WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning language parse

  1. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  2. Fuzzy Context- Free Languages. Part 2: Recognition and Parsing Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a companion paper \\cite{Asv:FCF1} we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for fuzzy context-free languages. In particular, this approach enables us to distinguish between small errors

  3. Machine learning to parse breast pathology reports in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Ouyang, Lizhi; Li, Clara; He, Yue; Griffin, Molly; Taghian, Alphonse; Smith, Barbara; Yala, Adam; Barzilay, Regina; Hughes, Kevin

    2018-01-29

    Large structured databases of pathology findings are valuable in deriving new clinical insights. However, they are labor intensive to create and generally require manual annotation. There has been some work in the bioinformatics community to support automating this work via machine learning in English. Our contribution is to provide an automated approach to construct such structured databases in Chinese, and to set the stage for extraction from other languages. We collected 2104 de-identified Chinese benign and malignant breast pathology reports from Hunan Cancer Hospital. Physicians with native Chinese proficiency reviewed the reports and annotated a variety of binary and numerical pathologic entities. After excluding 78 cases with a bilateral lesion in the same report, 1216 cases were used as a training set for the algorithm, which was then refined by 405 development cases. The Natural language processing algorithm was tested by using the remaining 405 cases to evaluate the machine learning outcome. The model was used to extract 13 binary entities and 8 numerical entities. When compared to physicians with native Chinese proficiency, the model showed a per-entity accuracy from 91 to 100% for all common diagnoses on the test set. The overall accuracy of binary entities was 98% and of numerical entities was 95%. In a per-report evaluation for binary entities with more than 100 training cases, 85% of all the testing reports were completely correct and 11% had an error in 1 out of 22 entities. We have demonstrated that Chinese breast pathology reports can be automatically parsed into structured data using standard machine learning approaches. The results of our study demonstrate that techniques effective in parsing English reports can be scaled to other languages.

  4. Analysis of Azari Language based on Parsing using Link Gram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Arabzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are different classes of theories for the natural lanuguage syntactic parsing problem and for creating the related grammars .This paper presents a syntactic grammar developed in the link grammar formalism for Turkish which is an agglutinative language. In the link grammar formalism, the words of a sentence are linked with each other depending on their syntactic roles. Turkish has complex derivational and inflectional morphology, and derivational and inflection morphemes play important syntactic roles in the sentences. In order to develop a link grammar for Turkish, the lexical parts in the morphological representations of Turkish words are removed, and the links are created depending on the part of speech tags and inflectional morphemes in words. Furthermore, a derived word is separated at the derivational boundaries in order to treat each derivation morpheme as a special distinct word, and allow it to be linked with the rest of the sentence. The derivational morphemes of a word are also linked with each other with special links to indicate that they are parts of the same word. Finally the adapted unique link grammar formalism for Turkish provides flexibility for the linkage construction, and similar methods can be used for other languages with complex morphology. Finally, using the Delphi programming language, the link grammar related to the Azeri language was developed and implemented and then by selecting 250 random sentences, this grammar is evaluated and then tested. For 84.31% of the sentences, the result set of the parser contains the correct parse.

  5. Introduction to special issue on machine learning approaches to shallow parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerton, J; Osborne, M; Armstrong, S; Daelemans, W

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the problem of partial or shallow parsing (assigning partial syntactic structure to sentences) and explains why it is an important natural language processing (NLP) task. The complexity of the task makes Machine Learning an attractive option in comparison to the handcrafting

  6. Chomsky-Schützenberger parsing for weighted multiple context-free languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Denkinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We prove a Chomsky-Schützenberger representation theorem for multiple context-free languages weighted over complete commutative strong bimonoids. Using this representation we devise a parsing algorithm for a restricted form of those devices.

  7. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  8. Using machine learning to parse breast pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yala, Adam; Barzilay, Regina; Salama, Laura; Griffin, Molly; Sollender, Grace; Bardia, Aditya; Lehman, Constance; Buckley, Julliette M; Coopey, Suzanne B; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Garber, Judy E; Smith, Barbara L; Gadd, Michele A; Specht, Michelle C; Gudewicz, Thomas M; Guidi, Anthony J; Taghian, Alphonse; Hughes, Kevin S

    2017-01-01

    Extracting information from electronic medical record is a time-consuming and expensive process when done manually. Rule-based and machine learning techniques are two approaches to solving this problem. In this study, we trained a machine learning model on pathology reports to extract pertinent tumor characteristics, which enabled us to create a large database of attribute searchable pathology reports. This database can be used to identify cohorts of patients with characteristics of interest. We collected a total of 91,505 breast pathology reports from three Partners hospitals: Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Newton-Wellesley Hospital, covering the period from 1978 to 2016. We trained our system with annotations from two datasets, consisting of 6295 and 10,841 manually annotated reports. The system extracts 20 separate categories of information, including atypia types and various tumor characteristics such as receptors. We also report a learning curve analysis to show how much annotation our model needs to perform reasonably. The model accuracy was tested on 500 reports that did not overlap with the training set. The model achieved accuracy of 90% for correctly parsing all carcinoma and atypia categories for a given patient. The average accuracy for individual categories was 97%. Using this classifier, we created a database of 91,505 parsed pathology reports. Our learning curve analysis shows that the model can achieve reasonable results even when trained on a few annotations. We developed a user-friendly interface to the database that allows physicians to easily identify patients with target characteristics and export the matching cohort. This model has the potential to reduce the effort required for analyzing large amounts of data from medical records, and to minimize the cost and time required to glean scientific insight from these data.

  9. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 2: Recognition and parsing algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a companion paper [P.R.J. Asveld, Fuzzy context-free languages---Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars, Theoret. Comp. Sci. (2005)] we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for

  10. Cross-Lingual Dependency Parsing with Late Decoding for Truly Low-Resource Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichtkrull, Michael Sejr; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In cross-lingual dependency annotation projection, information is often lost during transfer because of early decoding. We present an end-to-end graph-based neural network dependency parser that can be trained to reproduce matrices of edge scores, which can be directly projected across word alignments. We show that our approach to cross-lingual dependency parsing is not only simpler, but also achieves an absolute improvement of 2.25% averaged across 10 languages compared to the previous state...

  11. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  12. Towards a Robuster Interpretive Parsing: learning from overt forms in Optimality Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, T.

    2013-01-01

    The input data to grammar learning algorithms often consist of overt forms that do not contain full structural descriptions. This lack of information may contribute to the failure of learning. Past work on Optimality Theory introduced Robust Interpretive Parsing (RIP) as a partial solution to this

  13. Tackling Error Propagation through Reinforcement Learning: A Case of Greedy Dependency Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.N.; Fokkens, A.S.

    Error propagation is a common problem in NLP. Reinforcement learning explores erroneous states during training and can therefore be more robust when mistakes are made early in a process. In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning to greedy dependency parsing which is known to suffer from error

  14. BAIK– PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE BASED ON INDONESIAN LEXICAL PARSING FOR MULTITIER WEB DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Hasanudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Business software development with global team is increasing rapidly and the programming language as development tool takes the important role in the global web development. The real user friendly programming language should be written in local language for programmer who has native language is not in English. This paper presents our design of BAIK (Bahasa Anak Indonesia untuk Komputerscripting language which syntax is modeled with Bahasa Indonesian for multitier web development. Researcher propose the implementation of Indonesian Parsing Engine and Binary Search Tree structure for memory allocation of variable and compose the language features that support basic Object Oriented Programming, Common Gateway Interface, HTML style manipulation and database connection. Our goal is to build real programming language from simple structure design for web development using Indonesian lexical words. Pengembangan bisnis perangkat lunak dalam tim berskala global meningkat dengan cepat dan bahasa pemrograman berperan penting dalam pengembangan web secara global. Bahasa pemrograman yang benar-benar ramah terhadap pengguna harus ditulis dalam bahasa lokal programmer yang bahasa ibunya bukan Bahasa Inggris. Paper ini menyajikan desain dari bahasa penulisan BAIK (Bahasa Anak Indonesia untuk Komputer, yang sintaksisnya dimodelkan dengan Bahasa Indonesia untuk pengembangan web multitier. Peneliti mengusulkan implementasi dari parsing engine Bahasa Indonesia dan struktur binary search tree untuk alokasi memori terhadap variabel, serta membuat fitur bahasa yang mendukung dasar pemrograman berbasis objek, common gateway interface, manipulasi gaya HTML, dan koneksi basis data. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menciptakan bahasa pemrograman yang sesungguhnya dan menggunakan desain struktur sederhana untuk pengembangan web dengan menggunakan kata-kata dari Bahasa Indonesia.

  15. Learning for Semantic Parsing with Kernels under Various Forms of Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    natural language sentences to their formal executable meaning representations. This is a challenging problem and is critical for developing computing...sentences are semantically tractable. This indi- cates that Geoquery is more challenging domain for semantic parsing than ATIS. In the past, there have been a...Combining parsers. In Proceedings of the Conference on Em- pirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora (EMNLP/ VLC -99), pp. 187–194

  16. Tackling Error Propagation through Reinforcement Learning: A Case of Greedy Dependency Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh; Fokkens, Antske

    2017-01-01

    Error propagation is a common problem in NLP. Reinforcement learning explores erroneous states during training and can therefore be more robust when mistakes are made early in a process. In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning to greedy dependency parsing which is known to suffer from error propagation. Reinforcement learning improves accuracy of both labeled and unlabeled dependencies of the Stanford Neural Dependency Parser, a high performance greedy parser, while maintaining its eff...

  17. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  18. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  19. Parsing the Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian Language with the Method of SCD Configurations. The Lexicographic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the experience of parsing other five, sensibly different, Romanian, French, and German largest dictionaries, to \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} (Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian Language [18], using the optimal and portable parsing method of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency configurations [7], [11], [15]. The purpose of the present paper is to elaborate the lexicographic modeling of \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}}, which necessarily precedes the sense tree parsing dictionary entries. The following \\textbf{\\textit{three}} SCD configurations are described: the \\textbf{\\textit{first one}} has to separate the lexicographic segments in a \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} entry, the \\textbf{\\textit{second}} SCD-configuration concentrates on the SCD marker classes and their hypergraph hierarchy for \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} primary and secondary senses, while the \\textbf{\\textit{third}} SCD configuration hands down the same modeling process to the atomic sense definitions and their examples-to-definitions. The dependency hypergraph of the third SCD configuration, interconnected to the one of the second SCD configuration, is specified completely at the atomic sense level for the first time, exceeding the SCD configuration modeling for other five dictionaries [15], [14]. Numerous examples from \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} and comparison to \\textbf{\\textit{DLR-DAR}} Romanian thesaurus-dictionary support the proposed \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} lexicographic modeling.

  20. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...

  1. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  2. On Parsing CHILDES

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Aarre

    2005-01-01

    Research on child language acquisition would benefit from the availability of a large body of syntactically parsed utterances between parents and children. We consider the problem of generating such a ``treebank'' from the CHILDES corpus, which currently contains primarily orthographically transcribed speech tagged for lexical category.

  3. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Economopoulos, G.R.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.; Moor, de O.; Schwartzbach, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of tokenization based

  4. Faster Scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  5. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); O. de Moor; M.I. Schwartzbach

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  6. Learning to Understand Natural Language with Less Human Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Supervision Distant supervision is a recent trend in information extraction. Distantly-supervised extractors are trained using a corpus of unlabeled text...consists of fill-in-the-blank natural language questions such as “Incan emperor ” or “Cunningham directed Auchtre’s second music video .” These questions...with an 132 unknown knowledge base, simultaneously learning how to semantically parse language and pop - ulate the knowledge base. The weakly

  7. Exercises in Free Syntax. Syntax Definition, Parsing, and Assimilation of Language Conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.

    2008-01-01

    In modern software development the use of multiple software languages to constitute a single application is ubiquitous. Despite the omnipresent use of combinations of languages, the principles and techniques for using languages together are ad-hoc, unfriendly to programmers, and result in a poor

  8. Seamless Language Learning: Second Language Learning with Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. it promotes social…

  9. Seamless Language Learning: Second Language Learning with Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Sing-Chai, Ching; Poh-Aw, Guat

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. It promotes social interactions with social media about the learners’ day-to-day life using the targeted second or foreign language. The paper first identifies three ke...

  10. The Metamorphosis of the Statistical Segmentation Output: Lexicalization during Artificial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tania; Kolinsky, Regine; Ventura, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    This study combined artificial language learning (ALL) with conventional experimental techniques to test whether statistical speech segmentation outputs are integrated into adult listeners' mental lexicon. Lexicalization was assessed through inhibitory effects of novel neighbors (created by the parsing process) on auditory lexical decisions to…

  11. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  12. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  13. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.

  14. Dependency Parsing with Transformed Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependency parsing is an important subtask of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an embedding feature transforming method for graph-based parsing, transform-based parsing, which directly utilizes the inner similarity of the features to extract information from all feature strings including the un-indexed strings and alleviate the feature sparse problem. The model transforms the extracted features to transformed features via applying a feature weight matrix, which consists of similarities between the feature strings. Since the matrix is usually rank-deficient because of similar feature strings, it would influence the strength of constraints. However, it is proven that the duplicate transformed features do not degrade the optimization algorithm: the margin infused relaxed algorithm. Moreover, this problem can be alleviated by reducing the number of the nearest transformed features of a feature. In addition, to further improve the parsing accuracy, a fusion parser is introduced to integrate transformed and original features. Our experiments verify that both transform-based and fusion parser improve the parsing accuracy compared to the corresponding feature-based parser.

  15. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  16. Context-free parsing with connectionist networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanty, M. A.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a simple algorithm which converts any context-free grammar into a connectionist network which parses strings (of arbitrary but fixed maximum length) in the language defined by that grammar. The network is fast, O(n), and deterministicd. It consists of binary units which compute a simple function of their input. When the grammar is put in Chomsky normal form, O(n3) units needed to parse inputs of length up to n.

  17. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  18. Motivation and Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建业

    2007-01-01

    Motivation, which is one of the individual differences, contributes a lot to the success and failure in second language learning. This essay focus on the discussion of the definition, types, effect and implications of motivation in second language learning with the aim of promoting learners' learning proficiency.

  19. Key to Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavian Mantiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.

  20. Learning a Language with Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Hascoet, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    It is commonplace to discourage people affected with dyslexia from learning foreign languages. But the condition occurs on a wide spectrum affecting individuals in unique ways. That is why directing dyslexic people away from language learning solely on the basis of their dyslexia, is scientifically unfounded. In this article, we will take a linguistic perspective on this issue, that is to say that we will present the scientific facts about language learning and dyslexia.

  1. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (i) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ii) the variables affecting the use of language learning st...

  2. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  3. Faster, Practical GLL Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Afroozeh (Ali); A. Izmaylova (Anastasia)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractGeneralized LL (GLL) parsing is an extension of recursive-descent (RD) parsing that supports all context-free grammars in cubic time and space. GLL parsers have the direct relationship with the grammar that RD parsers have, and therefore, compared to GLR, are easier to understand, debug,

  4. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  5. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 5, 6, 7 November 2001. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  6. Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greller, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Greller, W. (2010). Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning. In S. Trausan-Matu & P. Dessus (Eds.), Proceedings of the Natural Language Processing in Support of Learning: Metrics, Feedback and Connectivity. Second Internationl Workshop - NLPSL 2010 (pp. 6-8). September, 14, 2010, Bucharest,

  7. LEARNING HOW TO LEARNA LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language training; tel. 78582

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  8. Language Learning within Academic Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, George M.

    This paper reports on a research project that examined nonnative Southampton University (England) students' attitudes to continued language learning and the importance of language learning and cultural adaptation. A survey was administered to pre-sessional and in-sessional students that included information on background, past and present language…

  9. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuen, Yoong Li; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS) used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students.…

  10. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Moniek Laurent

    2002-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training   Language Training Moniek Laurent Tel. 78582 moniek.laurent@cern.ch

  11. Language&Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi, Tamana; Djurhuus, Terji; Egeslund, Søren Due; Oikonomou, Anna Maria; Pietilä, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to display how the process differs when acquiring a first language, two first languages simultaneously or a second language. The linguistic elements are presented in First Language and Second Language and in bilingualism. We will be looking at Chomsky’s Nativist approach, as well as Behaviorism by Skinner. Also, socio-cultural theory by Vygotsky and the cognitive approach are used. A study will be conducted to find out whether bilinguals can perform as well as native speaker...

  12. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  13. Unifying LL and LR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn parsing theory, LL parsing and LR parsing are regarded to be two distinct methods. In this paper the relation between these methods is clarified.As shown in literature on parsing theory, for every context-free grammar, a so-called non-deterministic LR(0) automaton can be constructed.

  14. Contralog: a Prolog conform forward-chaining environment and its application for dynamic programming and natural language parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilián Imre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The backward-chaining inference strategy of Prolog is inefficient for a number of problems. The article proposes Contralog: a Prolog-conform, forward-chaining language and an inference engine that is implemented as a preprocessor-compiler to Prolog. The target model is Prolog, which ensures mutual switching from Contralog to Prolog and back. The Contralog compiler is implemented using Prolog's de facto standardized macro expansion capability. The article goes into details regarding the target model.

  15. Parsing Universal Dependencies without training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We present UDP, the first training-free parser for Universal Dependencies (UD). Our algorithm is based on PageRank and a small set of specific dependency head rules. UDP features two-step decoding to guarantee that function words are attached as leaf nodes. The parser requires no training......, and it is competitive with a delexicalized transfer system. UDP offers a linguistically sound unsupervised alternative to cross-lingual parsing for UD. The parser has very few parameters and distinctly robust to domain change across languages....

  16. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  17. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…

  18. Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness to e...

  19. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 7, 8, 9 March 2001. Price: 462 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/LANG/lang0_F.html

  20. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Formation en Langues; Andrée Fontbonne - Tél. 72844; Language Training; Françoise Benz - Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne - Tel. 72844

    2000-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. It is particularly recommended for those wishing to sign up for a 3-month self-study session in the Resource Centre. Languages: French and English. Length: 5 hours a day for one week. Dates: 27 November to December 2000. Price: 490 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages.

  1. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.

  2. Intercultural challenge to language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Muñoz de Cote

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project set to investigate the piloting process of an innovative language program for university students. It challenges traditional English language teaching courses celebrating a view centered on learning; classes become spaces for students to understand the language they are learning through the development of small projects. The approach moves from a teaching transmission paradigm to one where the most important agent is each student who has to engage with a topic of his or her interest. Students are seen as individuals whose knowledge and understanding of the world is valued and not as people whose lack of language skills prevents themfrom engaging in discussions of complex topics. The objective of this innovation is to enhance students’ understanding and use of academic English in their field of interest. In this project, we argue that knowledge and understanding of the mother tongue and culture play key roles in the development of a second language. A number of studies suggest that students who had strong first language literacy skills achieved higher proficiency levels in their second language. Based on this argument and Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, we designed disciplinary content language learning workshops for first-degree students. The main tenet is that students can develop academic English given that they know about their discipline. Findings so far reveal the difficulty of students to take distance from their previous learning experiences. They also show that students’ ideas expressed in English are far more complex than what would be expected of them given their second language skills. The complexity is not only related to thecontent, but to the way they construct their paragraphs and the understanding of how the register of their field  may be used.

  3. Learning, Work, and Language Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The article provides an example of psycho-societal analysis of work related learning. Initially a conceptual framework of learning and life experience is established drawing on Alfred Lorenzer and Oskar Negt, and the interactional development of psychoanalysis. A case of learning experience from...... process, which is related to a career shift enforced by labor market transition requiring male workers to retrain for a social work profession which used to be female, and more widely to a reconfiguration of the societal relation between work and gender. The final section discusses the methodological...... framework for analyzing learning processes by means of interpreting language use. The notion of language game connects the level of unconscious social engagements and level of formal learning and knowledge, and the opportunity for a deeper understanding of professional learning and identity is indicated...

  4. Language Learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss language learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson. Starting from a remark by Bakhurst, I hold that both Wittgenstein and Davidson's philosophies of language contain responses to the problem of language learning, albeit of a different form. Following Williams, I hold that the concept of language learning can explain…

  5. Establishing a learning foundation in a dynamically changing world: Insights from artificial language work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kalim

    It is argued that infants build a foundation for learning about the world through their incidental acquisition of the spatial and temporal regularities surrounding them. A challenge is that learning occurs across multiple contexts whose statistics can greatly differ. Two artificial language studies with 12-month-olds demonstrate that infants come prepared to parse statistics across contexts using the temporal and perceptual features that distinguish one context from another. These results suggest that infants can organize their statistical input with a wider range of features that typically considered. Possible attention, decision making, and memory mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  7. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  8. Learning for Semantic Parsing and Natural Language Generation Using Statistical Machine Translation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    individual players to take: Productions Meaning of predicates DIRECTIVE → (do PLAYER ACTION) PLAYER should take ACTION. DIRECTIVE → ( dont PLAYER...Computational Lin- guistics (COLING-ACL-2006), Poster Sessions, pp. 263–270. Sydney, Australia. 170 Daniel Gildea and Daniel Jurafsky (2002

  9. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

  10. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  11. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  12. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Chunking or not chunking? How do we find words in artificial language learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    What is the nature of the representations acquired in implicit statistical learning? Recent results in the field of language learning have shown that adults and infants are able to find the words of an artificial language when exposed to a continuous auditory sequence consisting in a random ordering of these words. Such performance can only be based on processing the transitional probabilities between sequence elements. Two different kinds of mechanisms may account for these data: Participants may either parse the sequence into smaller chunks corresponding to the words of the artificial language, or they may become progressively sensitive to the actual values of the transitional probabilities between syllables. The two accounts are difficult to differentiate because they make similar predictions in comparable experimental settings. In this study, we present two experiments that aimed at contrasting these two theories. In these experiments, participants had to learn 2 sets of pseudo-linguistic regularities: Language 1 (L1) and Language 2 (L2) presented in the context of a serial reaction time task. L1 and L2 were either unrelated (none of the syllabic transitions of L1 were present in L2), or partly related (some of the intra-words transitions of L1 were used as inter-words transitions of L2). The two accounts make opposite predictions in these two settings. Our results indicate that the nature of the representations depends on the learning condition. When cues were presented to facilitate parsing of the sequence, participants learned the words of the artificial language. However, when no cues were provided, performance was strongly influenced by the employed transitional probabilities.

  14. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Software: Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and ...

  15. Physicality and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeuk; Seedhouse, Paul; Seedhouse, Rob; Kiaer, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    The study draws on the digital technology which allows users to be able to learn both linguistic and non-linguistic skills at the same time. Activity recognition as well as wireless sensor technology, similar to a Nintendo Wii, is embedded or attached to the equipment and ingredients, allowing users to detect and evaluate progress as they carry…

  16. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  17. RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE AND LEARNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alcón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.

  18. Parse Journal #2: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Jason; Malik, Suhail; Phillips, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    As a periodical concerned with the critical potential of artistic research, this edition of the PARSE journal mobilises the multiple perspectives of artists, thinkers, critics and curators on the problematics, discontents and possibilities of private capital as an unregulated yet assumptive producer of art’s value, including its integration with state-funding. We have put emphasis on how this conditioning of art’s production, circulation, reception and sale can be put to task. In particular, ...

  19. Production Practice During Language Learning Improves Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Elise W M; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2018-04-01

    Language learners often spend more time comprehending than producing a new language. However, memory research suggests reasons to suspect that production practice might provide a stronger learning experience than comprehension practice. We tested the benefits of production during language learning and the degree to which this learning transfers to comprehension skill. We taught participants an artificial language containing multiple linguistic dependencies. Participants were randomly assigned to either a production- or a comprehension-learning condition, with conditions designed to balance attention demands and other known production-comprehension differences. After training, production-learning participants outperformed comprehension-learning participants on vocabulary comprehension and on comprehension tests of grammatical dependencies, even when we controlled for individual differences in vocabulary learning. This result shows that producing a language during learning can improve subsequent comprehension, which has implications for theories of memory and learning, language representations, and educational practices.

  20. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremenska, Anelly

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia,

  1. Influence of additional language learning on first language learning in children with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Personal Learning Environments for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Panagiotidis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The advent of web 2.0 and the developments it has introduced both in everyday practice and in education have generated discussion and reflection concerning the technologies which higher education should rely on in order to provide the appropriate e-learning services to future students. In this context, the Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs, which are widely used in universities around the world to provide online courses to every specific knowledge area and of course in foreign languages, have started to appear rather outdated. Extensive research is under progress, concerning the ways in which educational practice will follow the philosophy of web 2.0 by adopting the more learner-centred and collaborative approach of e-learning 2.0 applications, without abandoning the existing investment of the academic institutions in VLEs, which belong to the e-learning 1.0 generation, and, thus, serve a teacher- or coursecentred approach. Towards this direction, a notably promising solution seems to be the exploitation of web 2.0 tools in order to form Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. These are systems specifically designed or created by the combined use of various external applications or tools that can be used independently or act as a supplement to existing VLE platforms, creating a personalized learning environment. In a PLE, students have the opportunity to form their own personal way of working, using the tools they feel are most appropriate to achieve their purpose. Regarding the subject of foreign language, in particular, the creation of such personalized and adaptable learning environments that extend the traditional approach of a course seems to promise a more holistic response to students’ needs, who, functioning in the PLE, could combine learning with their daily practice, communicating and collaborating with others, thus increasing the possibilities of access to multiple sources, informal communication and practice and eventually

  3. Personal Learning Environments for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Panagiotidis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of web 2.0 and the developments it has introduced both in everyday practice and in education have generated discussion and reflection concerning the technologies which higher education should rely on in order to provide the appropriate e-learning services to future students.In this context, the Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs, which are widely used in universities around the world to provide online courses to every specific knowledge area and of course in foreign languages, have started to appear rather outdated. Extensive research is under progress, concerning the ways in which educational practice will follow the philosophy of web 2.0 by adopting the more learner-centred and collaborative approach of e-learning 2.0 applications, without abandoning the existing investment of the academic institutions in VLEs, which belong to the e-learning 1.0 generation, and, thus, serve a teacher- or coursecentred approach.Towards this direction, a notably promising solution seems to be the exploitation of web 2.0 tools in order to form Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. These are systems specifically designed or created by the combined use of various external applications or tools that can be used independently or act as a supplement to existing VLE platforms, creating a personalized learning environment. In a PLE, students have the opportunity to form their own personal way of working, using the tools they feel are most appropriate to achieve their purpose.Regarding the subject of foreign language, in particular, the creation of such personalized and adaptable learning environments that extend the traditional approach of a course seems to promise a more holistic response to students’ needs, who, functioning in the PLE, could combine learning with their daily practice, communicating and collaborating with others, thus increasing the possibilities of access to multiple sources, informal communication and practice and eventually acquiring

  4. A structural SVM approach for reference parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X; Thoma, George R

    2011-06-09

    Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author, title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step in building citation-indexing systems. The regular structure in references enables us to consider reference parsing a sequence learning problem and to study structural Support Vector Machine (structural SVM), a newly developed structured learning algorithm on parsing references. In this study, we implemented structural SVM and used two types of contextual features to compare structural SVM with conventional SVM. Both methods achieve above 98% token classification accuracy and above 95% overall chunk-level accuracy for reference parsing. We also compared SVM and structural SVM to Conditional Random Field (CRF). The experimental results show that structural SVM and CRF achieve similar accuracies at token- and chunk-levels. When only basic observation features are used for each token, structural SVM achieves higher performance compared to SVM since it utilizes the contextual label features. However, when the contextual observation features from neighboring tokens are combined, SVM performance improves greatly, and is close to that of structural SVM after adding the second order contextual observation features. The comparison of these two methods with CRF using the same set of binary features show that both structural SVM and CRF perform better than SVM, indicating their stronger sequence learning ability in reference parsing.

  5. affective variables of language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2011-01-01

    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.

  6. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  7. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

  8. Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore

    2001-01-01

    Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…

  9. Flipped Approach to Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junko

    2013-01-01

    There are abundant possibilities for using smart phones and tablet computers for foreign language learning. However, if there is an emphasis on memorization or on technology, language learners may not develop proficiency in their target language. Therefore, language teachers should be familiar with strategies for facilitating creative…

  10. New Ways to Learn a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert A., Jr.

    This text focuses on the nature of language learning in the light of modern linguistic analysis. Common linguistic problems encountered by students of eight major languages are examined--Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, and Russian. The text discusses the nature of language, building new language habits, overcoming…

  11. Gestures Enhance Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Macedonia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Language and gesture are highly interdependent systems that reciprocally influence each other. For example, performing a gesture when learning a word or a phrase enhances its retrieval compared to pure verbal learning. Although the enhancing effects of co-speech gestures on memory are known to be robust, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we summarize the results of behavioral and neuroscientific studies. They indicate that the neural representation of words consists of complex multimodal networks connecting perception and motor acts that occur during learning. In this context, gestures can reinforce the sensorimotor representation of a word or a phrase, making it resistant to decay. Also, gestures can favor embodiment of abstract words by creating it from scratch. Thus, we propose the use of gesture as a facilitating educational tool that integrates body and mind.

  12. Language Alternation and Language Norm in Vocational Content and Language Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…

  13. Enlightenment From Motivation In Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects one of classifications of motivation in foreign language learning,that is,instrumental and integrative motivation.By analyzing such a distinction,it hopes to direct foreign language teaching in China.

  14. On Emotional Barriers to Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qin

    2012-01-01

    Language learning is a very complex process, which is related to many factors, either internal or external. Affective factors plays an important role in a second language learning. If only we realize such affective factors, we can overcome the emotional barriers effectively and have a successful learning.

  15. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...

  16. Telugu dependency parsing using different statistical parsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkata Seshu Kumari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore different statistical dependency parsers for parsing Telugu. We consider five popular dependency parsers namely, MaltParser, MSTParser, TurboParser, ZPar and Easy-First Parser. We experiment with different parser and feature settings and show the impact of different settings. We also provide a detailed analysis of the performance of all the parsers on major dependency labels. We report our results on test data of Telugu dependency treebank provided in the ICON 2010 tools contest on Indian languages dependency parsing. We obtain state-of-the art performance of 91.8% in unlabeled attachment score and 70.0% in labeled attachment score. To the best of our knowledge ours is the only work which explored all the five popular dependency parsers and compared the performance under different feature settings for Telugu.

  17. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Fast Parsing using Pruning and Grammar Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Manny; Carter, David

    1996-01-01

    We show how a general grammar may be automatically adapted for fast parsing of utterances from a specific domain by means of constituent pruning and grammar specialization based on explanation-based learning. These methods together give an order of magnitude increase in speed, and the coverage loss entailed by grammar specialization is reduced to approximately half that reported in previous work. Experiments described here suggest that the loss of coverage has been reduced to the point where ...

  19. Learning the Greek Language via Greeklish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Karakos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning Greek as a second or foreign language has drawn the attention of many researchers throughout time. A dictionary is amongst the first things a foreign language student uses. Reading comprehension is significantly improved by the use of a dictionary, especially when this includes the way words are pronounced. We developed a assistance software for learning the Greek Language via Greeklish. Since, the basic vocabulary of a language is the basis of understanding the language itself, the dictionary proposed aims to make the basic Greek words easier to pronounce as well as to give the explanation of the word in English. The aim of this software is to provide a useful tool to learn the Greek language individually. Moreover, it aims to be involved, as an assistance tool for learning Greek as a second or foreign language.

  20. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes Towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Tolosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students’ learning with a free writing activity done as pretest and posttest and used a semi-structured interview to explore their attitudes towards language learning and their perceived development of their native language. Data analysis indicated statistically significant gains in foreign language writing and positive attitudinal changes toward foreign and native language learning.

  1. Speech Analysis and Visual Image: Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Alfred; Chung, C. W.; Lam, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Students will speak a second language with an accent if they learn the language after the age of six. It does not matter how motivated and clever they are, the accent will not go away. Only a few gifted students can speak a second language flawlessly. The exact reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Although a large number of hypotheses have…

  2. OBJECTIVES AND PROCESSES OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE

    THE OBJECTIVES OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING, AND SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR PRESENTING AND DRILLING STRUCTURES BY THE USE OF CERTAIN GESTURES, WERE PRESENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONCENTRATING EFFORTS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING REVOLVED AROUND AN EMPHASIS ON THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ITSELF RATHER THAN ABOUT ITS HISTORY, VOCABULARY,…

  3. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...... is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...

  4. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉红

    2004-01-01

    The role of motivation in language learning has been studied since the 1960s. It is indeed one of the most important areas of linguistics. This paper suggests strategies of motivating language learners and focuses on the role which motivation can play in language learning. The concept of motivation from different points of view is defined, a number of suggestions on how to motivate language learners are presented and the role of motivation based on various motivational theories are highlighted. With regard to the role of motivation in language learning, it is concluded that motivation plays an increasingly important role in many aspects, such as identifying with the target language society, achieving long-term and short-term goals, improving language learners' internal and external powers and exerting a group force. It also indicates that there should be more research areas to be examined and a long way is probably requlred to go in future theoretical and practical study.

  5. Reconceptualising Learning in Transdisciplinary Languages Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and working with the complexity of second language learning and use in an intercultural orientation necessitates a re-examination of the different theories of learning that inform the different schools of second language acquisition (SLA). This re-examination takes place in a context where explicitly conceptualizing the nature of…

  6. Transform Modern Language Learning through Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2013-01-01

    College professors can transform their modern language classes through mobile devices. Their students' learning becomes more active, more personalized, more contextual, and more culturally authentic as illustrated through the author's modern language mobile learning classroom examples. In addition, their students engage in many diverse types of…

  7. Teaching language teachers scaffolding professional learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maggioli, Gabriel Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Teaching Language Teachers: Scaffolding Professional Learning provides an updated view of as well as a reader-friendly introduction to the field of Teaching Teachers, with special reference to language teaching. By taking a decidedly Sociocultural perspective, the book addresses the main role of the Teacher of Teachers (ToT) as that of scaffolding the professional learning of aspiring teachers.

  8. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  9. Teaching and Learning Language as Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝晖

    2007-01-01

    It's important to master a foreign language, English in particular.But the problem is how students should learn in order to communicate well with the native speakers and even become members of the target language community.The author narrates two incidents related to the Chinese study and English study experiences, pointing out that language study can't be separated from culture study.In line with the research results by some language experts about culture, language is the carrier of culture as literature is accomplished through languages,therefore language learning and teaching in isolation from culture is impossible.The author argues that language should be taught and learnt in a cultural approach.But as a sword with double blades, cultural approach may lead to culture invasion, culture inequality and the loss of culture diversity.

  10. The Internet, Language Learning, And International Dialogue: 
Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    OpenAIRE

    KARTAL, Erdogan; UZUN, Levent

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign language teaching websites (4 from each of seven languages including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish). The participants ...

  11. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  12. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GESTURE'S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-09-22

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate--they gesture--and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form--they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form--they are part of language.

  14. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  15. A Critical Appraisal of Foreign Language Research in Content and Language Integrated Learning, Young Language Learners, and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Published in Spain (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…

  16. Languaging as Competencing: Considering Language Learning as Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellermann, John

    2018-01-01

    The terms "interactional competence" and "learning" are discussed in the context of recent research in the areas of cognitive science and ethnomethodological conversation analysis studies of language learning. Two data excerpts from a longitudinal case study of a beginning learner of English are presented to illustrate (1) the…

  17. The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

  18. Student enthusiasm for learning in language classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Tokunaga, Masahiko; 徳永, 昌彦

    2005-01-01

    Student enthusiasm would seem to be a fundamental aspect of learning, yet it is a difficult concept to define because it takes in a range of different behaviours on the part of students. Nevertheless, it is important to consider just what student enthusiasm for learning is. This concept will be explored before comparing how the various theories of learning treat it. Finally, theories that are most useful for maximising student enthusiasm for learning particularly related to language learning,...

  19. Language-Learning Holidays: What Motivates People to Learn a Minority Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Bernadette; DePalma, Renée

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the experiences of 18 Galician language learners who participated in what Garland [(2008). "The minority language and the cosmopolitan speaker: Ideologies of Irish language learners" (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of California, Santa Barbara] refers to as a "language-learning holiday" in…

  20. On the relation between dependency distance, crossing dependencies, and parsing. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Liu et al. [1] provide a comprehensive account of research on dependency distance in human languages. While the article is a very rich and useful report on this complex subject, here I will expand on a few specific issues where research in computational linguistics (specifically natural language processing) can inform DDM research, and vice versa. These aspects have not been explored much in [1] or elsewhere, probably due to the little overlap between both research communities, but they may provide interesting insights for improving our understanding of the evolution of human languages, the mechanisms by which the brain processes and understands language, and the construction of effective computer systems to achieve this goal.

  1. Motivation In Second language learning In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑葳

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is the indispensable condition for a student's learning success. As a foreign language teacher, they should motivate the second language learners by promoting positive language-related values. Dornyei identifies three value dimensions. They are intrinsic value, integrative value and instrumental value. In China, the Communicative Language Teaching is an innovation approach and learner- centered. The CLT approach and curriculum have motivated students' interest, appreciation and values in learning English. In English classroom, the teacher should establish the cooperative situation rather than the competitive environment in order to arouse the students' motivation and reduce the psychological pressure.

  2. Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL, is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  3. Critical Success Factors in Online Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberth

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of online courses nowadays, it is necessary to ask what defines the success of teaching and learning in these new learning environments exactly. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of factors for successful implementation of online delivery, particularly as far as online language learning is concerned.…

  4. SPORT SCIENCE STUDENTS‟ BELIEFS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Akhiriyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.

  5. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  6. Language learning strategy research and modern foreign language teaching and learning in England

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses language learner strategy research. It arises from two sources: firstly, an individual background in research and writing about Language Learning Strategy research in the context of Modern Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in the UK over the past decades; secondly, a newly constituted British based interest group dedicated to this area of applied linguistics - UK Project on Language Learner Strategies (UKPOLLS). The aim of this SIG paper is to introduce and present t...

  7. Parsing with subdomain instance weighting from raw corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, B.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    The treebanks that are used for training statistical parsers consist of hand-parsed sentences from a single source/domain like newspaper text. However, newspaper text concerns different subdomains of language use (e.g. finance, sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by

  8. Parsing with Subdomain Instance Weighting from Raw Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, Barbara; Sima'an, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    The treebanks that are used for training statistical parsers consist of hand-parsed sentences from a single source/domain like newspaper text. However, newspaper text concerns different subdomains of language use (e.g. finance, sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by

  9. YakYak: Parsing with Logical Side Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Damgaard; Klarlund, Nils; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2000-01-01

    Yak, which extends Yacc with first-order logic for specifying consteaints that are regular tree languages. Concise formulas about the parse tree replace explicit programming, and they are turned into canonical attribute grammars through tree automata calculations. YakYak is implemented as a proprocessor...

  10. Self-Regulation in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Liu, Heidi; Nix, John-Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Self-regulated learning has been a widely researched subject for decades in educational psychology. Different instruments have been developed to understand learners' self-regulated learning in a specific subject domain. This study developed a measurement scale to assess English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity in English language learning and further examined the effects of gender on English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity. A series of psychometric analyses including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and full structural equation modeling were undertaken to answer the research questions raised. The findings suggest that the scale can attain high reliability and strong validity in two different samplings, and the underlying construct of self-regulation in English language learning is shown to be multidimensional with a significant impact by gender. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are further put forward in light of the research findings.

  11. Facebook for informal language learning: Perspectives from tertiary language students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonie Alm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of Facebook for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1 their perceptions of Facebook as a multilingual environment, (2 their online writing practices and (3 their views on the educational value of their experiences. Findings indicate that language students are using a range of Facebook features to expose themselves to the languages they study (L2 and to communicate in their L2 with native speaker Facebook friends. The use of the social networking site varied according to proficiency-levels of the participants (beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, strength of social ties with native speaker Facebook friends and personal attitudes towards the site. Learning experiences on Facebook were not perceived as useful for the formal language learning context which suggests the need for bridging strategies between informal and formal learning environments.

  12. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...... from cultural and contextual diversity....

  13. Foreign language teaching and learning: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    learning and recommends ways in which foreign language students and teachers can exploit the ... languages at university level in the Ugandan context. ... management and catering, the hospitality industry and international relations. .... Especially in the era of globalization, there is an increasing demand for intercultural.

  14. Suggestology as an Effective Language Learning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaCoy, Katherine W.

    The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes…

  15. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  16. Language, learning and electronic communications media

    OpenAIRE

    Coffin, Caroline; Hewings, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Guest editorial - article outline\\ud 1. Why is language significant?\\ud 2. Research settings\\ud 2.1. School age students: \\ud (i) text-based conferencing \\ud (ii) multimodal writing\\ud 2.2. University students: \\ud (i) text-based conferencing \\ud (ii) web-based literacy support\\ud 2.3. Informal adult learning: web-based reading\\ud 3. Methodologies for exploring language and learning\\ud \\ud

  17. [Information technology in learning sign language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.

  18. Comparison and Contrast between First and Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Akhter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper tends to focus on comparison and contrast between first and second language learning. It investigates the different factors that have inhibiting influences on the language learning process of the learners in the two different environments. There are many factors involved in this respect. The age factor is one of the vital factors that influence the progress of learners in the language learning process. The other factor between first and second language learning, which mostly influences the performance of second language learners, is language input in terms of the quantity and quality in both cases of the limitations of the second language learning in classroom. This research study also studies the language input in both cases and limitations of second language learning in classroom. The present research also investigates the individual differences between first and second language learning, covering aptitude of the language learner, motivation of teacher and classmates, language anxiety and language ego. This research paper suggests that motivation of the teacher and other class fellows, aptitude of learner and teacher’s instructions and teaching methodology as well as classroom setting may help the second language learners to overcome their language anxiety and language ego in the classroom. Keywords: First language learning, Second language Learning, Age Factor, Individual Differences, Language Input, Language Anxiety and Language Ego

  19. Game Based Language Learning for Bilingual Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautopp, Heidi; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2014-01-01

    experiences with the central goals in communicative language teaching (CLT). The paper is based on a study of The Danish Simulator when integrated in a game‐based language course with 15 students at a language center in Copenhagen during spring, 2013. The Danish Simulator consists of language drills......, the analysis presents preliminary findings in relation to students’ different experiences of The Danish Simulator and the teacher’s redesign of the game based teaching. It is concluded that the meaningful use of The Danish Simulator in a game‐based language course for bilingual adults depends on the students......What happens when a single‐player training game enters a classroom context? The use of training activities in game‐based learning (GBL) has often been criticized for letting players perform mechanical operations with no reflection upon the learning experiences involved (e.g. Egenfeldt‐Nielsen, 2005...

  20. The Use of Music for Learning Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和梅

    2012-01-01

      Throughout time, healers, philosophers, scientists, and teachers have recognized the place of music for therapeutic and developmental functions (Bancroft,1985:3-7). Researchers over the last twenty years have made astounding advances in the the⁃ory of language acquisition. Many find the pedagogical conjoining of language and music compelling. The first part of this review focuses on the historical and developmental proofs of music’ s relationship with language learning. In part two, neurological the⁃ory on music and the mind are covered. Part three summarizes scholarly inquiry on the use of music for learning languages, espe⁃cially those studies that could prove most instructive both for language teachers and for music therapists in the development of curricula.

  1. Technically Speaking: Transforming Language Learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…

  2. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2014-01-01

    Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Creating Parsing Lexicons from Semantic Lexicons Automatically and Its Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayan, Necip F; Dorr, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    ...). We also present the effects of using such a lexicon on the parser performance. The advantage of automating the process is that the same technique can be applied directly to lexicons we have for other languages, for example, Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish. The results indicate that our method will help us generate parsing lexicons which can be used by a broad-coverage parser that runs on different languages.

  4. Mobile Assisted Language Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesang; Ruecker, Daniel; Kim, Dong-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of learning with mobile technology for TESOL students and to explore their perceptions of learning with this type of technology. The study provided valuable insights on how students perceive and adapt to learning with mobile technology for effective learning experiences for both students…

  5. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  6. Language Learning Podcasts and Learners' Belief Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Süleyman; Cabaroglu, Nese

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of Internet-based mobile devices in educational contexts means that mobile learning has become a plausible alternative to or a good complement for conventional classroom-based teaching. However, there is a lack of research that explores and defines the characteristics and effects of mobile language learning (LL) through language…

  7. EXPLORING SOME ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Gulaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the surveyperformed in MESI, in academic groupsmajoring in “World Economy”. The surveywas conducted on three foreign languagelearning websites that use Web 2.0 technology to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websitesuse them for learning English and Frenchand explore the pedagogical and technicalusability and effectiveness of these sites.

  8. Foreign Language Learning in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpet, Brian R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a visit made to Sweden to ascertain why Swedish citizens speak such excellent English. Motivation was a key factor. Describes observations of the methods of teaching English as a second language in Swedish schools. Makes recommendations for foreign language teaching in Great Britain based on these observations. (SED)

  9. WEBLOGS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING: Students’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juida WAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in Malaysia. Twenty six students kept weblogs for a duration of a semester. This study investigated how students perceived the use of weblogs for English language learning. A questionnaire which was made up of both close-ended and open-ended questions was administered at the end of the study. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyse the students’ responses to the questionnaire. The study found that students were aware of their audience when they blogged and that they geared their writing towards their audience. In addition, they also interacted with others through the use of the comment feature on their weblogs. Furthermore, the majority of the students enjoyed blogging and found weblogs useful for English language learning. This study found that weblogs are promising interactive tools for English language learning.

  10. Weblogs For English Language Learning: Students’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    WAN, Juida

    2011-01-01

    The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in Malaysia. Twenty six students kept weblogs for a duration of a semester. This study investigated how students perceived the use of weblogs for Eng...

  11. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…

  12. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  13. Designing for language learning in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    contacts and experiences can be enhanced and brought back into the classroom to study and learn from them. How can the ‘wild’ language be practically supported to become the ‘food chain’ of language acquisition? The paper will present an example of language encounters ‘in the wild’ and analyze the sense......When adult newcomers arrive in a new society, the new language encroaches immediately into their everyday lives. As a minimum, newcomers are overhearers of and eavesdroppers to encounters in public life, education, at workplaces, or in the media and they meet texts wherever they go. In daily life......, there are ample daily opportunities for engaging with the language of the society. It has a paramount presence in the daily life of newcomers even before they have acquired the nuts and bolts for using it actively. Language encounters ‘in the wild’ happen in a sometimes chaotic, sometimes repetitive environment...

  14. Contextual Semantic Parsing using Crowdsourced Spatial Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Kais

    2014-01-01

    We describe a contextual parser for the Robot Commands Treebank, a new crowdsourced resource. In contrast to previous semantic parsers that select the most-probable parse, we consider the different problem of parsing using additional situational context to disambiguate between different readings of a sentence. We show that multiple semantic analyses can be searched using dynamic programming via interaction with a spatial planner, to guide the parsing process. We are able to parse sentences in...

  15. Integrating Culture into Language Teaching and Learning: Learner Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…

  16. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  17. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  18. Resources and Resourcefulness in Language Teaching and Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts will be made in this paper to examine what we mean by language, language teaching and learning, resources and resourcefulness in language teaching and learning and the benefit of teachers being resourceful in language teaching and learning to both the learners, the teachers, the society and the nation at ...

  19. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  20. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  1. Learning about Language in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    1985-01-01

    Research on communication in classrooms is reviewed to provide implications for the writing process. Studies address language, social identity, and teacher expectation. The importance of meaning as the focus of writing is stressed. (CL)

  2. Language Views on Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar

    2016-01-01

    Social networking has compelled the area of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to expand its research palette and account for new virtual ecologies that afford language learning and socialization. This study focuses on Busuu, a social networking site for language learning (SNSLL), and analyzes the views of language that are enacted through…

  3. Some psycholinguistic conditions for second language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Spolsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses some psycho linguistic conditions for second language learning based on a preference rr ode! in linguistics. The outcome of second language learning depends on a number of conditions. Second language learning takes place in a social context, and social conditions determine a learner's attitudes. These attitudes are twofold in nature, namely those towards the community speaking the target language and those towards the learning situation. The two kinds of attitudes lead to motivation. The social context also provides opportunities for language learning and can be divided into formal and informal situations. There are also individual conditions of the learner. The author is concerned with the exploration of several specific psycholinguistic factors, as well as the kinds of rules which they contribute to the theory. Die skrywer bespreek enkele psigolinguistiese voorwaardes vir die aanleer van 'n tweede taal, gebaseer op 'n voorkeurmodel in die l!nguistiek. Die aanleer van 'n tweede taal geskied bin ne 'n sosiale konteks, en sosiale omstandighede bepaal 'n leerder se houding. Hierdie houding kan bestaan ten opsigte van die gemeenskap wat die teikentaal praat, sowel as ten opsigte van die leersituasie. Motivering word bepaal deur hierdie tweeledige houding. Die sosiale konteks bepaal ook geleenthede vir die aanleer van 'n taal en kan verdeel word in forme le en informele situasies. Verder is daar die individuele omstandighede van elke leerder. Die skrywer hou horn besig met 'n verkenning van spesifieke psigolinguistiese faktore, sowel as die soort reels wat hydra tot die teorie.

  4. Language Learning Strategies used by Students learning Kiswahili1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in learning a second language nevertheless an African language has proven a tremendous effort on the part of foreign adult learners enrolled in universities. Motivation and attitude as well as the strategies used by the learners themselves play an important role. However, the greatest challenge for this group of ...

  5. Bit-coded regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...

  6. Recursive Neural Networks Based on PSO for Image Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Rong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image parsing algorithm which is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs. State-of-the-art method such as traditional RNN-based parsing strategy uses L-BFGS over the complete data for learning the parameters. However, this could cause problems due to the nondifferentiable objective function. In order to solve this problem, the PSO algorithm has been employed to tune the weights of RNN for minimizing the objective. Experimental results obtained on the Stanford background dataset show that our PSO-based training algorithm outperforms traditional RNN, Pixel CRF, region-based energy, simultaneous MRF, and superpixel MRF.

  7. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples

  8. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  9. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  10. The relationship between students' perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size

    OpenAIRE

    Gorevanova, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...

  11. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates international students’ perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have mastered the English language before they start their study in America. Most international students experience an overload of English language input upon arrival in the United States. Cultural differences influence international students’ learning of English in other ways, including international students’ isolation within their communities and America’s lack of teaching listening skills to its own students. Other factors also affect international students’ learning of English, such as the many forms of informal English spoken in the USA, as well as a variety of dialects. Moreover, since most international students have learned English in an environment that precluded much contact with spoken English, they often speak English with an accent that reveals their own language. This study offers informed insight into the complicated process of simultaneously learning the language and culture of another country. Readers will find three main voices in addition to the international students who “speak” (in quotation marks throughout this article. Hong Li, a Chinese doctoral student in English Education at the University of Missouri-Columbia, authored the “regular” text. Second, Roy F. Fox’s voice appears in italics. Fox is Professor of English Education and Chair of the Department of Learning, Teaching, and Curriculum at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Third, Dario J. Almarza’s voice appears in boldface. Almarza, a native of Venezuela, is an Assistant Professor of Social Studies Education at the same institution.

  12. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  13. Dictionary Usage in English Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmatillah, Rohmatillah

    2016-01-01

    This article examined about the important of using dictionary in English language learning. We cannot deny in learning a foreign language, we need to consult a dictionary. It is supported by Laufer in Koca believes that when word looks familiar but the sentence in which it is found or its wider context makes no sense at all, the learner should be encouraged to consult a dictionary. Sometimes the learners are reluctant to find out the other meaning of word from dictionary, as a result the mea...

  14. Emerging Technologies for Autonomous Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Warschauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a lengthier review completed for the US National Institute for Literacy, this paper examines emerging technologies that are applicable to self-access and autonomous learning in the areas of listening and speaking, collaborative writing, reading and language structure, and online interaction. Digital media reviewed include podcasts, blogs, wikis, online writing sites, text-scaffolding software, concordancers, multiuser virtual environments, multiplayer games, and chatbots. For each of these technologies, we summarize recent research and discuss possible uses for autonomous language learning.

  15. Autonomous Language Learning with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) wants English language education to be more communicative. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) need to adapt their instructional practices to meet this goal; however, they may not feel confident enough to teach speaking themselves. Using technology, JTEs have the ability…

  16. Language Learning in Preschool Children: An Embodied Learning Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Thea; Ilie, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    In Romanian preschool settings, there is a tendency to use abstract strategies in language-learning activities. The present study explored if strategies based on an embodied cognition approach facilitate learning more than traditional strategies that progress from concrete to abstract. Twenty-five children between 4 and 5 years of age listened to…

  17. THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE LEARNING IN BEHAVIORISM PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiru Rakhman Abidin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so  human gets  knowledge of language through learning.

  18. Metaphor and Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单玲玲

    2005-01-01

    Metaphor is an important teaching tool in our teaching history. In this essay, I try to explain how to play a lesson around metaphor, and how to use metaphor for students' memory aids or vocabulary learning.

  19. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  20. Social Networking Sites and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Billy

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a study of seven learners who logged their experiences on the language leaning social networking site Livemocha over a period of three months. The features of the site are described and the likelihood of their future success is considered. The learners were introduced to the Social Networking Site (SNS) and asked to learn a…

  1. Tutorial Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    "Sometimes maligned for its allegedly behaviorist connotations but critical for success in many fields from music to sport to mathematics and language learning, 'practice' is undergoing something of a revival in the applied linguistics literature" (Long & Richards 2007, p. xi). This research timeline provides a systematic overview of…

  2. Multimedia Materials for Language and Literacy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces educators to inexpensive, commercially-available CD-ROM software that combines speech, text, graphics, sound, video, animation, and special effects that may be incorporated into classroom activities for both normally developing and language learning disabled children. Discusses three types of multimedia CD-ROM products: (1) virtual…

  3. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  4. Games in Language Learning: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…

  5. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  6. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  7. Language Learning: Its Moral and Civic Remit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The metaphor of education as a conversation that is currently popular is attractive in many respects and it continues to be explored and applied in philosophy of education. This article seeks to consider that aspect of education that involves the literal conversation required to learn other languages. The burden of the argument is that language…

  8. Learning, Official Languages and Employment Equity Advisor ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Plans and coordinates human resources services in the areas of Learning, Official Languages (OL) and Employment Equity (EE) while ensuring that management's needs are met. Provides operational services and advises managers and employees in determining their needs, analyzing problems, ...

  9. Learner Autonomy and Telecollaborative Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David

    2016-01-01

    When I was invited to give one of the keynote talks at the Second International Conference on Telecollaboration in Higher Education, my first thought was that I should decline. It is true that for thirty years I was responsible for Trinity College Dublin's self-access language learning facilities and resources; true also that around the turn of…

  10. Corpora in Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Alex

    2017-01-01

    This timeline looks at explicit uses of corpora in foreign or second language (L2) teaching and learning, i.e. what happens when end-users explore corpus data, whether directly via concordancers or integrated into CALL programs, or indirectly with prepared printed materials. The underlying rationale is that such contact provides the massive…

  11. Language as skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...

  12. The Relationship between Artificial and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we…

  13. Group work in the English language curriculum sociocultural and ecological perspectives on second language classroom learning

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, P

    2014-01-01

    This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.

  14. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  15. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  16. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  17. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  18. Visualization Analytics for Second Language Vocabulary Learning in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Lan, Yu-Ju; Kao, Chia-Ling; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Language learning occurring in authentic contexts has been shown to be more effective. Virtual worlds provide simulated contexts that have the necessary elements of authentic contexts for language learning, and as a result, many studies have adopted virtual worlds as a useful platform for language learning. However, few studies so far have…

  19. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Mustafa Zulkuf

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs are central constructs in every discipline which deals with human behaviour and learning. In addition to learner beliefs about language learning, language teachers themselves may hold certain beliefs about language learning that will have an impact on their instructional practices and that are likely to influence their students' beliefs…

  20. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  1. The role of language in learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.

    Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics

  2. Learning the Languages of Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In his work with schools and other workplaces, psychologist Paul White has learned that many programs designed to appreciate employees fall flat because the appreciation is too generic or involves something the employees don't want (such as getting up in front of a group). Effective appreciation is (1) offered regularly, (2) valued by the…

  3. Transformations: Mobile Interaction & Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita; Thomas, Nathan; Dunning, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices and the interactions that these technologies afford have the potential to change the face and nature of education in our schools. Indeed, mobile technological advances are seen to offer better access to educational material and new interactive ways to learn. However, the question arises, as to whether these new technologies are…

  4. Structural equations in language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, M.J.

    In categorial systems with a fixed structural component, the learning problem comes down to finding the solution for a set of typeassignment equations. A hard-wired structural component is problematic if one want to address issues of structural variation. Our starting point is a type-logical

  5. The Impact of Language Experience on Language and Reading: A Statistical Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Mark S.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the important role of statistical learning for language and reading development. Although statistical learning--the unconscious encoding of patterns in language input--has become widely known as a force in infants' early interpretation of speech, the role of this kind of learning for language and reading comprehension in…

  6. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E

    2017-04-01

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D.; Finn, Amy S.; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2018-01-01

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual’s native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. PMID:27737775

  8. Learning algorithms and automatic processing of languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluhr, Christian Yves Andre

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis concerns the field of artificial intelligence. It addresses learning algorithms applied to automatic processing of languages. The author first briefly describes some mechanisms of human intelligence in order to describe how these mechanisms are simulated on a computer. He outlines the specific role of learning in various manifestations of intelligence. Then, based on the Markov's algorithm theory, the author discusses the notion of learning algorithm. Two main types of learning algorithms are then addressed: firstly, an 'algorithm-teacher dialogue' type sanction-based algorithm which aims at learning how to solve grammatical ambiguities in submitted texts; secondly, an algorithm related to a document system which structures semantic data automatically obtained from a set of texts in order to be able to understand by references to any question on the content of these texts

  9. A Brief Review of Motivation for Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dan-gui

    2014-01-01

    It is an increasingly popular trend in the language field that people become bilingual or even multilingual, which expos-es the fact that people are strongly motivated to learn another language in addition to their mother tongue. A large-scale of re-search has confirmed that motivation, serving as the internal impulse and initiative taste for second language learning, is among on of the key factors in second language acquisition and learning. The paper reviews the recent available literature on motivation of second language learning from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, with the purpose of neatening the important theories and relevant empirical studies in the field of second language motivation.

  10. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  11. A Resource-Oriented Functional Approach to English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that investigates the learning preferences and strategies of Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL) in Canadian school settings. It focuses on the interaction between second language (L2) learning methods that the students have adopted from their previous learning experience in China and…

  12. Is Online Learning Suitable for All English Language Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuama, Settha; Intharaksa, Usa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine online language learning strategies (OLLS) used and affection in online learning of successful and unsuccessful online language students and investigate the relationships between OLLS use, affection in online learning and online English learning outcomes. The participants included 346 university students completing a…

  13. An Investigation of Undergraduate Students' Beliefs about Autonomous Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2017-01-01

    The concept of learner autonomy is now playing an important role in the language learning field. An emphasis is put on the new form of learning which enables learners to direct their own learning. This study aimed to examine how undergraduate students believed about autonomous language learning in a university setting and to find out whether some…

  14. Embodied Language Learning and Cognitive Bootstrapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, C.E.; Nehaniv, C. L.; Saunders, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction mutually scaffold and support each other within a virtuous feedback cycle in the development of human language in children. Within this framework, the purpose of this article is to bring together diverse but complementary accounts...... of research methods that jointly contribute to our understanding of cognitive development and in particular, language acquisition in robots. Thus, we include research pertaining to developmental robotics, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics and neuroscience, as well as practical computer science...... the humanoid robot iCub are reported, while human learning relevant to developmental robotics has also contributed useful results. Disparate approaches are brought together via common underlying design principles. Without claiming to model human language acquisition directly, we are nonetheless inspired...

  15. Natural language processing tools for computer assisted language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeventer Faltin, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.

  16. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  17. BLENDED TECHNOLOGY IN LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alexandrovna Kameneva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the use of information technologies in the context of a blended technology approach to learning foreign languages in higher education institutions. Distance learning tools can be categorized as being synchronous (webinar, video conferencing, case-technology, chat, ICQ, Skype, interactive whiteboards or asynchronous (blogs, forums, Twitter, video and audio podcasts, wikis, on-line testing. Sociological and psychological aspects of their application in the educational process are also considered.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-41

  18. Dogs’ Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary For humans and dogs to live together amiably, dog training is required, and a lack of obedience training is significantly related to the prevalence of certain behavioral problems. To train efficiently, it is important that the trainer/owner ascertains the learning level of the dog. Understanding the dog’s body language helps humans understand the animal’s emotions. This study evaluated the posture of certain dog body parts during operant conditioning. Our findings suggest that ...

  19. The Relationship Between Artificial and Second Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-05-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we considered these questions by examining the relationship between performance in an ALL task and second language learning ability. Participants enrolled in a Spanish language class were evaluated using a number of different measures of Spanish ability and classroom performance, which was compared to IQ and a number of different measures of ALL performance. The results show that success in ALL experiments, particularly more complex artificial languages, correlates positively with indices of L2 learning even after controlling for IQ. These findings provide a key link between studies involving ALL and our understanding of second language learning in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  1. TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY TERTIARY ENGLISH MAJORS

    OpenAIRE

    TAN KHYE CHUIN; SARJIT KAUR

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of lan...

  2. Cooperative learning in the teaching of foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Zíková, Johana

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on cooperative learning in foreign language teaching. It brings knowledge about cooperative learning, about methods of didactics in foreign language and their suitability for using cooperative learning. It deals with the news that appeared in cooperative learning in a foreign language teaching. The research that is part of this work was qualitative and it was completed by quantitative research, too. The aim of the research was to understand the teachers' point of view and...

  3. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  4. Culture in Language Learning: Background, Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Pourkalhor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at presenting the historical background of the emergence of culture in language learning and how it can be correlated with the language learners. In fact, by providing various definitions of culture and the role it might play in the process of language learning, whether directly or indirectly, this research provides a clear-cut overview of culture and its application among the people as well as their communication in the society. Moreover, the relationship between culture and language learning is also taken into account. To this end, basic definitions of culture in different research studies are investigated moving toward finding a path to make a connection between language and culture. Therefore, a review of studies on the relationship between language learning and culture is provided to account for the possible effectiveness of benefiting from culture in the language learning process in that the learning context (i.e. foreign or second language can be affected by the culture of the teachers as well as the learners. This demands that both teachers and learners should be aware of cultural issues surrounding the language and the fact that it can be beneficial for the process of language learning. If learner are consciously involved in the culture of the language they are learning, they certainly can have better performance and understand the language more tangibly.

  5. A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the…

  6. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  7. Language Learning of Gifted Individuals: A Content Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokaydin, Beria; Baglama, Basak; Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research…

  8. Learner Behaviors and Perceptions of Autonomous Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekleyen, Nilüfer; Selimoglu, Figen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the learners' behaviors and perceptions about autonomous language learning at the university level in Turkey. It attempts to reveal what type of perceptions learners held regarding teachers' and their own responsibilities in the language learning process. Their autonomous language learning…

  9. Dyslexia and Learning a Foreign Language: A Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charlann S.

    2000-01-01

    This participant observer report reviews research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language, a description of how dyslexia has affected educational experiences, personal experiences learning a foreign language, and recommendations to individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and their…

  10. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  11. Traces of an Early Learned Second Language in Discontinued Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Jasmin; Pureza, Rita; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Can an early learned second language influence speech production after living many years in an exclusively monolingual environment? To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of discontinued early bilingualism in heritage speakers who moved abroad and switched language dominance from the second to the primary learned language. We used…

  12. Formulaic Sequences and the Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…

  13. Language Learning Motivation through a Small Lens: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushioda, Ema

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I propose an agenda for researching language learning motivation "through a small lens", to counteract our tendency in the second language (L2) motivation field to engage with language learning and teaching processes at a rather general level. I argue that by adopting a more sharply focused or contextualized angle of…

  14. Language Learning Attitudes: Ingrained Or Shaped In Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe DİŞLEN DAĞGÖL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language learning has become an essential need in today’s world. From academic to social settings, humans need to communicate in a different language to survive in their community. However, despite this increasing importance of language, it is difficult to say we have attained successful language learning on a large scale since there are a lot of factors in language learning process. Language attitudes, one of these factors, influence this process both positively and negatively, depending on how we view learning a foreign language. Therefore, this study deals with the issue of language attitudes to uncover learners’ language conceptions and probable effects on their learning. Moreover, this study aims to reveal the potential role of past learning experiences on the development of language beliefs positively or negatively. Thus, 35 university students in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years constitute the participants of the study. Based on mixed research design, the study is comprised of both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were gathered through Attitude Scale towards English Course, and the analyses were performed with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 version for Windows. The qualitative data were collected from students’ reports of their own autobiographies regarding their previous language learning experiences in elementary, secondary, high school and university years, and were subjected to the content analysis. The study showed language attitudes from behavioural, cognitive and affective perspectives and found out different factors in shaping their learning conceptions.

  15. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  16. A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbahira Mohamad Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews three main theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition in an attempt to elucidate how people acquire their first language (L1 and learn their second language (L2. Behaviorist, Innatist and Interactionist offer different perspectives on language learning and acquisition which influence the acceptance of how an L2 should be taught and learned. This paper also explicates the relationship between L1 and L2, and elaborates on the similarities and differences between the two. This paper concludes that there is no one solid linguistic theory which can provide the ultimate explanation of L1 acquisition and L2 learning as there are many interrelated factors that influence the success of language acquisition or language learning. The implication is that teachers should base their classroom management practices and pedagogical techniques on several theories rather than a single theory as learners learn and acquire language differently. It is hoped that this paper provides useful insights into the complex process involved in language acquisition and learning, and contributes to the increased awareness of the process among the stakeholders in the field of language education. Keywords: behaviorist, innatist, interactionist, language acquisition, second language learning

  17. Influence of Perceptual Saliency Hierarchy on Learning of Language Structures: An Artificial Language Learning Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Lam, Yau W; Shuai, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological experiments have revealed that in normal visual perception of humans, color cues are more salient than shape cues, which are more salient than textural patterns. We carried out an artificial language learning experiment to study whether such perceptual saliency hierarchy (color > shape > texture) influences the learning of orders regulating adjectives of involved visual features in a manner either congruent (expressing a salient feature in a salient part of the form) or incongruent (expressing a salient feature in a less salient part of the form) with that hierarchy. Results showed that within a few rounds of learning participants could learn the compositional segments encoding the visual features and the order between them, generalize the learned knowledge to unseen instances with the same or different orders, and show learning biases for orders that are congruent with the perceptual saliency hierarchy. Although the learning performances for both the biased and unbiased orders became similar given more learning trials, our study confirms that this type of individual perceptual constraint could contribute to the structural configuration of language, and points out that such constraint, as well as other factors, could collectively affect the structural diversity in languages.

  18. Influence of Perceptual Saliency Hierarchy on Learning of Language Structures: An Artificial Language Learning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Lam, Yau W.; Shuai, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological experiments have revealed that in normal visual perception of humans, color cues are more salient than shape cues, which are more salient than textural patterns. We carried out an artificial language learning experiment to study whether such perceptual saliency hierarchy (color > shape > texture) influences the learning of orders regulating adjectives of involved visual features in a manner either congruent (expressing a salient feature in a salient part of the form) or incongruent (expressing a salient feature in a less salient part of the form) with that hierarchy. Results showed that within a few rounds of learning participants could learn the compositional segments encoding the visual features and the order between them, generalize the learned knowledge to unseen instances with the same or different orders, and show learning biases for orders that are congruent with the perceptual saliency hierarchy. Although the learning performances for both the biased and unbiased orders became similar given more learning trials, our study confirms that this type of individual perceptual constraint could contribute to the structural configuration of language, and points out that such constraint, as well as other factors, could collectively affect the structural diversity in languages. PMID:28066281

  19. Effects of Community Service-Learning on Heritage Language Learners' Attitudes toward Their Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…

  20. Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Phillip; Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T

    2018-02-13

    Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways. In second language learners, grammar was associated with only declarative memory at lower language experience, but with only procedural memory at higher experience. The findings yielded large effect sizes and held consistently across languages, language families, linguistic structures, and tasks, underscoring their reliability and validity. The results, which met the predicted pattern, provide comprehensive evidence that language is tied to general-purpose systems both in children acquiring their native language and adults learning an additional language. Crucially, if language learning relies on these systems, then our extensive knowledge of the systems from animal and human studies may also apply to this domain, leading to predictions that might be unwarranted in the more circumscribed study of language. Thus, by demonstrating a role for these systems in language, the findings simultaneously lay a foundation for potentially important advances in the study of this critical domain.

  1. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  2. Papers in Language Learning and Language Acquisition. AFinLA Yearbook 1980. No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    Papers include: (1) "Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT" (Henning Wode); (2) "Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum" (Norman F. Davies); (3) "Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication" (Kari Sajavaara, Jaakko Lehtonen); (4) "On the Distinction between…

  3. Emotions as Learning Enhancers of Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez López Mariza G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports on a study that explores the effects of the emotional experiences of Mexican language learners on their motivation to learn English. In this qualitative research we present how emotions impact the motivation of university language learners in south Mexico. Results suggest that emotions, both negative and positive, contribute to enhancing and diminishing motivation. Althoughnegative emotions may be considered detrimental to foreign language learning, the findings of this study show that negative emotions serve as learning enhancers. Results also evidence that Mexican language learners perceive negative emotions as positive for their language learning process.En este artículo se presenta una investigación en la que se exploran los efectos que causan las experiencias emocionales en la motivación de estudiantes mexicanos al aprender inglés. Con base en un estudio cualitativo se presenta cómo las emociones inciden en la motivación de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de México. Los resultados sugieren que las emociones, tanto positivas como negativas, contribuyen a potenciar y disminuir su motivación. Se encontró que a pesar de que las emociones negativas pueden afectar el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera, estas actúan incluso como potenciadoras del aprendizaje. Los resultados también indican que los estudiantes mexicanos perciben las emociones negativas como positivas en su proceso de aprendizaje.

  4. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  5. Dogs’ Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary For humans and dogs to live together amiably, dog training is required, and a lack of obedience training is significantly related to the prevalence of certain behavioral problems. To train efficiently, it is important that the trainer/owner ascertains the learning level of the dog. Understanding the dog’s body language helps humans understand the animal’s emotions. This study evaluated the posture of certain dog body parts during operant conditioning. Our findings suggest that certain postures were related to the dog’s learning level during operant conditioning. Being aware of these postures could be helpful to understand canine emotion during learning. Abstract The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog’s body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 “hand motion” cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog’s behavior, focusing on the dog’s eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate. PMID:26479883

  6. Computational Investigations of Multiword Chunks in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stewart M; Christiansen, Morten H

    2017-07-01

    Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language. To this end, we take an initial step toward using large-scale, corpus-based computational modeling as a tool for exploring the granularity of speakers' linguistic units. Employing a computational model of language learning, the Chunk-Based Learner, we compare the usefulness of chunk-based knowledge in accounting for the speech of second-language learners versus children and adults speaking their first language. Our findings suggest that while multiword units are likely to play a role in second-language learning, adults may learn less useful chunks, rely on them to a lesser extent, and arrive at them through different means than children learning a first language. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY, FOREIGN LANGUAGE APTITUDE AND MOTIVATIONS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Tri Febriani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Language learning belief and language learning strategies are two essential predictors that have significant effect toward students’ language proficiency. Learners’ belief is dealing with what comes from inside the learners in learning the language, such as foreign language aptitude; difficulty of language learning; nature of language learning; learning and communication strategies; and motivation. Meanwhile, language learning strategies are learners’ plan in achieving certain goals or mastering the target language. A preliminary research was conducted in order to find what strategy mostly used by the learners. It turned out that the strategy mostly used by them was metacognitive strategies. Thus, this study aims to investigate about the correlation between metacognitive strategies and certain belief’ variables in students’ language learning which are foreign language aptitude and motivation. Moreover, twenty postgraduate students of English education department participated in this study. This study used correlational research, in which the BALLI (Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and SILL (Strategies Inventory for Language Learners questionnaires were adopted as the instruments in collecting the data. The findings of this study indicated that there is negative linear correlation between metacognitive strategy and foreign language aptitude (rXY = -0,049 while there is significant positive linear correlation between metacognitive and motivation (rXY =+0,79 in students’ language learning. Furthermore, this study also provide some recommendations, which is it is expected that there will be more researches use studies using different respondents with various contexts. Secondly, the further research will use both of quantitative and qualitative data relating to this issue in order to make a more accurate data.

  8. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS. It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.

  9. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  10. A Review of Integrating Mobile Phones for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, Ramiza; Albion, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is gradually being introduced in language classrooms. All forms of mobile technology represent portability with smarter features. Studies have proven the concomitant role of technology beneficial for language learning. Various features in the technology have been exploited and researched for acquiring and learning…

  11. Students' Evaluation of Their English Language Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizatulliza, M.; Kiely, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of English language teaching and learning, there is a long history of investigating students' performance while they are undergoing specific learning programmes. This research study, however, focused on students' evaluation of their English language learning experience after they have completed their programme. The data were gathered…

  12. Malaysian Gifted Students' Use of English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…

  13. Why First Language Learning Is Not Second Language Learning--Wittgenstein's Rejection of St. Augustine's Conception of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneling, Christina

    1993-01-01

    Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…

  14. Language Learning Strategies of EFL College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Furwana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were (1 to investigate the most dominant language learning strategies (LLS used by sixth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty at UIN Alauddin Makassar and (2 to find out the differences of using LLS between high achieving students and low achieving students. The result of the quantitative data through questionnaire showed that (1 metacognitive strategies was the most dominant LLS used, and (2 the high achieving students used metacognitive strategies with the highest preference and low achieving students used compensation strategies with the highest preference. The result of the qualitative data through think aloud showed that (1 the most dominant LLS employed by students were listening music, utilizing time for practicing and self-evaluating, (2 the most dominant LLS used by high achieving students were utilizing time for practicing, practicing English together and self-evaluating, whereas the most dominant LLS used by low achieving students were listening music, asking friend and selecting topic. The data were collected through documentation used to classify high achieving students and low achieving students based on their grade point average. It is concluded that the most dominant language learning strategies employed by students was metacognitive strategies. High achieving students employed different strategy than low achieving students. High achieving students used learning strategies more frequently than low achieving students.

  15. Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Joy Mesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable support for educational development using new technologies in higher education depends on having a basic roadmap that links current demands for developmental support to a plan for ways in which longer term needs will be recognized and met. The growing demand for lifelong learning of a second language is evident within the workplace where new technologies offer flexible solutions. In order to meet the special needs of working adults, the University of Siena Language Center (CLA has developed a multiple-level series of blended English courses from beginner to intermediate level for both university technical-administrative personnel and the hospital staff of the Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese (AOUS. The pedagogical approach takes into consideration both the needs of adults who are working full-time and the aims of the curriculum, which are to develop the four linguistic abilities of reading, writing, listening and speaking up to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR Level B1. Taking into consideration a constructive use of both teaching hours and classrooms, as well as the limited time available to adult learners, a blended approach was chosen. The face-to-face (f2f lessons provide activities concentrating on the development of speaking and listening skills. The online lessons provide a collaborative workspace for interaction in the second language and present a flexible solution for working adults who can structure their study time when and where it is most convenient. This paper will attempt to draw several conclusions regarding the effectiveness of blending approaches for lifelong learning of a second language based on both learner and teacher interviews as well as quantitative and qualitative data collection through questionnaires and end of course evaluation.

  16. Learning theories in computer-assisted foreign language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Baeva, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the learning theories, focusing to the strong interest in technology use for language learning. It is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far. The goals of this review are to understand how computers have been used in the past years to support foreign language learning, and to explore any research evidence with regards to how computer technology can enhance language skills acquisition

  17. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  18. Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Megan P.; Liu, Min

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an online survey and a usability test performed on three foreign language learning websites that use Web 2.0 technology. The online survey was conducted to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websites use them for learning and social purposes. The usability test was conducted to gain…

  19. English language learning materials a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Tomlinson

    2010-01-01

    This research collection presents a critical review of the materials used for learning English around the world. The first section includes a discussion of materials for specific learners and purposes, such as young learners, self-study, academic writing and general proficiency. The second section presents a detailed study of the materials used in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, Africa and Australia, and critically evaluates their effectiveness in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. Taking both the teacher's and the learner's needs into consideration, the book m

  20. The method of global learning in teaching foreign languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Dragovič

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the method of global learning of foreign languages, which is based on the principles of neurolinguistic programming (NLP. According to this theory, the educator should use the method of the so-called periphery learning, where students learn relaxation techniques and at the same time they »incidentally « or subconsciously learn a foreign language. The method of global learning imitates successful strategies of learning in early childhood and therefore creates a relaxed attitude towards learning. Global learning is also compared with standard methods.

  1. Providing Formative Feedback: Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning CONSPECT tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Providing Formative Feedback: Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning CONSPECT tool. Presentation given at the Onderwijslunch, University of Maastricht. January, 18, 2011, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  2. Language, Learning, and Identity in Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Valencia, Jose Aldemar

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the discipline of computer applications such as the advent of web-based communication, afforded by the Web 2.0, has paved the way for novel applications in language learning, namely, social networking. Social networking has challenged the area of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) to expand its research palette in order to…

  3. Learning Theories and Skills in Online Second Language Teaching and Learning: Dilemmas and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    For decades foreign and second language teachers have taken advantage of the technology development and ensuing possibilities to use e-learning facilities for language training. Since the 1980s, the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL), Internet, web 2.0, and various kinds of e-learning technology has been developed and researched…

  4. Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

  5. The importance of contrastive analysis in foreign language learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of contrastive analysis in foreign language learning with ... In the South African context, knowledge of English plays a significant part, but can ... on in the learning process should result in positive transfer of Zulu while curbing ...

  6. Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transition in Modern Foreign Languages: A Longitudinal Study of Motivation for Language Learning and Second Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the similarities and differences between primary and secondary foreign language curricula and pedagogy along with the development of motivation for language learning and second language proficiency. Data from 26 English learners of French (aged 10-11) were collected across three times points over a 12-month…

  8. Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms...... by: operating in only 2 passes; using only O(m) words of random-access memory (independent of n); requiring only kn bits of sequentially written and read log storage, where k ... and not requiring it to be stored at all. Previous RE parsing algorithms do not scale linearly with input size, or require substantially more log storage and employ 3 passes where the first consists of reversing the input, or do not or are not known to produce a greedy parse. The performance of our unoptimized C...

  9. Metaphor and Second Language Learning: The State of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…

  10. Challenges of Effective English Language Learning in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence the students. effective learning of the English Language as second language learners, the attitude of students towards the study of the English language, the nature of teacher/student interaction, the methods of teaching and the availability of teaching aids in Nigeria secondary schools are looked ...

  11. Innovations in Language Learning: The Oregon Chinese Flagship Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Falsgraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning in the United States suffers from a culture of low expectations. Lacking bilingual role models around them, students often view language class as, at best, a way to become a tourist in a country with a language different from their own. Monolingual policymakers assume that learning another language fluently is impossible and inconsequential, since they themselves are capable professionals with one language. Educators, discouraged by years of inadequate funding and support, have come to hope for nothing more than incremental improvements. The National Flagship Language Program (NFLP aims to break this cycle of low expectations and low results by providing funding to institutions willing to accept the challenge of producing Superior (Level 3 language users through a radical re-engineering of the language learning enterprise. The need for fundamental change in language education is longstanding, but the events of September 11 brought the importance of this need to the awareness of national policymakers. Due to the emphasis of critical languages, responsibility for carrying out this fundamental re-examination of language learning has fallen to those engaged in the less commonly taught languages. 1

  12. Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st century | Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st Century. The different challenges facing foreign language lecturers are considered as well as the different methods used to teach a foreign language. Technology and multimedia are proposed not only as tools and supports but also as a possible solution. With the change ...

  13. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A; de Haan, Ger J

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language

  14. Which Second Language Learning Theories Underlie Language Courses Offered by Slovene Private Language Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marša Meznarič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with language courses offered by private language schools in Slovenia. It examines who the people in charge of the language schools are, what criteria new teachers have to meet to become an employee of a school, whether the methodology applied (if any has been carefully chosen, what the teaching techniques are and who chooses them. Second language method discoveries have been subjected to perennial criticism and scepticism over the last half of century. Teachers around the globe have been confused by the constant shifts in the popularity of different methods. The article examines the con sequences of the abovementioned circumstances. The 15 interviews conducted with private language schools’ managers have generated valuable information on the level of professionalism in this area of business. The results have shown that most of the randomly chosen schools are managed by language professionals or by economists who employ a linguist for controlling the teaching and learning processes and that the majority of schools does adopt a particular approach or method of teaching. Teacher trainees receive a lot of support and guidance prior to teaching in a school. In most cases, teachers are free to choose techniques of teaching according to their preferences, providing the techniques are not in conflict with the general schools’ principles. The criteria for employment vary considerably. Nearly all managers would employ a professional language teacher with experience only, but others demand that the teacher be a native speaker regardless of his/her education. Several stress the importance of personal characteristics and would consider employing only lighthearted and energetic teachers. Teachers’ work and students’ progress are often evaluated.

  15. Probabilistic lexical generalization for French dependency parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Henestroza Anguiano , Enrique; Candito , Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates the impact on French dependency parsing of lexical generalization methods beyond lemmatization and morphological analysis. A distributional thesaurus is created from a large text corpus and used for distributional clustering and WordNet automatic sense ranking. The standard approach for lexical generalization in parsing is to map a word to a single generalized class, either replacing the word with the class or adding a new feature for the class....

  16. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Denizer, Elif Nur

    2017-01-01

    Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s) it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the quest...

  17. Foreign Language Learners' Views on the Importance of Learning the Target Language Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Ismail; Baytar, Birtan

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation is one of the controversial topics in the field of English language teaching as a second or foreign language. The aim of this study is to understand the attitudes of prep class students at Kastamonu University (state university) in Turkey towards the importance of pronunciation in language learning. Therefore, a pronunciation…

  18. Adult language learning after minimal exposure to an unknown natural language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gullberg, M.; Robert, L.; Dimroth, C.; Veroude, K.; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the literature on the role of input in adult second-language (L2) acquisition and on artificial and statistical language learning, surprisingly little is known about how adults break into a new language in the wild. This article reports on a series of behavioral and neuroimaging studies that

  19. The Relationship between Global Competence and Language Learning Motivation: An Empirical Study in Critical Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…

  20. Learning foreign languages in teletandem: Resources and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. TELLES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Teletandem is a virtual, collaborative, and autonomous context in which two speakers of different languages use the text, voice, and webcam image resources of VOIP technology (Skype to help each other learn their native language (or language of proficiency. This paper focuses on learners' studying processes and their responses to teletandem. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from 134 university students through an online questionnaire. Results show the content of students' learning processes, resources, activities, and strategies. We conclude with a critical discussion of the results and raise pedagogical implications for the use o-f teletandem as a mode of online intercultural contact to learn foreign languages.

  1. Language Learning of Gifted Individuals: A Content Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beria Gokaydin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research discipline, countries of research, institutions of authors, key words, and resources. Data were analyzed with the content analysis method. Results showed that the number of studies on language learning of gifted individuals has increased throughout the years. Recommendations for further research and practices are provided.

  2. The Predicaments of Language Learners in Traditional Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Mansor, Mahani

    2009-01-01

    Some public universities in developing countries have traditional language learning environments such as classrooms with only blackboards and furniture which do not provide conducive learning environments. These traditional environments are unable to cater for digital learners who need to learn with learning technologies. In order to create…

  3. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  4. Linking English First Additional Language teaching and learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English as the language of learning, the acquisition of English as second (or even third) language, as well as OBE has been researched before. This study is unique in the way that it addresses the direct influence of the OBE approach on the teaching and learning process in Grade 8 EFAL classrooms. Keywords: English ...

  5. Studying Language Learning Opportunities Afforded by a Collaborative CALL Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This research study explores the learning potential of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) activity. Research suggests that the dual emphasis on content development and language accuracy, as well as the complexity of L2 production in natural settings, can potentially create cognitive overload. This study poses the question whether, and…

  6. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  7. Student Attitudes and Perceptions of Using Facebook for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Craig; Wilkins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insight into Japanese students' perceptions and attitudes of participating in activities through Facebook for language learning. In addition, the authors discuss the overall implications of and potential uses for Facebook in the field of second language learning and teaching. Ninety-seven students from three private…

  8. Learning the Language of Statistics: Challenges and Teaching Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Carey, Michael D.; Richardson, Alice M.; McDonald, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Learning statistics requires learning the language of statistics. Statistics draws upon words from general English, mathematical English, discipline-specific English and words used primarily in statistics. This leads to many linguistic challenges in teaching statistics and the way in which the language is used in statistics creates an extra layer…

  9. Mobile Collaborative Language Learning: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Viberg, Olga

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a review of mobile collaborative language learning studies published in 2012-16 with the aim to improve understanding of how mobile technologies have been used to support collaborative learning among second and foreign language students. We identify affordances, general pedagogical approaches, second- and foreign-language…

  10. Understanding of Foreign Language Learning of Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…

  11. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasdar, Mansoreh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12), guidance (13-15), high…

  12. Types of Language Learning Strategies Used by Tertiary English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuin, Tan Khye; Kaur, Sarjit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students' perceptions of using…

  13. Comparison and Contrast between First and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Javed; Amin, Muhammad; Saeed, Faria; Abdullah, Shumaila; Muhammad, Khair

    2016-01-01

    This research paper tends to focus on comparison and contrast between first and second language learning. It investigates the different factors that have inhibiting influences on the language learning process of the learners in the two different environments. There are many factors involved in this respect. The age factor is one of the vital…

  14. Self-Efficacy in Second/Foreign Language Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Saeid; Tan, Bee Hoon; Chan, Swee Heng

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the empirical literature of self-efficacy, a central component of social cognitive theory, in the area of second language learning by focusing on two research questions: first, to what extent, has self-efficacy, as a predicting variable, been explored in the field of second language learning? Second, what factors affect…

  15. Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Madeline Strong

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

  16. The Effects of Foreign Language Learning on Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Showqi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the possible influence of foreign language learning on individuals' divergent thinking abilities. Unlike the large body of research devoted to unfolding the effect of bilingualism on cognitive functions, foreign language learning has gained little attention. This study aimed at bringing into attention the distinctive…

  17. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  18. Affordances and Constraints: Second Language Learning in Cleaning Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömmer, Maiju

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines opportunities for language learning in a cleaning job, which is a typical entry-level job for immigrants. An ethnographic case study approach is taken to investigate examples of the conditions that allow or prevent language learning for the focal participant, a sub-Saharan man who works as a cleaner in Finland. This case…

  19. Managing Self-Access Language Learning: Principles and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David; Miller, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project looking at the management of self-access language learning (SALL) from the perspective of the managers of self-access centres. It looks at the factors which influence the practice of seven managers of self-access language learning in tertiary institutions in Hong Kong. The discussion centres around five…

  20. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1 the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2 foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3 both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS, intrinsic motivation (IntrinM, instrumental motivation (InstruM, fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1, and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.

  1. Pedagogy and second language learning: Lessons learned from Intensive French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Netten

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through research and classroom observation undertaken while conceptualizing and implementing the Intensive French program in Canada, many new insights were gained into the development of communication skills in a classroom situation. Five lessons learned about the development of spontaneous oral communication are presented in this article: the ineffectiveness of core French in primary school; the minimum number of intensive hours necessary to develop spontaneous oral communication; the need to develop implicit competence rather than explicit knowledge; the distinction between accuracy as knowledge and accuracy as skill; and the importance of teaching strategies focusing on language use. These lessons have implications for our understanding of how oral competence in an L2 develops and for the improvement of communicative language pedagogy.

  2. Surveying and Modeling Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies for Mobile-Assisted Seamless Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…

  3. Toward Mobile Assisted Language Learning Apps for Professionals That Integrate Learning into the Daily Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Read, Timothy; Rodríguez-Arancón, Pilar; Calle-Martínez, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Martín-Monje, Elena; Bárcena, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this short paper, we present some initial work on Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) undertaken by the ATLAS research group. ATLAS embraced this multidisciplinary field cutting across Mobile Learning and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as a natural step in their quest to find learning formulas for professional English that…

  4. Reflections on foreign language study for students with language learning problems: research, issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganschow, L; Sparks, R L

    2000-01-01

    The study of foreign language (FL) learning for individuals who have found learning to read and write in their first language extremely problematic has been an under-researched area throughout the world. Since the 1980s, Leonore Ganschow and Richard Sparks have conducted pioneering research into the nature of difficulties, why they are encountered and how they can be minimized. In this paper the authors trace the development of their research on foreign language difficulties for students with language learning problems. They provide a summary of their findings and suggest new questions and directions for the field.

  5. Minority Languages Learned Informally: The Social Construction of Language Skills through the Discourse of Ontario Employers. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michelle; Corson, David

    Many immigrants, refugees, and aboriginal Canadians learn their own languages in the normal, informal way. These minority languages learned informally are not valued as a skill that yields returns in the labor market in the same way the official languages or formally learned languages do. What counts as a skill in a society, in a given point in…

  6. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Ikhsan, Siti Ajar

    2016-01-01

    The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students' needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning…

  7. Trans/Languaging and the Triadic Dialogue in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angel M. Y.; Lo, Yuen Yi

    2017-01-01

    There has been a rich literature on the role of language in learning and on its role in knowledge (co-)construction in the science classroom. This literature, rooted in social semiotics theories and sociocultural theories, discussed research conducted largely in contexts where students are learning content in their first language (L1). In this…

  8. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  9. "Deja Vu"? A Decade of Research on Language Laboratories, Television and Video in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplank, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The developments in the last ten years in the form of DVD, streaming video, video on demand, interactive television and digital language laboratories call for an assessment of the research into language teaching and learning making use of these technologies and the learning paradigms underpinning them. This paper surveys research on language…

  10. Content and language integrated learning: principles and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    BAKLAGOVA J.

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to the innovative model for language education Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) which has gained in immense popularity all over the world. Based on communicative approach, CLIL provides progress in language and in the content subject, creativity and independence in language using, developing higher order thinking skills. A successful CLIL lesson should combine such elements as content, communication, cognition and culture

  11. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVerga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthen by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicate that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as it is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  12. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  13. On Using Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Real-Life Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Luiz A.; Meurers, Detmar

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the motivation and prerequisites for successful integration of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) tools into current foreign language teaching and learning (FLTL) practice. We focus on two aspects, which we argue to be important for effective ICALL system development and use: (i) the relationship between…

  14. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Support of (Re)-Learning Native Languages: The Case of Runyakitara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushemererwe, Fridah; Nerbonne, John

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system of Runyakitara (RU_CALL). The major objective was to provide an electronic language learning environment that can enable learners with mother tongue deficiencies to enhance their knowledge of grammar and acquire writing skills in Runyakitara. The system…

  15. Language Learning and Its Impact on the Brain: Connecting Language Learning with the Mind through Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Teresa J.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive sciences are discovering many things that educators have always intuitively known about language learning. However, the important point is actively using this new information to improve both students learning and current teaching practices. The implications of neuroscience for educational reform regarding second language (L2) learning…

  16. An Analysis of Social Network Websites for Language Learning: Implications for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Abe, K.; Cao, M. W.; Liu, S.; Ok, D. U.; Park, J.; Parrish, C.; Sardegna, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    Although educators are excited about the potential of social network sites for language learning (SNSLL), there is a lack of understanding of how SNSLL can be used to facilitate teaching and learning for English as Second language (ESL) instructors and students. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances of four selected SNSLL…

  17. Exploring Effectiveness and Moderators of Language Learning Strategy Instruction on Second Language and Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola O.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized recent research on strategy instruction (SI) effectiveness to estimate SI effects and their moderators for two domains: second/foreign language and self-regulated learning. A total of 37 studies (47 independent samples) for language domain and 16 studies (17 independent samples) for self-regulated learning domain…

  18. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  19. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  20. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO)

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  1. Adaptations for English Language Learners: Differentiating between Linguistic and Instructional Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lynn, C. Allen

    2016-01-01

    While many teachers and teacher educators in the United States K-12 system acknowledge that the English language learners (ELLs) in our schools need modifications and accommodations to help them succeed in school, few attempt to parse out how different types of accommodations may affect learning in the mainstream classroom, specifically linguistic…

  2. The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.

  3. STUDENTS OF ECONOMICS’ ANXIETY TOWARDS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Faritovna Kalganova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores language anxiety which has shown a substantially negative impact on performance. This paper reveals four related levels of language anxiety such as communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, level of language performance, and their correlations with macro and micro social variables like age, gender, bilingual environment.A total 103 male and female English-language learners of the Economic faculty, Federal Kazan University, completed two questionnaires: a background questionnaire and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale.The results showed that girls experience greater psychological discomfort in the process of foreign language learning; the greatest concern of students is language anxiety in test situations; first-year students as a whole are more susceptible to language anxiety.The task of a teacher is to create a favorable psychological climate in the classroom of a foreign language in order to removing barriers to development and a better perception of the subject matter.

  4. Grammar Learning Strategies and Language Attainment: Seeking a Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak Mirosław

    2009-01-01

    Despite major advances in research on language learning strategies, there are still areas that have received only scant attention, and one of them is undoubtedly learning grammar. The paper contributes to the paucity of empirical investigations in this domain by presenting the findings of a study which sought to investigate the relationship between the use of grammar learning strategies (GLS) reported by 142 English Department students and target language attainment, operationalized as their ...

  5. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results sugges...

  6. Studying the mechanisms of language learning by varying the learning environment and the learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    Language learning is a resilient process, and many linguistic properties can be developed under a wide range of learning environments and learners. The first goal of this review is to describe properties of language that can be developed without exposure to a language model - the resilient properties of language - and to explore conditions under which more fragile properties emerge. But even if a linguistic property is resilient, the developmental course that the property follows is likely to vary as a function of learning environment and learner, that is, there are likely to be individual differences in the learning trajectories children follow. The second goal is to consider how the resilient properties are brought to bear on language learning when a child is exposed to a language model. The review ends by considering the implications of both sets of findings for mechanisms, focusing on the role that the body and linguistic input play in language learning.

  7. Students with Learning Disabilities in the Foreign Language Learning Environment and the Practice of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Mary Caitlin S.

    2015-01-01

    This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…

  8. Variability in Second Language Learning: The Roles of Individual Differences, Learning Conditions, and Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…

  9. Mobile learning and high-lighting language education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Jane

    Mobile learning and high-profiling language education. The number of students learning a second or foreign language and participating in instruction in languages other than English has been in decline for some time. There seems to be such a general tendency across nations albeit for a variety...... of reasons idiosyncratic to the particular national conditions. This paper gives an account of a diversified national project designed to infuse foreign language learning classes in upper secondary schools in Denmark with renewed enthusiasm through systematically experimenting with the new media by taking...... advantage of the social side in their application. The aim has been to make language classes attractive and relevant and to highlight the attractiveness and fun in learning through web 2.0 and mobile units. The overall project was supported by the Danish ministry of education as well as the individual...

  10. QUESTIONING FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ISLAMIC PRE-SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the urgency of foreign language learning at early age by covering some arguments on the acquisition and bilingualism. Nowadays in Indonesia, under the interest of education, bilingual learning is undertaken by adopting the theory of bilingual acquisition referring to Chomsky’s ideas. In fact, the foreign language learning is not always in line with the principle of language acquisition especially for the early age children. The globalization era requires foreign language mastery so that for many institutions of children education have got the bilingual learning. As the example, some of Islamic educational institutions at the level of playgroup have applied the instruction in English and teaching Arabic words, by considering that the earlier foreign language learning is the better, and the fact that the golden age of brain development occurs at the first five years. This needs to be analyzed further, because there is also important task to have mother tongue language acquisition. For the community of multilingual such as in Indonesia, the acquisition of many languages is unavoidable. Therefore, parents are faced with two choices: To prior the mother tongue and bahasa Indonesia as second language or encourage the bilingual learning of Arabic and English.

  11. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, explains and organizes ideas for promoting students’ use of their second language (this term includes foreign language when they work together in cooperative learning groups. The first part of the article reviews arguments as to whether students of second languages should be encouraged to use their second language with classmates when doing group activities. These arguments are discussed with reference to Second Language Acquisition (SLA theory. Practical issues are also explored. Next, the majority of the article presents ideas on how to promote second language use during peer interaction. Twenty-nine of these ideas are explained. The ideas are organized into five categories: a role for the L1; understanding the issue; creating a conducive climate; providing language support; and the task. It is recommended that teachers use ideas from the literature on cooperative learning when they ask students to interact.

  12. Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Use, Gender, and Learning Achievement: a Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between metacognitive language learning strategies (MLLS and gender and achievement of EFL students. Metacognitive language learning strategies are crucial for students of English as a foreign language to learn effectively. The theoretical issues discuss metacognitive language learning strategies in particular, and language learning strategies (LLS in general. The practical research took place at the English language department at Farhat Abbes University, Sétif, Algeria, with third year students learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between metacognitive language learning strategies use and achievement. Two main parts following a qualitative design constitute the body of the present research. The first part uses the Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MLLSQ to account for differences in the reported frequency of metacognitive strategies use across all the students, and across gender differences. The second part uses interviews to account for the use of these strategies at the individual level, in their relation to the students’ gender and achievement in language learning. The results of the first part revealed a significant use of metacognitive strategies among all the students and significant differences between male students and female students in the frequency of use of these strategies. Moreover, the results of the second part reflected more significant differences in the use of Metacognitive strategies at the level of gender and learning achievement. The study concludes by bringing together key findings and some suggestions for further research.

  13. Learning second language vocabulary: neural dissociation of situation-based learning and text-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-04-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition necessitates learning and retrieving new words in different modes. In this study, we attempted to investigate the cortical representation of an L2 vocabulary acquired in different learning modes and in cross-modal transfer between learning and retrieval. Healthy participants learned new L2 words either by written translations (text-based learning) or in real-life situations (situation-based learning). Brain activity was then measured during subsequent retrieval of these words. The right supramarginal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus were involved in situation-based learning and text-based learning, respectively, whereas the left inferior frontal gyrus was activated when learners used L2 knowledge in a mode different from the learning mode. Our findings indicate that the brain regions that mediate L2 memory differ according to how L2 words are learned and used. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  16. Virtual language learning environments: the standardization of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romero Forteza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are many approaches aimed at helping learners acquire knowledge through the Internet. Virtual Learning Environments (VLE facilitate the acquisition and practice of skills, but some of these learning platforms are not evaluated or do not follow a standard that guarantees the quality of the tasks involved. In this paper, we set out a proposal for the standardization of the evaluation of VLEs available on the World Wide Web. Thus, the main objective of this study is to establish an evaluation template with which to test whether a VLE is appropriate for computer-assisted language learning (CALL. In the methodology section, a learning platform is analysed and tested to establish the characteristics learning platforms must have. Having established the design of the template for language learning environments, we concluded that a VLE must be versatile enough for application with different language learning and teaching approaches.

  17. Social Media: An Optimal Virtual Environment for Learning Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdouan Faizi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at exploring the potential role that social media technologies play in learning foreign languages. For this purpose, a survey was carried out to examine students’ and language learners’ perceptions and attitudes about using these platforms. Results of the research study revealed that the great majority of the respondents actually use these web-based applications to enhance their language skills. Most importantly, they noted that social media contribute in improving their listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. Accordingly, we strongly recommend that instructors use these online tools in distant, blended, or face-to-face language learning settings.

  18. Design of Feedback in Interactive Multimedia Language Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Türel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In interactive multimedia environments, different digital elements (i. e. video, audio, visuals, text, animations, graphics and glossary can be combined and delivered on the same digital computer screen (TDM 1997: 151, CCED 1987, Brett 1998: 81, Stenton 1998: 11, Mangiafico 1996: 46. This also enables effectively provision and presentation of feedback in pedagogically more efficient ways, which meets not only the requirement of different teaching and learning theories, but also the needs of language learners who vary in their learning-style preferences (Robinson 1991: 156, Peter 1994: 157f.. This study aims to bring out the pedagogical and design principles that might help us to more effectively design and customise feedback in interactive multimedia language learning environments. While so doing, some examples of thought out and customized computerised feedback from an interactive multimedia language learning environment, which were designed and created by the author of this study and were also used for language learning purposes, will be shown.

  19. The prevalence of synaesthesia depends on early language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcus R; Chromý, Jan; Crawford, Lyle; Eagleman, David M; Enns, James T; Akins, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque). However, exploratory analyses suggested that this was because more Czechs learned non-native second languages, which was strongly associated with synaesthesia, consistent with the learning hypothesis. Furthermore, the incidence of synaesthesia among speakers of opaque languages was double that among speakers of transparent languages other than Czech, also consistent with the learning hypothesis. These findings contribute to an emerging understanding of synaesthetic development as a complex and lengthy process with multiple causal influences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Role of Mother Tongue Literacy in Language Learning and Mathematical Learning: Is There a Multilingual Benefit for Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Rebecca; De Angelis, Gessica

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the multilingual benefit in relation to language learning and mathematical learning. The objective is to assess whether speakers of three or more languages, depending on language profile and personal histories, show significant advantages in language learning and/or mathematical learning, and whether mother tongue…

  1. Students' Framing of Language Learning Practices in Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Vigmo, Sylvi; Bowen, Rhonwen

    2012-01-01

    The amount of time that people, especially young people, spend on communicative activities in social media is rapidly increasing. We are facing new arenas with great potential for learning in general and for language learning in particular, but their impact on learning is not yet acknowledged as such in educational practice (e.g., Conole, 2010;…

  2. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  3. Self-Access Language Learning for Malaysian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andrew Yau Hau

    2012-01-01

    Just a few Malaysian universities offer self-access language learning activities to students. The objective of this study is to investigate if self-access learning can promote self-directed or autonomous learning in a public Malaysian technical university. Data collection is by means of interviewing the Director, lecturers, and students in a…

  4. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  5. ICT-supported language learning tools for Chinese as a foreign Language: a content review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Čok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a meta-analysis of 37 scientific papers dealing with the use and adoption of ICT for learning and teaching Chinese as a foreign language. It has shown that systematic content reviews providing overall insight into the nature and level of development in the field are rare. The author tries to fill this content gap by answering three research questions: 1 What is the overall state of research in the field of ICT-assisted learning of CFL in terms of language teaching methods? 2 Which learning technologies are in use for the specific teaching and learning methods for Chinese as a foreign language? 3 Are some learning technologies used more often for practis ng specific language skills than others?

  6. A Language Socialization Approach to Uzbek Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baburhan Uzum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an ethnographic case study design, this study investigates language learners' socialization into the cultural values of Uzbek language. Informed by a language socialization theoretical framework, the study focuses on the classroom routines and interactions that socialize students into certain social values through mini-lectures that are beyond the linguistic objectives of the curriculum. The research questions addressed are: What social values are being taught implicitly or explicitly? What cultural values are students being socialized into? What constitutes valuable cultural knowledge as claimed by the teacher? In the audio and video recorded observation data, a selected excerpt of typical classroom interactions is analyzed adopting discourse analysis methods. The findings of the study could be implemented in teacher education programs and in designing textbooks and curriculum for less commonly taught languages.

  7. The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks...... and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the learner: the (inter)cultural learning, competence and identity of the learner or subject. The next dimension was context: the situation and role of language teaching and learning in society and in the world....

  8. STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION, DEMOTIVATION AND AMOTIVATION IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Maciu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods that will improve teaching as regards second language learning in order to motivate students in their learning process and to maintain their motivation constantly alert. The discussion also introduces and explains amotivation, in close connection with motivation and demotivation. Teachers have to continuously interract with their students effectively, be alert to their feedback, and constantly improve their methods of teaching a second language by staying connected with all the innovations in the field, and taking into consideration all the aspects of the teaching process that can decrease students’ motivation in second language learning classes.

  9. STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION, DEMOTIVATION AND AMOTIVATION IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Maciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods that will improve teaching as regards second language learning in order to motivate students in their learning process and to maintain their motivation constantly alert. The discussion also introduces and explains amotivation, in close connection with motivation and demotivation. Teachers have to continuously interract with their students effectively, be alert to their feedback, and constantly improve their methods of teaching a second language by staying connected with all the innovations in the field, and taking into consideration all the aspects of the teaching process that can decrease students’ motivation in second language learning classes.

  10. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning and Language Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the modern age of exponential knowledge growth and accelerating technological development, the need to engage in lifelong learning is becoming increasingly urgent. Successful lifelong learning, in turn, requires learner autonomy, or "the capacity to take control of one's own learning" (Benson, 2011, p. 58), including all relevant…

  11. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Student Attitudes to Using Smartphones to Learn English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…

  12. Orientations to Learning German: The Effects of Language Heritage on Second-Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A.; Clement, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A study of college students' motivation for learning, and other social-psychological aspects of second language learning, found students learn German for instrumental, friendship, travel, identification/influence, and knowledge reasons. Fluency was related to motivation, and students of German heritage had higher self-confidence in the German…

  13. Foreign language aptitude of pupils with learning disabilities at the beginning of the foreign language acquisition at the elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Špačková, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation is dealing with the issue of foreign language aptitude and foreign language abilities of pupils with learning disabilities at the beginning of the foreign language acquisition. The first part of the work describes general theories of the foreign language acquisition and introduces the current trends in education of pupils with learning disabilities in the process of foreign language learning. The second part of the work describes the research, which aim was to investigate the...

  14. Analyzing Student’s Attitude towards Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan Talaat Rashid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of research upon a qualitative procedure has conducted with twenty-two various instruments, based on the quantitative data collection to prepare for statistical analysis. Learning of the study is analytical Analyzing Student’s Attitude for Foreign Language. In some countries most of the students have to learn the first foreign language it may sometimes have is impact of learners The procedure of teaching a foreign language are influenced by different issues such as the used attitude, methods, techniques, educators, learners, inspiration, environment, and etc.. The problem of the study accompanied with dimensions to get solved the Foreign language as an official language has its impact on Student’s Relations. Foreign language (FL gave a good opportunity to students to know the culture of the other country, to learn the second language, students attitude toward foreign language differ according to gender. Furthermore, For the better understanding of different type of foreign languages and its empowerment to discover the solution to research problem take a notice of these objectives and can formulate as followings: To know the different type of foreign language and how it affect the student’s performance and measure the ability of their efficiency.

  15. Improving Language Learning Strategies and Performance of Pre-Service Language Teachers through a CALLA-TBLT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guapacha Chamorro, Maria Eugenia; Benavidez Paz, Luis Humberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language…

  16. Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christine E; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart. At each time point, participants performed two different statistical learning tasks: an artificial tonal language statistical learning task and a visual statistical learning task. Only the Mandarin-learning group showed significant improvement on the linguistic task, whereas both groups improved equally on the visual task. These results support the view that there are multiple influences on statistical learning. Domain-relevant experiences may affect the regularities that learners can discover when presented with novel stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Working Memory and Language Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN) form a highly heterogeneous group, including those with an unexplained delay in language development known as specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing recognition that multiple mechanisms underlie the range of profiles observed in these children. Broadly speaking, both the…

  18. Learning Performance Enhancement Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning by Collaborative Learning Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-huei Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to test whether the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL and innovative collaborative learning could be more effective than the use of traditional collaborative learning in improving students’ English proficiencies. A true experimental design was used in the study. Four randomly-assigned groups participated in the study: a traditional collaborative learning group (TCLG, 34 students, an innovative collaborative learning group (ICLG, 31 students, a CALL traditional collaborative learning group (CALLTCLG, 32 students, and a CALL innovative collaborative learning group (CALLICLG, 31 students. TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication listening, reading, speaking, and writing pre-test and post-test assessments were given to all students at an interval of sixteen weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that students who used CALL had significantly better learning performance than those who did not. Students in innovative collaborative learning had significantly better learning performances than those in traditional collaborative learning. Additionally, students using CALL innovative collaborative learning had better learning performances than those in CALL collaborative learning, those in innovative collaborative learning, and those in traditional collaborative learning.

  19. Multimedia Instruction & Language Learning Attitudes: A Study with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Izquierdo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two types of Multimedia Instruction (MI and learners’ second language (L2 proficiency on language learning attitudes. During four weeks, university learners of French received MI on the distinctive use of the perfective and the imperfective past in one of the four following conditions: learners with low L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=17 or without language awareness tasks (n=17, and learners with intermediate L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=14 or without language awareness tasks (n=28. Before and after the experiment, participants completed the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB. Non-parametric analyses revealed a positive enhancement of classroom-related attitudes only among intermediate learners exposed to MI without Language Awareness Tasks. Nevertheless, the results showed similar as well as stable attitudes towards language learning in all the experimental conditions.

  20. Do neural nets learn statistical laws behind natural language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Takahashi

    Full Text Available The performance of deep learning in natural language processing has been spectacular, but the reasons for this success remain unclear because of the inherent complexity of deep learning. This paper provides empirical evidence of its effectiveness and of a limitation of neural networks for language engineering. Precisely, we demonstrate that a neural language model based on long short-term memory (LSTM effectively reproduces Zipf's law and Heaps' law, two representative statistical properties underlying natural language. We discuss the quality of reproducibility and the emergence of Zipf's law and Heaps' law as training progresses. We also point out that the neural language model has a limitation in reproducing long-range correlation, another statistical property of natural language. This understanding could provide a direction for improving the architectures of neural networks.

  1. Learning Analytics: The next frontier for computer assisted language learning in big data age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qinglan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning analytics (LA has been applied to various learning environments, though it is quite new in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL. This article attempts to examine the application of learning analytics in the upcoming big data age. It starts with an introduction and application of learning analytics in other fields, followed by a retrospective review of historical interaction between learning and media in CALL, and a penetrating analysis on why people would go to learning analytics to increase the efficiency of foreign language education. As approved in previous research, new technology, including big data mining and analysis, would inevitably enhance the learning of foreign languages. Potential changes that learning analytics would bring to Chinese foreign language education and researches are also presented in the article.

  2. ITADICT Project and Japanese Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANTELLI, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the Nuclear disaster in Fukushima (3 March 2011 affected Japanese Language teaching and learning in Italy, focusing on the ITADICT Project (Marcella Mariotti, project leader, Clemente Beghi, research fellow and Alessandro Mantelli, programmer. The project intends to develop the first Japanese-Italian online database, involving more than 60 students of Japanese language interested in lexicographic research and online learning strategies and tools. A secondary undertaking of ITADICT is its Latin alphabet transliteration of Japanese words into Hepburn style. ITADICT is inspired by EDICT Japanese-English database developed by the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group established in 2000 within the Faculty of Information Technology at Monash University. The Japanese-Italian database is evolving within the Department of Asian and North African Studies at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, the largest in the country and one of the main teaching centres of Japanese in Europe in terms of the number of students dedicated to it (1800 and number of Japanese language teaching hours (1002h at B.A. level, and 387h at M.A. level. In this paper we will describe how and why the project has been carried out and what the expectations are for its future development.-----Pričujoči članek predstavlja projekt ITADICT (vodja projekta Marcella Mariotti, sodelujoči raziskovalec Clemente Beghi, programer Alessandro Mantelli in vpliv nuklearne katastrofe v Fukushimi 3. marca 2011 na učenje japonščine v Italiji. Cilj projekta je razvoj prve spletne japonsko-italijanske baze podatkov, pri njem pa sodeluje več kot 60 študentov japonščine, ki jih zanima slovaropisje in učne strategije ter orodja na spletu. Drugi cilj projekta ITADICT je prečrkovanje japonskih besed v latinico, po sistemu Hepburn. Projekt je zastavljen po vzoru japonsko-angleške podatkovne baze EDICT, ki jo je razvila skupina Electronic Dictionary

  3. MAD parsing and conversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, Dmitri N.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe design and implementation issues while developing an embeddable MAD language parser. Two working applications of the parser are also described, namely, MAD-> C++ converter and C++ factory. The report contains some relevant details about the parser and examples of converted code. It also describes some of the problems that were encountered and the solutions found for them

  4. Content and Language Integrated Learning and the inclusion of immigrant minority language students: A research review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses the inclusion of immigrant minority language students in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) bilingual education programmes. It reviews results of research on (1) the reasons, beliefs and attitudes underlying immigrant minority language parents' and students' choice for CLIL programmes; (2) these students' proficiency in the languages of instruction and their academic achievement; and (3) the effects of first language typology on their second and third language proficiency. The author explores conditions and reasons for the effectiveness of CLIL pedagogy, as well as the comparative suitability of CLIL programmes for immigrant minority language students. The review shows that CLIL programmes provide a means to acquire important linguistic, economic and symbolic capital in order to effect upward social mobility. Findings demonstrate that immigrant minority language students enrolled in CLIL programmes are able to develop equal or superior levels of proficiency in both languages of instruction compared to majority language students; with previous development of first language literacy positively impacting academic language development. CLIL programmes are found to offer immigrant minority language students educational opportunities and effective pedagogical support which existing mainstream monolingual and minority bilingual education programmes may not always be able to provide. In light of these findings, the author discusses shortcomings in current educational policy. The article concludes with recommendations for further research.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Subtitles and language learning principles, strategies and practical experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Mariotti, Cristina; Caimi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    The articles collected in this publication combine diachronic and synchronic research with the description of updated teaching experiences showing the educational role of subtitled audiovisuals in various foreign language learning settings.

  6. Learning theories and skills in online second language teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    For decades foreign and second language teachers have taken advantage of the technology development and ensuing possibilities to use e-learning facilities for language training. Since the 1980s, the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL), Internet, web 2.0, and various kinds of e-learning...... in Denmark with special attention towards the development of web-based materials for Danish pronunciation. This paper sets out to introduce differences between the international and Danish use of web-based language learning and teaching. Finally, dilemmas and challenges for the use of CALL, IT, and web 2.0 in...

  7. Communicative – Activity Approach in Learning Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariga A. Bekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted communicative method of teaching foreign languages, which is the activity character. The task of the communicative approach – to interest of students in learning a foreign language through the accumulation and improvement their knowledge and experience. The main objective this method – free orienteering training in foreign language environment and the ability to adequately react in different situations, communication.

  8. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  9. Designing the online oral language learning environment SpeakApps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Appel, Christine; Ó Ciardubháin, Colm; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source techno-pedagogical solution to facilitate online oral language production and interaction. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed method

  10. WebQuests as Language-Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a review of the literature that examines WebQuests as tools for second-language acquisition and foreign language-learning processes to guide teachers in their teaching activities and researchers in further research on the issue. The study first introduces the theoretical background behind WebQuest use in the mentioned…

  11. Authenticity and originarity in foreign language learning in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter overcomes structuralist or poststructuralist reductions of language as a medium of communication. Thus, the essence of FLL can be redefined, not as the acquisition of mimicry of specific codes, but as intercultural dialogue. Keywords: originarity, authenticity, foreign language learning, video conferencing ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES How do doctors learn the spoken language of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-01

    Jul 1, 2009 ... and cultural metaphors of illness as part of language learning. The theory of .... role.21 Even in a military setting, where soldiers learnt Korean or Spanish as part of ... own language – a cross-cultural survey. Brit J Gen Pract ...

  13. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  14. Digital Gaming and Language Learning: Autonomy and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between digital game play and second language (L2) learning is a particularly tricky issue in East Asia. Though there is an emerging presence of Chinese online games, many more young people are playing the English- or Japanese-language versions of the most popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) video games. In other words, most…

  15. Conversation Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lloret, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in the study of technology-mediated interactions is a recent methodological addition to qualitative research in the field of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL). The expansion of CA in Second Language Acquisition research, coupled with the need for qualitative techniques to explore how people interact…

  16. Students' Motivation toward Computer-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Gulten; Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The present article examined some factors affecting the motivation level of the preparatory school students in using a web-based computer-assisted language-learning course. The sample group of the study consisted of 126 English-as-a-foreign-language learners at a preparatory school of a state university. After performing statistical analyses…

  17. How Children Learn to Use Language - An Overview of R ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. How Children Learn to Use Language - An Overview of R. Narasimhan's Ideas on Child Language Acquisition. Raman Chandrasekar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 430-439 ...

  18. The History of Language Learning and Teaching in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an introduction, based on the most recent research available, to the history of language learning and teaching (HoLLT) in Britain. After an overview of the state of research, I consider which languages have been learnt, why and how that has changed; the role of teachers and tests in determining what was taught; changes in how…

  19. Testing as an inevitable instrument in today's language learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the foregoing analysis, we have unequivocably declared that testing or assessment is an inevitable instrument in present day's language learning environment and that testing is the other side of teaching itself. In teaching any aspect of language, learner must be tested to determine the progress made so far as well as ...

  20. Exploring Mobile Apps for English Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Li, Jiaying

    2015-01-01

    Many recent studies have shown that mobile learning can provide potential possibilities for foreign language learners to practice language skills on their smart mobile phones and tablet PCs (e.g. Chang & Hsu, 2011; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hoven & Palalas, 2011; Stockwell, 2010). A number of apps have been created and used…

  1. Research Tasks on Identity in Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bonny; De Costa, Peter I.

    2018-01-01

    The growing interest in identity and language education over the past two decades, coupled with increased interest in digital technology and transnationalism, has resulted in a rich body of work that has informed language learning, teaching, and research. To keep abreast of these developments in identity research, the authors propose a series of…

  2. Neoliberal Paradoxes of Language Learning: Xenophobia and International Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology compels people to develop language skills as human capital. As English is considered to be the most useful language for global communication, learning, and teaching, English has been promoted in many countries. However, the belief that English connects people from diverse linguistic backgrounds in a borderless society…

  3. The Semiotic Approach and Language Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfit Şenel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation of the Foreign Language Teaching with the SemioticApproach that gains more importance recently and tries to explain how this concept has beenused as Semiotic Approach in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning and teacher-learnerroles, strong-weak sides, types of activities, etc. have been handled.

  4. Verbal Analogical Reasoning in Children with Language-Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Julie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…

  5. Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

  6. Kinesthetic Language Learning: How an Accident Led to a Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Travis; Nam, Roger S.; Benckhuysen, Amanda W.

    2016-01-01

    This essay analyzes a critical incident that took place in a hybrid distance-learning Hebrew language class that was adapting interactive, immersion-style, kinesthetic pedagogy during the week-long face-to-face intensive portion of the class--including Total Physical Response techniques in which students respond to the language with whole-body…

  7. Language learning and the technology of international communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, Edward

    1991-03-01

    The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.

  8. Ego Is a Hurdle in Second Language Learning: A Contrastive Study between Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Shumaila; Akhter, Javed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to find out by comparing and contrasting between the adults and children in second language learning process how language ego of adult learners affects them to learn second language, and how it becomes a barrier for them in second language learning process. Nowadays learning English as foreign and second language…

  9. Adults' motivation of learning English as a second language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梦楠

    2005-01-01

    English learning is extensive among adults. Their motivations are classified into two types: the integrative one and the instrumental one.Obviously the integrative motivation makes the learners more active and joyful in learning process. Teachers find ways to cultivate and inspire the adult learners' motivation of learning L2, to design and deliver language instruction with care and sensitivity, and to assess rather than test the learners' learning for inducing a positive reaction.

  10. Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.

  11. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  12. STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION, DEMOTIVATION AND AMOTIVATION IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Maciu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present methods that will improve teaching as regards second language learning in order to motivate students in their learning process and to maintain their motivation constantly alert. The discussion also introduces and explains amotivation, in close connection with motivation and demotivation. Teachers have to continuously interract with their students effectively, be alert to their feedback, and constantly improve their methods of teaching a second language by s...

  13. Study on Mobile Augmented Reality Adoption for Mayo Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bojórquez, Erasmo; Vergara Villegas, Osslan Osiris; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe; García-Alcaraz, Jorge Luis; Favela Vara, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applied to undergraduates in order to know how the cultural dimensions affect their perceptions of the acceptance and use of new technologies in a student-centered learning environment. A total of 85 undergraduate students from the Autonomous Indigenous University of Mexico (UAIM) participated in the study. Each student was asked to use a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application designed to learn Mayo language (language spoken in Northwestern Mexic...

  14. Developing user-centered concepts for language learning video games

    OpenAIRE

    Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...

  15. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Rot Vrhovec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first to the fifth grade execute cooperative learning in language classes. The purpose of the article is to raise teachers’ awareness and encourage them to design and execute cooperative learning more frequently.

  16. Facilitating Exposure to Sign Languages of the World: The Case for Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2014-01-01

    Foreign sign language instruction is an important, but overlooked area of study. Thus the purpose of this paper was two-fold. First, the researcher sought to determine the level of knowledge and interest in foreign sign language among Deaf teenagers along with their learning preferences. Results from a survey indicated that over a third of the…

  17. From Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to Mobile Assisted Language Use (MALU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Huw; Achilleos, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by critiquing the long-established acronym CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning). We then go on to report on a small-scale study which examines how student non-native speakers of English use a range of digital devices beyond the classroom in both their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. We look also at the extent to…

  18. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  19. 20 Years of Technology and Language Assessment in "Language Learning & Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.; Voss, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This review article provides an analysis of the research from the last two decades on the theme of technology and second language assessment. Based on an examination of the assessment scholarship published in "Language Learning & Technology" since its launch in 1997, we analyzed the review articles, research articles, book reviews,…

  20. Language Learning Motivation and Language Attitudes in Multilingual Spain from an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David

    2017-01-01

    In Spain, more than 40% of the population lives in officially bilingual regions in which the minority language is used as a means of instruction at school and university. In addition, the increasing importance attached to learning English has led to the proliferation of multilingual school programs in which different languages are used to teach…

  1. Learning a Language and Studying Content in an Additional Language: Student Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, Ugur; Bahar, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the opinions of middle school and high school students about language learning and studying other content in an additional language in the school settings where English is used as the medium of instruction to teach more than 50% of the curriculum. For this end, 261 students from three different schools were…

  2. Multilingualism - a European Union goal - and incoming exchange students' language learning and language use in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    ' language learning and use in study abroad contexts. The study involves exchange students - but not language students - at four Scandinavian universities - two traditional ones and two specialised ones. Data for the project, which closes at the end of 2007, were collected through semi-structured individual...

  3. Are Commercial "Personal Robots" Ready for Language Learning? Focus on Second Language Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussalli, Souheila; Cardoso, Walcir

    2016-01-01

    Today's language classrooms are challenged with limited classroom time and lack of input, and output practice in a stress-free environment (Hsu, 2015). The use of commercial, readily available tools such as Personal Robots (PRs; e.g. Amazon's Echo, Jibo) might promote language learning by freeing up class time, allowing for a more focused…

  4. Second foreign language learning strategies and their variations across language proficiency levels among Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazhakh, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.

  5. The Effectiveness of Dialogic Reading in Increasing English Language Learning Preschool Children's Expressive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of dialogic reading in increasing the literacy interactions between English language learning parents (ELL) and their preschool aged children and children's expressive language development were studied. Twenty-one ELL parents of preschool aged children received dialogic reading training every other week for a ten-week period.…

  6. Language and learning in transformative learning spaces – multilingual learner’s stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    : Practice to theory, theory to practice. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier. Van Manen, M. (1997). Researching Lived Experience. The Althouse Press.  Intent of the Publication:This publication intends to provide a more nuanced understanding of human learning processes, not least......Proposal information:The necessity of knowing languages, many languages in fact, is emphasised in many different contexts in Europe, often in connection with globalisation. Languages are referred to as a key that opens a door – or many doors. Language is “a key to education”, ”a key to employment...... to success – language and learning in transformative learning spaces” is a study of multilingual people’s experiences of their (language) learning processes. It is aimed to improve our understanding of human learning processes, not least the subjective dimensions of these processes. Despite rapid development...

  7. Russian language for Persian learners A research on the difficulties of learning motion verbs of

    OpenAIRE

    ایزانلو ایزانلو

    2009-01-01

    Since motion verbs of Russian language is one of those complex issues in Russian language syntax, Iranian students who are learning Russian language face problems when learning this grammatical category. These problems in learning appear in two stages. a)The stage of learning and understanding the meaning of these verbs in the Russian language itself; b) The stage of transition of these verbs from Russian language into Persian language when translating texts into Persian. It seems that the di...

  8. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  9. Research on Difficulty in Indonesia Students Learning Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese has become the world’s second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of “er hua” such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.

  10. Application development with Parse using iOS SDK

    CERN Document Server

    Birani, Bhanu

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, featuring step-by-step instructions showing you how to use Parse iOS, and handle your data on cloud.If you are a developer who wants to build your applications instantly using Parse iOS as a back end application development, this book is ideal for you. This book will help you to understand Parse, featuring examples to help you get familiar with the concepts of Parse iOS.

  11. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlina Baharudin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students’ needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning strategies should be considered by the teachers to make teaching and learning become interesting, effective and not boring. Basic effectiveness of a language program was the factors of socio-culture, the style of teaching and learning, the students, and the characteristics of the program. This paper however focused on the socio-cultural factors (learning of cultures and the activities program that enable to generate excitement and effectiveness in the teaching and learning of Malay language as a foreign language. In the teaching and learning process found that the more we gave the activities to the students, the more the students acquired the meaning of the lessons. In this study, the selected respondents were the two groups of students from TWG, Konstanz, Germany who have followed the Malay Language and Culture Program in the Languages, Literacies and Translation Center, University of Sains Malaysia, Penang, in 2011. The first group was started in March to June, and the second group in September to November. The research was based on formal and informal observations and interviews. This paper also discussed about the outdoor activities program used as curriculum in the teaching and learning process that gives an interesting environment to foreign students

  12. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  13. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  14. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  15. Sequence distance via parsing complexity: Heartbeat signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degli Esposti, M.; Farinelli, C.; Menconi, G.

    2009-01-01

    We compare and discuss the use of different symbolic codings of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in order to distinguish healthy patients from hospitalized ones. To this aim, we recall a parsing-based similarity distance and compare the performances of several methods of classification of data.

  16. Perceiving Event Dynamics and Parsing Hollywood Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E.; Brunick, Kaitlin L.; Candan, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    We selected 24 Hollywood movies released from 1940 through 2010 to serve as a film corpus. Eight viewers, three per film, parsed them into events, which are best termed subscenes. While watching a film a second time, viewers scrolled through frames and recorded the frame number where each event began. Viewers agreed about 90% of the time. We then…

  17. Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Klimov, Andrei B.

    2016-01-01

    photon number do the methods coincide; when the photon number is indefinite, we parse the state in Fock layers, finding that substantially higher squeezing can be observed in some of the single layers. By capitalizing on the properties of the Husimi Q function, we map this notion onto the Poincare space......, providing a full account of the measured squeezing....

  18. Translation in language learning: a ‘what for’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo E. Balboni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature about translation in language learning and teaching shows the prominence of the ‘for and against’ approach, while a ‘what for’ approach would be more profitable. In order to prevent the latter approach from becoming a random list of the potential benefits of the use of translation in language teaching, this essay suggests the use of a formal model of communicative competence, to see which of its components can profit of translation activities. The result is a map of the effects of translation in the wide range of competences and abilities which constitute language learning.

  19. Improving Language Learning Strategies and Performance of Pre-Service Language Teachers Through a CALLA-TBLT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Guapacha Chamorro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language learning approach and task-based language teaching. Data were gathered through surveys, a focus group, students’ and teachers’ journals, language tests, and documentary analysis. Results evidenced that the students improved in speaking, writing, grammar, vocabulary and in their language learning strategies repertoire. As a conclusion, explicit strategy instruction in the proposed model resulted in a proper combination to improve learners’ language learning strategies and performance.

  20. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  2. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Nur Denizer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the questions and tick-circle or write in the correct blank. The questionnaire was based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches with the help of 4-point Likert-scale questions and one open-ended question at the last part. The participants of the study were 20 volunteer students (15 females and 5 males in Uludag University on whom the questionnaire was randomly applied.  They ranged in age from 18 to 40 and the mean age was 23. Their mother tongue was Turkish, and they knew English as a foreign language. The questionnaire shows that mother tongue interferes with second language learning in some way. In English language, the most challenging part was Grammar, while the most difficult and influenced skills was Speaking. In addition, participants had difficulty with speaking without any preparation. When it comes to having difficulty, participants had difficulty with determiners, English tenses and articles. The results indicated the interference of mother tongue in almost all aspects.

  3. Neural signatures of second language learning and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Bradley, Kailyn; Hernandez, Arturo E; Marian, Viorica

    2017-04-01

    Experience with multiple languages has unique effects on cortical structure and information processing. Differences in gray matter density and patterns of cortical activation are observed in lifelong bilinguals compared to monolinguals as a result of their experience managing interference across languages. Monolinguals who acquire a second language later in life begin to encounter the same type of linguistic interference as bilinguals, but with a different pre-existing language architecture. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the beginning stages of second language acquisition and cross-linguistic interference in monolingual adults. We found that after English monolinguals learned novel Spanish vocabulary, English and Spanish auditory words led to distinct patterns of cortical activation, with greater recruitment of posterior parietal regions in response to English words and of left hippocampus in response to Spanish words. In addition, cross-linguistic interference from English influenced processing of newly-learned Spanish words, decreasing hippocampus activity. Results suggest that monolinguals may rely on different memory systems to process a newly-learned second language, and that the second language system is sensitive to native language interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Older Workers and the Motivation for Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Letnar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an inevitable process facing modern societies, an aging population brings with it new and different challenges for social actors. The extension of working life requires increased investments in an older workforce, in order for these people to retain their employability and productivity. Globalisation and the ubiquity of information communication technology place increasing importance on foreign language knowledge – an area of deficiency among older workers.  Knowledge of what motivates learners to learn foreign languages is thus also gaining importance. In conducting a survey of language school learners, we found that the motivation for learning foreign languages differs significantly between younger and older generations. As a result, employers, as well as language schools, will need to reconsider their current practices.

  5. The motivational properties of emotions in Foreign Language Learning*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Mendez López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the process of learning a foreign language is replete with emotions, these have not been sufficiently studied in the field of EnglishLanguage Teaching. The aim of this article is to report the motivational impact of the emotions experienced by second year students of anEnglish Language Teaching programme in a South East Mexican University. Students were asked to keep an emotional journal for twelve weeksduring their third term in order to map their emotions and their sources during instructed language learning. The results show that the emotionsexperienced most by students are: fear, happiness, worry, calm, sadness and excitement. Although there is a range of sources for emotionalreactions, the five main sources of students’ emotions are: their insecurity about their speaking ability, the teachers’ attitudes, comparisonswith peers, the classroom atmosphere, and the type of learning activities.The two main aspects identified as impacting on students’ motivationare: the teachers’ attitudes, and the classroom climate.

  6. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  7. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  8. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  9. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  10. The Linguistic Landscape as a Learning Space for Contextual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladjem, Ruthi; Jou, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching and learning a foreign language is that students are not being sufficiently exposed to the target language. However, it is quite common to find linguistic and cultural exponents of different foreign languages in authentic contexts (termed the "Linguistic landscape"). Using the Linguistic landscape as a…

  11. Task-Based Language Teaching and Expansive Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…

  12. Learning a Language in the Field: Problems of Linguistic Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catford, J.C.

    The author feels that there is no reason to suppose that adults are less capable than children in learning a second language, given adequate opportunity and motivation. In terms of amount learned in comparable time, the adult is about five times as efficient as the child. This is what would be expected of any other kind of intellectual or rational…

  13. Leveraging Mobile Games for Place-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Christopher L.; Sykes, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds on the emerging body of research aimed at exploring the educational potential of mobile technologies, specifically, how to leverage place-based, augmented reality mobile games for language learning. Mentira is the first place-based, augmented reality mobile game for learning Spanish in a local neighborhood in the Southwestern…

  14. Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

  15. A Context-Aware Solution in Mobile Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahipour, Majid; Ghaseminajm, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Despite obvious benefits, some challenges exist in the way of sustainable utilization of mobile phone technology for language learning tasks. This paper shows how these challenges can be better addressed in the light of recent advancements in mobile phone technology, like context aware mobile learning, informed with a sound pedagogical basis for…

  16. Duolingo: A Mobile Application to Assist Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nushi, Musa; Eqbali, Mohamad Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Technology is changing the way languages are taught and learned. It has provided teachers with new facilities and approaches to teaching that can stimulate learners' interest while challenging their intellect (Blake, 2013, 2016; Stanley, 2013). As an example, new smartphone applications are being developed that make the task of learning ever more…

  17. Body in Mind: How Gestures Empower Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Knosche, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that enactment (i.e., performing representative gestures during encoding) enhances memory for concrete words, in particular action words. Here, we investigate the impact of enactment on abstract word learning in a foreign language. We further ask if learning novel words with gestures facilitates sentence…

  18. Interaction in a Blended Environment for English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Archila, Yuranny Marcela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the types of interaction that emerged not only in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) but also in face-to-face settings. The study also assessed the impact of the different kinds of interactions in terms of language learning. This is a qualitative case study that took place in a private Colombian…

  19. Language Learning through Social Networks: Perceptions and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsi; Warschauer, Mark; Blake, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Language Learning Social Network Sites (LLSNSs) have attracted millions of users around the world. However, little is known about how people participate in these sites and what they learn from them. This study investigated learners' attitudes, usage, and progress in a major LLSNS through a survey of 4,174 as well as 20 individual case studies. The…

  20. Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language…

  1. Language Learning Motivation among Malaysian Pre-University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The study describes and examines Malaysian pre-university students' integrative and instrumental motivation toward learning English language. In this study, 182 non-English major students in one of the Malaysian public universities are selected to fill out a questionnaire reflecting their attitudes and motivation towards learning English. The…

  2. Online Games for Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto; Someya, Yuumi; Fukuhara, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Young learners' use of instructional games in foreign language learning is not yet well understood. Using games that were part of the learning tools for an online assessment, Jido-Eiken, a standardized English proficiency test for young learners in Japan, we examined young learners' game-playing behaviours and the relationship of these behaviours…

  3. Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

  4. The Role of Dictionaries in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines assumptions about dictionaries, especially the bilingual dictionary, and suggests ways of integrating the monolingual dictionary into the second-language instructional process. Findings indicate that the monolingual dictionary can coexist with bilingual dictionaries within a foreign-language course if the latter are appropriately used as…

  5. Using Two Languages when Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschkovich, Judit

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews two sets of research studies from outside of mathematics education to consider how they may be relevant to the study of bilingual mathematics learners using two languages. The first set of studies is psycholinguistics experiments comparing monolinguals and bilinguals using two languages during arithmetic computation (language…

  6. Developing the Bilingual Competence in Learning Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Znamenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of bilingualism and its effect on the personality of the speaker. Various types of bilingualism are described along with the factors determining the bilingual competence formation: age, individual experience, socio-cultural conditions of the native and foreign language interaction. The author points out both the positive and negative impact on the native language as the result of the second language learning. The special emphasis is on language interference in the process of learning a foreign language. To make sure the students achieve the adequate degree of its authenticity, and therefore the bilingual competence, the teacher should take into account the specificity of national styles, communicative strategies and speech tactics of both languages. A comparative analysis of linguistic differences of the English and Russian languages is demonstrated on the level of phonetics, vocabulary, grammar and national communicative stylistics. The author maintains that successful inter-language and cross-cultural communication requires the integrative cross-disciplinary approach, consolidation of the linguistic theory and methods of foreign language teaching. 

  7. Memory, learning and language in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Boucher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims The ‘dual-systems’ model of language acquisition has been used by Ullman et al. to explain patterns of strength and weakness in the language of higher-functioning people with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, intact declarative/explicit learning is argued to compensate for a deficit in non-declarative/implicit procedural learning, constituting an example of the so-called see-saw effect. Ullman and Pullman extended their argument concerning a see-saw effect on language in autism spectrum disorder to cover other perceived anomalies of behaviour, including impaired acquisition of social skills. The aim of this paper is to present a critique of Ullman et al.’s claims and to propose an alternative model of links between memory systems and language in autism spectrum disorder. Main contribution We argue that a four-system model of learning, in which intact semantic and procedural memory are used to compensate for weaknesses in episodic memory and perceptual learning, can better explain patterns of language ability across the autistic spectrum. We also argue that attempts to generalise the ‘impaired implicit learning/spared declarative learning’ theory to other behaviours in autism spectrum disorder are unsustainable. Conclusions Clinically significant language impairments in autism spectrum disorder are under-researched, despite their impact on everyday functioning and quality of life. The relative paucity of research findings in this area lays it open to speculative interpretation which may be misleading. Implications More research is needed into links between memory/learning systems and language impairments across the spectrum. Improved understanding should inform therapeutic intervention and contribute to investigation of the causes of language impairment in autism spectrum disorder with potential implications for prevention.

  8. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemroh Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies

  9. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…

  10. Field of Study, Learning Styles, and Language Learning Strategies of University Students: Are There Any Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahragard, Rahman; Khajavi, Yaser; Abbasian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationships between field of study, learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among university students majoring in the fields of arts and humanities, science, engineering, social sciences, and English as a foreign language. To this end, 376 university students completed the…

  11. The Relationship between Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Student Achievement on Language Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstead, Lyubov

    2013-01-01

    The number of English Language Learners (ELLs) is rapidly growing. Teachers continue facing challenges in providing effective content instruction to ELLs while helping them learn English. New and improved approaches are necessary to meet the individual learning needs of this diverse group of students and help them progress academically while…

  12. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  13. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Alenka Rot

    2015-01-01

    In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first…

  14. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  15. The impact of first and second language exposure on learning second language constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2017-01-01

    We study how the learning of argument structure constructions in a second language (L2) is affected by two basic input properties often discussed in literature – the amount of input and the time of L2 onset. To isolate the impact of the two factors on learning, we use a computational model that

  16. Investigating digital native female learners’ attitudes towards paperless language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoghik Grigoryan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of paperless language learning in the context of the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of this study was to examine Emirati level 1 English language learners’ attitudes towards the iPad use as a means of language learning. It was done through a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, wholly composed of fixed-choice questions, and through weekly reflective journals that were written by the teachers teaching the groups. The survey collected data through a questionnaire from 80 students who had been exposed to paperless language learning for a duration of 80 teaching periods. The data collected showed positive student attitudes towards iPad implementation as a language learning tool in terms of learner satisfaction, motivation, perceived tool usefulness and learning effectiveness. Reflective journal analysis showed that the digital world presents the students with a direct link between the effort taken and the reward received, whereas the feedback or the reward given by the teachers in the traditional classroom was either too nebulous or too slow to motivate students to keep the pace of progressive learning.

  17. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  18. Learning Word Subsumption Projections for the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustalov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic relations of hypernymy and hyponymy are widely used in various natural language processing tasks for modelling the subsumptions in common sense reasoning. Since the popularisation of the distributional semantics, a significant attention is paid to applying word embeddings for inducing the relations between words. In this paper, we show our preliminary results on adopting the projection learning technique for computing hypernyms from hyponyms using word embeddings. We also conduct a series of experiments on the Russian language and release the open source software for learning hyponym-hypernym projections using both CPUs and GPUs, implemented with the TensorFlow machine learning framework.

  19. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adults learning Finnish as a foreign language : role of support, emotions and reasons connected with learning

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine adults learning Finnish as a foreign language while striving to understand the reasons behind their decisions to do so, the support that was individually offered to the participants, how they felt throughout the learning process, and whether or not they found themselves to be self-reliant learners, as per Knowles’ andragogy theory. This study set out to examine adult language learners participating in the language and integration program at Pa...

  1. Exchange students' motivations and language learning success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    One point investigated in our research project on the linguistic experiences of exchange students in Denmark and Sweden is the reasons students have for coming on exchange. Traditionally, an important goal of student exchange was to acquire improved language skills usually in the language spoken...... in the host country. To what extent is this true when students plan to study in English in a non-English speaking country? Do they hope and expect to improve their English skills, their knowledge of the local language, both, or neither? to what extent are these expectations fulfilled? Results form the project...

  2. Investigating the Language Learning Strategies of Students in the Foundation Program of United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Al Khatib, Ahmad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, language learning strategies have gained a lot of importance in different parts of the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Successful foreign or second language learning attempts are viewed in the light of using appropriate and effective language learning strategies. This study investigated the patterns of language learning…

  3. Mobile-Assisted Second Language Learning: Developing a Learner-Centered Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Choy Khim; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    The Mobile Assisted Language Learning concept has offered infinite language learning opportunities since its inception 20 years ago. Second Language Acquisition however embraces a considerably different body of knowledge from first language learning. While technological advances have optimized the psycholinguistic environment for language…

  4. Digital Game-Based Language Learning in Foreign Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus ALYAZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New technologies including digital game-based language learning have increasingly received attention. However, their implementation is far from expected and desired levels due to technical, instructional, financial and sociological barriers. Previous studies suggest that there is a strong need to establish courses in order to support adaptation of game-based learning pedagogy through helping teachers experience digital games themselves before they are expected to use them in teaching. This study was conducted to investigate educational digital games in foreign language teaching, to identify the determining reasons behind the pittfalls in applications and to explore the contribution of a serious game to the development of professional language skills of pre-service teachers. Pre- and post-tests were applied to measure the contribution of the game to the development of their language skills. In addition, a game diary and semi-structured interviews were used to elicit information about the problems pre-service teachers had and their perceptions on the whole process. The analysis of the data illustrated that there was great improvement in pre-service teachers’ professional language skills and attitudes towards using these games while teaching in the future. This is important in foreign language teacher education in terms of enhancing digital game-based language learning pedagogy for teachers.

  5. Book Review : INTERCULTURAL LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaswan Kaswan

    2013-10-01

    If the goal of language instruction is communicative competence, language instruction must be integrated with cultural and cross-cultural instruction for sociocultural competence is part of   communicative competence, besides linguistic competence, discourse   competence,   formulaic   competence,   and   interactional   competence,   as proposed by Celce-Murcia (1995 in Soler and Jorda (2007. Sociocultural competence refers to the speaker’s pragmatic knowledge, i.e. how to express messages appropriately within  the  overall  social  and  cultural  context  of  communication.  This  includes knowledge of   language variation with reference to sociocultural norms of the target language. In fact a social or cultural blunder can be far more serious than a linguistic error when one is engaged in oral communication.

  6. Learning Additional Languages as Hierarchical Probabilistic Inference: Insights From First Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Bozena; Fine, Alex B; Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework of second and additional language (L2/L n ) acquisition motivated by recent work on socio-indexical knowledge in first language (L1) processing. The distribution of linguistic categories covaries with socio-indexical variables (e.g., talker identity, gender, dialects). We summarize evidence that implicit probabilistic knowledge of this covariance is critical to L1 processing, and propose that L2/L n learning uses the same type of socio-indexical information to probabilistically infer latent hierarchical structure over previously learned and new languages. This structure guides the acquisition of new languages based on their inferred place within that hierarchy, and is itself continuously revised based on new input from any language. This proposal unifies L1 processing and L2/L n acquisition as probabilistic inference under uncertainty over socio-indexical structure. It also offers a new perspective on crosslinguistic influences during L2/L n learning, accommodating gradient and continued transfer (both negative and positive) from previously learned to novel languages, and vice versa.

  7. Social Interaction Affects Neural Outcomes of Sign Language Learning As a Foreign Language in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.

  8. The Usefulness of Translation in Foreign Language Learning: Students’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Fernández-Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have argued that translation is not a useful tool when acquiring a second or foreign language; since it provides a simplistic one-to-one relationship between the native and the foreign language, it can cause interference between them, and it is an artificial exercise that has nothing to do in a communicative approach to language teaching. Recent studies, however, show that, far from being useless, translation can be a great aid to foreign language learning. The aim of the present paper is twofold: (1 to summarize and assess the arguments that encourage the use of translation in the foreign language classroom, supporting the integration of several forms of translating; and (2 to present the results of a survey that focused on students’ perceptions and responses towards translation tasks and their effectiveness in foreign language acquisition. Results show that students’ attitudes were surprisingly positive for several reasons: translation is one of their preferred language learning tasks, it is motivating, it facilitates a deeper understanding of the form and content of the source language text, it increases learners’ awareness of the differences between both linguistic systems, it allows them to re-express their thoughts faster and easier, and it helps them acquire linguistic and cultural knowledge.

  9. Social Skills Via Emotional intelligence: Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Osman

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this essay to draw an outline of the effect of various types of intelligence, paying particular attention to the concept of so called "Emotional Intelligence" with a language teacher's perspective. Throughout the essay it is aimed to create an awareness of different intelligence capacity of each individual learner in an ideal language teaching environment. While doing this literature on the area has been scanned and case studies have been performed on learners of various cultu...

  10. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx).

  11. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual presentation, including audio, will follow).

  12. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx). November, 14-15, 2013, Florence, Italy: Libreriauniversitaria.it Edizioni.

  13. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  14. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  15. Automated vocabulary discovery for geo-parsing online epidemic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C; Brownstein, John S

    2009-11-24

    Automated surveillance of the Internet provides a timely and sensitive method for alerting on global emerging infectious disease threats. HealthMap is part of a new generation of online systems designed to monitor and visualize, on a real-time basis, disease outbreak alerts as reported by online news media and public health sources. HealthMap is of specific interest for national and international public health organizations and international travelers. A particular task that makes such a surveillance useful is the automated discovery of the geographic references contained in the retrieved outbreak alerts. This task is sometimes referred to as "geo-parsing". A typical approach to geo-parsing would demand an expensive training corpus of alerts manually tagged by a human. Given that human readers perform this kind of task by using both their lexical and contextual knowledge, we developed an approach which relies on a relatively small expert-built gazetteer, thus limiting the need of human input, but focuses on learning the context in which geographic references appear. We show in a set of experiments, that this approach exhibits a substantial capacity to discover geographic locations outside of its initial lexicon. The results of this analysis provide a framework for future automated global surveillance efforts that reduce manual input and improve timeliness of reporting.

  16. Automated vocabulary discovery for geo-parsing online epidemic intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freifeld Clark C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated surveillance of the Internet provides a timely and sensitive method for alerting on global emerging infectious disease threats. HealthMap is part of a new generation of online systems designed to monitor and visualize, on a real-time basis, disease outbreak alerts as reported by online news media and public health sources. HealthMap is of specific interest for national and international public health organizations and international travelers. A particular task that makes such a surveillance useful is the automated discovery of the geographic references contained in the retrieved outbreak alerts. This task is sometimes referred to as "geo-parsing". A typical approach to geo-parsing would demand an expensive training corpus of alerts manually tagged by a human. Results Given that human readers perform this kind of task by using both their lexical and contextual knowledge, we developed an approach which relies on a relatively small expert-built gazetteer, thus limiting the need of human input, but focuses on learning the context in which geographic references appear. We show in a set of experiments, that this approach exhibits a substantial capacity to discover geographic locations outside of its initial lexicon. Conclusion The results of this analysis provide a framework for future automated global surveillance efforts that reduce manual input and improve timeliness of reporting.

  17. Author Languages, Authoring Systems, and Their Relation to the Changing Focus of Computer-Aided Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussex, Roland

    1991-01-01

    Considers how the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has been hampered by language teachers who lack programing and software engineering expertise, and explores the limitations and potential contributions of author languages, programs, and environments in increasing the range of options for language teachers who are not…

  18. Trauma and Second Language Learning Among Laotian Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented numbers of adult refugee learners are entering ESL classes, many of whom escaped war-torn countries and endured long stays in refugee camps. Research in public health and psychology has documented high levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee populations. Drawing on ethnographic research with Laotian refugee women who experienced pre-settlement trauma during the Vietnam War and interviews with bilingual mental health professionals, this article examines current second language acquisition theories to consider how they elucidate the effect of trauma on second language learning. The article offers cross-cultural perspectives about the impact of trauma on learning and recommendations for working with adult refugee learners who have experienced trauma. Findings have implications for ESL instructors and second language researchers concerned with the impact of pre- settlement experiences on second language acquisition and implications for classroom instruction.

  19. Understanding foreign language teachers’ practical knowledge: What’s the role of prior language learning experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Arıoğul

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefsand thinking (Borg, 2003 which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin,1988 and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer,Verloop, and Beijard, 1999. This paper initially discusses how language teachers areinfluenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, priorteaching experience, and professional coursework in pre- and in-service education. Bydrawing its data from the author’s longitidunal study, it also presents the findings of a crosscasetheme emerged from the investigation of three English as a foreign language (EFLteachers’ prior language learning experiences. The paper also discusses how the participationin studies on teachers’ knowledge raises teachers’ own awareness while it informs theresearch.

  20. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  1. Teaching and Learning Through a Foreign Language - A Challenging Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    learn and teachers teach through the medium of a foreign language, that is, English. While there is obviously a linguistic dimension to it, it turns out that there is also a cultural dimension that should not be underestimated whether we teach in our first or a foreign language. Have you also noticed....... And in an interactive format, you will be invited to share your experience within this field and discuss possible solution to the problems identified....

  2. Analysis of Language Learning Strategies Used by Students of Traffic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategies play a vital role in the language acquisition process, and this includes the realm of ESP at the tertiary level of education. This contribution first defines the concept of language learning strategies and gives a historical background to language learning strategy research. The central section focuses on a comparative analysis of language learning strategies used by first year students of traffic technology at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož, University of Ljubljana. The analysis, based on Rebecca Oxford’s “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning”, aims to assess the students’ existing awareness of the process of language acquisition and the learning strategies that they use. Objectives of language teachers should include helping students to raise their awareness of language learning strategies and providing them with contexts for their development. Therefore, the concluding section contains sample ESP teaching materials and student instructions focusing on cognitive language learning strategies.

  3. Language Attitudes, Language Learning Experiences and Individual Strategies What Does School Offer and What Does It Lack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tódor Erika-Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ attitudes towards the language and its speakers greatly influence the language learning process and the learning outcomes. Previous research and studies on attitudes and motivation in language learning (Csizér 2007, Dörnyei 2009 show that attitudes and motivation are strongly intertwined. Positive attitude towards the language and its speakers can lead to increased motivation, which then results in better learning achievement and a positive attitude towards learning the language. The aim of the present study was to get a better insight into what regards the language attitudes of students attending Hungarian minority schools in Romania. The interest of the study lies in students’ attitudes towards the different languages, the factors/criteria along which they express their language attitudes, students’ learning experiences and strategies that they consider efficient and useful in order to acquire a language. Results suggest that students’ attitudes are determined by their own experiences of language use, and in this sense we can differentiate between a language for identification – built upon specific emotional, affective, and cognitive factors – and language for communication.

  4. Can (a second) language be learned in the workplace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen; Lund, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Taking Danish legislation on second language teaching for refugees and immigrants as it point of departure, the article discusses whether the workplace is such an ideal place for learning a second language as the Act implies. It is pointed out that it is of crucial importance whether one sees...... the central concepts of the Act - language-in-the-workplace, flexibility, individualisation and effectivisation - as part of a politically restricting discourse or as a pedagogically liberating counter-discourse. Subsequently, the article offers som proposals for a language-pedagogical development...... of a dynamic interaction between the language teaching space and the work space, one which would enable course participants to negotiate meaning, social context and identity....

  5. Language cannot be reduced to biology: perspectives from neuro-developmental disorders affecting language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanta, D

    2005-02-01

    The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion--the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ability is possible only because of an innately specified genetic makeup that is specific to human beings. Such a view of language knowledge may be fully justified in discussions on biolinguistics, and in evolutionary biology. However, it is grossly inadequate in understanding language-learning problems, particularly those experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia, Williams syndrome, specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, syntax-centered definitions of language knowledge completely ignore certain crucial aspects of language learning and use, namely, that language is embedded in a social context; that the role of envrironmental triggering as a learning mechanism is grossly underestimated; that a considerable extent of visuo-spatial information accompanies speech in day-to-day communication; that the developmental process itself lies at the heart of knowledge acquisition; and that there is a tremendous variation in the orthographic systems associated with different languages. All these (socio-cultural) factors can influence the rate and quality of spoken and written language acquisition resulting in much variation in phenotypes associated with disorders known to have a genetic component. Delineation of such phenotypic variability requires inputs from varied disciplines such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, linguistics and communication disorders. In this paper, I discuss published research that questions cognitive modularity and emphasises the role of the environment for understanding linguistic capabilities of children with neuro-developmental disorders. The discussion pertains

  6. Musical expertise and second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-06-06

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research.

  7. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. Implications of Multimodal Learning Models for foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review article approaches the topic of information and communications technologies from the perspective of their impact on the language learning process, with particular emphasis on the most appropriate designs of multimodal texts as informed by models of multimodal learning. The first part contextualizes multimodality within the fields of discourse studies, the psychology of learning and CALL; the second, deals with multimodal conceptions of reading and writing by discussing hypertextuality and literacy. A final section outlines the possible implications of multimodal learning models for foreign language teaching and learning.

  9. "Seamlessly" Learning Chinese: Contextual Meaning Making and Vocabulary Growth in a Seamless Chinese as a Second Language Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.; Chai, Ching Sing; Liu, May

    2016-01-01

    Second language learners are typically hampered by the lack of a natural environment to use the target language for authentic communication purpose (as a means for "learning by applying"). Thus, we propose MyCLOUD, a mobile-assisted seamless language learning approach that aims to nurture a second language social network that bridges…

  10. Voice Blog: An Exploratory Study of Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Sun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses voice blogs as a platform for an extensive study of language learners’ speaking skills. To triangulate the findings, the study collected data by surveying the learners’ blogging processes, investigating learning strategies, and conducting retrospective interviews. The results revealed that students (a developed a series of blogging stages, including conceptualizing, brainstorming, articulation, monitoring, and evaluating, and used a wide variety of strategies to cope with blogging-related difficulties, and (b perceived blogging as a means of learning, self-presentation, information exchange, and social networking. Findings suggest that blogs can constitute a dynamic forum that fosters extensive practice, learning motivation, authorship, and development of learning strategies.

  11. Using Hypnosis to Enhance Learning Second Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Yakup; Çimen, O Arda; Yetkiner, Zeynep Ebrar

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we measure the effects of hypnosis and suggestions for learning second language vocabulary. Participants (N = 70) were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or a control group. They were pre-tested, and then presented 21 Spanish words, post-tested immediately and 1 week later. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with group (experimental versus control) as the between-subjects factor, and time as the within-subjects factor. The experimental group performed significantly better in both tests. Our results indicate that hypnosis is beneficial for second language vocabulary learning and retrieval.

  12. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Balçıkanlı

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

  13. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  14. Juggling with Language Learning Theories. [Videotape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Learning to juggle has become popular among corporate training programs because it shows participants how to appreciate mistakes and use "Intelligent Fast Failure" (learning quickly by daring to make a lot of simple mistakes at the beginning of a process). Big business also likes the way juggling can get executives "out of the…

  15. Efficacy of Computer Games on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Kacet, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become an inseparable part of people's lives. For children the use of ICT is as natural as breathing and therefore they find the use of ICT in school education as normal as the use of textbooks. The purpose of this review study is to explore the efficacy of computer games on language learning…

  16. Second-Language Learning through Imaginative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Egan's (1997) work on imagination can enrich our understanding of teaching English as a second language (ESL). Much has been written on ESL teaching techniques; however, some of this work has been expounded in a standard educational framework, which is what Egan calls an assembly-line model. This model can easily underlie…

  17. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  18. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Language Used in E-Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygoda Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of language in e-Learning is still not very clear from a technical as well as semantic point of view. In the era of Information Technology, it is more and more important to unify the principles of language used and its semantic meaning to be more simple and precise when taking into consideration online educational courses. During the last years, e-Learning courses have begun to be popular around the world as during an internet era, we tend to find consolidated information sources on internet rather than in traditional courses which require our physical presence. The crucial issue which makes an e- Learning course function is the language used to transmit all the information to the students in a clear and effective manner. For such language to be considered effective, it is necessary to adjust it to the general standards adopted in an international environment. The notion of a language used in e-Learning also faces some problems as it should be so concise as to be accessible for everybody regardless of gender, nationality, and intellectual level. It is hard to standardise its principles, thus over the years many scientists have tried to unify the top requirements a perfect e-Learning course should have. Nowadays, most of the population should stop considering e-Learning as an alternative form of education and focus on developing new models and structures for education and learning that fully exploit the opportunities of today’s digital revolution. With a laptop, a mobile device and Wi-Fi, you can manage your own e-Learning course, and take courses yourself, at any time and place, in any language. A typical model of an e-Learning course is based on guided self-study with a linear progression through modules consisting of recorded lectures, course literature, written assignments and multiple-choice self-tests. Technology has got an even better solution which consists of standardising the learning process and adopting it to a commonly

  20. Plasticity in the adult language system: a longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2006-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.