning using video on clinical decision making and learning motivation in undergraduate nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Si-Ra

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of case-base learning (CBL) using video on clinical decision-making and learning motivation. This research was conducted between June 2009 and April 2010 as a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design. The study population was 44 third year nursing students who enrolled in a college of nursing, A University in Korea. The nursing students were divided into the CBL and the control group. The intervention was the CBL with three cases using video. The controls attended a traditional live lecture on the same topics. With questionnaires objective clinical decision-making, subjective clinical decision-making, and learning motivation were measured before the intervention, and 10 weeks after the intervention. Significant group differences were observed in clinical decision-making and learning motivation. The post-test scores of clinical decision-making in the CBL group were statistically higher than the control group. Learning motivation was also significantly higher in the CBL group than in the control group. These results indicate that CBL using video is effective in enhancing clinical decision-making and motivating students to learn by encouraging self-directed learning and creating more interest and curiosity in learning.

  1. Improved learning in U.S. history and decision competence with decision-focused curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobson

    Full Text Available Decision making is rarely taught in high school, even though improved decision skills could benefit young people facing life-shaping decisions. While decision competence has been shown to correlate with better life outcomes, few interventions designed to improve decision skills have been evaluated with rigorous quantitative measures. A randomized study showed that integrating decision making into U.S. history instruction improved students' history knowledge and decision-making competence, compared to traditional history instruction. Thus, integrating decision training enhanced academic performance and improved an important, general life skill associated with improved life outcomes.

  2. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  3. USING AUTHENTIC LITERARY WORKS FOR THE FORMATION OF LEXICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE GERMAN LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антоніна Палецька-Юкало

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the advantages of use of authentic literary works as the main sphere of learning and improvement of foreign language vocabulary.The definition of lexical competence has been suggested. The possibilities for perceiving and analysis of such language phenomena as synonyms, antonyms, polisemic words, lexical links, linguistic clichés non-equivalent and emotionally colored vocabulary of authentic literary works as the basis of the formation of German lexical competence of future teachers have been grounded. The process of investigation has revealed that lexical contents of authentic literary works contribute to a comprehensive dictionary and learning connected speech structures, provide frequent repetition of lexical items, and create a sense of language.

  4. What do decision makers learn from public forums on climate-related hazards and resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, N.; Farooque, M.; Sittenfeld, D.

    2017-12-01

    Public engagement around climate resilience efforts can foster learning for both public audiences and decision makers. On the one hand, public audiences learn about environmental hazards and strategies to increase community resilience through effective public engagement. On the other, decision makers and scientists learn about community members' values and priorities and their relation to environmental hazards and resilience strategies. Evidence from other public engagement efforts involving decision makers suggests that decision maker involvement results in reflection by officials on their own values, capacities, and roles. However, few public engagement exercises evaluate impacts on decision makers. As part of the Science Center Public Forums project, which aims to conduct public forums in eight cities across the country on resiliency to drought, heat, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise, we sought to 1) build partnerships with local decision makers and scientists around public forums and 2) explore how decision makers and scientists interacted with the planning and undertaking of those public forums. We held workshops with decision makers and scientists to inform forum content and identify local resilience issues. We will conduct interviews with local decision makers regarding their involvement in forum planning, their reflections and takeaways from the forum itself, and their perspectives on the value of public engagement for policy making. We will present our model of engagement with decision makers, initial findings from interviews, and lessons learned from connecting decision makers and scientists to public engagement efforts.

  5. A Guide to Lexical Acquisition in the JANUS System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    meaning " cut with a saw". or the past tense form of the verb see. In this case. there are three lexical items corresponding to the word saw. ""P 1.2. How...her petunias No one knows where the captain is buried Today we will learn who invented electricity I can never remember when William invaded England

  6. Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

  7. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  8. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects.

  9. Spike-based decision learning of Nash equilibria in two-player games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Friedrich

    Full Text Available Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic and mixed (stochastic Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games.

  10. Increasing Statistical Literacy by Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity of Technical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kaplan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Instructional inattention to language poses a barrier for students in entry-level science courses, in part because students may perceive a subject as difficult solely based on the lack of understanding of the vocabulary. In addition, the technical use of terms that have different everyday meanings may cause students to misinterpret statements made by instructors, leading to an incomplete or incorrect understanding of the domain. Terms that have different technical and everyday meanings are said to have lexical ambiguity and statistics, as a discipline, has many lexically ambiguous terms. This paper presents a cyclic process for designing activities to address lexical ambiguity in statistics. In addition, it describes three short activities aimed to have high impact on student learning associated with two different lexically ambiguous words or word pairs in statistics. Preliminary student-level data are used to assess the efficacy of the activities, and future directions for development of activities and research about lexical ambiguity in statistics in particular and STEM in general are discussed.

  11. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  12. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    WHEN ANIMALS HAVE TO MAKE A NUMBER OF DECISIONS DURING A LIMITED TIME INTERVAL, THEY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible "conditions." A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each "condition" being a "state" and the value of decision thresholds being the "actions" taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values.

  13. Detecting Structural Metadata with Decision Trees and Transformation-Based Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Joungbum; Schwarm, Sarah E; Ostendorf, Mari

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, combinations of decision trees and language models are used to predict sentence ends and interruption points and given these events transformation based learning is used to detect edit...

  14. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  15. USING A MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING APPROACH FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    KAMIŞLI ÖZTÜRK, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    Today, there's a wide variety of open and distance learning (ODL) systems around the world. Herein, for lifelong learning how to select an ODL program becomes a critic question for a learner who wants to extent abilities on his/her career path. This is a complex decision problem with interdependent criteria. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a multicriteria decision making methodology  that  reflects  these  interdependencies.  Within &...

  16. Automation of information decision support to improve e-learning resources quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Danchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In conditions of active development of e-learning the high quality of e-learning resources is very important. Providing the high quality of e-learning resources in situation with mass higher education and rapid obsolescence of information requires the automation of information decision support for improving the quality of e-learning resources by development of decision support system. Methodology. The problem is solved by methods of artificial intelligence. The knowledge base of information structure of decision support system that is based on frame model of knowledge representation and inference production rules are developed. Findings. According to the results of the analysis of life cycle processes and requirements to the e-learning resources quality the information model of the structure of the knowledge base of the decision support system, the inference rules for the automatically generating of recommendations and the software implementation are developed. Practical value. It is established that the basic requirements for quality are performance, validity, reliability and manufacturability. It is shown that the using of a software implementation of decision support system for researched courses gives a growth of the quality according to the complex quality criteria. The information structure of a knowledge base system to support decision-making and rules of inference can be used by methodologists and content developers of learning systems.

  17. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara D Martin

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.

  18. On Rationality of Decision Models Incorporating Emotion-Related Valuing and Hebbian Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.; Umair, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive decision model based on predictive loops through feeling states is analysed from the perspective of rationality. Four different variations of Hebbian learning are considered for different types of connections in the decision model. To assess the extent of rationality, a

  19. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  20. Free-Choice Learning Suited to Women's Participation Needs in Environmental Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    United Nations mandates recognize the need to promote the full participation of women in environmental decision-making processes on the basis of gender equality. But, there remains a profound lack of effective women's participation in some sectors of environmental decision-making. Free-choice environmental learning offers an effective educational…

  1. Design Decisions in Developing Learning Trajectories-Based Assessments in Mathematics: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan; Rupp, André A.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the design decisions of a team developing diagnostic assessments for a learning trajectory focused on rational number reasoning. The analysis focuses on the design rationale for key decisions about how to develop the cognitive assessments and related validity arguments within a fluid state and national policy context. The…

  2. Preschool Teaching Students' Prediction of Decision Making Strategies and Academic Achievement on Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Dereli, Esra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify problems and motivation sources and strategies of decision-making of the students' attending preschool education teacher department, was to determine the relationship between learning motivation and strategies of decision-making, academic achievement of students, was to determine whether strategies of…

  3. Interdisciplinary Collaborative Learning: Using Decision Analysts to Enhance Undergraduate International Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palocsay, Susan W.; White, Marion M.; Zimmerman, D. Kent

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an experiential learning activity designed to promote the development of decision-making skills in international management students at the undergraduate level. Students from an undergraduate management science course in decision analysis served as consultants on a case assigned to teams in an international management class.…

  4. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  5. Learning chemistry from text: The effect of decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jon; J., Ronald; Alice, Bonnstetter; Corkill, J.; Glover, John A.

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of questions requiring decisions, statements providing the decision information to students, questions not requiring decisions, and control procedures on students' memory for chemistry text reading materials. Experiment 1 employed immediate recall. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that students who made and justified decisions about the contents recalled significantly more information than students in any other condition. In addition, students who answered questions that did not require decisions recalled significantly more of the content than students in the control or the statements conditions. No other contrasts reached significance. Experiment 2 employed delayed recall assessed one week after reading. The results confirmed those of Experiment 1. The overall results of the study are discussed in terms of an elaboration perspective on memory.

  6. Recognition of English and German Borrowings in the Russian Language (Based on Lexical Borrowings in the Field of Economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrapova, Alsu; Alendeeva, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of a study of the influence of English and German on the Russian language during the English learning based on lexical borrowings in the field of economics. This paper discusses the use and recognition of borrowings from the English and German languages by Russian native speakers. The use of lexical borrowings from…

  7. Phonemes: Lexical access and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina; Bowers, Jeffrey S; Idsardi, William

    2018-04-01

    Phonemes play a central role in traditional theories as units of speech perception and access codes to lexical representations. Phonemes have two essential properties: they are 'segment-sized' (the size of a consonant or vowel) and abstract (a single phoneme may be have different acoustic realisations). Nevertheless, there is a long history of challenging the phoneme hypothesis, with some theorists arguing for differently sized phonological units (e.g. features or syllables) and others rejecting abstract codes in favour of representations that encode detailed acoustic properties of the stimulus. The phoneme hypothesis is the minority view today. We defend the phoneme hypothesis in two complementary ways. First, we show that rejection of phonemes is based on a flawed interpretation of empirical findings. For example, it is commonly argued that the failure to find acoustic invariances for phonemes rules out phonemes. However, the lack of invariance is only a problem on the assumption that speech perception is a bottom-up process. If learned sublexical codes are modified by top-down constraints (which they are), then this argument loses all force. Second, we provide strong positive evidence for phonemes on the basis of linguistic data. Almost all findings that are taken (incorrectly) as evidence against phonemes are based on psycholinguistic studies of single words. However, phonemes were first introduced in linguistics, and the best evidence for phonemes comes from linguistic analyses of complex word forms and sentences. In short, the rejection of phonemes is based on a false analysis and a too-narrow consideration of the relevant data.

  8. Learning Styles: A Pivotal Point for Retention and Career Decision Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeannette

    The importance of learning styles to student retention and career decision guidance is considered. Learning style is the way people process information and solve problems. Research on right and left brain processing, which indicates that the left hemisphere controls thoughts that are predominately rational and the right hemisphere controls…

  9. Learning decision trees with flexible constraints and objectives using integer optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We encode the problem of learning the optimal decision tree of a given depth as an integer optimization problem. We show experimentally that our method (DTIP) can be used to learn good trees up to depth 5 from data sets of size up to 1000. In addition to being efficient, our new formulation allows

  10. Sharing Power with Parents: Improving Educational Decision Making for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J.; Cavendish, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    In this closing commentary to the special edition of "Learning Disability Quarterly" ("LDQ") on parent voice in educational decision making for students with learning disabilities, we briefly survey main topics from each article, illuminating important findings from the authors, along with several questions they raise, and…

  11. Peculiarities of Creating Foreign Students’ Lexical Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigul Eskermesovna Sadenova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of vocabulary includes several aspects of teaching content: linguistic, methodological and psychological. Teaching of vocabulary is a process which is inextricably entwined with understanding relations between new words and phonetic and grammar aspects of the language. On the one hand, simultaneous learning of two languages complicates the tasks set to the students, but, on the other hand, it simplifies the process. The complexity is in the scope of vocabulary to be remembered, as well as in the differences between grammar structures used in Russian and Kazakh. The simplification is in the fact that students are fully aware that lexical competence is formed gradually, and that every language has its lexical base required at the initial stage, and that such base is to be developed for mastering a specific language. Before identifying the methods of vocabulary semantization in the course of teaching a language to foreign students, students shall be offered active vocabulary, used to express their ideas orally and in written form, and passive vocabulary, used to perceive oral and written information. It is not possible to teach semantics only. It is necessary to create paradigmatic, syntactic and associative relations. The formation of lexical skills is connected with the solidity of vocabulary retention. In order to ensure reinforcement of the vocabulary learnt, the students shall be offered exercises contributing to the development of their skills of using vocabulary in listening, speaking, reading and writing. All above mentioned types of vocabulary semantization constitute a unified whole. Different ways of semantization are set forth for methodological purposes, to facilitate the achievement of the desired result. Translation and non-translation techniques for vocabulary presentation, as well as some tips and exercises, are given. The use of basic vocabulary at elementary and advanced levels is suggested. Certain methods for the

  12. Analysis of the Organization of Lexical Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, George

    1997-01-01

    The practical outcome of the project, Analysis of the Organization of Lexical Memory, is an electronic lexical database called WordNet that can be incorporated into computer systems for processing English text...

  13. Enhancing Decision-Making in STSE Education by Inducing Reflection and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Thoughtful decision-making to resolve socioscientific issues is central to science, technology, society, and environment (STSE) education. One approach for attaining this goal involves fostering students' decision-making processes. Thus, the present study explores whether the application of decision-making strategies, combined with reflections on the decision-making processes of others, enhances decision-making competence. In addition, this study examines whether this process is supported by elements of self-regulated learning, i.e., self-reflection regarding one's own performance and the setting of goals for subsequent tasks. A computer-based training program which involves the resolution of socioscientific issues related to sustainable development was developed in two versions: with and without elements of self-regulated learning. Its effects on decision-making competence were analyzed using a pre test-post test follow-up control-group design ( N = 242 high school students). Decision-making competence was assessed using an open-ended questionnaire that focused on three facets: consideration of advantages and disadvantages, metadecision aspects, and reflection on the decision-making processes of others. The findings suggest that students in both training groups incorporated aspects of metadecision into their statements more often than students in the control group. Furthermore, both training groups were more successful in reflecting on the decision-making processes of others. The students who received additional training in self-regulated learning showed greater benefits in terms of metadecision aspects and reflection, and these effects remained significant two months later. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the application of decision-making strategies, combined with reflections on the decision-making process and elements of self-regulated learning, is a fruitful approach in STSE education.

  14. The role of lexical variables in the visual recognition of Chinese characters: A megastudy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yap, Melvin J; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Logographic Chinese orthography partially represents both phonology and semantics. By capturing the online processing of a large pool of Chinese characters, we were able to examine the relative salience of specific lexical variables when this nonalphabetic script is read. Using a sample of native mainland Chinese speakers (N = 35), lexical decision latencies for 1560 single characters were collated into a database, before the effects of a comprehensive range of variables were explored. Hierarchical regression analyses determined the unique item-level variance explained by orthographic (frequency, stroke count), semantic (age of learning, imageability, number of meanings), and phonological (consistency, phonological frequency) factors. Orthographic and semantic variables, respectively, accounted for more collective variance than the phonological variables. Significant main effects were further observed for the individual orthographic and semantic predictors. These results are consistent with the idea that skilled readers tend to rely on orthographic and semantic information when processing visually presented characters. This megastudy approach marks an important extension to existing work on Chinese character recognition, which hitherto has relied on factorial designs. Collectively, the findings reported here represent a useful set of empirical constraints for future computational models of character recognition.

  15. Ambiguity in the Acquisition of Lexical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderwende, Lucy

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the automatic identification of lexical information in on-line dictionaries. This approach uses bootstrapping techniques, specifically so that ambiguity in the dictionary text can be treated properly. This approach consists of processing an on-line dictionary multiple times, each time refining the lexical information previously acquired and identifying new lexical information. The strength of this approach is that lexical information can be acquired from de...

  16. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.

  17. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Cox, Wendy C.; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists’ preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection. PMID:27756927

  18. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin; Gustavsson, Maria; Karlsson, Nadine; Johansson, Gun; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Disfluency effects on lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Young, Torin P; Risko, Evan F

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that introducing a disfluency in the context of written composition (i.e., typing with one hand) can increase lexical sophistication. In the current study, we provide a strong test between two accounts of this phenomenon, one that attributes it to the delay caused by the disfluency and one that attributes it to the disruption of typical finger-to-letter mappings caused by the disfluency. To test between these accounts, we slowed down participants' typewriting by introducing a small delay between keystrokes while individuals wrote essays. Critically, this manipulation did not disrupt typical finger-to-letter mappings. Consistent with the delay-based account, our results demonstrate that the essays written in this less fluent condition were more lexically diverse and used less frequent words. Implications for the temporal dynamics of lexical selection in complex cognitive tasks are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  1. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  2. Automated Sleep Stage Scoring by Decision Tree Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanaoka, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    ... practice regarded as one of the most successful machine learning methods. In our method, first characteristics of EEG, EOG and EMG are compared with characteristic features of alpha waves, delta waves, sleep spindles, K-complexes and REMs...

  3. Learning Representation and Control in Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    449–456. MIT Press, 2006. [35] D. Koller and N. Friedman. Graphical Models. MIT Press, 2009. [36] J. Zico Kolter and Andrew Y. Ng. Regularization and...ICML ’09, pages 521–528, New York, NY, USA, 2009. ACM. [37] J. Zico Kolter and Andrew Y. Ng. Regularization and feature selection in least-squares...temporal differ- ence learning. In Proceedings of 27 th International Conference on Machine Learning, 2009. [38] J. Zico Z. Kolter . The Fixed Points of Off

  4. Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorni Roberta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the variability among studies in the onset of lexical effects may be due to a series of methodological differences. In this study we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours of words in determining the onset of word/non-word discriminative responses. Methods ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in 16 Italian University students engaged in a lexical decision task. Stimuli were 100 words, 100 quasi-words (obtained by the replacement of a single letter, 100 pseudo-words (non-derived and 100 illegal letter strings. All stimuli were balanced for length; words and quasi-words were also balanced for frequency of use, domain of semantic category and imageability. SwLORETA source reconstruction was performed on ERP difference waves of interest. Results Overall, the data provided evidence that the latency of lexical effects (word/non-word discrimination varied as a function of the number of a word's orthographic neighbours, being shorter to non-derived than to derived pseudo-words. This suggests some caveats about the use in lexical decision paradigms of quasi-words obtained by transposing or replacing only 1 or 2 letters. Our findings also showed that the left-occipito/temporal area, reflecting the activity of the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 of the temporal lobe, was affected by the visual familiarity of words, thus explaining its lexical sensitivity (word vs. non-word discrimination. The temporo-parietal area was markedly sensitive to phonological legality exhibiting a clear-cut discriminative response between illegal and legal strings as early as 250 ms of latency. Conclusion The onset of lexical effects in a lexical decision paradigm depends on a series of factors, including orthographic familiarity, degree of global lexical activity, and phonologic legality of non-words.

  5. Lexical Frames and Reported Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Howard

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a problem of lexical choice that arises for ESL/EFL learners in the writing of research papers, critiques, interview reports, or any other sort of discourse that requires source attribution. The problem falls naturally into two parts. One part concerns the general lack of linguistic resources typically available (for various…

  6. Evidence for a differential interference of noise in sub-lexical and lexical reading routes in healthy participants and dyslexics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina Rodrigues, Ana; Rebola, José; Jorge, Helena; Ribeiro, Maria José; Pereira, Marcelino; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; van Asselen, Marieke

    The ineffective exclusion of surrounding noise has been proposed to underlie the reading deficits in developmental dyslexia. However, previous studies supporting this hypothesis focused on low-level visual tasks, providing only an indirect link of noise interference on reading processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of noise on regular, irregular, and pseudoword reading in 23 dyslexic children and 26 age- and IQ-matched controls, by applying the white noise displays typically used to validate this theory to a lexical decision task. Reading performance and eye movements were measured. Results showed that white noise did not consistently affect dyslexic readers more than typical readers. Noise affected more dyslexic than typical readers in terms of reading accuracy, but it affected more typical than dyslexic readers in terms of response time and eye movements (number of fixations and regressions). Furthermore, in typical readers, noise affected more the speed of reading of pseudowords than real words. These results suggest a particular impact of noise on the sub-lexical reading route where attention has to be deployed to individual letters. The use of a lexical route would reduce the effect of noise. A differential impact of noise between words and pseudowords may therefore not be evident in dyslexic children if they are not yet proficient in using the lexical route. These findings indicate that the type of reading stimuli and consequent reading strategies play an important role in determining the effects of noise interference in reading processing and should be taken into account by further studies.

  7. The Effects of Lexical Pitch Accent on Infant Word Recognition in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Ota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of lexical tone languages (e.g., Mandarin develop sensitivity to tonal contrasts and recognize pitch-matched, but not pitch-mismatched, familiar words by 11 months. Learners of non-tone languages (e.g., English also show a tendency to treat pitch patterns as lexically contrastive up to about 18 months. In this study, we examined if this early-developing capacity to lexically encode pitch variations enables infants to acquire a pitch accent system, in which pitch-based lexical contrasts are obscured by the interaction of lexical and non-lexical (i.e., intonational features. Eighteen 17-month-olds learning Tokyo Japanese were tested on their recognition of familiar words with the expected pitch or the lexically opposite pitch pattern. In early trials, infants were faster in shifting their eyegaze from the distractor object to the target object than in shifting from the target to distractor in the pitch-matched condition. In later trials, however, infants showed faster distractor-to-target than target-to-distractor shifts in both the pitch-matched and pitch-mismatched conditions. We interpret these results to mean that, in a pitch-accent system, the ability to use pitch variations to recognize words is still in a nascent state at 17 months.

  8. Imitation learning of car driving skills with decision trees and random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichosz Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is an appealing and useful approach to creating vehicle control algorithms, both for simulated and real vehicles. One common learning scenario that is often possible to apply is learning by imitation, in which the behavior of an exemplary driver provides training instances for a supervised learning algorithm. This article follows this approach in the domain of simulated car racing, using the TORCS simulator. In contrast to most prior work on imitation learning, a symbolic decision tree knowledge representation is adopted, which combines potentially high accuracy with human readability, an advantage that can be important in many applications. Decision trees are demonstrated to be capable of representing high quality control models, reaching the performance level of sophisticated pre-designed algorithms. This is achieved by enhancing the basic imitation learning scenario to include active retraining, automatically triggered on control failures. It is also demonstrated how better stability and generalization can be achieved by sacrificing human-readability and using decision tree model ensembles. The methodology for learning control models contributed by this article can be hopefully applied to solve real-world control tasks, as well as to develop video game bots

  9. Self-Disclosure Decisions of University Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…

  10. “Toward socially responsible agents: integrating attachment and learning in emotional decision-making,”

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ben Moussa and N. Magnenat-Thalmann

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to create socially responsible agents either robots or virtual humans. In this paper we present an integration of emotions attachment and learning in emotional decision making to achieve this goal. Based on emerging psychological theories we aim at building human like emotional decision making where emotions play a central role in selecting the next action to be performed by the agent. Here we present our own approach for emotion appraisal where we use emotional attachment as an i...

  11. Lexical gaps and morphological decomposition: Evidence from German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Swetlana; Lahiri, Aditi

    2018-04-26

    On the evidence of four lexical-decision tasks in German, we examine speakers' sensitivity to internal morphological composition and abstract morphological rules during the processing of derived words, real and novel. In a lexical-decision task with delayed priming, speakers were presented with two-step derived nouns such as Heilung "healing" derived from the adjective heil "intact" via the verb heilen "to heal." These were compared with two sets of derived novel words, one with and the other without an intermediate verb; for example, *Spitzung "sharpening" from spitz "sharp" via spitzen "sharpen" (Experiment 1) and *Hübschung "beautifying" from hübsch "pretty" via *hübschen "beautify" (Experiment 2). The question was whether there would be a difference between the two types of novel words. Both sets were morphologically viable in terms of combinatory possibilities. Results indicated that extant and novel complex words activated their respective base forms; that is, Heilung, *Spitzung, *Hübschung all primed heil, spitz, hübsch. Both sets of novel words were then combined in a third (delayed priming) experiment, where again they primed their bases, but were nevertheless significantly different from each other. Items with real words in the intermediate position (*Spitzung) showed stronger priming effects. Controls that were only related in form or semantics did not prime; neither did structurally unviable pseudowords show priming. A final experiment (Experiment 4), comparing the two types of novel words (*Spitzung vs. *Hübschung) in a simple lexical-decision task, also revealed significant differences across these sets, suggesting that the lexical status of the intermediate derivation affects the processing of novel forms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Development and evaluation of learning module on clinical decision-making in Prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Saee; Lambade, Dipti; Chahande, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Best practice strategies for helping students learn the reasoning skills of problem solving and critical thinking (CT) remain a source of conjecture, particularly with regard to CT. The dental education literature is fundamentally devoid of research on the cognitive components of clinical decision-making. This study was aimed to develop and evaluate the impact of blended learning module on clinical decision-making skills of dental graduates for planning prosthodontics rehabilitation. An interactive teaching module consisting of didactic lectures on clinical decision-making and a computer-assisted case-based treatment planning software was developed Its impact on cognitive knowledge gain in clinical decision-making was evaluated using an assessment involving problem-based multiple choice questions and paper-based case scenarios. Mean test scores were: Pretest (17 ± 1), posttest 1 (21 ± 2) and posttest 2 (43 ± 3). Comparison of mean scores was done with one-way ANOVA test. There was overall significant difference in between mean scores at all the three points (P posttest 1 > pretest. Blended teaching methods employing didactic lectures on the clinical decision-making as well as computer assisted case-based learning can be used to improve quality of clinical decision-making in prosthodontic rehabilitation for dental graduates.

  13. Risky decision making from childhood through adulthood: Contributions of learning and sensitivity to negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G; Lee, Steve S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-02-01

    Decision making in the context of risk is a complex and dynamic process that changes across development. Here, we assessed the influence of sensitivity to negative feedback (e.g., loss) and learning on age-related changes in risky decision making, both of which show unique developmental trajectories. In the present study, we examined risky decision making in 216 individuals, ranging in age from 3-26 years, using the balloon emotional learning task (BELT), a computerized task in which participants pump up a series of virtual balloons to earn points, but risk balloon explosion on each trial, which results in no points. It is important to note that there were 3 balloon conditions, signified by different balloon colors, ranging from quick- to slow-to-explode, and participants could learn the color-condition pairings through task experience. Overall, we found age-related increases in pumps made and points earned. However, in the quick-to-explode condition, there was a nonlinear adolescent peak for points earned. Follow-up analyses indicated that this adolescent phenotype occurred at the developmental intersection of linear age-related increases in learning and decreases in sensitivity to negative feedback. Adolescence was marked by intermediate values on both these processes. These findings show that a combination of linearly changing processes can result in nonlinear changes in risky decision making, the adolescent-specific nature of which is associated with developmental improvements in learning and reduced sensitivity to negative feedback. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Learning discriminative distance functions for valve retrieval and improved decision support in valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Vitanovski, Dime; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Tsymal, Alexey; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Huber, Martin; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Disorders of the heart valves constitute a considerable health problem and often require surgical intervention. Recently various approaches were published seeking to overcome the shortcomings of current clinical practice,that still relies on manually performed measurements for performance assessment. Clinical decisions are still based on generic information from clinical guidelines and publications and personal experience of clinicians. We present a framework for retrieval and decision support using learning based discriminative distance functions and visualization of patient similarity with relative neighborhood graphsbased on shape and derived features. We considered two learning based techniques, namely learning from equivalence constraints and the intrinsic Random Forest distance. The generic approach enables for learning arbitrary user-defined concepts of similarity depending on the application. This is demonstrated with the proposed applications, including automated diagnosis and interventional suitability classification, where classification rates of up to 88.9% and 85.9% could be observed on a set of valve models from 288 and 102 patients respectively.

  15. Supervised learning with decision margins in pools of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mouel, Charlotte; Harris, Kenneth D; Yger, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Learning to categorise sensory inputs by generalising from a few examples whose category is precisely known is a crucial step for the brain to produce appropriate behavioural responses. At the neuronal level, this may be performed by adaptation of synaptic weights under the influence of a training signal, in order to group spiking patterns impinging on the neuron. Here we describe a framework that allows spiking neurons to perform such "supervised learning", using principles similar to the Support Vector Machine, a well-established and robust classifier. Using a hinge-loss error function, we show that requesting a margin similar to that of the SVM improves performance on linearly non-separable problems. Moreover, we show that using pools of neurons to discriminate categories can also increase the performance by sharing the load among neurons.

  16. Lexical orthographic acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Line eBosse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lexical orthography acquisition is currently described as the building of links between the visual forms and the auditory forms of whole words. However, a growing body of data suggests that a motor component could further be involved in orthographic acquisition. A few studies support the idea that reading plus handwriting is a better lexical orthographic learning situation than reading alone. However, these studies did not explore which of the cognitive processes involved in handwriting enhanced lexical orthographic acquisition. Some findings suggest that the specific movements memorized when learning to write may participate in the establishment of orthographic representations in memory. The aim of the present study was to assess this hypothesis using handwriting and spelling aloud as two learning conditions. In two experiments, fifth graders were asked to read complex pseudo-words embedded in short sentences. Immediately after reading, participants had to recall the pseudo-words’ spellings either by spelling them aloud or by handwriting them down. One week later, orthographic acquisition was tested using two post-tests: a pseudo-word production task (spelling by hand in Experiment 1 or spelling aloud in Experiment 2 and a pseudo-word recognition task. Results showed no significant difference in pseudo-word recognition between the two learning conditions. In the pseudo-word production task, orthography learning improved when the learning and post-test conditions were similar, thus showing a massive encoding-retrieval match effect in the two experiments. However, a mixed model analysis of the pseudo-word production results revealed a significant learning condition effect which remained after control of the encoding-retrieval match effect. This later finding suggests that orthography learning is more efficient when mediated by handwriting than by spelling aloud, whatever the post-test production task.

  17. Lexical orthography acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Chaves, Nathalie; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Lexical orthography acquisition is currently described as the building of links between the visual forms and the auditory forms of whole words. However, a growing body of data suggests that a motor component could further be involved in orthographic acquisition. A few studies support the idea that reading plus handwriting is a better lexical orthographic learning situation than reading alone. However, these studies did not explore which of the cognitive processes involved in handwriting enhanced lexical orthographic acquisition. Some findings suggest that the specific movements memorized when learning to write may participate in the establishment of orthographic representations in memory. The aim of the present study was to assess this hypothesis using handwriting and spelling aloud as two learning conditions. In two experiments, fifth graders were asked to read complex pseudo-words embedded in short sentences. Immediately after reading, participants had to recall the pseudo-words' spellings either by spelling them aloud or by handwriting them down. One week later, orthographic acquisition was tested using two post-tests: a pseudo-word production task (spelling by hand in Experiment 1 or spelling aloud in Experiment 2) and a pseudo-word recognition task. Results showed no significant difference in pseudo-word recognition between the two learning conditions. In the pseudo-word production task, orthography learning improved when the learning and post-test conditions were similar, thus showing a massive encoding-retrieval match effect in the two experiments. However, a mixed model analysis of the pseudo-word production results revealed a significant learning condition effect which remained after control of the encoding-retrieval match effect. This later finding suggests that orthography learning is more efficient when mediated by handwriting than by spelling aloud, whatever the post-test production task.

  18. The influence of emotion on lexical processing: insights from RT distributional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Seow, Cui Shan

    2014-04-01

    In two lexical decision experiments, the present study was designed to examine emotional valence effects on visual lexical decision (standard and go/no-go) performance, using traditional analyses of means and distributional analyses of response times. Consistent with an earlier study by Kousta, Vinson, and Vigliocco (Cognition 112:473-481, 2009), we found that emotional words (both negative and positive) were responded to faster than neutral words. Finer-grained distributional analyses further revealed that the facilitation afforded by valence was reflected by a combination of distributional shifting and an increase in the slow tail of the distribution. This suggests that emotional valence effects in lexical decision are unlikely to be entirely mediated by early, preconscious processes, which are associated with pure distributional shifting. Instead, our results suggest a dissociation between early preconscious processes and a later, more task-specific effect that is driven by feedback from semantically rich representations.

  19. A decision analysis framework for stakeholder involvement and learning in groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T. P.; Rossi, P. M.; Ala-aho, P.; Eskelinen, R.; Reinikainen, K.; Kløve, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Yang, H.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly used to facilitate both rigorous analysis and stakeholder involvement in natural and water resource planning. Decision-making in that context is often complex and multi-faceted with numerous trade-offs between social, environmental and economic impacts. However, practical applications of decision-support methods are often too technically oriented and hard to use, understand or interpret for all participants. The learning of participants in these processes is seldom examined, even though successful deliberation depends on learning. This paper analyzes the potential of an interactive MCDA framework, the decision analysis interview (DAI) approach, for facilitating stakeholder involvement and learning in groundwater management. It evaluates the results of the MCDA process in assessing land-use management alternatives in a Finnish esker aquifer area where conflicting land uses affect the groundwater body and dependent ecosystems. In the assessment process, emphasis was placed on the interactive role of the MCDA tool in facilitating stakeholder participation and learning. The results confirmed that the structured decision analysis framework can foster learning and collaboration in a process where disputes and diverse interests are represented. Computer-aided interviews helped the participants to see how their preferences affected the desirability and ranking of alternatives. During the process, the participants' knowledge and preferences evolved as they assessed their initial knowledge with the help of fresh scientific information. The decision analysis process led to the opening of a dialogue, showing the overall picture of the problem context and the critical issues for the further process.

  20. Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Parameters in Predictive and Decision Support Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research a genetic fuzzy system (GFS is proposed that performs discretization parameter learning in the context of the Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR methodology and the Linguistic Rule FIR (LR-FIR algorithm. The main goal of the GFS is to take advantage of the potentialities of GAs to learn the fuzzification parameters of the FIR and LR-FIR approaches in order to obtain reliable and useful predictive (FIR models and decision support (LR-FIR models. The GFS is evaluated in an e-learning context.

  1. Richness of information about novel words influences how episodic and semantic memory networks interact during lexicalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Atsuko; Bakker, Iske; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2014-01-01

    The complementary learning systems account of declarative memory suggests two distinct memory networks, a fast-mapping, episodic system involving the hippocampus, and a slower semantic memory system distributed across the neocortex in which new information is gradually integrated with existing representations. In this study, we investigated the extent to which these two networks are involved in the integration of novel words into the lexicon after extensive learning, and how the involvement of these networks changes after 24h. In particular, we explored whether having richer information at encoding influences the lexicalization trajectory. We trained participants with two sets of novel words, one where exposure was only to the words' phonological forms (the form-only condition), and one where pictures of unfamiliar objects were associated with the words' phonological forms (the picture-associated condition). A behavioral measure of lexical competition (indexing lexicalization) indicated stronger competition effects for the form-only words. Imaging (fMRI) results revealed greater involvement of phonological lexical processing areas immediately after training in the form-only condition, suggesting that tight connections were formed between novel words and existing lexical entries already at encoding. Retrieval of picture-associated novel words involved the episodic/hippocampal memory system more extensively. Although lexicalization was weaker in the picture-associated condition, overall memory strength was greater when tested after a 24hour delay, probably due to the availability of both episodic and lexical memory networks to aid retrieval. It appears that, during lexicalization of a novel word, the relative involvement of different memory networks differs according to the richness of the information about that word available at encoding. © 2013.

  2. Investigating lexical competition and the cost of phonemic restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Morris, David Jackson; Tøndering, John

    2017-01-01

    Due to phonemic restoration, listeners can reliably perceive words when a phoneme is replaced with noise. The cost associated with this process was investigated along with the effect of lexical uniqueness on phonemic restoration, using data from a lexical decision experiment where noise replaced...... phonemes that were either uniqueness points (the phoneme at which a word deviates from all nonrelated words that share the same onset) or phonemes immediately prior to these. A baseline condition was also included with no noise-interrupted stimuli. Results showed a significant cost of phonemic restoration......, with 100 ms longer word identification times and a 14% decrease in word identification accuracy for interrupted stimuli compared to the baseline. Regression analysis of response times from the interrupted conditions showed no effect of whether the interrupted phoneme was a uniqueness point, but significant...

  3. Investigating Lexical Competition and the Cost of Phonemic Restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Morris, David Jackson; Tøndering, John

    2017-01-01

    Due to phonemic restoration, listeners can reliably perceive words when a phoneme is replaced with noise. The cost associated with this process was investigated along with the effect of lexical uniqueness on phonemic restoration, using data from a lexical decision experiment where noise replaced...... phonemes that were either uniqueness points (the phoneme at which a word deviates from all nonrelated words that share the same onset) or phonemes immediately prior to these. A baseline condition was also included with no noise-interrupted stimuli. Results showed a significant cost of phonemic restoration......, with 100 ms longer word identification times and a 14% decrease in word identification accuracy for interrupted stimuli compared to the baseline. Regression analysis of response times from the interrupted conditions showed no effect of whether the interrupted phoneme was a uniqueness point, but significant...

  4. A Feedback Learning and Mental Models Perspective on Strategic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Carlos; Dias, Joao Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to be a contribution to a theoretical model that explains the effectiveness of the learning and decision-making processes by means of a feedback and mental models perspective. With appropriate mental models, managers should be able to improve their capacity to deal with dynamically complex contexts, in order to achieve long-term…

  5. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  6. Lexical polysynthesis : Should we treat lexical bases and their affixes as a continuum ?

    OpenAIRE

    Tersis , Nicole

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Polysynthesis in Inuit appears at both lexical and sentence levels. The analysis of a sampling of 3000 lexical entries and 300 affixes collected in Eastern Greenland (Tunumiisut) shows how polysynthesis works in lexical morphology and how phonetic wastage helps to obscure the motivation for some lexical forms and favors the development of homophones. Furthermore, the analysis of the full set of affixes reveals a number of formal and semantic similarities which relate a...

  7. Lexical mediation of phonotactic frequency effects on spoken word recognition: A Granger causality analysis of MRI-constrained MEG/EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W; Olson, Bruna B

    2015-07-01

    Phonotactic frequency effects play a crucial role in a number of debates over language processing and representation. It is unclear however, whether these effects reflect prelexical sensitivity to phonotactic frequency, or lexical "gang effects" in speech perception. In this paper, we use Granger causality analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to understand how phonotactic frequency influences neural processing dynamics during auditory lexical decision. Effective connectivity analysis showed weaker feedforward influence from brain regions involved in acoustic-phonetic processing (superior temporal gyrus) to lexical areas (supramarginal gyrus) for high phonotactic frequency words, but stronger top-down lexical influence for the same items. Low entropy nonwords (nonwords judged to closely resemble real words) showed a similar pattern of interactions between brain regions involved in lexical and acoustic-phonetic processing. These results contradict the predictions of a feedforward model of phonotactic frequency facilitation, but support the predictions of a lexically mediated account.

  8. Knowledge bases, clinical decision support systems, and rapid learning in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter Paul

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important benefits of health information technology is to assist the cognitive process of the human mind in the face of vast amounts of health data, limited time for decision making, and the complexity of the patient with cancer. Clinical decision support tools are frequently cited as a technologic solution to this problem, but to date useful clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have been limited in utility and implementation. This article describes three unique sources of health data that underlie fundamentally different types of knowledge bases which feed into CDSS. CDSS themselves comprise a variety of models which are discussed. The relationship of knowledge bases and CDSS to rapid learning health systems design is critical as CDSS are essential drivers of rapid learning in clinical care. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Active learning and decision making: an introduction to the collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Lopes, Manuel; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    The importance of exploratory behaviors by which agents actively sample information has been long appreciated in a wide range of disciplines ranging from machine and robot learning to neuroscience and psychology.  Given the complexity of these behaviors, progress in understanding them will require a confluence of ideas from these multiple fields.  This collection of articles in F1000Research aims to provide a home for a broad range of studies addressing this topic, including full length research articles, brief communications, single figure studies, and review/opinion articles, and studies using computational, behavioral or neural approaches.  Here, we provide an introduction to the collection which we hope will grow and become a valuable resource for the researchers exploring this topic.

  10. Improving the functionality of dictionary definitions for lexical sets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008) approach to the design of lexicographic definitions for members of lexical sets. The questions raised are how to define and identify lexical sets, how lexical conceptual models (LCMs) can support definitional consistency and coherence in ...

  11. Symposium: Narrative exploration of learning and career decisions across 7 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvey, Rachel; Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    meaning around learning and skills development in relation to work and employment. All participants were interviewed individually, then a full transcript of the interview was produced. Each country research team analysed these interviews to identify themes. Some themes were born out of the particular...... in continuing vocational education. Analysis across the whole project sample led to the articulation of major themes around learning and career decision-making. The learning themes incorporated complementary perspectives on how individuals make meaning of their experience including: engaging with learning...... was consideration of the ways in which learning contributed to positive labour market outcomes. There were many examples of participants in all seven countries who had previously or were currently in the process of restructuring careers - along with examples of promising practice in this regard....

  12. Deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Feng, Xiaoyi; Chi, Wenhao; Li, Zhengyang; Duan, Wenzhe; Liu, Haiping; Liang, Wenhua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ping; He, Jianxing; Liu, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Deep learning techniques have recently emerged as promising decision supporting approaches to automatically analyze medical images for different clinical diagnosing purposes. Diagnosing of pulmonary nodules by using computer-assisted diagnosing has received considerable theoretical, computational, and empirical research work, and considerable methods have been developed for detection and classification of pulmonary nodules on different formats of images including chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography in the past five decades. The recent remarkable and significant progress in deep learning for pulmonary nodules achieved in both academia and the industry has demonstrated that deep learning techniques seem to be promising alternative decision support schemes to effectively tackle the central issues in pulmonary nodules diagnosing, including feature extraction, nodule detection, false-positive reduction, and benign-malignant classification for the huge volume of chest scan data. The main goal of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that a review is devoted exclusively to deep learning techniques for pulmonary nodules diagnosing.

  13. Strategic Decision-Making Learning from Label Distributions: An Approach for Facial Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Han

    2016-06-28

    Nowadays, label distribution learning is among the state-of-the-art methodologies in facial age estimation. It takes the age of each facial image instance as a label distribution with a series of age labels rather than the single chronological age label that is commonly used. However, this methodology is deficient in its simple decision-making criterion: the final predicted age is only selected at the one with maximum description degree. In many cases, different age labels may have very similar description degrees. Consequently, blindly deciding the estimated age by virtue of the highest description degree would miss or neglect other valuable age labels that may contribute a lot to the final predicted age. In this paper, we propose a strategic decision-making label distribution learning algorithm (SDM-LDL) with a series of strategies specialized for different types of age label distribution. Experimental results from the most popular aging face database, FG-NET, show the superiority and validity of all the proposed strategic decision-making learning algorithms over the existing label distribution learning and other single-label learning algorithms for facial age estimation. The inner properties of SDM-LDL are further explored with more advantages.

  14. Computational prediction of multidisciplinary team decision-making for adjuvant breast cancer drug therapies: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank P Y; Pokorny, Adrian; Teng, Christina; Dear, Rachel; Epstein, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are used to optimise expert decision-making about treatment options, but such expertise is not digitally transferable between centres. To help standardise medical decision-making, we developed a machine learning model designed to predict MDT decisions about adjuvant breast cancer treatments. We analysed MDT decisions regarding adjuvant systemic therapy for 1065 breast cancer cases over eight years. Machine learning classifiers with and without bootstrap aggregation were correlated with MDT decisions (recommended, not recommended, or discussable) regarding adjuvant cytotoxic, endocrine and biologic/targeted therapies, then tested for predictability using stratified ten-fold cross-validations. The predictions so derived were duly compared with those based on published (ESMO and NCCN) cancer guidelines. Machine learning more accurately predicted adjuvant chemotherapy MDT decisions than did simple application of guidelines. No differences were found between MDT- vs. ESMO/NCCN- based decisions to prescribe either adjuvant endocrine (97%, p = 0.44/0.74) or biologic/targeted therapies (98%, p = 0.82/0.59). In contrast, significant discrepancies were evident between MDT- and guideline-based decisions to prescribe chemotherapy (87%, p machine learning models. A machine learning approach based on clinicopathologic characteristics can predict MDT decisions about adjuvant breast cancer drug therapies. The discrepancy between MDT- and guideline-based decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy implies that certain non-clincopathologic criteria, such as patient preference and resource availability, are factored into clinical decision-making by local experts but not captured by guidelines.

  15. Lexical Sophistication as a Multidimensional Phenomenon: Relations to Second Language Lexical Proficiency, Development, and Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2018-01-01

    This study conceptualizes lexical sophistication as a multidimensional phenomenon by reducing numerous lexical features of lexical sophistication into 12 aggregated components (i.e., dimensions) via a principal component analysis approach. These components were then used to predict second language (L2) writing proficiency levels, holistic lexical…

  16. Expert Team Decision-Making and Problem Solving: Development and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tancig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional research of decision-making has not significantly contributed towards better understanding of professional judgment and decisions in practice. Researchers dealing with decision-making in various professions and natural settings initiated new perspectives called naturalistic, which put the expert in the focus of research and the expertise thus entered the core of decision-making research in natural situations.Expert team is more than a group of experts. It is defined as a group of interdependent team members with a high level of task related expertise and the mastering of team processes.There have been several advances in understanding of expertise and the team. By combining theories, models, and empirical evidence we are trying to explain effectiveness and adaptation of expert teams in problem-solving and decision-making in complex and dynamic situations.A considerable research has been devoted to finding out what are the characteristics of experts and expert teams during their optimal functioning. These characteristics are discussed as input, process and output factors. As input variables the cognitive, social-affective, and motivational characteristics are presented. Process variables encompass individual and team learning, problem solving and decision-making as presented in Kolb’s cycle of learning, in deeper structures of dialogue and discussion, and in phenomena of collaboration, alignment, and distributed cognition. Outcome variables deal with task performance – activities.

  17. The role of visual representations during the lexical access of spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David

    2014-07-01

    Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability--concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinka eTimmer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs. Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion (GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud to multiple lexicons.

  19. Better decision making in complex, dynamic tasks training with human-facilitated interactive learning environments

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...

  20. Is problem-based learning an ideal format for developing ethical decision skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Harasym

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethical decision making is a complex process, which involves the interaction of knowledge, skills, and attitude. To enhance the teaching and learning on ethics reasoning, multiple teaching strategies have to be applied. A medical ethical reasoning (MER model served as a framework of the development of ethics reasoning and their suggested instructional strategies. Problem-based learning (PBL, being used to facilitate students' critical thinking, self-directed learning, collaboration, and communication skills, has been considered effective on ethics education, especially when incorporated with experiential experience. Unlike lecturing that mainly disseminates knowledge and activates the left brain, PBL encourages “whole-brain” learning. However, PBL has several disadvantages, such as its inefficiency, lack of adequately trained preceptors, and the in-depth, silo learning within a relatively small number of cases. Because each school tends to utilize PBL in different ways, either the curriculum designer or the learning strategy, it is important to maximize the advantages of a PBL session, PBL then becomes an ideal format for refining students' ethical decisions and behaviors.

  1. On the Safety of Machine Learning: Cyber-Physical Systems, Decision Sciences, and Data Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Kush R; Alemzadeh, Homa

    2017-09-01

    Machine learning algorithms increasingly influence our decisions and interact with us in all parts of our daily lives. Therefore, just as we consider the safety of power plants, highways, and a variety of other engineered socio-technical systems, we must also take into account the safety of systems involving machine learning. Heretofore, the definition of safety has not been formalized in a machine learning context. In this article, we do so by defining machine learning safety in terms of risk, epistemic uncertainty, and the harm incurred by unwanted outcomes. We then use this definition to examine safety in all sorts of applications in cyber-physical systems, decision sciences, and data products. We find that the foundational principle of modern statistical machine learning, empirical risk minimization, is not always a sufficient objective. We discuss how four different categories of strategies for achieving safety in engineering, including inherently safe design, safety reserves, safe fail, and procedural safeguards can be mapped to a machine learning context. We then discuss example techniques that can be adopted in each category, such as considering interpretability and causality of predictive models, objective functions beyond expected prediction accuracy, human involvement for labeling difficult or rare examples, and user experience design of software and open data.

  2. 'Rapid Learning health care in oncology' - an approach towards decision support systems enabling customised radiotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambin, Philippe; Roelofs, Erik; Reymen, Bart; Velazquez, Emmanuel Rios; Buijsen, Jeroen; Zegers, Catharina M L; Carvalho, Sara; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Nalbantov, Georgi; Oberije, Cary; Scott Marshall, M; Hoebers, Frank; Troost, Esther G C; van Stiphout, Ruud G P M; van Elmpt, Wouter; van der Weijden, Trudy; Boersma, Liesbeth; Valentini, Vincenzo; Dekker, Andre

    2013-10-01

    An overview of the Rapid Learning methodology, its results, and the potential impact on radiotherapy. Rapid Learning methodology is divided into four phases. In the data phase, diverse data are collected about past patients, treatments used, and outcomes. Innovative information technologies that support semantic interoperability enable distributed learning and data sharing without additional burden on health care professionals and without the need for data to leave the hospital. In the knowledge phase, prediction models are developed for new data and treatment outcomes by applying machine learning methods to data. In the application phase, this knowledge is applied in clinical practice via novel decision support systems or via extensions of existing models such as Tumour Control Probability models. In the evaluation phase, the predictability of treatment outcomes allows the new knowledge to be evaluated by comparing predicted and actual outcomes. Personalised or tailored cancer therapy ensures not only that patients receive an optimal treatment, but also that the right resources are being used for the right patients. Rapid Learning approaches combined with evidence based medicine are expected to improve the predictability of outcome and radiotherapy is the ideal field to study the value of Rapid Learning. The next step will be to include patient preferences in the decision making. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms

    OpenAIRE

    Zinszer, B. D.; Malt, B. C.; Ameel, Eef; Li, P

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. I...

  4. The boundaries of instance-based learning theory for explaining decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2013-01-01

    Most demonstrations of how people make decisions in risky situations rely on decisions from description, where outcomes and their probabilities are explicitly stated. But recently, more attention has been given to decisions from experience where people discover these outcomes and probabilities through exploration. More importantly, risky behavior depends on how decisions are made (from description or experience), and although prospect theory explains decisions from description, a comprehensive model of decisions from experience is yet to be found. Instance-based learning theory (IBLT) explains how decisions are made from experience through interactions with dynamic environments (Gonzalez et al., 2003). The theory has shown robust explanations of behavior across multiple tasks and contexts, but it is becoming unclear what the theory is able to explain and what it does not. The goal of this chapter is to start addressing this problem. I will introduce IBLT and a recent cognitive model based on this theory: the IBL model of repeated binary choice; then I will discuss the phenomena that the IBL model explains and those that the model does not. The argument is for the theory's robustness but also for clarity in terms of concrete effects that the theory can or cannot account for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep learning decision fusion for the classification of urban remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ghasem; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion is one of the most common and popular remote sensing data classification topics by considering a robust and complete description about the objects of interest. Furthermore, deep feature extraction has recently attracted significant interest and has become a hot research topic in the geoscience and remote sensing research community. A deep learning decision fusion approach is presented to perform multisensor urban remote sensing data classification. After deep features are extracted by utilizing joint spectral-spatial information, a soft-decision made classifier is applied to train high-level feature representations and to fine-tune the deep learning framework. Next, a decision-level fusion classifies objects of interest by the joint use of sensors. Finally, a context-aware object-based postprocessing is used to enhance the classification results. A series of comparative experiments are conducted on the widely used dataset of 2014 IEEE GRSS data fusion contest. The obtained results illustrate the considerable advantages of the proposed deep learning decision fusion over the traditional classifiers.

  6. Evaluating Lexical Cohesion in Nigerian Newspaper Genres: Focus on the Editorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Malah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applied linguists paying scholarly attention to newspaper genres have often argued that findings emerging from such studies would be of pedagogical significance because most of the newspaper genres share certain conventional features with school genres. Similarly, this study explored lexical cohesion in newspaper editorials, and it is understood that the findings could help learners in handling persuasive writings. The study sought to identify the dominant sources of lexical cohesion in the editorials, and also to examine how lexical cohesion is utilized to achieve coherence in the editorials. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL, the study applied Eggins’ (2004 model of lexical cohesion and analyzed 30 editorial texts of 20, 354 words drawn from three major Nigerian newspapers: The Guardian, The Nation, and Vanguard. The analysis revealed 2, 685 ties across 849 sentences. The data demonstrated that the major types of lexical cohesion in the editorials include: repetition (49.5%, expectancy relations (15. 8%, class/sub-class (11%, and synonymy (10.8%. It was further revealed that lexical cohesion devices, which formed into chains (586 and isolated ties (837, were utilized in building coherence in the editorial texts. It was finally shown how findings of the study could be beneficial in ESP, EAP, and EGP learning, especially in persuasive writings.

  7. A Decision-Tree-Oriented Guidance Mechanism for Conducting Nature Science Observation Activities in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment is an authentic learning environment with personalized digital supports. While showing the potential of applying such a learning environment, researchers have also indicated the challenges of providing adaptive and dynamic support to individual students. In this paper, a decision-tree-oriented…

  8. Deal or No Deal: using games to improve student learning, retention and decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne

    2011-03-01

    Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve learned retention with meaningful repetition. In this case study, we investigate using an online version of the television game show, 'Deal or No Deal', to enhance student understanding and retention by playing the game to learn expected value in an introductory statistics course, and to foster development of critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in the modern business environment. Enhancing the thinking process of problem solving using repetitive games should also improve a student's ability to follow non-mathematical problem-solving processes, which should improve the overall ability to process information and make logical decisions. Learning and retention are measured to evaluate the success of the students' performance.

  9. Big Data as a Driver for Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Learning Health Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Dagliati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data technologies are nowadays providing health care with powerful instruments to gather and analyze large volumes of heterogeneous data collected for different purposes, including clinical care, administration, and research. This makes possible to design IT infrastructures that favor the implementation of the so-called “Learning Healthcare System Cycle,” where healthcare practice and research are part of a unique and synergic process. In this paper we highlight how “Big Data enabled” integrated data collections may support clinical decision-making together with biomedical research. Two effective implementations are reported, concerning decision support in Diabetes and in Inherited Arrhythmogenic Diseases.

  10. Prioritising the relevant information for learning and decision making within orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W

    2015-02-01

    Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand.

  11. Investigating lexical competition and the cost of phonemic restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Morris, David Jackson; Tøndering, John

    2017-12-01

    Due to phonemic restoration, listeners can reliably perceive words when a phoneme is replaced with noise. The cost associated with this process was investigated along with the effect of lexical uniqueness on phonemic restoration, using data from a lexical decision experiment where noise replaced phonemes that were either uniqueness points (the phoneme at which a word deviates from all nonrelated words that share the same onset) or phonemes immediately prior to these. A baseline condition was also included with no noise-interrupted stimuli. Results showed a significant cost of phonemic restoration, with 100 ms longer word identification times and a 14% decrease in word identification accuracy for interrupted stimuli compared to the baseline. Regression analysis of response times from the interrupted conditions showed no effect of whether the interrupted phoneme was a uniqueness point, but significant effects for several temporal attributes of the stimuli, including the duration and position of the interrupted segment. These results indicate that uniqueness points are not distinct breakpoints in the cohort reduction that occurs during lexical processing, but that temporal properties of the interrupted stimuli are central to auditory word recognition. These results are interpreted in the context of models of speech perception.

  12. Effect of lexical and syllable frequency in anomic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández Jaramillo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study compares the performance of two groups of participants with and without aphasia anomic in a lexical decision tasks (LDT and spelling, in relation to the effect of the variables of word frequency and syllable. Materials and methods: a prospective study with a 2x2x2 design, which administered the LDT, in which each she/he had to decide if it was a real Spanish word or not, pressing one of two keys. To the task of spelling, they had to spell orally each of words presented auditorily. Results: It was found that in the LTD, the experimental group made more errors in the high-frequency stimuli syllable while the control group had more errors in the low-frequency syllables. In terms of reaction times was evident that the experimental group took longer to solve the task than the control group. The spelling task performance showed no difference in groups or conditions (lexical frequency and syllable. Conclusions: similar than other researches in normalized population, the results of this study demonstrate the effect of lexical frequency facilitation and inhibition that generates high syllable frequency.

  13. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  14. Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. On diffusion processes with variable drift rates as models for decision making during learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, P; Holmes, P; Law, C; Connolly, P M; Gold, J I

    2008-01-01

    We investigate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and diffusion processes with variable drift rates as models of evidence accumulation in a visual discrimination task. We derive power-law and exponential drift-rate models and characterize how parameters of these models affect the psychometric function describing performance accuracy as a function of stimulus strength and viewing time. We fit the models to psychophysical data from monkeys learning the task to identify parameters that best capture performance as it improves with training. The most informative parameter was the overall drift rate describing the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensory evidence used to form the decision, which increased steadily with training. In contrast, secondary parameters describing the time course of the drift during motion viewing did not exhibit steady trends. The results indicate that relatively simple versions of the diffusion model can fit behavior over the course of training, thereby giving a quantitative account of learning effects on the underlying decision process

  16. Lexical exposure to native language dialects can improve non-native phonetic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Annie J; Viswanathan, Navin

    2018-04-01

    Nonnative phonetic learning is an area of great interest for language researchers, learners, and educators alike. In two studies, we examined whether nonnative phonetic discrimination of Hindi dental and retroflex stops can be improved by exposure to lexical items bearing the critical nonnative stops. We extend the lexical retuning paradigm of Norris, McQueen, and Cutler (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 204-238, 2003) by having naive American English (AE)-speaking participants perform a pretest-training-posttest procedure. They performed an AXB discrimination task with the Hindi retroflex and dental stops before and after transcribing naturally produced words from an Indian English speaker that either contained these tokens or not. Only those participants who heard words with the critical nonnative phones improved in their posttest discrimination. This finding suggests that exposure to nonnative phones in native lexical contexts supports learning of difficult nonnative phonetic discrimination.

  17. A Feedback Learning and Mental Models Perspective on Strategic Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Capelo, Carlos; Dias, João Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to be a contribution to a theoretical model that explains the effectiveness of the learning and decision-making processes by means of a feedback and mental models perspective. With appropriate mental models, managers should be able to improve their capacity to deal with dynamically complex contexts, in order to achieve long-term success. We present a set of hypotheses about the influence of feedback information and systems thinking facilitation on mental models and manag...

  18. Lexicalization of idioms in urban fifth graders: a reaction time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Constance Dean; Treaster, Beth; Blood, Gordon W; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2003-01-01

    Idioms are an important aspect of language that comprises a sizeable portion of our vocabulary. However, lexical access research has largely been limited to understanding how literal words are accessed and processed in the mental lexicon. Adult data show that idioms are quickly accessed from the lexicon and are likely processed as long words [J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 18 (1979) 523]. The purpose of this study was to examine lexicalization of idioms in a group of school-aged children. Using a phrase classification design, this research tested the Lexical Representation Hypothesis [J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 18 (1979) 523] in 19 urban fifth graders (5 boys, 14 girls; M age=10.16 years). On a computer, the students classified 54 phrases, including 24 idioms (high, moderate, and low familiarity [J. Speech Hear. Res. 36 (1993) 728]), 24 grammatical control word strings and 6 unrelated foils as either idioms or nonidioms. The idioms were identified with 62% accuracy. Unexpectedly, the boys tended to show higher rates of accuracy than the girls. Response latencies were shorter on the idioms compared to the controls and high familiarity idioms were processed faster than moderate and low familiarity idioms. These findings provide developmental data for lexicalization of idioms and the relationship between lexicalization and familiarity. At the cocnlusion of this articel, the reader will be able to: (1). discuss the various theories of idiom access and processing, (2). discuss how lexical access relates to idiom knowledge in school-aged children, and (3). consider the association between lexical access and familiarity relative to idiom comprehension in school-aged children.

  19. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richmond

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism, achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic" for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  20. Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

    2008-01-01

    The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

  1. Reading Polymorphemic Dutch Compounds: Toward a Multiple Route Model of Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Victor; Schreuder, Robert; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article reports an eye-tracking experiment with 2,500 polymorphemic Dutch compounds presented in isolation for visual lexical decision while readers' eye movements were registered. The authors found evidence that both full forms of compounds ("dishwasher") and their constituent morphemes (e.g., "dish," "washer," "er") and morphological…

  2. Reasoning, learning, and creativity: frontal lobe function and human decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Collins

    Full Text Available The frontal lobes subserve decision-making and executive control--that is, the selection and coordination of goal-directed behaviors. Current models of frontal executive function, however, do not explain human decision-making in everyday environments featuring uncertain, changing, and especially open-ended situations. Here, we propose a computational model of human executive function that clarifies this issue. Using behavioral experiments, we show that unlike others, the proposed model predicts human decisions and their variations across individuals in naturalistic situations. The model reveals that for driving action, the human frontal function monitors up to three/four concurrent behavioral strategies and infers online their ability to predict action outcomes: whenever one appears more reliable than unreliable, this strategy is chosen to guide the selection and learning of actions that maximize rewards. Otherwise, a new behavioral strategy is tentatively formed, partly from those stored in long-term memory, then probed, and if competitive confirmed to subsequently drive action. Thus, the human executive function has a monitoring capacity limited to three or four behavioral strategies. This limitation is compensated by the binary structure of executive control that in ambiguous and unknown situations promotes the exploration and creation of new behavioral strategies. The results support a model of human frontal function that integrates reasoning, learning, and creative abilities in the service of decision-making and adaptive behavior.

  3. Reasoning, learning, and creativity: frontal lobe function and human decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne; Koechlin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The frontal lobes subserve decision-making and executive control--that is, the selection and coordination of goal-directed behaviors. Current models of frontal executive function, however, do not explain human decision-making in everyday environments featuring uncertain, changing, and especially open-ended situations. Here, we propose a computational model of human executive function that clarifies this issue. Using behavioral experiments, we show that unlike others, the proposed model predicts human decisions and their variations across individuals in naturalistic situations. The model reveals that for driving action, the human frontal function monitors up to three/four concurrent behavioral strategies and infers online their ability to predict action outcomes: whenever one appears more reliable than unreliable, this strategy is chosen to guide the selection and learning of actions that maximize rewards. Otherwise, a new behavioral strategy is tentatively formed, partly from those stored in long-term memory, then probed, and if competitive confirmed to subsequently drive action. Thus, the human executive function has a monitoring capacity limited to three or four behavioral strategies. This limitation is compensated by the binary structure of executive control that in ambiguous and unknown situations promotes the exploration and creation of new behavioral strategies. The results support a model of human frontal function that integrates reasoning, learning, and creative abilities in the service of decision-making and adaptive behavior.

  4. Cognitive decision modelling of emotion-based learning impairment in schizophrenia: the role of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Dymond, Simon; Cooper, Andrew; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2012-03-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia often lack insight or awareness. Resulting impairment has been observed in various cognitive domains and, recently, linked to problems in emotion-based learning. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been used to assess emotion-based decision-making in patients with schizophrenia, but results have been inconclusive. The current study further investigates emotion-based decision-making in schizophrenia by elucidating the unique contribution of awareness. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls were assessed with a modified version of the IGT recording awareness at regular intervals. Symptom assessment, medication and medical history were recorded for the clinical group. Patients with schizophrenia underperformed on the IGT compared to controls. Subjective awareness levels were significantly lower in the schizophrenia group and were associated with hallucination severity. Cognitive decision modelling further indicated that patients with schizophrenia had impaired attention to losses, compared to controls. This parameter was positively correlated with awareness. We also found that positive symptoms altered awareness levels and suggest that this disruption may contribute to sub-optimal decision-making. Overall, a lack of awareness may be an important aspect in understanding impaired social cognitive functioning and emotion-based learning observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012, three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011, and four Vocabprofile indices (Cobb, 2000 were selected to measure different dimensions of LC. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA indicated an improvement with regard to only lexical sophistication. Positive and significant relationships were found between time and mean values in Academic Word List and Beyond-2000 as indicators of lexical sophistication. The remaining seven indices of LC, falling short of significance, tended to flatten over the course of this writing program. Correlation analyses among LC indices indicated that lexical density enjoyed positive correlations with lexical sophistication. However, lexical diversity revealed no significant correlations with both lexical density and lexical sophistication. This study suggests that DST perspective specifies a viable foundation for analyzing lexical complexity

  6. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  7. Learning stage-dependent effect of M1 disruption on value-based motor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosiere, Gerard; Vassiliadis, Pierre; Demaret, Sophie; Zénon, Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2017-11-15

    The present study aimed at characterizing the impact of M1 disruption on the implementation of implicit value information in motor decisions, at both early stages (during reinforcement learning) and late stages (after consolidation) of action value encoding. Fifty subjects performed, over three consecutive days, a task that required them to select between two finger responses according to the color (instruction) and to the shape (implicit, undisclosed rule) of an imperative signal: considering the implicit rule in addition to the instruction allowed subjects to earn more money. We investigated the functional contribution of M1 to the implementation of the implicit rule in subjects' motor decisions. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over M1 either on Day 1 or on Day 3, producing a temporary lesion either during reinforcement learning (cTBS Learning group) or after consolidation of the implicit rule, during decision-making (cTBS Decision group), respectively. Interestingly, disrupting M1 activity on Day 1 improved the reliance on the implicit rule, plausibly because M1 cTBS increased dopamine release in the putamen in an indirect way. This finding corroborates the view that cTBS may affect activity in unstimulated areas, such as the basal ganglia. Notably, this effect was short-lasting; it did not persist overnight, suggesting that the functional integrity of M1 during learning is a prerequisite for the consolidation of implicit value information to occur. Besides, cTBS over M1 did not impact the use of the implicit rule when applied on Day 3, although it did so when applied on Day 2 in a recent study where the reliance on the implicit rule declined following cTBS (Derosiere et al., 2017). Overall, these findings indicate that the human M1 is functionally involved in the consolidation and implementation of implicit value information underlying motor decisions. However, M1 contribution seems to vanish as subjects become more experienced in using

  8. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Ren, Jinchang; Jiang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machines (SVM) are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions.

  9. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC and support vector machines (SVM are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions.

  10. Drill and learn: A decision making workflow to quantify value of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.G.; Casanova, P.; Hustoft, L.; Bratvold, R.B.; Nair, R.; Hewson, C.W.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Fonseca, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of reservoir management is to make decisions with the objective of maximizing the value creation from the oil or gas production. In order to do this models that preserve geological realism and have predictive capabilities are being developed and used. These models are commonly calibrated by

  11. Learning to improve medical decision making from imbalanced data without a priori cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-05

    In a medical data set, data are commonly composed of a minority (positive or abnormal) group and a majority (negative or normal) group and the cost of misclassifying a minority sample as a majority sample is highly expensive. This is the so-called imbalanced classification problem. The traditional classification functions can be seriously affected by the skewed class distribution in the data. To deal with this problem, people often use a priori cost to adjust the learning process in the pursuit of optimal classification function. However, this priori cost is often unknown and hard to estimate in medical decision making. In this paper, we propose a new learning method, named RankCost, to classify imbalanced medical data without using a priori cost. Instead of focusing on improving the class-prediction accuracy, RankCost is to maximize the difference between the minority class and the majority class by using a scoring function, which translates the imbalanced classification problem into a partial ranking problem. The scoring function is learned via a non-parametric boosting algorithm. We compare RankCost to several representative approaches on four medical data sets varying in size, imbalanced ratio, and dimension. The experimental results demonstrate that unlike the currently available methods that often perform unevenly with different priori costs, RankCost shows comparable performance in a consistent manner. It is a challenging task to learn an effective classification model based on imbalanced data in medical data analysis. The traditional approaches often use a priori cost to adjust the learning of the classification function. This work presents a novel approach, namely RankCost, for learning from medical imbalanced data sets without using a priori cost. The experimental results indicate that RankCost performs very well in imbalanced data classification and can be a useful method in real-world applications of medical decision making.

  12. Understanding psychiatric disorder by capturing ecologically relevant features of learning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jacqueline; Klein-Flügge, Miriam

    2017-09-28

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms. Here we propose that using computational models with tasks that capture ecologically relevant learning and decision-making processes may provide a critical advantage for capturing the mechanisms underlying symptoms of disorders in psychiatry. As a result, it may help develop mechanistic approaches towards diagnosis and treatment. We begin this review by mapping out the basic concepts and models of learning and decision-making. We then move on to consider specific challenges that emerge in realistic environments and describe how they can be captured by tasks. These include changes of context, uncertainty, reflexive/emotional biases, cost-benefit decision-making, and balancing exploration and exploitation. Where appropriate we highlight future or current links to psychiatry. We particularly draw examples from research on clinical depression, a disorder that greatly compromises motivated behaviours in real-life, but where simpler paradigms have yielded mixed results. Finally, we highlight several paradigms that could be used to help provide new insights into the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of technology-infused interactive learning environments on college professors' instructional decisions and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda Malwathumullage, Chamathca Priyanwada

    Recent advancements in instructional technology and interactive learning space designs have transformed how undergraduate classrooms are envisioned and conducted today. Large number of research studies have documented the impact of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces on elevated student learning gains, positive attitudes, and increased student engagement in undergraduate classrooms across nation. These research findings combined with the movement towards student-centered instructional strategies have motivated college professors to explore the unfamiliar territories of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Only a limited number of research studies that explored college professors' perspective on instructional technology and interactive learning space use in undergraduate classrooms exist in the education research literature. Since college professors are an essential factor in undergraduate students' academic success, investigating how college professors perceive and utilize instructional technology and interactive learning environments can provide insights into designing effective professional development programs for college professors across undergraduate institutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate college professors' pedagogical reasoning behind incorporating different types of instructional technologies and teaching strategies to foster student learning in technology-infused interactive learning environments. Furthermore, this study explored the extent to which college professors' instructional decisions and practices are affected by teaching in an interactive learning space along with their overall perception of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Four college professors from a large public Midwestern university who taught undergraduate science courses in a classroom based on the 'SCALE-UP model' participated in this study. Major data sources included classroom

  14. Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Kit; Elena Berg

    2014-01-01

    Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool In this paper a concept of lexical need is introduced and its application in research of cognitive aspects of translation is discussed. Further discussion elaborates mechanisms of development of translator’s lexical space in the course of translation. Authors discuss the importance and special nature of low-frequency lexical units and difficulties encountered when studying their usage and suggest that the lexical need concept help these stu...

  15. Lexical Density Of English Reading Texts For Senior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Nesia, Bersyebah Herljimsi; Ginting, Siti Aisah

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the lexical density especially the lexical items of English reading texts in the textbook for senior high school. The objectives of the study are to find out the lexical density especially the lexical items which formed in the reading texts of Look Ahead textbook and the type of genre which has the highest lexical density of the reading texts. This study was conducted by descriptive method with qualitative approach. The data of this research were the English reading text...

  16. Statistical Learning and Adaptive Decision-Making Underlie Human Response Time Variability in Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response time (RT is an oft-reported behavioral measure in psychological and neurocognitive experiments, but the high level of observed trial-to-trial variability in this measure has often limited its usefulness. Here, we combine computational modeling and psychophysics to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in this noisy measure reflect dynamic computations in human statistical learning and corresponding cognitive adjustments. We present data from the stop-signal task, in which subjects respond to a go stimulus on each trial, unless instructed not to by a subsequent, infrequently presented stop signal. We model across-trial learning of stop signal frequency, P(stop, and stop-signal onset time, SSD (stop-signal delay, with a Bayesian hidden Markov model, and within-trial decision-making with an optimal stochastic control model. The combined model predicts that RT should increase with both expected P(stop and SSD. The human behavioral data (n=20 bear out this prediction, showing P(stop and SSD both to be significant, independent predictors of RT, with P(stop being a more prominent predictor in 75% of the subjects, and SSD being more prominent in the remaining 25%. The results demonstrate that humans indeed readily internalize environmental statistics and adjust their cognitive/behavioral strategy accordingly, and that subtle patterns in RT variability can serve as a valuable tool for validating models of statistical learning and decision-making. More broadly, the modeling tools presented in this work can be generalized to a large body of behavioral paradigms, in order to extract insights about cognitive and neural processing from apparently quite noisy behavioral measures. We also discuss how this behaviorally validated model can then be used to conduct model-based analysis of neural data, in order to help identify specific brain areas for representing and encoding key computational quantities in learning and decision-making.

  17. Statistical learning and adaptive decision-making underlie human response time variability in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2015-01-01

    Response time (RT) is an oft-reported behavioral measure in psychological and neurocognitive experiments, but the high level of observed trial-to-trial variability in this measure has often limited its usefulness. Here, we combine computational modeling and psychophysics to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in this noisy measure reflect dynamic computations in human statistical learning and corresponding cognitive adjustments. We present data from the stop-signal task (SST), in which subjects respond to a go stimulus on each trial, unless instructed not to by a subsequent, infrequently presented stop signal. We model across-trial learning of stop signal frequency, P(stop), and stop-signal onset time, SSD (stop-signal delay), with a Bayesian hidden Markov model, and within-trial decision-making with an optimal stochastic control model. The combined model predicts that RT should increase with both expected P(stop) and SSD. The human behavioral data (n = 20) bear out this prediction, showing P(stop) and SSD both to be significant, independent predictors of RT, with P(stop) being a more prominent predictor in 75% of the subjects, and SSD being more prominent in the remaining 25%. The results demonstrate that humans indeed readily internalize environmental statistics and adjust their cognitive/behavioral strategy accordingly, and that subtle patterns in RT variability can serve as a valuable tool for validating models of statistical learning and decision-making. More broadly, the modeling tools presented in this work can be generalized to a large body of behavioral paradigms, in order to extract insights about cognitive and neural processing from apparently quite noisy behavioral measures. We also discuss how this behaviorally validated model can then be used to conduct model-based analysis of neural data, in order to help identify specific brain areas for representing and encoding key computational quantities in learning and decision-making.

  18. Lexical Tones in Mandarin Chinese Infant-Directed Speech: Age-Related Changes in the Second Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengru Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tonal information is essential to early word learning in tone languages. Although numerous studies have investigated the intonational and segmental properties of infant-directed speech (IDS, only a few studies have explored the properties of lexical tones in IDS. These studies mostly focused on the first year of life; thus little is known about how lexical tones in IDS change as children’s vocabulary acquisition accelerates in the second year (Goldfield and Reznick, 1990; Bloom, 2001. The present study examines whether Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS addressing 18- and 24-month-old children—at which age children are learning words at a rapid speed—vs. adult-directed speech (ADS. Thirty-nine Mandarin Chinese–speaking mothers were tested in a semi-spontaneous picture-book-reading task, in which they told the same story to their child (IDS condition and to an adult (ADS condition. Results for the F0 measurements (minimum F0, maximum F0, and F0 range of tone in the speech data revealed a continuum of differences among IDS addressing 18-month-olds, IDS addressing 24-month-olds, and ADS. Lexical tones in IDS addressing 18-month-old children had a higher minimum F0, higher maximum F0, and larger pitch range than lexical tones in ADS. Lexical tones in IDS addressing 24-month-old children showed more similarity to ADS tones with respect to pitch height: there were no differences in minimum F0 and maximum F0 between ADS and IDS. However, F0 range was still larger. These results suggest that lexical tones are generally hyperarticulated in Mandarin Chinese IDS addressing 18- and 24- month-old children despite the change in pitch level over time. Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS when talking to toddlers and potentially facilitate tone acquisition and word learning.

  19. Decision Making in Reinforcement Learning Using a Modified Learning Space Based on the Importance of Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Kishima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted on the application of reinforcement learning (RL to robots. A robot which is made for general purpose has redundant sensors or actuators because it is difficult to assume an environment that the robot will face and a task that the robot must execute. In this case, -space on RL contains redundancy so that the robot must take much time to learn a given task. In this study, we focus on the importance of sensors with regard to a robot’s performance of a particular task. The sensors that are applicable to a task differ according to the task. By using the importance of the sensors, we try to adjust the state number of the sensors and to reduce the size of -space. In this paper, we define the measure of importance of a sensor for a task with the correlation between the value of each sensor and reward. A robot calculates the importance of the sensors and makes the size of -space smaller. We propose the method which reduces learning space and construct the learning system by putting it in RL. In this paper, we confirm the effectiveness of our proposed system with an experimental robot.

  20. Manager’s decision-making in organizations –empirical analysis of bureaucratic vs. learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Frenová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of manager’s decision-making with respect to the basic model of learning organization, presented by P. Senge as a system model of management. On one hand, the empirical research was conducted in connection with key dimensions of organizational learning such as: 1. system thinking, 2. personal mastery, 3. mental models, 4. team learning, 5. building shared vision and 6. dynamics causes. On the other hand, the research was connected with the analysis of the bureaucratic logic of decision-making process, characterized by non-functional stability, inflexibility, individualism, power, authority and hierarchy, centralization, vagueness, fragmentariness. The objective of the research was to analyse to what extent manager’s decision–making is based on bureaucratic tools or organizational learning in either complex problem-solving or non-problemsolving decision-making. (MANOVA, method of the repeated measure, intersubject factor – situation: 1. non problematic, 2. problematic. The conclusion of analysis is that there are significant differences in character of solving of problem situation and non-problem situation decision-making: the bureaucratic attributes of decision-making are more intensive in problematic situations while learning approach is more actual in non-problematic situations. The results of our analysis have shown that managers who apply the learning organization attributes in their decision-making. are more successful in problem-solving.

  1. Addressing the Problem of Negative Lexical Transfer Errors in Chilean University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissington, Paul Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Studies of second language learning have revealed a connection between first language transfer and errors in second language production. This paper describes an action research study carried out among Chilean university students studying English as part of their degree programmes. The study focuses on common lexical errors made by Chilean…

  2. Focus on Form, Learner Uptake and Subsequent Lexical Gains in Learners' Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcon-Soler, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wouwe, N.C.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Band, G.P.H.; Abisogun, A.; Elias, W.J.; Frysinger, R.; Wylie, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD).

  4. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, N.C. van; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Wildenberg, W.P.M. van den; Band, G.P.H.; Abisogun, A.; Elias, W.J.; Frysinger, R.; Wylie, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

  5. Data-based decision making for teacher and student learning : a psychological perspective on the role of the teacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Schildkamp, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Data-based decision-making has the potential to increase student achievement results. Data-based decision-making can be defined as teachers’ systematic analysis of data sources in order to study and adapt their educational practices for the purpose of maximizing learning results. Teachers must apply

  6. Emotions as a Vehicle for Rationality: Rational Decision Making Models Based on Emotion-Related Valuing and Hebbian Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.; Umair, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive decision model based on predictive loops through feeling states is analysed from the perspective of rationality. Hebbian learning is considered for different types of connections in the decision model. To assess the extent of rationality, a measure is introduced reflecting

  7. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  8. Enhancing emotion-based learning in decision-making under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, David; Amián, Josué G; Sánchez-Medina, José A

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is widely used to study decision-making differences between several clinical and healthy populations. Unlike the healthy participants, clinical participants have difficulty choosing between advantageous options, which yield long-term benefits, and disadvantageous options, which give high immediate rewards but lead to negative profits. However, recent studies have found that healthy participants avoid the options with a higher frequency of losses regardless of whether or not they are profitable in the long run. The aim of this study was to control for the confounding effect of the frequency of losses between options to improve the performance of healthy participants on the IGT. Eighty healthy participants were randomly assigned to the original IGT or a modified version of the IGT that diminished the gap in the frequency of losses between options. The participants who used the modified IGT version learned to make better decisions based on long-term profit, as indicated by an earlier ability to discriminate good from bad options, and took less time to make their choices. This research represents an advance in the study of decision making under uncertainty by showing that emotion-based learning is improved by controlling for the loss-frequency bias effect.

  9. Addressing the Problem of Negative Lexical Transfer Errors in Chilean University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Dissington

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of second language learning have revealed a connection between first language transfer and errors in second language production. This paper describes an action research study carried out among Chilean university students studying English as part of their degree programmes. The study focuses on common lexical errors made by Chilean Spanish-speakers due to negative first language transfer and aims to analyse the effects of systematic instruction and practice of this problematic lexis. It is suggested that raising awareness of lexical transfer through focused attention on common transfer errors is valued by students and seems essential for learners to achieve productive mastery.

  10. Observing the observer (I): meta-bayesian models of learning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunizeau, Jean; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Pessiglione, Matthias; Kiebel, Stefan J; Stephan, Klaas E; Friston, Karl J

    2010-12-14

    In this paper, we present a generic approach that can be used to infer how subjects make optimal decisions under uncertainty. This approach induces a distinction between a subject's perceptual model, which underlies the representation of a hidden "state of affairs" and a response model, which predicts the ensuing behavioural (or neurophysiological) responses to those inputs. We start with the premise that subjects continuously update a probabilistic representation of the causes of their sensory inputs to optimise their behaviour. In addition, subjects have preferences or goals that guide decisions about actions given the above uncertain representation of these hidden causes or state of affairs. From a Bayesian decision theoretic perspective, uncertain representations are so-called "posterior" beliefs, which are influenced by subjective "prior" beliefs. Preferences and goals are encoded through a "loss" (or "utility") function, which measures the cost incurred by making any admissible decision for any given (hidden) state of affair. By assuming that subjects make optimal decisions on the basis of updated (posterior) beliefs and utility (loss) functions, one can evaluate the likelihood of observed behaviour. Critically, this enables one to "observe the observer", i.e. identify (context- or subject-dependent) prior beliefs and utility-functions using psychophysical or neurophysiological measures. In this paper, we describe the main theoretical components of this meta-Bayesian approach (i.e. a Bayesian treatment of Bayesian decision theoretic predictions). In a companion paper ('Observing the observer (II): deciding when to decide'), we describe a concrete implementation of it and demonstrate its utility by applying it to simulated and real reaction time data from an associative learning task.

  11. Learning-induced uncertainty reduction in perceptual decisions is task-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feitong eYang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making in which decisions are reached primarily from extracting and evaluating sensory information requires close interactions between the sensory system and decision-related networks in the brain. Uncertainty pervades every aspect of this process and can be considered related to either the stimulus signal or decision criterion. Here, we investigated the learning-induced reduction of both the signal and criterion uncertainty in two perceptual decision tasks based on two Glass pattern stimulus sets. This was achieved by manipulating spiral angle and signal level of radial and concentric Glass patterns. The behavioral results showed that the participants trained with a task based on criterion comparison improved their categorization accuracy for both tasks, whereas the participants who were trained on a task based on signal detection improved their categorization accuracy only on their trained task. We fitted the behavioral data with a computational model that can dissociate the contribution of the signal and criterion uncertainties. The modeling results indicated that the participants trained on the criterion comparison task reduced both the criterion and signal uncertainty. By contrast, the participants who were trained on the signal detection task only reduced their signal uncertainty after training. Our results suggest that the signal uncertainty can be resolved by training participants to extract signals from noisy environments and to discriminate between clear signals, which are evidenced by reduced perception variance after both training procedures. Conversely, the criterion uncertainty can only be resolved by the training of fine discrimination. These findings demonstrate that uncertainty in perceptual decision-making can be reduced with training but that the reduction of different types of uncertainty is task-dependent.

  12. Observing the observer (I: meta-bayesian models of learning and decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Daunizeau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a generic approach that can be used to infer how subjects make optimal decisions under uncertainty. This approach induces a distinction between a subject's perceptual model, which underlies the representation of a hidden "state of affairs" and a response model, which predicts the ensuing behavioural (or neurophysiological responses to those inputs. We start with the premise that subjects continuously update a probabilistic representation of the causes of their sensory inputs to optimise their behaviour. In addition, subjects have preferences or goals that guide decisions about actions given the above uncertain representation of these hidden causes or state of affairs. From a Bayesian decision theoretic perspective, uncertain representations are so-called "posterior" beliefs, which are influenced by subjective "prior" beliefs. Preferences and goals are encoded through a "loss" (or "utility" function, which measures the cost incurred by making any admissible decision for any given (hidden state of affair. By assuming that subjects make optimal decisions on the basis of updated (posterior beliefs and utility (loss functions, one can evaluate the likelihood of observed behaviour. Critically, this enables one to "observe the observer", i.e. identify (context- or subject-dependent prior beliefs and utility-functions using psychophysical or neurophysiological measures. In this paper, we describe the main theoretical components of this meta-Bayesian approach (i.e. a Bayesian treatment of Bayesian decision theoretic predictions. In a companion paper ('Observing the observer (II: deciding when to decide', we describe a concrete implementation of it and demonstrate its utility by applying it to simulated and real reaction time data from an associative learning task.

  13. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  14. Strong interactions between learned helplessness and risky decision-making in a rat gambling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, José N; Hedayatmofidi, Parisa S; Lobo, Daniela S

    2016-11-18

    Risky decision-making is characteristic of depression and of addictive disorders, including pathological gambling. However it is not clear whether a propensity to risky choices predisposes to depressive symptoms or whether the converse is the case. Here we tested the hypothesis that rats showing risky decision-making in a rat gambling task (rGT) would be more prone to depressive-like behaviour in the learned helplessness (LH) model. Results showed that baseline rGT choice behaviour did not predict escape deficits in the LH protocol. In contrast, exposure to the LH protocol resulted in a significant increase in risky rGT choices on retest. Unexpectedly, control rats subjected only to escapable stress in the LH protocol showed a subsequent decrease in riskier rGT choices. Further analyses indicated that the LH protocol affected primarily rats with high baseline levels of risky choices and that among these it had opposite effects in rats exposed to LH-inducing stress compared to rats exposed only to the escape trials. Together these findings suggest that while baseline risky decision making may not predict LH behaviour it interacts strongly with LH conditions in modulating subsequent decision-making behaviour. The suggested possibility that stress controllability may be a key factor should be further investigated.

  15. Genetic contributions of the serotonin transporter to social learning of fear and economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G; Pana, Simona; Vulturar, Romana; Heilman, Renata M; Szekely, Raluca; Druğa, Bogdan; Dragoş, Nicolae; Miu, Andrei C

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates emotional and cognitive functions such as fear conditioning (FC) and decision making. This study investigated the effects of a functional polymorphism in the regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) of the human 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) gene on observational FC, risk taking and susceptibility to framing in decision making under uncertainty, as well as multidimensional anxiety and autonomic control of the heart in healthy volunteers. The present results indicate that in comparison to the homozygotes for the long (l) version of 5-HTTLPR, the carriers of the short (s) version display enhanced observational FC, reduced financial risk taking and increased susceptibility to framing in economic decision making. We also found that s-carriers have increased trait anxiety due to threat in social evaluation, and ambiguous threat perception. In addition, s-carriers also show reduced autonomic control over the heart, and a pattern of reduced vagal tone and increased sympathetic activity in comparison to l-homozygotes. This is the first genetic study that identifies the association of a functional polymorphism in a key neurotransmitter-related gene with complex social-emotional and cognitive processes. The present set of results suggests an endophenotype of anxiety disorders, characterized by enhanced social learning of fear, impaired decision making and dysfunctional autonomic activity.

  16. Recognition-based judgments and decisions: What we have learned (so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian N. Marewski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue on recognition processes in inferential decision making represents an adversarial collaboration among the three guest editors. This introductory article to the special issue's third and final part comes in three sections. In Section 1, we summarize the six papers that appear in this part. In Section 2, we give a wrap-up of the lessons learned. Specifically, we discuss (i why studying the recognition heuristic has led to so much controversy, making it difficult to settle on mutually accepted empirically grounded assumptions, (ii whether the development of the recognition heuristic and its theoretical descriptions could explain some of the past controversies and misconceptions, (iii how additional cue knowledge about unrecognized objects could enter the decision process, (iv why recognition heuristic theory should be complemented by a probabilistic model of strategy selection, and (v how recognition information might be related to other information, especially when considering real-world applications. In Section 3, we present an outlook on the thorny but fruitful road to cumulative theory integration. Future research on recognition-based inferences should (i converge on overcoming past controversies, taking an integrative approach to theory building, and considering theories and findings from neighboring fields (such as marketing science and artificial intelligence, (ii build detailed computational process models of decision strategies, grounded in cognitive architectures, (iii test existing models of such strategies competitively, (iv design computational models of the mechanisms of strategy selection, and (v effectively extend its scope to decision making in the wild, outside controlled laboratory situations.

  17. Probabilistic lexical generalization for French dependency parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Henestroza Anguiano , Enrique; Candito , Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates the impact on French dependency parsing of lexical generalization methods beyond lemmatization and morphological analysis. A distributional thesaurus is created from a large text corpus and used for distributional clustering and WordNet automatic sense ranking. The standard approach for lexical generalization in parsing is to map a word to a single generalized class, either replacing the word with the class or adding a new feature for the class....

  18. Lexical Sentiment Analysis in Slovenian Texts

    OpenAIRE

    VOLČANŠEK, MATEJA

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to create a sentiment dictionary for the Slovenian language which can be used in lexical methods for automatic sentiment analysis. We start from a sentiment dictionary for the English language, translate it semi-automatically to Slovenian and curate its content. We test the performance of using the translated dictionary for automated lexical sentiment analysis on a corpus of 5000 manually annotated Slovenian news articles gathered from the main Slovenian news por...

  19. Lexical variations in the Bible translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barashkova Daria Sergeyevna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the comparative analysis of the Ostromir Gospels (1056-1057 and the Synodal translation of the Bible in order to identify lexical variations (alternatives. A source of the analysis are identic contexts from the Bible. Besides the author examines the materials of the others Old Slavonic written manuscripts. As a result of the comparative analysis some lexical options reflecting both synonymic and hyper-hyponymic relations and derivational variability were revealed.

  20. Context effects in embodied lexical-semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel O Van Dam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioural studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that motor involvement during comprehension of sentences is not automatic. Rather, the results suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner.

  1. Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2018-01-01

    Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.

  2. A role of decision-making competency in science learning utilizing a social valuation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuo, Akihito

    2005-11-01

    The role of decision-making in learning performance has been an occasional topic in the research literature in science education, but rarely has it been a central issue in the field. Nonetheless, recent studies regarding the topic in several fields other than education, such as cognitive neuroscience and social choice theory, indicate the fundamental importance(s) of the topic. This study focuses on a possible role of decision-making in science learning. Initially the study was designed to probe the decision-making ability of elementary school children with a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The experiment involved six Montessori 3rd and 4th grade students as the experimental group and eight public school 3rd and 4th grade students as the control group. The result of the modified IGT revealed a tendency in choice trajectories favoring children at the Montessori school. However, the probabilistic value went below the statistically significant level set by the U test. A further study focused on the impact of better decision-making ability revealed in the first experiment on performances with a science learning module that emphasized collective reasoning. The instruction was based on a set of worksheets with multiple choices on which students were asked to make predictions with and to provide supportive arguments regarding outcomes of experiments introduced in the worksheet. Then the whole class was involved with a real experiment to see which choice was correct. The findings in the study indicated that the Montessori students often obtained higher scores than non-Montessori students in making decision with a tendency of consistency in terms of their choices of the alternatives on the worksheets. The findings of the experiments were supported by a correlational analysis that was performed at the end of study. Although no statistically significant correlations were found, there was a tendency for positively associative shifts between the scores of the

  3. Implicit Statistical Learning in Real-World Environments Leads to Ecologically Rational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Sonja; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    2018-01-01

    Ecological rationality results from matching decision strategies to appropriate environmental structures, but how does the matching happen? We propose that people learn the statistical structure of the environment through observation and use this learned structure to guide ecologically rational behavior. We tested this hypothesis in the context of organic foods. In Study 1, we found that products from healthful food categories are more likely to be organic than products from nonhealthful food categories. In Study 2, we found that consumers' perceptions of the healthfulness and prevalence of organic products in many food categories are accurate. Finally, in Study 3, we found that people perceive organic products as more healthful than nonorganic products when the statistical structure justifies this inference. Our findings suggest that people believe organic foods are more healthful than nonorganic foods and use an organic-food cue to guide their behavior because organic foods are, on average, 30% more healthful.

  4. Convergence Of Cloud Computing Internet Of Things And Machine Learning The Future Of Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Crespo-Perez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a framework for understanding the Convergence of Cloud Computing Machine Learning and Internet of Things as the future of Decision Support Systems. To develop this framework the researchers analyzed and synthesized 35 research articles from 2006 to 2017. The results indicated that when the data is massive it is necessary to use computational algorithms and complex analytical techniques. The Internet of Things in combination with the large accumulation of data and data mining improves the learning of automatic intelligence for business. This is due to the fact that the technology has the intelligence to infer and provide solutions based on past experiences and past events.

  5. Decision tree-based learning to predict patient controlled analgesia consumption and readjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yuh-Jyh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate postoperative pain management contributes to earlier mobilization, shorter hospitalization, and reduced cost. The under treatment of pain may impede short-term recovery and have a detrimental long-term effect on health. This study focuses on Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA, which is a delivery system for pain medication. This study proposes and demonstrates how to use machine learning and data mining techniques to predict analgesic requirements and PCA readjustment. Methods The sample in this study included 1099 patients. Every patient was described by 280 attributes, including the class attribute. In addition to commonly studied demographic and physiological factors, this study emphasizes attributes related to PCA. We used decision tree-based learning algorithms to predict analgesic consumption and PCA control readjustment based on the first few hours of PCA medications. We also developed a nearest neighbor-based data cleaning method to alleviate the class-imbalance problem in PCA setting readjustment prediction. Results The prediction accuracies of total analgesic consumption (continuous dose and PCA dose and PCA analgesic requirement (PCA dose only by an ensemble of decision trees were 80.9% and 73.1%, respectively. Decision tree-based learning outperformed Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Rotation Forest, and Naïve Bayesian classifiers in analgesic consumption prediction. The proposed data cleaning method improved the performance of every learning method in this study of PCA setting readjustment prediction. Comparative analysis identified the informative attributes from the data mining models and compared them with the correlates of analgesic requirement reported in previous works. Conclusion This study presents a real-world application of data mining to anesthesiology. Unlike previous research, this study considers a wider variety of predictive factors, including PCA

  6. Does reviewing lead to better learning and decision making? Answers from a randomized stock market experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessa, Patrick; Holliday, Ian E

    2012-01-01

    The literature is not univocal about the effects of Peer Review (PR) within the context of constructivist learning. Due to the predominant focus on using PR as an assessment tool, rather than a constructivist learning activity, and because most studies implicitly assume that the benefits of PR are limited to the reviewee, little is known about the effects upon students who are required to review their peers. Much of the theoretical debate in the literature is focused on explaining how and why constructivist learning is beneficial. At the same time these discussions are marked by an underlying presupposition of a causal relationship between reviewing and deep learning. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the writing of PR feedback causes students to benefit in terms of: perceived utility about statistics, actual use of statistics, better understanding of statistical concepts and associated methods, changed attitudes towards market risks, and outcomes of decisions that were made. We conducted a randomized experiment, assigning students randomly to receive PR or non-PR treatments and used two cohorts with a different time span. The paper discusses the experimental design and all the software components that we used to support the learning process: Reproducible Computing technology which allows students to reproduce or re-use statistical results from peers, Collaborative PR, and an AI-enhanced Stock Market Engine. The results establish that the writing of PR feedback messages causes students to experience benefits in terms of Behavior, Non-Rote Learning, and Attitudes, provided the sequence of PR activities are maintained for a period that is sufficiently long.

  7. Optimal Channel Selection Based on Online Decision and Offline Learning in Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a channel selection strategy with hybrid architecture, which combines the centralized method and the distributed method to alleviate the overhead of access point and at the same time provide more flexibility in network deployment. By this architecture, we make use of game theory and reinforcement learning to fulfill the optimal channel selection under different communication scenarios. Particularly, when the network can satisfy the requirements of energy and computational costs, the online decision algorithm based on noncooperative game can help each individual sensor node immediately select the optimal channel. Alternatively, when the network cannot satisfy the requirements of energy and computational costs, the offline learning algorithm based on reinforcement learning can help each individual sensor node to learn from its experience and iteratively adjust its behavior toward the expected target. Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness of our proposal and also prove that higher system throughput can be achieved by our channel selection strategy over the conventional off-policy channel selection approaches.

  8. Diversity and Density: Lexically Determined Evaluative and Informational Consequences of Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, James J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Defines lexical diversity as manifest vocabulary range and lexical density as the ratio of lexical to gramatical items in a unit of discourse. Examines the effects of lexical diversity and density on listeners' evaluative judgments. (MH)

  9. Assessment of Lexical and Non-Lexical Spelling in Students in Grades 1-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Colenbrander, Danielle; Krajenbrink, Trudy; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop standardised tests that assess some of the most important spelling skills for children in primary school: sound-letter mappings (non-lexical spelling) and word spelling accuracy (lexical spelling). We present normative comparison data for children in Grades 1-7 as well as measures of validity and…

  10. Learning from Multiple Classifier Systems: Perspectives for Improving Decision Making of QSAR Models in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-The, Hai; Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Nga, Doan-Viet; Hai, Dang Thanh; Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Marrero-Poncee, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casanola-Martin, Gerardo M; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2018-02-09

    Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models. One of these directions is the use of Multiple Classifier Systems (MCSs) that potentially provide a means to exploit the advantages of manifold learning through decomposition frameworks, while improving generalization and predictive performance. In this paper, we presented MCS as a next generation of QSAR modeling techniques and discuss the chance to mining the vast number of models already published in the literature. We systematically revisited the theoretical frameworks of MCS as well as current advances in MCS application for QSAR practice. Furthermore, we illustrated our idea by describing ensemble approaches on modeling histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors. We expect that our analysis would contribute to a better understanding about MCS application and its future perspectives for improving the decision making of QSAR models. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Learning Dispatching Rules for Scheduling: A Synergistic View Comprising Decision Trees, Tabu Search and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Shahzad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for an effective shop scheduling that synergizes the benefits of the combinatorial optimization, supervised learning and discrete-event simulation is presented. Though dispatching rules are in widely used by shop scheduling practitioners, only ordinary performance rules are known; hence, dynamic generation of dispatching rules is desired to make them more effective in changing shop conditions. Meta-heuristics are able to perform quite well and carry more knowledge of the problem domain, however at the cost of prohibitive computational effort in real-time. The primary purpose of this research lies in an offline extraction of this domain knowledge using decision trees to generate simple if-then rules that subsequently act as dispatching rules for scheduling in an online manner. We used similarity index to identify parametric and structural similarity in problem instances in order to implicitly support the learning algorithm for effective rule generation and quality index for relative ranking of the dispatching decisions. Maximum lateness is used as the scheduling objective in a job shop scheduling environment.

  12. A tribute to Charlie Chaplin: Induced positive affect improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Richard eRidderinkhof

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning. We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems in putamen-based frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, in learning to predict which actions will yield reward.

  13. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, Rene J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirsch, Gary B [CLE, INCORPORATED

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  14. Performance evaluation of the machine learning algorithms used in inference mechanism of a medical decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mert; Amasyali, M Fatih; Sever, Hayri; Kose, Guven; Demirhan, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets.

  15. Performance Evaluation of the Machine Learning Algorithms Used in Inference Mechanism of a Medical Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Bal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets.

  16. STUDENTS' BEHAVIOUR IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS TO ATTEND AT UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA, INDONESIA DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya MARIA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari peneletian perilaku mahasiswa dalam memilih perguruan tinggi-studi pada Universitas Terbuka adalah menganalisis perilaku mahasiswa memilih kuliah di UT berdasarkan pendekatan Theory of Planned Behavior. Metodologi penelitian ini menggunakan model Theory of Planned Behaviour dari Fishbein dan Ajzen sebagai kerangka teoriThe purpose of the research was to analyse students’ behaviour in choosing a distance learning program at Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia, using the theory of planned behaviour model developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975.Total responden sebanyak 102 mahasiswa UT dari 3 UPBJJ-UT terpilih yang mewakili 3 wilayah dengan skala besar, sedang dan kecil yaitu Jakarta, Malang dan Kupang. The respondents of the research were 102 students from 3 Regional Offices of Jakarta, Malang and Kupang, representing different area and size. Structural Equation Model digunakan untuk menguji model dan hipotesis dalam penelitian. Temuan dalam penelitian menunjukkan norma subyektif berpengaruh signifikan terhadap niat memilih UT dan niat untuk memilih UT secara signifikan berpengaruh terhadap perilaku pemilihan UT. The structural equation model was used to test models and hypotheses in the study. The findings of the study show significant influence of subjective norm on the students’ intentional behaviour to choose distance learning programs. Hal penting yang juga ditemukan dalam penelitian ini adalah norma keperilakuan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap perilaku pemilihan UT.Another important finding of this research is that behavioural norms significantly influence the students’ decision making behaviour in choosing distance learning programs. Temuan penting dalam penelitian ini dapat menjadi masukan penting bagi UT untuk terus meningkatkan pelayanan sehingga dapat memberikan informasi yang baik tentang UT kepada masyarakat. Selain itu pihak UT perlu terus meningkatkan pembentukan komunitas melalui pokjar agar dapat menjadi sarana word

  17. Feature Selection with Conjunctions of Decision Stumps and Learning from Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Marchand, M; Corbeil, J

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of designing feature selection learning algorithms is to obtain classifiers that depend on a small number of attributes and have verifiable future performance guarantees. There are few, if any, approaches that successfully address the two goals simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, such algorithms that give theoretical bounds on the future performance have not been proposed so far in the context of the classification of gene expression data. In this work, we investigate the premise of learning a conjunction (or disjunction) of decision stumps in Occam's Razor, Sample Compression, and PAC-Bayes learning settings for identifying a small subset of attributes that can be used to perform reliable classification tasks. We apply the proposed approaches for gene identification from DNA microarray data and compare our results to those of the well-known successful approaches proposed for the task. We show that our algorithm not only finds hypotheses with a much smaller number of genes while giving competitive classification accuracy but also having tight risk guarantees on future performance, unlike other approaches. The proposed approaches are general and extensible in terms of both designing novel algorithms and application to other domains.

  18. Neural signatures of lexical tone reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica P Y; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-01-01

    Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lexical characteristics of expressive vocabulary in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the extended statistical learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & Dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n = 57; age 21-37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n = 41; age 22-26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler's lexicon were calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Word length was the most consistent predictor of vocabulary size for toddlers with ASD. Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Slovene-English Contrastive Phraseology: Lexical Collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phraseology is seen as one of the key elements and arguably the most productive part of any language. %e paper is focused on collocations and separates them from other phraseological units, such as idioms or compounds. Highlighting the difference between a monolingual and a bilingual (i.e. contrastive approach to collocation, the article presents two distinct classes of collocations: grammatical and lexical. %e latter, treated contrastively, represent the focal point of the paper, since they are an unending source of translation errors to both students of translation and professional translators. %e author introduces a methodology of systematic classification of lexical collocations applied on the Slovene-English language pair and based on structural (lexical congruence and semantic (translational predictability criteria.

  1. Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

  2. COLLOCATION PHRASES IN RELATION TO OTHER LEXICAL PHRASES IN CROATIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goranka Blagus Bartolec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the semantic and lexicological aspects of collocation phrases in Croatian with tendency to separate them from other lexical phrases in Croatian (terms, idioms, names. The collocation phrase is defined as a special lexical phrase on a syntagmatic level, based on the semantic correlation of the two individual lexical components in which their meanings are specified.

  3. Lexical richness and collocational competence in second-language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, I.; Benigno, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report on an experiment set up to investigate lexical richness and collocational competence in the written production of 39 low-intermediate and intermediate learners of Italian L2. Lexical richness was assessed by means of a lexical profiling method inspired by Laufer and Nation

  4. Grade 7 students' normative decision making in science learning about global warming through science technology and society (STS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengam, Piyanuch; Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This study reported Grade 7 students' normative decision making in teaching and learning about global warming through science technology and society (STS) approach. The participants were 43 Grade 7 students in Sungkom, Nongkhai, Thailand. The teaching and learning about global warming through STS approach had carried out for 5 weeks. The global warming unit through STS approach was developed based on framework of Yuenyong (2006) that consisted of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision-making, and (5) socialization stage. Students' normative decision making was collected during their learning by questionnaire, participant observation, and students' tasks. Students' normative decision making were analyzed from both pre-and post-intervention and students' ideas during the intervention. The aspects of normative include influences of global warming on technology and society; influences of values, culture, and society on global warming; and influences of technology on global warming. The findings revealed that students have chance to learn science concerning with the relationship between science, technology, and society through their giving reasons about issues related to global warming. The paper will discuss implications of these for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  5. Psychologists and detainee interrogations: key decisions, opportunities lost, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    After the 9-11 terrorist attacks, U.S. psychologists faced hard choices about what roles, if any, were appropriate for psychologists in the detainee interrogations conducted in settings such as the Bagram Airbase, the Abu Ghraib Prison, and the Guantanamo Bay Detention Camps. The American Psychological Association (APA) sparked intense controversy with its policies and public statements. This article reviews APA decisions, documents, and public statements in this area, in the context of major criticisms and responses to those criticisms. The review focuses on key issues: how the APA created and reported policies in the areas of ethics and national security; transparency; psychologists' professional identities; psychologists' qualifications; ethical-legal conflicts; policies opposing torture; interpretations of avoiding harm; and effective interrogations. It suggests lessons learned, missed opportunities, and questions in need of a fresh approach. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved

  6. Preventing KPI Violations in Business Processes based on Decision Tree Learning and Proactive Runtime Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimka Karastoyanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of business processes is measured and monitored in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs. If the monitoring results show that the KPI targets are violated, the underlying reasons have to be identified and the process should be adapted accordingly to address the violations. In this paper we propose an integrated monitoring, prediction and adaptation approach for preventing KPI violations of business process instances. KPIs are monitored continuously while the process is executed. Additionally, based on KPI measurements of historical process instances we use decision tree learning to construct classification models which are then used to predict the KPI value of an instance while it is still running. If a KPI violation is predicted, we identify adaptation requirements and adaptation strategies in order to prevent the violation.

  7. Reinforcement learning signals in the human striatum distinguish learners from nonlearners during reward-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberg, Tom; Daw, Nathaniel D; Joel, Daphna; O'Doherty, John P

    2007-11-21

    The computational framework of reinforcement learning has been used to forward our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying reward learning and decision-making behavior. It is known that humans vary widely in their performance in decision-making tasks. Here, we used a simple four-armed bandit task in which subjects are almost evenly split into two groups on the basis of their performance: those who do learn to favor choice of the optimal action and those who do not. Using models of reinforcement learning we sought to determine the neural basis of these intrinsic differences in performance by scanning both groups with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We scanned 29 subjects while they performed the reward-based decision-making task. Our results suggest that these two groups differ markedly in the degree to which reinforcement learning signals in the striatum are engaged during task performance. While the learners showed robust prediction error signals in both the ventral and dorsal striatum during learning, the nonlearner group showed a marked absence of such signals. Moreover, the magnitude of prediction error signals in a region of dorsal striatum correlated significantly with a measure of behavioral performance across all subjects. These findings support a crucial role of prediction error signals, likely originating from dopaminergic midbrain neurons, in enabling learning of action selection preferences on the basis of obtained rewards. Thus, spontaneously observed individual differences in decision making performance demonstrate the suggested dependence of this type of learning on the functional integrity of the dopaminergic striatal system in humans.

  8. Modeling the lexical morphology of Western handwritten signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Diaz-Cabrera

    Full Text Available A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures.

  9. Learned helplessness among families and surrogate decision-makers of patients admitted to medical, surgical, and trauma ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Donald R; Liu, Xinggang; Corwin, Douglas S; Verceles, Avelino C; McCurdy, Michael T; Pate, Drew A; Davis, Jennifer M; Netzer, Giora

    2012-12-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of and clinical variables associated with learned helplessness, a psychologic state characterized by reduced motivation, difficulty in determining causality, and depression, in family members of patients admitted to ICUs. We conducted an observational survey study of a prospectively defined cohort of family members, spouses, and partners of patients admitted to surgical, medical, and trauma ICUs at a large academic medical center. Two validated instruments, the Learned Helplessness Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale, were used, and self-report of patient clinical characteristics and subject demographics were collected. Four hundred ninety-nine family members were assessed. Of these, 238 of 460 (51.7%) had responses consistent with a significant degree of learned helplessness. Among surrogate decision-makers, this proportion was 50% (92 of 184). Characteristics associated with significant learned helplessness included grade or high school education (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.27; P = .01) and Perceived Stress Scale score > 18 (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.65-6.50; P learned helplessness (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.98; P = .05). The majority of family members of patients in the ICU experience significant learned helplessness. Risk factors for learned helplessness include lower educational levels, absence of an advance directive or DNR order, and higher stress levels among family members. Significant learned helplessness in family members may have negative implications in the collaborative decision-making process.

  10. The role of inertia in modeling decisions from experience with instance-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Varun; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-01-01

    One form of inertia is the tendency to repeat the last decision irrespective of the obtained outcomes while making decisions from experience (DFE). A number of computational models based upon the Instance-Based Learning Theory, a theory of DFE, have included different inertia implementations and have shown to simultaneously account for both risk-taking and alternations between alternatives. The role that inertia plays in these models, however, is unclear as the same model without inertia is also able to account for observed risk-taking quite well. This paper demonstrates the predictive benefits of incorporating one particular implementation of inertia in an existing IBL model. We use two large datasets, estimation and competition, from the Technion Prediction Tournament involving a repeated binary-choice task to show that incorporating an inertia mechanism in an IBL model enables it to account for the observed average risk-taking and alternations. Including inertia, however, does not help the model to account for the trends in risk-taking and alternations over trials compared to the IBL model without the inertia mechanism. We generalize the two IBL models, with and without inertia, to the competition set by using the parameters determined in the estimation set. The generalization process demonstrates both the advantages and disadvantages of including inertia in an IBL model.

  11. The Malay Lexicon Project: a database of lexical statistics for 9,592 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Liow, Susan J Rickard; Jalil, Sajlia Binte; Faizal, Siti Syuhada Binte

    2010-11-01

    Malay, a language spoken by 250 million people, has a shallow alphabetic orthography, simple syllable structures, and transparent affixation--characteristics that contrast sharply with those of English. In the present article, we first compare the letter-phoneme and letter-syllable ratios for a sample of alphabetic orthographies to highlight the importance of separating language-specific from language-universal reading processes. Then, in order to develop a better understanding of word recognition in orthographies with more consistent mappings to phonology than English, we compiled a database of lexical variables (letter length, syllable length, phoneme length, morpheme length, word frequency, orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes, and orthographic and phonological Levenshtein distances) for 9,592 Malay words. Separate hierarchical regression analyses for Malay and English revealed how the consistency of orthography-phonology mappings selectively modulates the effects of different lexical variables on lexical decision and speeded pronunciation performance. The database of lexical and behavioral measures for Malay is available at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. Plant MicroRNA Prediction by Supervised Machine Learning Using C5.0 Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are nonprotein coding RNAs between 20 and 22 nucleotides long that attenuate protein production. Different types of sequence data are being investigated for novel miRNAs, including genomic and transcriptomic sequences. A variety of machine learning methods have successfully predicted miRNA precursors, mature miRNAs, and other nonprotein coding sequences. MirTools, mirDeep2, and miRanalyzer require “read count” to be included with the input sequences, which restricts their use to deep-sequencing data. Our aim was to train a predictor using a cross-section of different species to accurately predict miRNAs outside the training set. We wanted a system that did not require read-count for prediction and could therefore be applied to short sequences extracted from genomic, EST, or RNA-seq sources. A miRNA-predictive decision-tree model has been developed by supervised machine learning. It only requires that the corresponding genome or transcriptome is available within a sequence window that includes the precursor candidate so that the required sequence features can be collected. Some of the most critical features for training the predictor are the miRNA:miRNA∗ duplex energy and the number of mismatches in the duplex. We present a cross-species plant miRNA predictor with 84.08% sensitivity and 98.53% specificity based on rigorous testing by leave-one-out validation.

  13. Plant MicroRNA Prediction by Supervised Machine Learning Using C5.0 Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Philip H; Eyles, Rod; Weiller, Georg

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are nonprotein coding RNAs between 20 and 22 nucleotides long that attenuate protein production. Different types of sequence data are being investigated for novel miRNAs, including genomic and transcriptomic sequences. A variety of machine learning methods have successfully predicted miRNA precursors, mature miRNAs, and other nonprotein coding sequences. MirTools, mirDeep2, and miRanalyzer require "read count" to be included with the input sequences, which restricts their use to deep-sequencing data. Our aim was to train a predictor using a cross-section of different species to accurately predict miRNAs outside the training set. We wanted a system that did not require read-count for prediction and could therefore be applied to short sequences extracted from genomic, EST, or RNA-seq sources. A miRNA-predictive decision-tree model has been developed by supervised machine learning. It only requires that the corresponding genome or transcriptome is available within a sequence window that includes the precursor candidate so that the required sequence features can be collected. Some of the most critical features for training the predictor are the miRNA:miRNA(∗) duplex energy and the number of mismatches in the duplex. We present a cross-species plant miRNA predictor with 84.08% sensitivity and 98.53% specificity based on rigorous testing by leave-one-out validation.

  14. Lessons Learned From A Study Of Genomics-Based Carrier Screening For Reproductive Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfond, Benjamin S; Kauffman, Tia L; Jarvik, Gail P; Reiss, Jacob A; Richards, C Sue; McMullen, Carmit; Gilmore, Marian; Himes, Patricia; Kraft, Stephanie A; Porter, Kathryn M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Punj, Sumit; Leo, Michael C; Dickerson, John F; Lynch, Frances L; Clarke, Elizabeth; Rope, Alan F; Lutz, Kevin; Goddard, Katrina A B

    2018-05-01

    Genomics-based carrier screening is one of many opportunities to use genomic information to inform medical decision making, but clinicians, health care delivery systems, and payers need to determine whether to offer screening and how to do so in an efficient, ethical way. To shed light on this issue, we conducted a study in the period 2014-17 to inform the design of clinical screening programs and guide further health services research. Many of our results have been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the lessons we learned from that study and offers policy insights. Our experience can inform understanding of the potential impact of expanded carrier screening services on health system workflows and workforces-impacts that depend on the details of the screening approach. We found limited patient or health system harms from expanded screening. We also found that some patients valued the information they learned from the process. Future policy discussions should consider the value of offering such expanded carrier screening in health delivery systems with limited resources.

  15. Usability of clinical decision support system as a facilitator for learning the assistive technology adaptation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Kuflik, Tsvi; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of Ontology Supported Computerized Assistive Technology Recommender (OSCAR), a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the assistive technology adaptation process, its impact on learning the matching process, and to determine the relationship between its usability and learnability. Two groups of expert and novice clinicians (total, n = 26) took part in this study. Each group filled out system usability scale (SUS) to evaluate OSCAR's usability. The novice group completed a learning questionnaire to assess OSCAR's effect on their ability to learn the matching process. Both groups rated OSCAR's usability as "very good", (M [SUS] = 80.7, SD = 11.6, median = 83.7) by the novices, and (M [SUS] = 81.2, SD = 6.8, median = 81.2) by the experts. The Mann-Whitney results indicated that no significant differences were found between the expert and novice groups in terms of OSCAR's usability. A significant positive correlation existed between the usability of OSCAR and the ability to learn the adaptation process (rs = 0.46, p = 0.04). Usability is an important factor in the acceptance of a system. The successful application of user-centered design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically in developing other systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating a CDSS with a focus on its usability is an important factor for its acceptance by its users. Successful usability outcomes can impact the learning process of the subject matter in general, and the AT prescription process in particular. The successful application of User-Centered Design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically. The study emphasizes the importance of close collaboration between the developers and

  16. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kalantari; Javad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC) through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST). Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012), three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011...

  17. Manager’s decision-making in organizations –empirical analysis of bureaucratic vs. learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Frenová; Daniela Hrehová; Eva Bolfíková

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the study of manager’s decision-making with respect to the basic model of learning organization, presented by P. Senge as a system model of management. On one hand, the empirical research was conducted in connection with key dimensions of organizational learning such as: 1. system thinking, 2. personal mastery, 3. mental models, 4. team learning, 5. building shared vision and 6. dynamics causes. On the other hand, the research was connected with the analysis of the bur...

  18. Learning effects of interactive decision-making processes for climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, J.; Plummer, R.; Haug, C.C.; Huitema, D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is gaining attention in relation to governance processes for contemporary environmental challenges; however, scholarship at the nexus of learning and environmental governance lacks clarity and understanding about how to define and measure learning, and the linkages between learning, social

  19. Lexical evolution rates derived from automated stability measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    Phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from the matrix which contains the distances between all pairs of languages in a family. Recently, we proposed a new method which uses normalized Levenshtein distances among words with the same meaning and averages over all the items of a given list. Decisions about the number of items in the input lists for language comparison have been debated since the beginning of glottochronology. The point is that words associated with some of the meanings have a rapid lexical evolution. Therefore, a large vocabulary comparison is only apparently more accurate than a smaller one, since many of the words do not carry any useful information. In principle, one should find the optimal length of the input lists, studying the stability of the different items. In this paper we tackle the problem with an automated methodology based only on our normalized Levenshtein distance. With this approach, the program of an automated reconstruction of language relationships is completed.

  20. The effect of the fragmentation problem in decision tree learning applied to the search for single top quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilalta, R; Ocegueda-Hernandez, F; Valerio, R; Watts, G

    2010-01-01

    Decision tree learning constitutes a suitable approach to classification due to its ability to partition the variable space into regions of class-uniform events, while providing a structure amenable to interpretation, in contrast to other methods such as neural networks. But an inherent limitation of decision tree learning is the progressive lessening of the statistical support of the final classifier as clusters of single-class events are split on every partition, a problem known as the fragmentation problem. We describe a software system called DTFE, for Decision Tree Fragmentation Evaluator, that measures the degree of fragmentation caused by a decision tree learner on every event cluster. Clusters are found through a decomposition of the data using a technique known as Spectral Clustering. Each cluster is analyzed in terms of the number and type of partitions induced by the decision tree. Our domain of application lies on the search for single top quark production, a challenging problem due to large and similar backgrounds, low energetic signals, and low number of jets. The output of the machine-learning software tool consists of a series of statistics describing the degree of data fragmentation.

  1. A new computational account of cognitive control over reinforcement-based decision-making: Modeling of a probabilistic learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehrouh, Sareh

    2015-11-01

    Recent work on decision-making field offers an account of dual-system theory for decision-making process. This theory holds that this process is conducted by two main controllers: a goal-directed system and a habitual system. In the reinforcement learning (RL) domain, the habitual behaviors are connected with model-free methods, in which appropriate actions are learned through trial-and-error experiences. However, goal-directed behaviors are associated with model-based methods of RL, in which actions are selected using a model of the environment. Studies on cognitive control also suggest that during processes like decision-making, some cortical and subcortical structures work in concert to monitor the consequences of decisions and to adjust control according to current task demands. Here a computational model is presented based on dual system theory and cognitive control perspective of decision-making. The proposed model is used to simulate human performance on a variant of probabilistic learning task. The basic proposal is that the brain implements a dual controller, while an accompanying monitoring system detects some kinds of conflict including a hypothetical cost-conflict one. The simulation results address existing theories about two event-related potentials, namely error related negativity (ERN) and feedback related negativity (FRN), and explore the best account of them. Based on the results, some testable predictions are also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. District Decision-Makers' Considerations of Equity and Equality Related to Students' Opportunities to Learn Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Keazer, Lindsay; Traynor, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: In this article we explore equity issues related to school district decision-making about students' opportunities to learn algebra. We chose algebra because of the important role it plays in the U.S. as a gatekeeper to future academic success. Current research has not yet explored issues of equity in district-level…

  3. Applying Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datti, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating J. D. Krumboltz's (1979) social learning theory of career decision making, the author explores career development issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) adolescents and young adults. Unique challenges for the GLBTQ population are discussed, specific recommendations for effective career counseling with…

  4. Beyond IQ: A Latent State-Trait Analysis of General Intelligence, Dynamic Decision Making, and Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Daniel; Hagemann, Dirk; Schankin, Andrea; Hager, Marieke; Funke, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive performance measures beyond IQ. In particular, we investigated the psychometric properties of dynamic decision making variables and implicit learning variables and their relation with general intelligence and professional success. N = 173 employees from different companies and occupational groups completed…

  5. Lexical preferences in Dutch verbal cluster ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bellamy, K.; Karvovskaya, E.; Kohlberger, M.; Saad, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses lexical preferences as a factor affecting the word order variation in Dutch verbal clusters. There are two grammatical word orders for Dutch two-verb clusters, with no clear meaning difference. Using the method of collostructional analysis, I find significant associations

  6. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  7. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  8. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  9. Bilingual visual word recognition and lexical access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Kroll, J.F.; Groot, A.M.B. de

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the intuition of many bilinguals, a review of empirical studies indicates that during reading under many circumstances, possible words from different languages temporarily become active. Such evidence for "language non-selective lexical access" is found using stimulus materials of

  10. Lexical Reading in Dysfluent Readers of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Melanie; Moll, Kristina; Jones, Manon W.; Banfi, Chiara; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Landerl, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading…

  11. A Lexical Approach to Passive in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Fred

    Dissatisfaction with the standard transformational grammar approach to teaching passive voice sentences gave rise to the method developed. It is based on the framework of a lexical-functional grammar, which claims that both active and passive sentences are base-generated, and that both active and passive verb forms occur in the lexicon. It would…

  12. Lexical competition in nonnative speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether such a delay could be attributed to (1) intralingual lexical competition and/or (2) interlingual lexical competition. We recorded EEG from Dutch-English bilinguals who listened to English (L2) sentences in which the sentence-final word was (a) semantically fitting and (b) semantically incongruent or semantically incongruent but initially congruent due to sharing initial phonemes with (c) the most probable sentence completion within the L2 or (d) the L1 translation equivalent of the most probable sentence completion. We found an N400 effect in each of the semantically incongruent conditions. This N400 effect was significantly delayed to L2 words but not to L1 translation equivalents that were initially congruent with the sentence context. Taken together, these findings firstly demonstrate that semantic integration in nonnative listening can start based on word initial phonemes (i.e., before a single lexical candidate could have been selected based on the input) and secondly suggest that spuriously elicited L1 lexical candidates are not available for semantic integration in L2 speech comprehension.

  13. Optimality Theory and Lexical Interpretation and Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, L.; Legendre, G.; Putnam, M.T.; de Swart, H.; Zaroukian, E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues for an optimization approach to the selection and interpretation of words. Several advantages of such an approach to lexical semantics are discussed. First of all, it will be argued that competition, entailing that words and interpretations are always judged in relation to other

  14. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  15. Learning affects top down and bottom up modulation of eye movements in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob L. Orquin; Martin P. Bagger; Simone Mueller Loose

    2013-01-01

    Repeated decision making is subject to changes over time such as decreases in decision time and information use and increases in decision accuracy. We show that a traditional strategy selection view of decision making cannot account for these temporal dynamics without relaxing main assumptions about what defines a decision strategy. As an alternative view we suggest that temporal dynamics in decision making are driven by attentional and perceptual processes and that this view has been express...

  16. Conceptual Frameworks for the Workplace Change Adoption Process: Elements Integration from Decision Making and Learning Cycle Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin Umar, Radin Zaid; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Lavender, Steve A; Sanders, Elizabeth; Evans, Kevin D

    2018-05-14

    Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision making, behavioral change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process. Such frameworks are useful for thinking about adoption in different ways and testing changes to traditional intervention implementation processes. Moving forward, it is recommended that future research focuses on systematic exploration of implementation process activities that integrate principles from the research literature on sensemaking, decision making, and learning processes. Such exploration may provide the groundwork for development of specific implementation strategies that are theoretically grounded and provide a revised understanding of how successful intervention adoption processes work.

  17. Children and the world of words: remarks on lexical development research / As crianças e o mundo das palavras: considerações sobre a pesquisa em desenvolvimento lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de Hollanda Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Psychology research in Brazil has made substantial progress in recent years, however, a basic process remains absent in discussions among Brazilian researchers in the area lexical development. The present paper is aimed at providing a literature review and showing how studies on word learning can contribute to our current understanding of child development. The main findings on lexical development are discussed as well as the main challenges found by researchers who are dedicated to the topic. It is also hoped that this paper can serve as a starting point for Brazilian researchers interested in investigating the process among Portuguese-speaking children.

  18. The utility of observational studies in clinical decision making: lessons learned from statin trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne M; Mendys, Phillip M; Liu, Larry Z; Simpson, Ross J

    2010-05-01

    Contemporary clinical decision making is well supported by a wide variety of information sources, including clinical practice guidelines, position papers, and insights from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Much of our fundamental understanding of cardiovascular risk factors is based on multiple observations from major epidemiologic studies, such as The Seven Country Studies and the US-based Framingham Heart Study. These studies provided the framework for the development of clinical practice guidelines, including the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel series. The objective of this article is to highlight the value of observational studies as a complement to clinical trial data for clinical decision making in real-world practice. Although RCTs are still the benchmark for assessing clinical efficacy and safety of a specific therapeutic approach, they may be of limited utility to practitioners who must then adapt the lessons learned from the trial into the patient care environment. The use of well-structured observational studies can improve our understanding of the translation of clinical trials into clinical practice, as demonstrated here with the example of statins. Although such studies have their own limitations, improved techniques for design and analysis have reduced the impact of bias and confounders. The introduction of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines has provided more uniformity for such studies. When used together with RCTs, observational studies can enhance our understanding of effectiveness and utility in real-world clinical practice. In the examples of statin observational studies, the results suggest that relative effectiveness of different statins and potential impact of switching statins should be carefully considered in treating individual patients by practicing physicians.

  19. Teaching Methods of Lexical Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海珍

    2013-01-01

    There are some important and significant processes that may lead to a word being remembered. This paper intends to discuss and show the author’s opinions about vocabulary learning mechanisms from the three steps: stimulation, retrieval and gen⁃eration.

  20. ‘Rapid Learning health care in oncology’ – An approach towards decision support systems enabling customised radiotherapy’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambin, Philippe; Roelofs, Erik; Reymen, Bart; Velazquez, Emmanuel Rios; Buijsen, Jeroen; Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Carvalho, Sara; Leijenaar, Ralph T.H.; Nalbantov, Georgi; Oberije, Cary; Scott Marshall, M.; Hoebers, Frank; Troost, Esther G.C.; Stiphout, Ruud G.P.M. van; Elmpt, Wouter van; Weijden, Trudy van der; Boersma, Liesbeth; Valentini, Vincenzo; Dekker, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: An overview of the Rapid Learning methodology, its results, and the potential impact on radiotherapy. Material and results: Rapid Learning methodology is divided into four phases. In the data phase, diverse data are collected about past patients, treatments used, and outcomes. Innovative information technologies that support semantic interoperability enable distributed learning and data sharing without additional burden on health care professionals and without the need for data to leave the hospital. In the knowledge phase, prediction models are developed for new data and treatment outcomes by applying machine learning methods to data. In the application phase, this knowledge is applied in clinical practice via novel decision support systems or via extensions of existing models such as Tumour Control Probability models. In the evaluation phase, the predictability of treatment outcomes allows the new knowledge to be evaluated by comparing predicted and actual outcomes. Conclusion: Personalised or tailored cancer therapy ensures not only that patients receive an optimal treatment, but also that the right resources are being used for the right patients. Rapid Learning approaches combined with evidence based medicine are expected to improve the predictability of outcome and radiotherapy is the ideal field to study the value of Rapid Learning. The next step will be to include patient preferences in the decision making

  1. Rapid learning in practice: A lung cancer survival decision support system in routine patient care data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, Andre; Vinod, Shalini; Holloway, Lois; Oberije, Cary; George, Armia; Goozee, Gary; Delaney, Geoff P.; Lambin, Philippe; Thwaites, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: A rapid learning approach has been proposed to extract and apply knowledge from routine care data rather than solely relying on clinical trial evidence. To validate this in practice we deployed a previously developed decision support system (DSS) in a typical, busy clinic for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Material and methods: Gender, age, performance status, lung function, lymph node status, tumor volume and survival were extracted without review from clinical data sources for lung cancer patients. With these data the DSS was tested to predict overall survival. Results: 3919 lung cancer patients were identified with 159 eligible for inclusion, due to ineligible histology or stage, non-radical dose, missing tumor volume or survival. The DSS successfully identified a good prognosis group and a medium/poor prognosis group (2 year OS 69% vs. 27/30%, p < 0.001). Stage was less discriminatory (2 year OS 47% for stage I–II vs. 36% for stage IIIA–IIIB, p = 0.12) with most good prognosis patients having higher stage disease. The DSS predicted a large absolute overall survival benefit (∼40%) for a radical dose compared to a non-radical dose in patients with a good prognosis, while no survival benefit of radical radiotherapy was predicted for patients with a poor prognosis. Conclusions: A rapid learning environment is possible with the quality of clinical data sufficient to validate a DSS. It uses patient and tumor features to identify prognostic groups in whom therapy can be individualized based on predicted outcomes. Especially the survival benefit of a radical versus non-radical dose predicted by the DSS for various prognostic groups has clinical relevance, but needs to be prospectively validated

  2. FORMATION OF PUPILS’ LEXICAL COMPETENCE BY COMPUTER GAMES IN THE STUDY OF UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Kucheruk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of forming the lexical competence of younger teenage pupils with the use of computer games in the process of learning the Ukrainian language, the ways of its solution and the corresponding methodical recommendations are offered. The importance of creating and using computer games in order to improve the quality level of Ukrainian-language education is substantiated. The essence of the concepts of «lexical competence», «educational computer game» is specified. On the basis of analysis of scientific works, synthesis of educational and methodological ideas, generalization of own experience of pedagogical work the conditions of effective use of educational computer games within the limits of Ukrainian-language education are determined. It has been established that the integration of computer games into the traditional Ukrainian language learning system helps to provide internal motivation for learning, activating pupils ‘cognitive activity, forming general and substantive competencies. It is emphasized that the effectiveness of educational computer games in the language training of students depends on the level of professional education, ICT competence and linguodidactic skill of a teacher-translator. The educational potential of an interactive educational game complex is described, which is to stimulate interest in teaching the Ukrainian language and creates opportunities for the formation of lexical competence on the basis of electronic linguodidactics.

  3. Evolutionary strategy to develop learning-based decision systems. Application to breast cancer and liver fibrosis stadialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorunescu, Florin; Belciug, Smaranda

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to propose an evolutionary-based method for building a decision model and, second, to assess and validate the model's performance using five different real-world medical datasets (breast cancer and liver fibrosis) by comparing it with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The evolutionary-inspired approach has been used to develop the learning-based decision model in the following manner: the hybridization of algorithms has been considered as "crossover", while the development of new variants which can be thought of as "mutation". An appropriate hierarchy of the component algorithms was established based on a statistically built fitness measure. A synergetic decision-making process, based on a weighted voting system, involved the collaboration between the selected algorithms in making the final decision. Well-established statistical performance measures and comparison tests have been extensively used to design and implement the model. Finally, the proposed method has been tested on five medical datasets, out of which four publicly available, and contrasted with state-of-the-art techniques, showing its efficiency in supporting the medical decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Societal-Oriented Communication and Decision Making Skills by Learning about Advertising in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Belova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives we are surrounded by advertising in its various forms. Thus in the school context it is not surprising that the issue of advertising is addressed by different subjects, with the main foci being advertising-specific language, images and illustrations, use of stereotypes, strategies of persuasion etc. But advertising also contains factual information, being explicit or implicit, to make a campaign more credible and underline the effectiveness of a certain product. Dealing with the use of factual information in advertising critically is important for the consumer. For many products this information is derived from science and technology. Understanding the science in and behind advertising is necessary to become a critical consumer. Learning about the use of science in advertising also allows promoting societal-oriented communication and decision making skills in the science classroom. Unfortunately, only a few examples on the use of advertising in the science classroom exist. This paper provides a justification for the use of advertising in science education. Examples from the classroom developed in the framework of the PROFILES-project are provided by way of illustration.

  5. Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Developing Countries: Learning from Experiences in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giupponi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision support system (DSS tools are rather popular in the literature on water resources management. The European Project “Splash” conducted a survey of the literature and of DSS implementation in developing countries with specific reference on Africa. Experts in the field were consulted through an ad hoc questionnaire and interviews. The results of the survey indicate that the exchange of experiences amongst projects with similar objectives or even the same case study is very limited, with a tendency towards restarting every time from scratch. As a consequence, it seems that DSS developments have produced only limited positive impacts. Most experts contacted shared either the frustration deriving from the limited impacts on intended end-users, who rarely used the tool after the project end, or in the case of ongoing projects, the preoccupation for future maintenance. Responses from the questionnaires indicate that priority efforts should not focus on developing the tools, but rather on improving the effectiveness and applicability of integrated water resource management legislative and planning frameworks, training and capacity building, networking and cooperation, harmonization of transnational data infrastructures and, very importantly, learning from past experiences and adopting enhanced protocols for DSS development.

  6. Examining Civil Servants' Decisions to Use Web 2.0 Tools for Learning, Based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Horng-Ji

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the decisions of civil servants to use Web 2.0 applications while engaging in online learning. The participants were 439 civil servants enrolled in asynchronous online learning programs, using an e-learning portal provided by Taiwan's Regional Civil Service Development Institute. The participants…

  7. Input frequency and lexical variability in phonological development: a survival analysis of word-initial cluster production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Green, Sam J

    2013-06-01

    Although it has been often hypothesized that children learn to produce new sound patterns first in frequently heard words, the available evidence in support of this claim is inconclusive. To re-examine this question, we conducted a survival analysis of word-initial consonant clusters produced by three children in the Providence Corpus (0 ; 11-4 ; 0). The analysis took account of several lexical factors in addition to lexical input frequency, including the age of first production, production frequency, neighborhood density and number of phonemes. The results showed that lexical input frequency was a significant predictor of the age at which the accuracy level of cluster production in each word first reached 80%. The magnitude of the frequency effect differed across cluster types. Our findings indicate that some of the between-word variance found in the development of sound production can indeed be attributed to the frequency of words in the child's ambient language.

  8. Discrete Emotion Effects on Lexical Decision Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account. PMID:21887307

  9. Discrete Emotion Effects on Lexical Decision Response Times

    OpenAIRE

    Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far....

  10. Discrete emotion effects on lexical decision response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account.

  11. Discrete emotion effects on lexical decision response times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny B Briesemeister

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account.

  12. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What Can Lexical Tone Training Studies in Adults Tell Us about Tone Processing in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies on the acquisition of lexical tone by adult learners have revealed that factors such as language background, musical experience, cognitive abilities, and neuroanatomy all play a role in determining tone learning success. On the basis of these findings, it has been argued that the effectiveness of tone learning in adulthood depends on individual differences in these factors. However, it is not clear whether similar individual differences play an analogous role in tone learning in childhood. Indeed, relatively few studies have made comparisons between how adults and children learn lexical tones. Here, we review recent developments for tone learning in both adults and children. The review covers tone training in a range of contexts, including in naive listeners, in native speakers of other tone languages, in listeners with varying levels of musical experience, and in individuals with speech and hearing disorders. Finally, we discuss the parallels between adult and child tone learning, and provide recommendations concerning how findings in adult tone training can provide insights into tone learning for children by accommodating the needs of individual learners.

  14. Different Influences on Lexical Priming for Integrative, Thematic, and Taxonomic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara L. Jones

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Word pairs may be integrative (i.e., combination of two concepts into one meaningful entity; e.g., fruit - cake, thematically related (i.e., connected in time and place; e.g., party - cake, and/or taxonomically related (i.e., shared features and category co-members; e.g., muffin - cake. Using participant ratings and computational measures, we demonstrated distinct patterns across measures of similarity and co-occurrence, and familiarity for each relational construct in two different item sets. Overall, target RTs and priming magnitudes were consistent across the SOAs for both item sets. However, results of a standard lexical decision task with various delays between prime and target presentation further demonstrated distinct patterns among these three relations on some of the underlying measures influencing target word recognition (LSA, Google, and BEAGLE. These distinct patterns suggest different mechanisms of lexical priming and further demonstrate that integrative relations are distinct from thematic and taxonomic relations.

  15. Broadcast news gisting using lexical cohesion analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Nicola; Newman, Eamonn; Carthy, Joe; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe an extractive method of creating very short summaries or gists that capture the essence of a news story using a linguistic technique called lexical chaining. The recent interest in robust gisting and title generation techniques originates from a need to improve the indexing and browsing capabilities of interactive digital multimedia systems. More specifically these systems deal with streams of continuous data, like a news programme, that require further annotation be...

  16. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  17. Lexical and sublexical units in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Ibrahima; Rey, Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Saffran, Newport, and Aslin (1996a) found that human infants are sensitive to statistical regularities corresponding to lexical units when hearing an artificial spoken language. Two sorts of segmentation strategies have been proposed to account for this early word-segmentation ability: bracketing strategies, in which infants are assumed to insert boundaries into continuous speech, and clustering strategies, in which infants are assumed to group certain speech sequences together into units (Swingley, 2005). In the present study, we test the predictions of two computational models instantiating each of these strategies i.e., Serial Recurrent Networks: Elman, 1990; and Parser: Perruchet & Vinter, 1998 in an experiment where we compare the lexical and sublexical recognition performance of adults after hearing 2 or 10 min of an artificial spoken language. The results are consistent with Parser's predictions and the clustering approach, showing that performance on words is better than performance on part-words only after 10 min. This result suggests that word segmentation abilities are not merely due to stronger associations between sublexical units but to the emergence of stronger lexical representations during the development of speech perception processes. Copyright © 2009, Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Policy for the treatment of insulting and sensitive lexical items in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: policy, treatment, insulting lexical items, sensitive lexical items, dictionary, woordeboek van die afrikaanse taal, simplexes, compounds, expressions, general usage criterion, labelling, synonyms, metalanguage, collocations, editorial usage examples, citations, advisors, racist lexical items, neutral lemmas, ...

  19. Strategic Decision Making Cycle in Higher Education: Case Study of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divjak, Blaženka; Redep, Nina Begicevic

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for strategic decision making in higher education (HE). The methodology is structured as a cycle of strategic decision making with four phases, and it is focused on institutional and national perspective, i.e. on decision making that takes place at institutions of HE and relevant national authorities, in case…

  20. Learning to Make More Effective Decisions: Changing Beliefs as a Prelude to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sheldon

    2004-01-01

    Decision-makers in organizations often make what appear as being intuitively obviously and reasonable decisions, which often turn out to yield unintended outcomes. The cause of such ineffective decisions can be a combination of cognitive biases, poor mental models of complex systems, and errors in thinking provoked by anxiety, all of which tend to…

  1. Learning affects top down and bottom up modulation of eye movements in decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bagger, Martin; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Repeated decision making is subject to changes over time such as decreases in decision time and information use and increases in decision accuracy. We show that a traditional strategy selection view of decision making cannot account for these temporal dynamics without relaxing main assumptions...... about what defines a decision strategy. As an alternative view we suggest that temporal dynamics in decision making are driven by attentional and perceptual processes and that this view has been expressed in the information reduction hypothesis. We test the information reduction hypothesis by integrating...... it in a broader framework of top down and bottom up processes and derive the predictions that repeated decisions increase top down control of attention capture which in turn leads to a reduction in bottom up attention capture. To test our hypotheses we conducted a repeated discrete choice experiment with three...

  2. Exploring the disclosure decisions made by physiotherapists with a specific learning difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeowell, G; Rooney, J; Goodwin, P C

    2018-06-01

    To explore the disclosure decisions made in the workplace by physiotherapy staff with a specific learning difficulty (SpLD). An exploratory qualitative design was used, which was informed by the social model of disability. The research was undertaken in North West England. It is presented according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. A purposive sample of eight physiotherapists recognised as having a SpLD were recruited. All participants had studied on one of two programmes at a university in England between 2004-2012. Their NHS workplace experience was from across the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken within the university setting or via telephone. Interviews lasted 40 to 70minutes and were digitally recorded. An interview guide was used to direct the interview. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four participants were female. The mean number of years qualified as a physiotherapist was 4.5years (SD=2.27). Three themes were identified: 'Disclosing during the workplace application'; 'Positive about disabled people scheme'; 'Disclosing in the workplace'. Disclosure of dyslexia is a selective process and is a central dilemma in the lives of individuals who have a concealable stigmatised identity. As a consequence, physiotherapy staff with dyslexia may choose to conceal their disability and not disclose to their employer. In order for staff with dyslexia to get the support they need in the workplace, disclosure is recommended. A number of recommendations have been made to facilitate the disclosure process. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2012-01-01

    We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively.

  4. Reinforcement Learning Based on the Bayesian Theorem for Electricity Markets Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago; Praca, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a reinforcement learning algorithm based on the application of the Bayesian theorem of probability. The proposed reinforcement learning algorithm is an advantageous and indispensable tool for ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System), a multi...

  5. Lessons learned by (from?) an economist working in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, Peter P

    2008-01-01

    This article is a personal account of the author's experiences as an economist working in medical decision making. He discusses the differences between economic decision theory and medical decision making and gives examples of the mutual benefits resulting from interactions. In particular, he discusses the pros and cons of different methods for measuring quality of life (or, as economists would call it, utility), including the standard gamble, the time tradeoff, and the healthy-years equivalent methods.

  6. Lexical Competition Effects in Aphasia: Deactivation of Lexical Candidates in Spoken Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that Broca's and Wernicke's aphasic patients show different impairments in auditory lexical processing. The results of an experiment with form-overlapping primes showed an inhibitory effect of form-overlap for control adults and a weak inhibition trend for Broca's aphasic patients, but a facilitatory effect of form-overlap was…

  7. Decision-making deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Iowa Gambling Task and Prospect Valence Learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Kang, Bit-Na; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making is the process of forming preferences for possible options, selecting and executing actions, and evaluating the outcome. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) model to investigate deficits in risk-reward related decision-making in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and to identify decision-making processes that contribute to poor IGT performance in these patients. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls participated. Decision-making was measured by total net score, block net scores, and the total number of cards selected from each deck of the IGT. PVL parameters were estimated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme in OpenBugs and BRugs, its interface to R, and the estimated parameters were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The schizophrenia group received significantly lower total net scores compared to the control group. In terms of block net scores, an interaction effect of group × block was observed. The block net scores of the schizophrenia group did not differ across the five blocks, whereas those of the control group increased as the blocks progressed. The schizophrenia group obtained significantly lower block net scores in the fourth and fifth blocks of the IGT and selected cards from deck D (advantageous) less frequently than the control group. Additionally, the schizophrenia group had significantly lower values on the utility-shape, loss-aversion, recency, and consistency parameters of the PVL model. These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia experience deficits in decision-making, possibly due to failure in learning the expected value of each deck, and incorporating outcome experiences of previous trials into expectancies about options in the present trial.

  8. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  9. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

  10. Pathways from Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains--memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)…

  11. Dual-Coding Theory and Connectionist Lexical Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ye-Yi

    1994-01-01

    We introduce the bilingual dual-coding theory as a model for bilingual mental representation. Based on this model, lexical selection neural networks are implemented for a connectionist transfer project in machine translation. This lexical selection approach has two advantages. First, it is learnable. Little human effort on knowledge engineering is required. Secondly, it is psycholinguistically well-founded.

  12. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  13. Some lexical aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans | Davids | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-Afrikaans and the Islamic religious education system at the Cape in this regard. Of particular interest are the changes which occur in the orthoepic nature and syntactical function of inherited and borrowed lexical units, by the affixing of lexical or grammatical morphemes, ...

  14. Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayaraj

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

  15. Lexical Borrowings in the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusanku, Jantmary; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the use of lexical borrowings in ten teaching materials used by the English as Second Language (ESL) teachers in the ESL classrooms in the National Secondary Schools in the Klang district in Selangor, Malaysia. It also discusses the general and pedagogical implications involved in using lexical borrowings. This paper…

  16. The Microstructural Treatment of Sub lexical Lemmas in Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include synonyms and semantic oppositions. Since all Afrikaans descriptive dictionaries supply these lexical relations for lexical lemmas, there is no reason why they should be omitted in the articles of sublexicallemmas. Naturally the synonym or antonym for sublexical lemmas need not be sublexical as well,.

  17. Lexical Orthographic Knowledge Develops from the Beginning of Literacy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Catherine; Valdois, Sylviane; Fayol, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study reports two experiments assessing the spelling performance of French first graders after 3 months and after 9 months of literacy instruction. The participants were asked to spell high and low frequency irregular words (Experiment 1) and pseudowords, some of which had lexical neighbours (Experiment 2). The lexical database which children…

  18. Differential lexical predictors of reading comprehension in fourth graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Verhoeven, L.

    The mental lexicon plays a central role in reading comprehension (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014). It encompasses the number of lexical entries in spoken and written language (vocabulary breadth), the semantic quality of these entries (vocabulary depth), and the connection strength between lexical

  19. The Contribution of Lexical Diversity to College-Level Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Melanie C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated the extent to which lexical frequency and lexical diversity contribute to writing proficiency scores on monolingual English-speaking writers' and advanced multilingual writers' academic compositions. The data consist of essays composed by 104 multilingual English learners enrolled in advanced…

  20. Bedding down new words: Sleep promotes the emergence of lexical competition in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Savage, Greg; Gaskell, M Gareth; Paulin, Tamara; Robidoux, Serje; Castles, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Lexical competition processes are widely viewed as the hallmark of visual word recognition, but little is known about the factors that promote their emergence. This study examined for the first time whether sleep may play a role in inducing these effects. A group of 27 participants learned novel written words, such as banara, at 8 am and were tested on their learning at 8 pm the same day (AM group), while 29 participants learned the words at 8 pm and were tested at 8 am the following day (PM group). Both groups were retested after 24 hours. Using a semantic categorization task, we showed that lexical competition effects, as indexed by slowed responses to existing neighbor words such as banana, emerged 12 h later in the PM group who had slept after learning but not in the AM group. After 24 h the competition effects were evident in both groups. These findings have important implications for theories of orthographic learning and broader neurobiological models of memory consolidation.

  1. How lexical is the lexicon? Evidence for integrated auditory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufahl, April; Samuel, Arthur G

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that lexical representations must include not only linguistic information (what word was said), but also indexical information (how it was said, and by whom). The present work demonstrates that even this expansion is not sufficient. Seemingly irrelevant information, such as an unattended background sound, is retained in memory and can facilitate subsequent speech perception. We presented participants with spoken words paired with environmental sounds (e.g., a phone ringing), and had them make an "animate/inanimate" decision for each word. Later performance identifying filtered versions of the words was impaired to a similar degree if the voice changed or if the environmental sound changed. Moreover, when quite dissimilar words were used at exposure and test, we observed the same result when we reversed the roles of the words and the environmental sounds. The experiments also demonstrated limits to these effects, with no benefit from repetition. Theoretically, our results support two alternative possibilities: (1) Lexical representations are memory representations, and are not walled off from those for other sounds. Indexical effects reflect simply one type of co-occurrence that is incorporated into such representations. (2) The existing literature on indexical effects does not actually bear on lexical representations - voice changes, like environmental sounds heard with a word, produce implicit memory effects that are not tied to the lexicon. We discuss the evidence and implications of these two theoretical alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of visual familiarity for words on interhemispheric cooperation for lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, K

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual familiarity of words on interhemispheric lexical processing. Words and pseudowords were tachistoscopically presented in a left, a right, or bilateral visual fields. Two types of words, Katakana-familiar-type and Hiragana-familiar-type, were used as the word stimuli. The former refers to the words which are more frequently written with Katakana script, and the latter refers to the words which are written predominantly in Hiragana script. Two conditions for the words were set up in terms of visual familiarity for a word. In visually familiar condition, words were presented in familiar script form and in visually unfamiliar condition, words were presented in less familiar script form. The 32 right-handed Japanese students were asked to make a lexical decision. Results showed that a bilateral gain, which indicated that the performance in the bilateral visual fields was superior to that in the unilateral visual field, was obtained only in the visually familiar condition, not in the visually unfamiliar condition. These results suggested that the visual familiarity for a word had an influence on the interhemispheric lexical processing.

  3. Plant security during decommissioning; challenges and lessons learned from German phase out decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Andrea; Esch, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to point out the security challenges that may occur during the decommissioning, based on the issues and lessons learned from the German phase out decision. Though national regulations may be different in other countries the basic problems and issues will be the same. Therefore presented solutions will be applicable in other countries as well. The radioactive material remaining at the NPP during decommissioning has the most influence on how the security measures have to be designed. The radioactive material defines the risk potential of the plant and this determines the needed security level. The following aspects have been challenging in Germany: - Scenarios varying from those, used for plants in operation, due to changed operating conditions - Spent fuel will stay in the spent fuel pool for a quite long period before it can be removed from the plant. Risk potential of the plant stays high and requires a high level of security measures - Security measures according to the existing operating license have to stay in place as they are, unless the first license for decommissioning is given respective the spent fuel is removed from the plant site. This even led to the question if improvements of security measures, planned and announced with focus on a plant remaining in operation for another couple of years, need to be done although they will not be required after removing the spent fuel from the plant. A further important aspect for the security design is the fact that a plant under decommissioning has completely different and strongly varying operating procedures, compared to the stable ones of an operating plant. This leads to different needs concerning workspace, infrastructure on plant site, access to buildings etc. An optimized and highly flexible security concept is needed to ensure an adequate level of security as well as an efficient decommissioning. A deep analysis of the vital plant functions, depending on the different

  4. Reward-dependent learning in neuronal networks for planning and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, S; Changeux, J P

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal network models have been proposed for the organization of evaluation and decision processes in prefrontal circuitry and their putative neuronal and molecular bases. The models all include an implementation and simulation of an elementary reward mechanism. Their central hypothesis is that tentative rules of behavior, which are coded by clusters of active neurons in prefrontal cortex, are selected or rejected based on an evaluation by this reward signal, which may be conveyed, for instance, by the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons with which the prefrontal cortex is densely interconnected. At the molecular level, the reward signal is postulated to be a neurotransmitter such as dopamine, which exerts a global modulatory action on prefrontal synaptic efficacies, either via volume transmission or via targeted synaptic triads. Negative reinforcement has the effect of destabilizing the currently active rule-coding clusters; subsequently, spontaneous activity varies again from one cluster to another, giving the organism the chance to discover and learn a new rule. Thus, reward signals function as effective selection signals that either maintain or suppress currently active prefrontal representations as a function of their current adequacy. Simulations of this variation-selection have successfully accounted for the main features of several major tasks that depend on prefrontal cortex integrity, such as the delayed-response test, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Tower of London test and the Stroop test. For the more complex tasks, we have found it necessary to supplement the external reward input with a second mechanism that supplies an internal reward; it consists of an auto-evaluation loop which short-circuits the reward input from the exterior. This allows for an internal evaluation of covert motor intentions without actualizing them as behaviors, by simply testing them covertly by comparison with memorized former experiences. This element of architecture

  5. How to define a word in a lexical network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Sikora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As underlined in Wierzbicka (1996: 239, a «linguistic definition is a scientific hypothesis about the concept encoded in a given word». The present paper focuses on the problem of what such hypothesis is about. Lexicon of any language is structured with a set of connections relating lexical items. That is to say that speakers of any language need to master not only separate words, but rather a cluster of connected senses. If so, then a lexical definition should lay out the concept the word lexicalizes in the way that gives access to the whole grasp of its conceptual, paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations. We discuss the topic of definitional structures developed in the context of the French Lexical Network (Réseau Lexical du Français.

  6. Decision PBL: A 4-year retrospective case study of the use of virtual patients in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Poulton, Terry; Jivram, Trupti

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, St George's University of London (SGUL) replaced their paper-based problem-based learning (PBL) cases with virtual patients for intermediate-level undergraduate students. This involved the development of Decision-Problem-Based Learning (D-PBL), a variation on progressive-release PBL that uses virtual patients instead of paper cases, and focuses on patient management decisions and their consequences. Using a case study method, this paper describes four years of developing and running D-PBL at SGUL from individual activities up to the ways in which D-PBL functioned as an educational system. A number of broad issues were identified: the importance of debates and decision-making in making D-PBL activities engaging and rewarding; the complexities of managing small group dynamics; the time taken to complete D-PBL activities; the changing role of the facilitator; and the erosion of the D-PBL process over time. A key point in understanding this work is the construction and execution of the D-PBL activity, as much of the value of this approach arises from the actions and interactions of students, their facilitators and the virtual patients rather than from the design of the virtual patients alone. At a systems level D-PBL needs to be periodically refreshed to retain its effectiveness.

  7. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  8. A Database for Decision-Making in Training and Distributed Learning Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stouffer, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    .... A framework for incorporating data about distributed learning courseware into the existing training database was devised and a plan for a national electronic courseware redistribution network was recommended...

  9. Identification of four class emotion from Indonesian spoken language using acoustic and lexical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyidi, Fatan; Puji Lestari, Dessi

    2018-03-01

    One of the important aspects in human to human communication is to understand emotion of each party. Recently, interactions between human and computer continues to develop, especially affective interaction where emotion recognition is one of its important components. This paper presents our extended works on emotion recognition of Indonesian spoken language to identify four main class of emotions: Happy, Sad, Angry, and Contentment using combination of acoustic/prosodic features and lexical features. We construct emotion speech corpus from Indonesia television talk show where the situations are as close as possible to the natural situation. After constructing the emotion speech corpus, the acoustic/prosodic and lexical features are extracted to train the emotion model. We employ some machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes, and Random Forest to get the best model. The experiment result of testing data shows that the best model has an F-measure score of 0.447 by using only the acoustic/prosodic feature and F-measure score of 0.488 by using both acoustic/prosodic and lexical features to recognize four class emotion using the SVM RBF Kernel.

  10. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD  = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehension skills, but better decoding skills than their monolingual peers. There were no differences in working memory or inhibition. Multigroup path analysis showed relatively invariant connections between predictors and reading comprehension for monolingual and bilingual readers. For both groups, there was a direct effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension. In addition, lexical quality and executive control indirectly influenced reading comprehension via syntactic integration. The groups differed in that inhibition more strongly predicted syntactic integration for bilingual than for monolingual children. For a subgroup of bilingual children, for whom home language vocabulary data were available ( n  = 56), there was an additional positive effect of home language vocabulary on second language reading comprehension. Together, the results suggest that similar processes underlie reading comprehension in first and second language readers, but that syntactic integration requires more executive control in second language reading. Moreover, bilingual readers additionally benefit from first language vocabulary to arrive at second language reading comprehension.

  11. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  12. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  13. An integrated information management system based DSS for problem solving and decision making in open & distance learning institutions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Khanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system based DSS is developed for Open and Distance Learning (ODL institutions in India. The system has been web structured with the most suitable newly developed modules. A DSS model has been developed for solving semi-structured and unstructured problems including decision making with regard to various programmes and activities operating in the ODLIs. The DSS model designed for problem solving is generally based on quantitative formulas, whereas for problems involving imprecision and uncertainty, a fuzzy theory based DSS is employed. The computer operated system thus developed would help the ODLI management to quickly identify programmes and activities that require immediate attention. It shall also provide guidance for obtaining the most appropriate managerial decisions without any loss of time. As a result, the various subsystems operating in the ODLI are able to administer its activities more efficiently and effectively to enhance the overall performance of the concerned ODL institution to a new level.

  14. Exceptional Lexical Skills but Executive Language Deficits in School Starters and Young Adults with Turners Syndrome: Implications for X Chromosome Effects on Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M.; Shephard, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    TS school starters had enhanced receptive and expressive language on standardised assessment (CELF-P) and enhanced rhyme judgements, spoonerisms, and lexical decision, indicating enhanced phonological skills and word representations. There was marginal but consistent advantage across lexico-semantic tasks. On executive tasks, speeded naming of…

  15. Innovative and Lexicalized Metaphors in Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Dolar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The metaphor is a multidisciplinary problem which has been addressed in linguistics as well as in philosophy, psychology, anthropology, etc. In linguistics, the problem of metaphor was dealt with in rhetorics, it occupied a special place in structural linguistics, and it was studied in diverse pragmatic, cognitive and textual analysis. In the present paper, metaphors in Slovene are analyzed from the linguistic point of view: grammatical and syntactic structure (monolexical/polylexical, in praesentia/in absentia, etc., semantic field and semantic transfer and degree of conventionality (ranging from innovative to lexicalized metaphors. The cases are taken from the unconventional linguistic corpus, Razvezani jezik, an online dictionary based on collaborative authorship. Authors can freely add new words (formal neologisms or new meanings of existing ones (semantic neologisms which makes it especially interesting for linguistic innovation research. The results show that zoomorphic metaphors are most common and that there is a significant number of reification metaphors (replacing a living being with an object. Phytomorphic metaphors (related to plants are also present, whereas anthropomorphic ones are scarce. These types of metaphors most often refer to character, personality or human behavior, but also to parts of human body, human actions, etc. The corpus is rich in both, lexicalized, conventional as well as in innovative, so called live metaphors, and it seems that Razvezani jezik, an online database for Slovene, is particularly suitable to register these diverse possibilities and usages.

  16. Rapid tryptophan depletion improves decision-making cognition in healthy humans without affecting reversal learning or set shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Watson, David R; Barrett, Suzanne L; Cooper, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Rapid tryptophan (Trp) depletion (RTD) has been reported to cause deterioration in the quality of decision making and impaired reversal learning, while leaving attentional set shifting relatively unimpaired. These findings have been attributed to a more powerful neuromodulatory effect of reduced 5-HT on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) than on dorsolateral PFC. In view of the limited number of reports, the aim of this study was to independently replicate these findings using the same test paradigms. Healthy human subjects without a personal or family history of affective disorder were assessed using a computerized decision making/gambling task and the CANTAB ID/ED attentional set-shifting task under Trp-depleted (n=17; nine males and eight females) or control (n=15; seven males and eight females) conditions, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. There was no significant effect of RTD on set shifting, reversal learning, risk taking, impulsivity, or subjective mood. However, RTD significantly altered decision making such that depleted subjects chose the more likely of two possible outcomes significantly more often than controls. This is in direct contrast to the previous report that subjects chose the more likely outcome significantly less often following RTD. In the terminology of that report, our result may be interpreted as improvement in the quality of decision making following RTD. This contrast between studies highlights the variability in the cognitive effects of RTD between apparently similar groups of healthy subjects, and suggests the need for future RTD studies to control for a range of personality, family history, and genetic factors that may be associated with 5-HT function.

  17. ATLAAS: an automatic decision tree-based learning algorithm for advanced image segmentation in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Beatrice; Marshall, Christopher; Evans, Mererid; Spezi, Emiliano

    2016-07-07

    Accurate and reliable tumour delineation on positron emission tomography (PET) is crucial for radiotherapy treatment planning. PET automatic segmentation (PET-AS) eliminates intra- and interobserver variability, but there is currently no consensus on the optimal method to use, as different algorithms appear to perform better for different types of tumours. This work aimed to develop a predictive segmentation model, trained to automatically select and apply the best PET-AS method, according to the tumour characteristics. ATLAAS, the automatic decision tree-based learning algorithm for advanced segmentation is based on supervised machine learning using decision trees. The model includes nine PET-AS methods and was trained on a 100 PET scans with known true contour. A decision tree was built for each PET-AS algorithm to predict its accuracy, quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), according to the tumour volume, tumour peak to background SUV ratio and a regional texture metric. The performance of ATLAAS was evaluated for 85 PET scans obtained from fillable and printed subresolution sandwich phantoms. ATLAAS showed excellent accuracy across a wide range of phantom data and predicted the best or near-best segmentation algorithm in 93% of cases. ATLAAS outperformed all single PET-AS methods on fillable phantom data with a DSC of 0.881, while the DSC for H&N phantom data was 0.819. DSCs higher than 0.650 were achieved in all cases. ATLAAS is an advanced automatic image segmentation algorithm based on decision tree predictive modelling, which can be trained on images with known true contour, to predict the best PET-AS method when the true contour is unknown. ATLAAS provides robust and accurate image segmentation with potential applications to radiation oncology.

  18. Post Learning Sleep Improves Cognitive-Emotional Decision-Making: Evidence for a ‘Deck B Sleep Effect’ in the Iowa Gambling Task

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Corrine J.; Beninger, Richard J.; Smith, Carlyle T.

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is widely used to assess real life decision-making impairment in a wide variety of clinical populations. Our study evaluated how IGT learning occurs across two sessions, and whether a period of intervening sleep between sessions can enhance learning. Furthermore, we investigate whether pre-sleep learning is necessary for this improvement. A 200-trial version of the IGT was administered at two sessions separated by wake, sleep or sleep and wake (time-of-day control...

  19. What Is Lexical Proficiency? Some Answers from Computational Models of Speech Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Lexical proficiency, as a cognitive construct, is poorly understood. However, lexical proficiency is an important element of language proficiency and fluency, especially for second language (L2) learners. Lexical proficiency is also an important attribute of L2 academic achievement. Generally speaking, lexical proficiency comprises breadth of…

  20. Lifelong Transfer Learning for Heterogeneous Teams of Agents in Sequential Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    computational complexity and exhibits sublinear regret , thus providing strong theoretical guarantees [Bou Ammar et al., 2015b] (see Appendix C for details...transferred knowledge, providing a potential mechanism for predicting the effectiveness of transfer learning (and thereby avoiding negative transfer). One...learning from demonstration. We theoretically and empirically analyze the performance of the proposed method and derive, for the first time, regret

  1. 'Rapid Learning health care in oncology' - An approach towards decision support systems enabling customised radiotherapy'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambin, P.; Roelofs, E.; Reymen, B.; Velazquez, E.R.; Buijsen, J.; Zegers, C.M.; Carvalho, S.; Leijenaar, R.T.; Nalbantov, G.; Oberije, C.; Marshall, M.; Hoebers, F.; Troost, E.G.C.; Stiphout, R.G.; Elmpt, W. van; Weijden, T.T. van der; Boersma, L.; Valentini, V.; Dekker, A.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: An overview of the Rapid Learning methodology, its results, and the potential impact on radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND RESULTS: Rapid Learning methodology is divided into four phases. In the data phase, diverse data are collected about past patients, treatments used, and outcomes. Innovative

  2. Modeling flash floods in ungauged mountain catchments of China: A decision tree learning approach for parameter regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods in small mountain catchments are one of the most frequent causes of loss of life and property from natural hazards in China. Hydrological models can be a useful tool for the anticipation of these events and the issuing of timely warnings. Since sub-daily streamflow information is unavailable for most small basins in China, one of the main challenges is finding appropriate parameter values for simulating flash floods in ungauged catchments. In this study, we use decision tree learning to explore parameter set transferability between different catchments. For this purpose, the physically-based, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model PRMS-OMS is set up for 35 catchments in ten Chinese provinces. Hourly data from more than 800 storm runoff events are used to calibrate the model and evaluate the performance of parameter set transfers between catchments. For each catchment, 58 catchment attributes are extracted from several data sets available for whole China. We then use a data mining technique (decision tree learning) to identify catchment similarities that can be related to good transfer performance. Finally, we use the splitting rules of decision trees for finding suitable donor catchments for ungauged target catchments. We show that decision tree learning allows to optimally utilize the information content of available catchment descriptors and outperforms regionalization based on a conventional measure of physiographic-climatic similarity by 15%-20%. Similar performance can be achieved with a regionalization method based on spatial proximity, but decision trees offer flexible rules for selecting suitable donor catchments, not relying on the vicinity of gauged catchments. This flexibility makes the method particularly suitable for implementation in sparsely gauged environments. We evaluate the probability to detect flood events exceeding a given return period, considering measured discharge and PRMS-OMS simulated flows with regionalized parameters

  3. Evaluation on knowledge extraction and machine learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation on knowledge extraction and machine learning in resolving Malay word ambiguity. ... No 5S (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Keywords: ambiguity; lexical knowledge; machine learning; Malay word ...

  4. Learning in data-limited multimodal scenarios: Scandent decision forests and tree-based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Soheil; Moradi, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Incomplete and inconsistent datasets often pose difficulties in multimodal studies. We introduce the concept of scandent decision trees to tackle these difficulties. Scandent trees are decision trees that optimally mimic the partitioning of the data determined by another decision tree, and crucially, use only a subset of the feature set. We show how scandent trees can be used to enhance the performance of decision forests trained on a small number of multimodal samples when we have access to larger datasets with vastly incomplete feature sets. Additionally, we introduce the concept of tree-based feature transforms in the decision forest paradigm. When combined with scandent trees, the tree-based feature transforms enable us to train a classifier on a rich multimodal dataset, and use it to classify samples with only a subset of features of the training data. Using this methodology, we build a model trained on MRI and PET images of the ADNI dataset, and then test it on cases with only MRI data. We show that this is significantly more effective in staging of cognitive impairments compared to a similar decision forest model trained and tested on MRI only, or one that uses other kinds of feature transform applied to the MRI data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. What practice can learn from theory: The potential impact of disposition decision factors on organisational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Badenhorst

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective disposition decisions can lead to a number of value-adding benefits including economic, environmental and marketing benefits. Despite this, many organisations are not aware of the importance of disposition decisions and the impact they can have on organisational performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential impact of disposition decision factors on organisational performance. Method: This study made use of a qualitative content analysis method on previously published scientific articles on reverse logistics. The sample included 67 published scientific articles between 2006 and 2016. ATLAS.ti software was used to assist with the data analysis process. Findings: The findings showed a number of factors for disposition decision-making resulting in a number of value-adding benefits, which can improve organisational performance. From the findings, a conceptual framework was developed linking the disposition decision factors with the value-adding benefits and areas of organisational performance improvements. Conclusion: The framework developed in this article contributes to new insights and can help organisations to identify different performance improvement areas associated with certain disposition decision factors.

  6. Decision-making deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Iowa Gambling Task and Prospect Valence Learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myung-Sun Kim,1 Bit-Na Kang,1 Jae Young Lim2 1Department of Psychology, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Medical Foundation, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, Republic of Korea Purpose: Decision-making is the process of forming preferences for possible options, selecting and executing actions, and evaluating the outcome. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL model to investigate deficits in risk-reward related decision-making in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and to identify decision-making processes that contribute to poor IGT performance in these patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls participated. Decision-making was measured by total net score, block net scores, and the total number of cards selected from each deck of the IGT. PVL parameters were estimated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme in OpenBugs and BRugs, its interface to R, and the estimated parameters were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U-test.Results: The schizophrenia group received significantly lower total net scores compared to the control group. In terms of block net scores, an interaction effect of group × block was observed. The block net scores of the schizophrenia group did not differ across the five blocks, whereas those of the control group increased as the blocks progressed. The schizophrenia group obtained significantly lower block net scores in the fourth and fifth blocks of the IGT and selected cards from deck D (advantageous less frequently than the control group. Additionally, the schizophrenia group had significantly lower values on the utility-shape, loss-aversion, recency, and consistency parameters of the PVL model. Conclusion: These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia experience deficits in decision-making, possibly due to failure in learning the expected value of each deck

  7. How Can We Make Progress with Decision Support Systems in Landscape and River Basin Management? Lessons Learned from a Comparative Analysis of Four Different Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Martin; Lautenbach, Sven; van Delden, Hedwig; Newham, Lachlan T. H.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    This article analyses the benefits and shortcomings of the recently developed decision support systems (DSS) FLUMAGIS, Elbe-DSS, CatchMODS, and MedAction. The analysis elaborates on the following aspects: (i) application area/decision problem, (ii) stakeholder interaction/users involved, (iii) structure of DSS/model structure, (iv) usage of the DSS, and finally (v) most important shortcomings. On the basis of this analysis, we formulate four criteria that we consider essential for the successful use of DSS in landscape and river basin management. The criteria relate to (i) system quality, (ii) user support and user training, (iii) perceived usefulness and (iv) user satisfaction. We can show that the availability of tools and technologies for DSS in landscape and river basin management is good to excellent. However, our investigations indicate that several problems have to be tackled. First of all, data availability and homogenisation, uncertainty analysis and uncertainty propagation and problems with model integration require further attention. Furthermore, the appropriate and methodological stakeholder interaction and the definition of `what end-users really need and want' have been documented as general shortcomings of all four examples of DSS. Thus, we propose an iterative development process that enables social learning of the different groups involved in the development process, because it is easier to design a DSS for a group of stakeholders who actively participate in an iterative process. We also identify two important lines of further development in DSS: the use of interactive visualization tools and the methodology of optimization to inform scenario elaboration and evaluate trade-offs among environmental measures and management alternatives.

  8. Lexical and metaphonological abilities in preschoolers with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ranilde Cristiane Cavalcante; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2010-01-01

    lexical and metaphonological abilities of phonologically disordered preschoolers. to investigate the influence of Phonological Disorder on the lexical and metaphonological abilities of a group of preschoolers and the correlation between them. participants were 56 preschoolers - 32 boys and 24 girls - with ages between 4 years and 6 months and 6 years and 11 months, divided into two different groups: the Research Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with Phonological Disorder, and the Control Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with normal speech and no oral speech-related complaints, paired to the research group by gender and age. All of the participants were initially assessed by the ABFW Test - Phonology. After that, they were assessed on their lexical and metaphonological abilities by the ABFW Test - Vocabulary and phonological awareness test: sequential assessment instrument, CONFIAS - identification tasks and, rhyme and alliteration production, respectively. regarding lexical ability, the preschoolers from both groups presented similar behavior. The disordered preschoolers presented the worst performance on the overall analysis of the metaphonological ability. Age had an influence on the performance of lexical ability for both groups and the metaphonological abilities only for the Control Group. Correlations were identified, mostly positive, good to moderate between lexical and metaphonological abilities. the influence of Phonological Disorder may only be observed on the metaphonological performance. Phonological Disorder did not interfere with the development of the lexical ability of this group of preschoolers. Positive correlations were identified between both abilities in the studied age group.

  9. Macrostructural Treatment of Multi-word Lexical Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the macrostructural treatment of multi-word lexical items in mono- and bilingual dictionaries. First, the classification of multi-word lexical items is presented, and special attention is paid to the discussion of compounds – a specific group of multi-word lexical items that is most commonly afforded headword status but whose inclusion in the headword list may also depend on spelling. Then the inclusion of multi-word lexical items in monolingual dictionaries is dealt with in greater detail, while the results of a short survey on the inclusion of five randomly chosen multi-word lexical items in seven English monolingual dictionaries are presented. The proposals as to how to treat these five multi-word lexical items in bilingual dictionaries are presented in the section about the inclusion of multi-word lexical items in bilingual dictionaries. The conclusion is that it is most important to take the users’ needs into consideration and to make any dictionary as user friendly as possible.

  10. When the user is not the chooser: learning from stakeholder involvement in technology adoption decisions in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Kyratsis, Y; Holmes, A

    2012-07-01

    Health systems need efficient and effective innovation decisions to provide maximum benefit to patients, particularly in a climate of financial constraints. Although evidence-based innovations exist for helping to address healthcare-associated infections, the uptake and implementation of these is highly variable and in some cases very slow. To investigate innovation adoption decisions and implementation processes from an organizational perspective, focusing on the implications of stakeholder involvement during the innovation process. Thirty-eight technology adoption decisions and implementation processes were examined through 121 qualitative interviews in 12 National Health Service healthcare organizations across England. Stakeholder involvement varied across organizations with decisions highly exclusive to the infection prevention and control (IPC) team, to highly inclusive of wider organizational members. The context, including organizational culture, previous experience, and logistical factors influenced the level of stakeholder engagement. The timing of stakeholder involvement in the process impacted on: (i) the range of innovations considered; (ii) the technologies selected, and (iii) the success of technology implementation. Cases of non-adoption, discontinued adoption, and of successful implementation are presented to share learning. The potential benefits of stakeholder involvement for 'successful' innovation adoption are presented including a goal-oriented framework for involvement. Key stakeholder involvement can lead to innovation adoption and implementation compatible with structural and cultural contexts, particularly when involvement crosses the phases of initiation, decision-making and implementation. Involving members of the wider healthcare organization can raise the profile of IPC and reinforce efforts to make IPC everybody's business. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Cultural Differences on Verbal Communication at Lexical Level between Chinese and Americans%The Impact of Cultural Differences on Verbal Communication at Lexical Level between Chinese and Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕾

    2011-01-01

    In the present world, as modern science and technology are experiencing explosive development, intercultural communication becomes more and more extensive. But we all know that different nations have different history, religion, tradition, custom, etc. In this essay, the author makes an analysis of the impact of cultural difference on verbal communication at lexical level. For us, learning something about the cultural differences is very helpful to our verbal communication between Chinese and Americans.

  12. FIGURATIVE AND LEXICAL VARIETIES IN FACEBOOK POSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is a highly elaborated signaling system. It serves various functions in communication, it is used to share ideas, convey feelings and emotions, etc. The researchers are interested to uncover more on how people use language in terms of its variety and lexical in one of the popular social media networking platforms that we all know as Facebook. Based on the aforementioned background of the study, the problem of the research can be formulated as follows: (1 what are the figurative languages used in Facebook posts by female and male Facebook users? (2 How are the emotional lexical varieties e.g. used in Facebook posts? Method of research is a procedure needed to do the research better. In this case, method of research covers data source, data collection and data analysis. The data of this research have been taken from Facebook, it is as an online social networking website where people can create profiles, share information such as photos and quotes about themselves, and respond or link to the information posted by others. The method that used in collecting data is method of library research. They are collected by reading the Facebook user’s post, by underlining and note taking as well. The data analysis is the last step in this process of writing this research. The analysis is done by descriptive method. To make the analysis clearer, all of examples are completed with explanation. Referring to the first research problem, there are some figurative languages used by the Facebook users such as, Simile (female 1 or 4.3% and male 0%, Metaphor (female 4 or 17.3% and male 0%,, Personification (female 3 or 1.3% and male 1% or 4.3%,, Hyperbole (female 4 or 17.3% and male 1 or 4.3%, and Idiom (female 3 or 13% and male 0%,. Furthermore, in regards to the second problem that is emotional lexical used by the Facebook Users, we could mention that both the Augmentatives (female 3 or 13% and male 1 or 4.3%, and Euphemisms (female 1 or 4.3% and male 1 or

  13. Supervised-machine Learning for Intelligent Collision Avoidance Decision-making and Sensor Tasking

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building an autonomous architecture that uses directed self-learning neuro-fuzzy networks with the aim of developing an intelligent autonomous collision avoidance...

  14. Contrast of Lexical Motivation Between English And Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to make a contrast between English and Chinese in their lexical motivation in order to seek the source of form and meaning to further promote the study,explanation and application of lexical meaning.The contrast of lexical motivation is mainly discussed from three aspects:phonological motivation,morphological motivation and semantic motivation.Through the combination of diachronic study with synchronic study,the conclusion is drawn:the English lexicon is basically arbitrary while the Chinese one is highly motivated,namely,Chinese motivation is much more obvious than that of English for Chinese is an ideographic language and English is a phonemic language.

  15. Contrast of Lexical Motivation Between English And Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩

    2015-01-01

    [ABSTRACT]This thesis aims to make a contrast between English and Chinese in their lexical motivation in order to seek the source of form and meaning to further promote the study,explanation and application of lexical meaning.The contrast of lexical motivation is mainly discussed from three aspects:phonological motivation,morphological motivation and semantic motivation.Through the combinationof diachronic study with synchronic study,the conclusion is drawn:the English lexicon is basically arbitrary while the Chinese one is highly motivated,namely,Chinese motivation is much more obvious than that of English for Chinese is an ideographic language and English is a phonemic language.

  16. Learning from examples - Generation and evaluation of decision trees for software resource analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Richard W.; Porter, Adam A.

    1988-01-01

    A general solution method for the automatic generation of decision (or classification) trees is investigated. The approach is to provide insights through in-depth empirical characterization and evaluation of decision trees for software resource data analysis. The trees identify classes of objects (software modules) that had high development effort. Sixteen software systems ranging from 3,000 to 112,000 source lines were selected for analysis from a NASA production environment. The collection and analysis of 74 attributes (or metrics), for over 4,700 objects, captured information about the development effort, faults, changes, design style, and implementation style. A total of 9,600 decision trees were automatically generated and evaluated. The trees correctly identified 79.3 percent of the software modules that had high development effort or faults, and the trees generated from the best parameter combinations correctly identified 88.4 percent of the modules on the average.

  17. Perception of Lexical Neutral Tone Among Adults and Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutral tone (T0 is a special tone form in Mandarin that contains tonal and stress information. Compared with canonical tones, T0 has a much shorter duration and reduced pitch contour. Its tonal contour is determined by the preceding canonical tone. However, not much is known about the perception of tonal and stress information in T0. In the current study, we investigate (1 whether T0 can be perceived as lexically unstressed by stress-language listeners; and (2 how Mandarin (tone language- and Dutch (stress language-learning infants perceive T0. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, Dutch adults identified T0 as unstressed when presented with disyllabic sequences ending in T0. In Experiment 2, we used the visual fixation paradigm to test 4- to 6-month-old and 10- to 12-month-old Dutch and Mandarin infants on pseudoword discrimination (/pan1san4/ [high-level + high-falling] and /pan1san0/ [high-level + mid-falling]. T4 and T0 each exhibit a similar falling contour. The results show that (1 after being habituated to neutral tone sequences (/pan1san0/, Dutch infants discriminated the T1T0–T1T4 contrast; and (2 neither age groups of Mandarin infants discriminated the tone contrast. Assuming Mandarin infants’ lack of discrimination might be due to the similar F0 contours, we tested Mandarin infants in Experiment 3 using a more salient contrast, /pan1san2/ (high-level + mid-rising and /pan1san0/. While no overall discrimination was observed, those who were habituated to /pan1san0/ demonstrated discrimination. The continuous discrimination of Dutch infants suggests that they might process neutral–canonical tone contrast as lexical stress rather than as tonal information. Overall, Mandarin infants’ failure implies that the representation of T0 is not complete during their 1st year of life; the acquisition of tonal categories may therefore take longer than we expected.

  18. Observing the observer (I): meta-bayesian models of learning and decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daunizeau, J.; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Pessiglione, M.; Kiebel, S.J.; Stephan, K.E.; Friston, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generic approach that can be used to infer how subjects make optimal decisions under uncertainty. This approach induces a distinction between a subject's perceptual model, which underlies the representation of a hidden "state of affairs" and a response model, which

  19. Systems Thinking, Decision Making: What Is Known and What Needs to Be Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding and use of systems has been studied in numerous environments, particularly among leadership and management. However, as yet it is unclear what people at large know about systems thinking, where they gained their knowledge, or how important the role they perceive it to have in their decision making processes. Through a mixed model…

  20. Clustering alternatives and learning preferences based on decision attitudes and weighted overlap dominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    conflict of decision making. This paper revises multi-criteria modeling of imprecise data, inferring outranking and indifference binary relations and classifying alternatives according to their similarity or dependency. After the initial assessment on the set of alternatives, preference orders are built...

  1. Does Delaying Judgments of Learning Really Improve the Efficacy of Study Decisions? Not So Much

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Muntean, William J.

    2012-01-01

    A widely held assumption in metamemory is that better, more accurate metamemory monitoring leads to better, more efficacious restudy decisions, reflected in better memory performance--we refer to this causal chain as the "restudy selectivity hypothesis". In 3 sets of experiments, we tested this hypothesis by factorially manipulating…

  2. Ethical Decision Making: A Teaching and Learning Model for Graduate Students and New Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William M.; Ebelhar, Marcus Walker; Orehovec, Elizabeth R.; Sanderson, Robyn H.

    2006-01-01

    Student affairs practitioners are inundated with a variety of ethical considerations when making day-to-day decisions regarding the welfare of students and colleagues. There is every reason to believe that confronting ethical issues will be an increasingly difficult issue for student affairs professionals in the future. This article provides a…

  3. Anarchist, Neoliberal, & Democratic Decision-Making: Deepening the Joy in Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a critical postmodern framework, this article analyzes the relationship of the decision-making processes of anarchism and neoliberalism to that of deep democracy. Anarchist processes are found to share common core principals with deep democracy; but neoliberal processes are found to be antithetical to deep democracy. To increase the joy in…

  4. Online Learning Era: Exploring the Most Decisive Determinants of MOOCs in Taiwanese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Because the development of Taiwanese Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) websites is at this moment full of vitality, this research employs a series of analytical cross-measurements of Quality Function Deployment method of House of Quality (QFD-HOQ) model and Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methodology to cross-evaluate the weighted…

  5. Impact of Cyrillic on Native English Speakers' Phono-lexical Acquisition of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Catherine E

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the influence of grapheme familiarity and native language grapheme-phoneme correspondences during second language lexical learning. Native English speakers learned Russian-like words via auditory presentations containing only familiar first language phones, pictured meanings, and exposure to either Cyrillic orthographic forms (Orthography condition) or the sequence (No Orthography condition). Orthography participants saw three types of written forms: familiar-congruent (e.g., -[kom]), familiar-incongruent (e.g., -[rɑt]), and unfamiliar (e.g., -[fil]). At test, participants determined whether pictures and words matched according to what they saw during word learning. All participants performed near ceiling in all stimulus conditions, except for Orthography participants on words containing incongruent grapheme-phoneme correspondences. These results suggest that first language grapheme-phoneme correspondences can cause interference during second language phono-lexical acquisition. In addition, these results suggest that orthographic input effects are robust enough to interfere even when the input does not contain novel phones.

  6. The Iowa Gambling Task in depression – what have we learned about sub-optimal decision-making strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eMust

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier study found patients with depression to show a preference for larger reward as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. In this IGT version, larger rewards were associated with even larger consequent losses. In the light of the clinical markers defining depressive disorder, this finding might appear contoversial at first. Performance of depressed patients on various decision-making (DM tasks is typically found to be impaired. Evidence points towards reduced reward learning, as well as the difficulty to shift strategy and integrate environmental changes into DM contingencies. This results in an impaired ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward, or punishment, respectively. Clinical symptoms of the disorder, the genetic profile, as well as personality traits might also influence DM strategies. More severe depression increased sensitivity to immediate large punishment, thus predicting future decisions, and was also associated with higher harm avoidance. Anhedonic features diminished reward learning abilities to a greater extent, even predicting clinical outcome. Several questions about how these aspects relate remain to be clarified. Is there a genetic predisposition for the DM impairment preceding mood symptoms? Is it the consequence of clinical signs or even learned behavior serving as a coping strategy? Are patients prone to develop an aversion of loss or are they unable to sense or deal with reward or the preference of reward? Does the DM deficit normalize or is a persisting impairment predictor for clinical outcome or relapse risk? To what extent is it influenced by medication effects? How does a long-lasting DM deficit affect daily life and social interactions? Strikingly, research evidence indicates that depressed patients tend to behave less deceptive and more self-focused, resulting in impaired social DM. The difficulty in daily interpersonal interactions might contribute to social isolation, further intensifying

  7. Evidence accumulation as a model for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R; Riès, S; van Maanen, L; Alario, F X

    2015-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate evidence accumulation as a plausible theoretical and/or empirical model for the lexical selection process of lexical retrieval. A number of current psycholinguistic theories consider lexical selection as a process related to selecting a lexical target from a number of alternatives, which each have varying activations (or signal supports), that are largely resultant of an initial stimulus recognition. We thoroughly present a case for how such a process may be theoretically explained by the evidence accumulation paradigm, and we demonstrate how this paradigm can be directly related or combined with conventional psycholinguistic theory and their simulatory instantiations (generally, neural network models). Then with a demonstrative application on a large new real data set, we establish how the empirical evidence accumulation approach is able to provide parameter results that are informative to leading psycholinguistic theory, and that motivate future theoretical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William T.

    1986-01-01

    A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

  9. Characteristics of forming of synonymic rows within lexical phraseological field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Валерьевна Волнакова

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the characteristics of forming of phraseological synonymic rows with a lexical identifier as a dominant of a row. Revealed synonymic rows mirror the deepness of systematic language relationships between lexis and phraseology.

  10. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woosung; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2003-01-01

    .... We achieve this through an extension of the method of lexical triggers to the cross-language problem, and by developing a likelihoodbased adaptation scheme for combining a trigger model with an N-gram model...

  11. Supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity: a spatiotemporal neuronal learning rule for function approximation and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Urban, Sebastian; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2013-12-01

    How can an animal learn from experience? How can it train sensors, such as the auditory or tactile system, based on other sensory input such as the visual system? Supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity (supervised STDP) is a possible answer. Supervised STDP trains one modality using input from another one as "supervisor." Quite complex time-dependent relationships between the senses can be learned. Here we prove that under very general conditions, supervised STDP converges to a stable configuration of synaptic weights leading to a reconstruction of primary sensory input.

  12. Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-04-01

    We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.

  13. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  14. Formalizing the Process of Constructing Chains of Lexical Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorij Chetverikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formalizing the Process of Constructing Chains of Lexical Units The paper investigates mathematical aspects of describing the construction of chains of lexical units on the basis of finite-predicate algebra. Analyzing the construction peculiarities is carried out and application of the method of finding the power of linear logical transformation for removing characteristic words of a dictionary entry is given. Analysis and perspectives of the results of the study are provided.

  15. Lessons learned from applying external input to DOE policy decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imholz, R.M.; Hindman, T.B. Jr.; Brubaker, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Our nation has entered an era in which the public is demanding clean up and restoration of its environment, understandable information, and participation in decision making. The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) culture, which grew out of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) culture of classification, compartmentalization, and strict-need-to-know dissemination of information, was in direct conflict with this demand for public involvement. The DOE recognized this and committed to changing their culture into one of openness and public involvement in decision making and policy direction. This paper reports that as a result, DOE created a number of external review groups, one of them being the State and Tribal Government Working Group (STGWG). The STGWG was created to review the first Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan establishes an agenda for compliance and cleanup of DOE installations against which progress can be measured

  16. Deal or No Deal: Using Games to Improve Student Learning, Retention and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve…

  17. Students' Behaviour in Decision Making Process to Attend Distance Learning Programs at Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Maya; Zuhairi, Aminudin; Riana, Kurnia Endah; Ginting, Ginta

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to analyse students' behaviour in choosing a distance learning program at Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia, using the theory of planned behaviour model developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). The respondents of the research were 102 students from 3 Regional Offices of Jakarta, Malang and Kupang, representing…

  18. Personalization for Specific Users : Designing Decision Support Systems to Support Stimulating Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, Laura; Faber, Niels R.; van Haren, Rob J.; Salvendy, G; Smith, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Creating adaptive systems becomes increasingly attractive in the context of specific groups of users, such as agricultural users. This group of users seems to differ with respect to information processing, knowledge management and learning styles. In this work we aim to offer directions toward

  19. Learning networks as an enabler for informed decisions to target energy-efficiency potentials in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, Katharina; Eichhammer, W.A.; Schlomann, Barbara; Mielicke, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    his paper deals with possibilities of targeting energy efficiency potentials in German companies by delivering information and support within a cooperative management system “Learning Energy Efficiency Networks” (LEEN). Information deficits are pointed out as a relevant barrier to implementing

  20. An Internal Audit of a Virtual Learning Space to Facilitate Clinical Decision-Making in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Beryl; Hercelinskyj, Gylo

    2012-01-01

    In any nursing program, it is a challenge to foster an awareness of, and engagement with, the complexity and reality of nursing practice. During their studies, nursing students have to learn the relevant underpinning theoretical knowledge for practice as well as develop their understanding of the role and responsibilities of the registered nurse…

  1. Impact of Instructional Decisions on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Chemistry through Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apugliese, Andrew; Lewis, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analysis can provide a robust description of the impact of educational reforms and also offer an opportunity to explore the conditions where such reforms are more or less effective. This article describes a meta-analysis on the impact of cooperative learning on students' chemistry understanding. Modifiers in the meta-analysis are purposefully…

  2. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  3. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L.; Osborne, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning…

  4. The Design of Lexical Database for Indonesian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, D.; Amalia, A.

    2017-03-01

    Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), an official dictionary for Indonesian language, provides lists of words with their meaning. The online version can be accessed via Internet network. Another online dictionary is Kateglo. KBBI online and Kateglo only provides an interface for human. A machine cannot retrieve data from the dictionary easily without using advanced techniques. Whereas, lexical of words is required in research or application development which related to natural language processing, text mining, information retrieval or sentiment analysis. To address this requirement, we need to build a lexical database which provides well-defined structured information about words. A well-known lexical database is WordNet, which provides the relation among words in English. This paper proposes the design of a lexical database for Indonesian language based on the combination of KBBI 4th edition, Kateglo and WordNet structure. Knowledge representation by utilizing semantic networks depict the relation among words and provide the new structure of lexical database for Indonesian language. The result of this design can be used as the foundation to build the lexical database for Indonesian language.

  5. Virtual team learning: The role of collaboration process and technology affordance in team decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Cordes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines two dimensions that impact virtual team decision making. One is the influence of collaboration process structure: the sequences, patterns, and routines participants use to interact and solve problems. The other is technology affordance: the strengths and weaknesses of technologies in terms of the usefulness they offer to teams when performing tasks. Some teams used a structured collaboration process with monitoring, coordination, and backup functions during a decision-making discussion. Other teams had no discussion process instructions. In addition, some teams possessed stronger technology affordance including both chat and an editable document. Other teams used chat technology alone, which offered fewer collaboration possibilities. The collaboration process and technology affordance factors were tested in an experiment in which four-person online teams worked as a personnel hiring committee. Information about four job candidates was distributed to create a hidden profile in which some information was shared across all team members, while other information was visible only to specific members. Two hundred and eight students, comprising fifty-two teams completed the study. Teams using the structured collaboration process made more accurate and higher-quality decisions. In addition, scores were higher when technology affordance included both chat and editable document tools, but this influence was not significant.

  6. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKinjo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP is a class of optimal control problem in whichthe Bellman’s equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation ofthe state value function (Todorov, 2009. In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the correspondingcontrol policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunctionproblem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, andterminal cost functions.In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in whichthe dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform asimulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynam-ics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of thenonlinear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost.We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robotplatform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck jointangles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servocontroller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state costfunctions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics modelperformed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic controller (LQR. In the non-quadratic task, theLMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstratethe usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are usedfor dynamics learning.

  7. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Ken; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP) is a class of optimal control problem in which the Bellman's equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation of the state value function (Todorov, 2009b). In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the corresponding control policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunction problem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, and terminal cost functions. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in which the dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform a simulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynamics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of the non-linear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost. We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robot platform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck joint angles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servo controller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state cost functions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics model performed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR). In the non-quadratic task, the LMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are used for dynamics learning.

  8. Practice guidelines in the context of primary care, learning and usability in the physicians' decision-making process--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemansson, Maria; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Kiessling, Anna

    2014-08-20

    Decision-making is central for general practitioners (GP). Practice guidelines are important tools in this process but implementation of them in the complex context of primary care is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to explore how GPs approach, learn from and use practice guidelines in their day-to-day decision-making process in primary care. A qualitative approach using focus-group interviews was chosen in order to provide in-depth information. The participants were 22 GPs with a median of seven years of experience in primary care, representing seven primary healthcare centres in Stockholm, Sweden in 2011. The interviews focused on how the GPs use guidelines in their decision-making, factors that influence their decision how to approach these guidelines, and how they could encourage the learning process in routine practice.Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Meaning units were condensed and grouped in categories. After interpreting the content in the categories, themes were created. Three themes were conceptualized. The first theme emphasized to use guidelines by interactive contextualized dialogues. The categories underpinning this theme: 1. Feedback by peer-learning 2. Feedback by collaboration, mutual learning, and equality between specialties, identified important ways to achieve this learning dialogue. Confidence was central in the second theme, learning that establishes confidence to provide high quality care. Three aspects of confidence were identified in the categories of this theme: 1. Confidence by confirmation, 2. Confidence by reliability and 3. Confidence by evaluation of own results. In the third theme, learning by use of relevant evidence in the decision-making process, we identified two categories: 1. Design and lay-out visualizing the evidence 2. Accessibility adapted to the clinical decision-making process as prerequisites for using the practice guidelines. Decision-making in primary care is a dual process that involves

  9. Sonority's Effect as a Surface Cue on Lexical Speech Perception of Children With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Yasmeen; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2018-03-06

    Sonority is the relative perceptual prominence/loudness of speech sounds of the same length, stress, and pitch. Children with cochlear implants (CIs), with restored audibility and relatively intact temporal processing, are expected to benefit from the perceptual prominence cues of highly sonorous sounds. Sonority also influences lexical access through the sonority-sequencing principle (SSP), a grammatical phonotactic rule, which facilitates the recognition and segmentation of syllables within speech. The more nonsonorous the onset of a syllable is, the larger is the degree of sonority rise to the nucleus, and the more optimal the SSP. Children with CIs may experience hindered or delayed development of the language-learning rule SSP, as a result of their deprived/degraded auditory experience. The purpose of the study was to explore sonority's role in speech perception and lexical access of prelingually deafened children with CIs. A case-control study with 15 children with CIs, 25 normal-hearing children (NHC), and 50 normal-hearing adults was conducted, using a lexical identification task of novel, nonreal CV-CV words taught via fast mapping. The CV-CV words were constructed according to four sonority conditions, entailing syllables with sonorous onsets/less optimal SSP (SS) and nonsonorous onsets/optimal SSP (NS) in all combinations, that is, SS-SS, SS-NS, NS-SS, and NS-NS. Outcome measures were accuracy and reaction times (RTs). A subgroup analysis of 12 children with CIs pair matched to 12 NHC on hearing age aimed to study the effect of oral-language exposure period on the sonority-related performance. The children groups showed similar accuracy performance, overall and across all the sonority conditions. However, within-group comparisons showed that the children with CIs scored more accurately on the SS-SS condition relative to the NS-NS and NS-SS conditions, while the NHC performed equally well across all conditions. Additionally, adult-comparable accuracy

  10. Quantum machine learning with glow for episodic tasks and decision games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jens; Briegel, Hans J.

    2018-02-01

    We consider a general class of models, where a reinforcement learning (RL) agent learns from cyclic interactions with an external environment via classical signals. Perceptual inputs are encoded as quantum states, which are subsequently transformed by a quantum channel representing the agent's memory, while the outcomes of measurements performed at the channel's output determine the agent's actions. The learning takes place via stepwise modifications of the channel properties. They are described by an update rule that is inspired by the projective simulation (PS) model and equipped with a glow mechanism that allows for a backpropagation of policy changes, analogous to the eligibility traces in RL and edge glow in PS. In this way, the model combines features of PS with the ability for generalization, offered by its physical embodiment as a quantum system. We apply the agent to various setups of an invasion game and a grid world, which serve as elementary model tasks allowing a direct comparison with a basic classical PS agent.

  11. Modeling flash floods in ungauged mountain catchments of China: A decision tree learning approach for parameter regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.; Guo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods in small mountain catchments are one of the most frequent causes of loss of life and property from natural hazards in China. Hydrological models can be a useful tool for the anticipation of these events and the issuing of timely warnings. One of the main challenges of setting up such a system is finding appropriate model parameter values for ungauged catchments. Previous studies have shown that the transfer of parameter sets from hydrologically similar gauged catchments is one of the best performing regionalization methods. However, a remaining key issue is the identification of suitable descriptors of similarity. In this study, we use decision tree learning to explore parameter set transferability in the full space of catchment descriptors. For this purpose, a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model is set up for 35 catchments in ten Chinese provinces. Hourly runoff data from in total 858 storm events are used to calibrate the model and to evaluate the performance of parameter set transfers between catchments. We then present a novel technique that uses the splitting rules of classification and regression trees (CART) for finding suitable donor catchments for ungauged target catchments. The ability of the model to detect flood events in assumed ungauged catchments is evaluated in series of leave-one-out tests. We show that CART analysis increases the probability of detection of 10-year flood events in comparison to a conventional measure of physiographic-climatic similarity by up to 20%. Decision tree learning can outperform other regionalization approaches because it generates rules that optimally consider spatial proximity and physical similarity. Spatial proximity can be used as a selection criteria but is skipped in the case where no similar gauged catchments are in the vicinity. We conclude that the CART regionalization concept is particularly suitable for implementation in sparsely gauged and topographically complex environments where a proximity

  12. AN EXTENDED REINFORCEMENT LEARNING MODEL OF BASAL GANGLIA TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SEROTONIN AND DOPAMINE IN RISK-BASED DECISION MAKING, REWARD PREDICTION, AND PUNISHMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragathi Priyadharsini Balasubramani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA and serotonin (5HT in Basal Ganglia (BG. In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (δ, while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (α that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: 1 Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, 2 Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and 3 Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG.

  13. Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: Context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody eTousignant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Body-object interaction (BOI is a semantic richness variable that measures the perceived ease with which the human body can physically interact with a word’s referent. Lexical and semantic processing is facilitated when words are associated with relatively more bodily experience (high BOI words, e.g., belt. To date, BOI effects have been examined in only one semantic decision context (is it imageable?. It has been argued that semantic processing is dynamic and can be modulated by context. We examined these influences by testing how task knowledge modulated BOI effects. We presented the same stimuli (high- and low-BOI entity words and a set of action words in each of four action/entity semantic categorization tasks (SCTs. Task framing was manipulated: participants were told about one (actions or entities or both (actions and entities categories of words in the decision task. Facilitatory BOI effects were observed when participants knew that ‘entity’ was part of the decision category, regardless of whether the high- and low-BOI entity words appeared on the affirmative or negative side of the decision. That BOI information was only useful when participants had expectations that object words would be presented suggests a strong role for the decision context in lexical-semantic processing, and supports a dynamic view of conceptual knowledge.

  14. An Approach to Integrating Tactical Decision-Making in Industrial Maintenance Balance Scorecards Using Principal Components Analysis and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Rodríguez-Padial

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of demand has led production systems to become increasingly complex; this can affect the availability of the machines and thus their maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately manage the information that facilitates decision-making. This paper presents a system for making decisions related to the design of customized maintenance plans in a production plant. This paper addresses this tactical goal and aims to provide greater knowledge and better predictions by projecting reliable behavior in the medium-term, integrating this new functionality into classic Balance Scorecards, and making it possible to extend their current measuring function to a new aptitude: predicting evolution based on historical data. In the proposed Custom Balance Scorecard design, an exploratory data phase is integrated with another analysis and prediction phase using Principal Component Analysis algorithms and Machine Learning that uses Artificial Neural Network algorithms. This new extension allows better control over the maintenance function of an industrial plant in the medium-term with a yearly horizon taken over monthly intervals which allows the measurement of the indicators of strategic productive areas and the discovery of hidden behavior patterns in work orders. In addition, this extension enables the prediction of indicator outcomes such as overall equipment efficiency and mean time to failure.

  15. Language structures used by kindergartners with cochlear implants: relationship to phonological awareness, lexical knowledge and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Sansom, Emily; Low, Keri; Rice, Caitlin; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    explained significant amounts of variance on three language measures, but only one measure of phonological awareness (sensitivity to word-final phonemic structure) explained any significant amount of unique variance beyond that, and on only one language measure (number of bound morphemes). Age at first implant, but no other factors related to hearing loss or its treatment, explained significant amounts of variance on the language measures, as well. In spite of early intervention and advances in implant technology, children with CIs are still delayed in learning language, but grammatical knowledge is less affected than phonological awareness. Because there was little contribution to language development measured for phonological awareness independent of lexical knowledge, it was concluded that children with CIs could benefit from intervention focused specifically on helping them learn language structures, in spite of the likely phonological deficits they experience as a consequence of having degraded inputs.

  16. Lexical effects on speech production and intelligibility in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Fang

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have speech deficits that lead to reduced speech intelligibility. Previous research provides a rich database regarding the articulatory deficits associated with PD including restricted vowel space (Skodda, Visser, & Schlegel, 2011) and flatter formant transitions (Tjaden & Wilding, 2004; Walsh & Smith, 2012). However, few studies consider the effect of higher level structural variables of word usage frequency and the number of similar sounding words (i.e. neighborhood density) on lower level articulation or on listeners' perception of dysarthric speech. The purpose of the study is to examine the interaction of lexical properties and speech articulation as measured acoustically in speakers with PD and healthy controls (HC) and the effect of lexical properties on the perception of their speech. Individuals diagnosed with PD and age-matched healthy controls read sentences with words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Acoustic analysis was performed to compare second formant transitions in diphthongs, an indicator of the dynamics of tongue movement during speech production, across different lexical characteristics. Young listeners transcribed the spoken sentences and the transcription accuracy was compared across lexical conditions. The acoustic results indicate that both PD and HC speakers adjusted their articulation based on lexical properties but the PD group had significant reductions in second formant transitions compared to HC. Both groups of speakers increased second formant transitions for words with low frequency and low density, but the lexical effect is diphthong dependent. The change in second formant slope was limited in the PD group when the required formant movement for the diphthong is small. The data from listeners' perception of the speech by PD and HC show that listeners identified high frequency words with greater accuracy suggesting the use of lexical knowledge during the

  17. Learning-Based Algal Bloom Event Recognition for Oceanographic Decision Support System Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong Song

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of machine learning methods to build a decision support system for predicting the distribution of coastal ocean algal blooms based on remote sensing data in Monterey Bay. This system can help scientists obtain prior information in a large ocean region and formulate strategies for deploying robots in the coastal ocean for more detailed in situ exploration. The difficulty is that there are insufficient in situ data to create a direct statistical machine learning model with satellite data inputs. To solve this problem, we built a Random Forest model using MODIS and MERIS satellite data and applied a threshold filter to balance the training inputs and labels. To build this model, several features of remote sensing satellites were tested to obtain the most suitable features for the system. After building the model, we compared our random forest model with previous trials based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM using satellite data from 221 days, and our approach performed significantly better. Finally, we used the latest in situ data from a September 2014 field experiment to validate our model.

  18. Women and Men Facing Lexical Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cañete Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the gender variable has been investigated in terms of linguistic variation. A number of studies (mainly phonological in nature have been carried out which have generated preliminary conclusions such as women are more conservative and use more standard forms of language than men or that men are more innovative than women (Chambers, 2009; Labov, 1994. Generally, we are aware that new words are created every day which is indicative of the dynamism of languages and the changes taking place in a given society. The study of new lexical entities, called neologisms, allows us to understand how language speakers adapt to social changes. The two issues mentioned above are our main motivation to conduct this investigation which will be based on a linguistic approach with a focus on neology. Hence, this paper focuses on Spanish neological units produced by women and men as found in contemporary newspaper articles and blogs through a qualitative analysis of neologisms used by women and men as well as a qualitative analysis of the formation of these neologisms. Finally, we present a comparison between the results obtained in both types of text.

  19. Usability Testing of a Complex Clinical Decision Support Tool in the Emergency Department: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Anne; McCullagh, Lauren; Khan, Sundas; Schachter, Andy; Pardo, Salvatore; McGinn, Thomas

    2015-09-10

    As the electronic health record (EHR) becomes the preferred documentation tool across medical practices, health care organizations are pushing for clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to help bring clinical decision support (CDS) tools to the forefront of patient-physician interactions. A CDSS is integrated into the EHR and allows physicians to easily utilize CDS tools. However, often CDSS are integrated into the EHR without an initial phase of usability testing, resulting in poor adoption rates. Usability testing is important because it evaluates a CDSS by testing it on actual users. This paper outlines the usability phase of a study, which will test the impact of integration of the Wells CDSS for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis into a large urban emergency department, where workflow is often chaotic and high stakes decisions are frequently made. We hypothesize that conducting usability testing prior to integration of the Wells score into an emergency room EHR will result in increased adoption rates by physicians. The objective of the study was to conduct usability testing for the integration of the Wells clinical prediction rule into a tertiary care center's emergency department EHR. We conducted usability testing of a CDS tool in the emergency department EHR. The CDS tool consisted of the Wells rule for PE in the form of a calculator and was triggered off computed tomography (CT) orders or patients' chief complaint. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Queens, New York. There were seven residents that were recruited and participated in two phases of usability testing. The usability testing employed a "think aloud" method and "near-live" clinical simulation, where care providers interacted with standardized patients enacting a clinical scenario. Both phases were audiotaped, video-taped, and had screen-capture software activated for onscreen recordings. Phase I: Data from the "think-aloud" phase of the study showed an overall positive outlook on

  20. Both lexical and non-lexical characters are processed during saccadic eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available On average our eyes make 3-5 saccadic movements per second when we read, although their neural mechanism is still unclear. It is generally thought that saccades help redirect the retinal fovea to specific characters and words but that actual discrimination of information only occurs during periods of fixation. Indeed, it has been proposed that there is active and selective suppression of information processing during saccades to avoid experience of blurring due to the high-speed movement. Here, using a paradigm where a string of either lexical (Chinese or non-lexical (alphabetic characters are triggered by saccadic eye movements, we show that subjects can discriminate both while making saccadic eye movement. Moreover, discrimination accuracy is significantly better for characters scanned during the saccadic movement to a fixation point than those not scanned beyond it. Our results showed that character information can be processed during the saccade, therefore saccades during reading not only function to redirect the fovea to fixate the next character or word but allow pre-processing of information from the ones adjacent to the fixation locations to help target the next most salient one. In this way saccades can not only promote continuity in reading words but also actively facilitate reading comprehension.