WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning goals selected

  1. Goal selection versus process control while learning to use a brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Audrey S.; Rose, Minn L.; He, Bin

    2011-06-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to accomplish a task without requiring motor output. Two major control strategies used by BCIs during task completion are process control and goal selection. In process control, the user exerts continuous control and independently executes the given task. In goal selection, the user communicates their goal to the BCI and then receives assistance executing the task. A previous study has shown that goal selection is more accurate and faster in use. An unanswered question is, which control strategy is easier to learn? This study directly compares goal selection and process control while learning to use a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI. Twenty young healthy human subjects were randomly assigned either to a goal selection or a process control-based paradigm for eight sessions. At the end of the study, the best user from each paradigm completed two additional sessions using all paradigms randomly mixed. The results of this study were that goal selection required a shorter training period for increased speed, accuracy, and information transfer over process control. These results held for the best subjects as well as in the general subject population. The demonstrated characteristics of goal selection make it a promising option to increase the utility of BCIs intended for both disabled and able-bodied users.

  2. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  3. Learning Science, Learning about Science, Doing Science: Different Goals Demand Different Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This opinion piece paper urges teachers and teacher educators to draw careful distinctions among four basic learning goals: learning science, learning about science, doing science and learning to address socio-scientific issues. In elaboration, the author urges that careful attention is paid to the selection of teaching/learning methods that…

  4. Integrated learning through student goal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Deborah; Tschannen, Dana; Caylor, Shandra

    2013-09-01

    New strategies are emerging to promote structure and increase learning in the clinical setting. Nursing faculty designed a mechanism by which integrative learning and situated coaching could occur more readily in the clinical setting. The Clinical Goals Initiative was implemented for sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students in their clinical practicums. Students developed weekly goals reflecting three domains of professional nursing practice. Goals were shared with faculty and staff nurse mentors at the beginning of the clinical day to help guide students and mentors with planning for learning experiences. After 6 weeks, faculty and students were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. Faculty indicated that goal development facilitated clinical learning by providing more student engagement, direction, and focus. Students reported that goal development allowed them to optimize clinical learning opportunities and track their growth and progress. Faculty and students indicated the goals promoted student self-learning, autonomy, and student communication with nurse mentors and faculty. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabanach, Ramón G; Núnez, José C; González-Pienda, Julio; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel

    2003-03-01

    The type of academic goals pursued by students is one of the most important variables in motivational research in educational contexts. Although motivational theory and research have emphasised the somewhat exclusive nature of two types of goal orientation (learning goals versus performance goals), some studies (Meece, 1994; Seifert, 1995, 1996) have shown that the two kinds of goals are relatively complementary and that it is possible for students to have multiple goals simultaneously, which guarantees some flexibility to adapt more efficaciously to various contexts and learning situations. The principal aim of this study is to determine the academic goals pursued by university students and to analyse the differences in several very significant variables related to motivation and academic learning. Participants were 609 university students (74% women and 26% men) who filled in several questionnaires about the variables under study. We used cluster analysis ('quick cluster analysis' method) to establish the different groups or clusters of individuals as a function of the three types of goals (learning goals, performance goals, and social reinforcement goals). By means of MANOVA, we determined whether the groups or clusters identified were significantly different in the variables that are relevant to motivation and academic learning. Lastly, we performed ANOVA on the variables that revealed significant effects in the previous analysis. Using cluster analysis, three groups of students with different motivational orientations were identified: a group with predominance of performance goals (Group PG: n = 230), a group with predominance of multiple goals (Group MG: n = 238), and a group with predominance of learning goals (Group LG: n = 141). Groups MG and LG attributed their success more to ability, they had higher perceived ability, they took task characteristics into account when planning which strategies to use in the learning process, they showed higher persistence

  6. Personality Types, Learning Styles, and Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…

  7. Developing Goals and Objectives for Gameplay and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces goals in games and then potential differences between learning goals and goalsin games, as well as the difficulties that may occur when implementing learning goals in games....

  8. A computational neural model of goal-directed utterance selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Kamp, Hans; Palm, Guenther; Doya, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    It is generally agreed that much of human communication is motivated by extra-linguistic goals: we often make utterances in order to get others to do something, or to make them support our cause, or adopt our point of view, etc. However, thus far a computational foundation for this view on language use has been lacking. In this paper we propose such a foundation using Markov Decision Processes. We borrow computational components from the field of action selection and motor control, where a neurobiological basis of these components has been established. In particular, we make use of internal models (i.e., next-state transition functions defined on current state action pairs). The internal model is coupled with reinforcement learning of a value function that is used to assess the desirability of any state that utterances (as well as certain non-verbal actions) can bring about. This cognitive architecture is tested in a number of multi-agent game simulations. In these computational experiments an agent learns to predict the context-dependent effects of utterances by interacting with other agents that are already competent speakers. We show that the cognitive architecture can account for acquiring the capability of deciding when to speak in order to achieve a certain goal (instead of performing a non-verbal action or simply doing nothing), whom to address and what to say. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Goal Selection for Embedded Systems with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  10. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  11. Inclusion, Learning Goals in Didactics and Education - Effects and Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette; Braüner, Ninna

    Abstract NERA 2017 Inclusion, Learning Goals in Didactics and Education – Effects and Findings Ninna V. Braüner, M.Ed general pedagogy, University College Sjælland, nvb@ucsj.dk Mette Bruun, M.Ed.in general pedagogy, University College Sjælland, meb@ucsj.dk During the last 5-10 years teaching...... with centralized learning goals in didactics and education together with inclusion of children with special needs have been focus areas both nationally and internationally. Educators, directors of education etc. find inspiration in works by John Hattie and James Nottingham and visit schools in Ontario. Many Danish...... learning goals have of inclusion? How can practice be developed within these frames? We have both observed how students in complicated learning situations participate in education without learning goals and how the same students participate when the teacher has planned the education with learning goals. We...

  12. Goal-Setting Learning Principles: A Lesson From Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainudin bin Abu Bakar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the prominent theory was the goal-setting theory which was widely been used in educational setting. It is an approach than can enhance the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This is a report paper about a simple study of the implementation of the goal-setting principle in the classroom. A clinical data of the teaching and learning session was then analysed to address several issues highlighted. It is found that the goal-setting principles if understood clearly by the teachers can enhance the teaching and learning activities. Failed to see the needs of the session will revoke the students learning interest. It is suggested that goal-setting learning principles could become a powerful aid for the teachers in the classroom.

  13. Academic goals and learning quality in higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Cabanach, Ramón G; González-Pienda, Julio A; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Muñoz-Cadavid, María A; Cerezo, Rebeca

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, the relations between academic goals and various indicators that define the quality of the learning process are analyzed. The purpose was to determine to what extent high, moderate, or low levels of academic goals were positively or negatively related to effort regulation, the value assigned to academic tasks, meta-cognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, beliefs about learning control, and management of time and study environment. The investigation was carried out with a sample of 632 university students (70% female and 30% male) and mean age of 21.22 (SD=2.2).The results show that learning goals, or task orientation, are positively related to all the indictors of learning quality considered herein. Although for other kinds of goals-work-avoidance goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals-significant relations were not found with all the indicators, there was a similar tendency of significant results in all cases; the higher the levels of these goals, the lower the levels of the indicators of learning quality.

  14. How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Lens, W.; Phalet, K.

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the impact of future goals on motivation and learning in multicultural classrooms. Across cultures, schooling is a future-oriented investment. Studies of minority students’ school achievement have advanced future goals as a crucial protective factor in the face of frequent

  15. Blocking of Goal-Location Learning Based on Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tim; Wilson, Stuart P.; Wilson, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    Using desktop, computer-simulated virtual environments (VEs), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate blocking of learning about a goal location based on Shape B as a consequence of preliminary training to locate that goal using Shape A. The shapes were large 2-dimensional horizontal figures on the ground. Blocking of spatial learning…

  16. Deep Learning in Distance Education: Are We Achieving the Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Rick L.; Gregg, Andrea; Joo, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, one of our goals is to help students arrive at deeper levels of learning. However, how is this accomplished, especially in online courses? This design-based research study explored the concept of deep learning through a series of design changes in a graduate education course. A key question that emerged was through what learning…

  17. Goal-Setting Learning Principles: A Lesson From Practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Zainudin bin Abu Bakar; Lee Mei Yun; NG Siew Keow; Tan Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    One of the prominent theory was the goal-setting theory which was widely been used in educational setting. It is an approach than can enhance the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This is a report paper about a simple study of the implementation of the goal-setting principle in the classroom. A clinical data of the teaching and learning session was then analysed to address several issues highlighted. It is found that the goal-setting principles if understood clearly by the te...

  18. Preoperative learning goals set by surgical residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Breen, Elizabeth; Ashley, Stanley W; Peyre, Sarah E

    2011-09-01

    The operating room (OR) remains the main teaching venue for surgical trainees. The OR is considered a pure-discovery learning environment; the downsides of this can be putatively overcome when faculty and trainee arrive at a shared understanding of learning. This study aimed to better understand preoperative learning goals to identify areas of commonalities and potential barrier to intraoperative teaching. Brief, structured preoperative interviews were conducted outside the OR with the resident and faculty member who were scheduled to operate together. Answers were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory. Twenty-seven resident-faculty pairs were interviewed. Nine residents (33.3%) were junior (PGY 1 and 2) and 18 (66.7%) were senior (PGY 3 through 5). Learning goal categories that emerged from the response analysis were anatomy, basic and advanced surgical skills, general and specific procedural tasks, technical autonomy, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations. Residents articulated fewer learning goals than faculty (1.5 versus 2.4; P = 0.024). The most frequently identified learning goal by both groups was one classifiable under general procedural tasks; the greatest divergence was seen regarding perioperative considerations, which were identified frequently by faculty members but rarely by residents. Faculty articulate significantly more learning goals for the residents they will operate with than residents articulate for themselves. Our data suggest that residents and faculty align on some learning goals for the OR but residents tend to be more limited, focusing predominantly on technical aspects of the operation. Faculty members tend to hold a broader view of the learning potential of the OR. These discrepancies may present barriers to effective intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning Goals in Didactics and Education, Inclusion and Social Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette; Braüner, Ninna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract NERA 2016 Learning Goals in Didactics and Education, Inclusion, Social Mobility Ninna V. Braüner, master in general pedagogy, University College Sjælland, nvb@ucsj.dk Mette Bruun, master in general pedagogy, University College Sjælland, meb@ucsj.dk During the last 5-10 years teaching...... with centralized learning goals in didactics and education together with inclusion of children with special needs have been focus areas both nationally and internationally. In Denmark the Inclusion Act was passed in 2012 and a new school act in 2014. Several pupils with special needs are included in the school...... pupils. Even the social mobility will increase. In our project we want to discuss the hypothesis mentioned above. Which advantages and disadvantages have effective learning goals of inclusion? How can practice be developed within these frames? Teachers, educators, directors of education etc. find...

  20. Neurology clerkship goals and their effect on learning and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Salas, Rachel Marie E; Cruz, Tiana E; Gamaldo, Charlene E

    2016-02-16

    To define medical student goals in the neurology clerkship and explore the association between goal setting and student performance, clerkship satisfaction, self-directed learning (SDL), and interest in neurology. A 4-year prospective study of consecutive second- to fourth-year medical students rotating through a required 4-week neurology clerkship was conducted. A goal-generating cohort (first 2 years) was enrolled to describe the breadth of student-derived goals. A goal-evaluating cohort (second 2 years) was used to evaluate the frequency of goal achievement and assess associations with performance (e.g., National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME], examination), satisfaction, and SDL behaviors (both based on 5-point Likert scale). Of 440 evaluable students, 201 were goal-generating and 239 goal-evaluating. The top 3 goals were (1) improvement in neurologic examination, (2) understanding neurologic disease, and (3) deriving a differential diagnosis. More than 90% (n = 216/239) of students reported achieving goals. Achievers reported significantly higher clerkship satisfaction (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.0, p neurology (71% vs. 35%, p = 0.001), and higher observed tendency toward SDL (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.1 ± 0.8, p neurology clerkship. Goal achievers had better adjusted standardized test scores, higher satisfaction, and greater tendency toward SDL. This student-generated, goal-setting program may be particularly appealing to clinicians, educators, and researchers seeking resource-lean mechanisms to improve student experience and performance in the clinical clerkships. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Lateralized goal framing: how selective presentation impacts message effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2012-11-01

    We tested whether framing a message as a gain or loss would alter its effectiveness by using a dichotic listening procedure to selectively present a health related message to the left or right hemisphere. A significant goal framing effect (losses > gains) was found when right, but not left, hemisphere processing was initially enhanced. The results support the position that the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere is especially sensitive to the associative implications of the frame. We discussed the implications of these findings for goal framing research, and the valence hypothesis. We also discussed how these findings converge with prior valence framing research and how they can be of potential use to health care providers.

  2. Goals for Teacher Learning about Energy Degradation and Usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) require teachers to understand aspects of energy degradation and the second law of thermodynamics, including energy's availability and usefulness, changes in energy concentration, and the tendency of energy to spread uniformly. In an effort to develop learning goals that support teachers in building…

  3. Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach in Selective Maintenance Reliability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the present paper, we have considered the allocation problem of repairable components for a parallel-series system as a multi-objective optimization problem and have discussed two different models. In first model the reliability of subsystems are considered as different objectives. In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. These two models is formulated as multi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (MONLPP and a Fuzzy goal programming method is used to work out the compromise allocation in multi-objective selective maintenance reliability model in which we define the membership functions of each objective function and then transform membership functions into equivalent linear membership functions by first order Taylor series and finally by forming a fuzzy goal programming model obtain a desired compromise allocation of maintenance components. A numerical example is also worked out to illustrate the computational details of the method.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  4. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  5. Students’ goal orientations and learning strategies in a powerful learning environment : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Beijaard, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Dutch secondary education, experiments with powerful social constructivist learning environments are conducted that aim to appeal to students’ intrinsic goal orientations, use of deep cognitive learning strategies, and self-direction of meta-cognitive learning strategies. The aim of this study is

  6. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.

  7. Resident Self-Assessment and Learning Goal Development: Evaluation of Resident-Reported Competence and Future Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Paterniti, Debora A; Tancredi, Daniel J; Burke, Ann E; Trimm, R Franklin; Guillot, Ann; Guralnick, Susan; Mahan, John D

    2015-01-01

    To determine incidence of learning goals by competency area and to assess which goals fall into competency areas with lower self-assessment scores. Cross-sectional analysis of existing deidentified American Academy of Pediatrics' PediaLink individualized learning plan data for the academic year 2009-2010. Residents self-assessed competencies in the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency areas and wrote learning goals. Textual responses for goals were mapped to 6 ACGME competency areas, future practice, or personal attributes. Adjusted mean differences and associations were estimated using multiple linear and logistic regression. A total of 2254 residents reported 6078 goals. Residents self-assessed their systems-based practice (51.8) and medical knowledge (53.0) competencies lowest and professionalism (68.9) and interpersonal and communication skills (62.2) highest. Residents were most likely to identify goals involving medical knowledge (70.5%) and patient care (50.5%) and least likely to write goals on systems-based practice (11.0%) and professionalism (6.9%). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for postgraduate year (PGY), gender, and degree type (MD/DO), resident-reported goal area showed no association with the learner's relative self-assessment score for that competency area. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, with each learner serving as his or her own control, senior residents (PGY2/3+s) who rated themselves relatively lower in a competency area were more likely to write a learning goal in that area than were PGY1s. Senior residents appear to develop better skills and/or motivation to explicitly turn self-assessed learning gaps into learning goals, suggesting that individualized learning plans may help improve self-regulated learning during residency. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E

    2011-09-01

    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  9. Goals for teacher learning about energy degradation and usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Daane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS require teachers to understand aspects of energy degradation and the second law of thermodynamics, including energy’s availability and usefulness, changes in energy concentration, and the tendency of energy to spread uniformly. In an effort to develop learning goals that support teachers in building robust understandings of energy from their existing knowledge, we studied teachers’ impromptu conversations about these topics during professional development courses about energy. Many of these teachers’ ideas appear to align with statements from the NGSS, including the intuition that energy can be present but inaccessible, that energy can change in its usefulness as it transforms within a system, and that energy can lose its usefulness as it disperses, often ending up as thermal energy. Some teachers’ ideas about energy degradation go beyond what is articulated in the NGSS, including the idea that thermal energy can be useful in some situations and the idea that energy’s usefulness depends on the objects included in a scenario. Based on these observations, we introduce learning goals for energy degradation and the second law of thermodynamics that (1 represent a sophisticated physics understanding of these concepts, (2 originate in ideas that teachers already use, and (3 align with the NGSS.

  10. The Link between Age, Career Goals, and Adaptive Development for Work-Related Learning among Local Government Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tones, Megan; Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    More recently, lifespan development psychology models of adaptive development have been applied to the workforce to investigate ageing worker and lifespan issues. The current study uses the Learning and Development Survey (LDS) to investigate employee selection and engagement of learning and development goals and opportunities and constraints for…

  11. Effects of Persuasion and Discussion Goals on Writing, Cognitive Load, and Learning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Perry D.; Ehrhardt, Jacqueline S.

    2015-01-01

    Argumentation can contribute significantly to content area learning. Recent research has raised questions about the effects of discussion (deliberation) goals versus persuasion (disputation) goals on reasoning and learning. This is the first study to compare the effects of these writing goals on individual writing to learn. Grade 7 and 8 students…

  12. The Role of Learning Goals in Building a Knowledge Base for Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Amanda; Bartell, Tonya; Berk, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe features of learning goals that enable indexing knowledge for teacher education. Learning goals are the key enabler for building a knowledge base for teacher education; they define what counts as essential knowledge for prospective teachers. We argue that 2 characteristics of learning goals support knowledge-building…

  13. Tying knots: an activity theory analysis of student learning goals in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Douglas P; Wesevich, Austin; Lichtenfeld, Jana; Artino, Antony R; Brydges, Ryan; Varpio, Lara

    2017-07-01

    Learning goal programmes are often created to help students develop self-regulated learning skills; however, these programmes do not necessarily consider the social contexts surrounding learning goals or how they fit into daily educational practice. We investigated a high-frequency learning goal programme in which students generated and shared weekly learning goals with their clinical teams in core Year 3 clerkships. Our study explores: (i) how learning goals were incorporated into the clinical work, and (ii) the factors that influenced the use of students' learning goals in work-based learning. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 students and 14 supervisors (attending physicians and residents) sampled from all participating core clerkships. Interviews were coded for emerging themes. Using cultural historical activity theory and knotworking as theoretical lenses, we developed a model of the factors that influenced students' learning goal usage in a work-based learning context. Students and supervisors often faced the challenge of reconciling contradictions that arose when the desired outcomes of student skill development, grading and patient care were not aligned. Learning goals could function as tools for developing new ways of acting that overcame those contradictions by facilitating collaborative effort between students and their supervisors. However, for new collaborations to take place, both students and supervisors had to engage with the goals, and the necessary patients needed to be present. When any one part of the system did not converge around the learning goals, the impact of the learning goals programme was limited. Learning goals are potentially powerful tools to mediate interactions between students, supervisors and patients, and to reconcile contradictions in work-based learning environments. Learning goals provide a means to develop not only learners, but also learning systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the

  14. The influence of demographics and work related goals on adaptive development for work related learning amongst private hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tones, Megan; Pillay, Hitendra; Fraser, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary lifespan development models of adaptive development have been applied to the workforce to examine characteristics of the ageing employee. Few studies have examined adaptive development in terms of worker perceptions of workplace, or their learning and development issues. This study used the recently developed Revised Learning and Development Survey to investigate employee selection and engagement of learning and development goals, opportunities for learning and development at work, and constraints to learning and development at work. Demographic and career goal variables were tested amongst a sample of private hospital employees, almost all of whom were nurses. Workers under 45 years of age perceived greater opportunities for training and development than more mature aged workers. Age and physical demands interacted such that physical demands of work were associated with lower engagement in learning and development goals in mature aged workers. The opposite was observed amongst younger workers. Engagement in learning and development goals at work predicted goals associated with an intention to decrease work hours or change jobs to a different industry when opportunities to learn via work tasks were limited. At the same time limited opportunities for training and development and perceptions of constraints to development at work predicted the intention to change jobs. Results indicate consideration must be paid to employee perceptions in the workplace in relation to goals. They may be important factors in designing strategies to retain workers.

  15. The role of selective attention in short-term memory and goal-directed behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention enables the prioritization of goal-relevant aspects of our sensory environment in order to guide our actions, or to store goal-relevant information in short-term memory. Yet, it remains largely unclear how attention prioritizes goal-relevant information. For example, selective

  16. Exploring Mathematics Achievement Goals Using Kolb’s Learning Style Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.

  17. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  18. The role of selective attention in short-term memory and goal-directed behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention enables the prioritization of goal-relevant aspects of our sensory environment in order to guide our actions, or to store goal-relevant information in short-term memory. Yet, it remains largely unclear how attention prioritizes goal-relevant information. For example, selective attention may enhance processing of goal-relevant information, suppress processing of distracting information, or both. The research presented in this dissertation examined the neurophysiological mec...

  19. Motivational changes in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time: testing alternatives to socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Carstensen, Laura L

    2004-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: (a) emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and (b) emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning. This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.

  20. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  1. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Goals: Testing Predictions from Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Theory and Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L.; Scott, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    Two prominent theories of lifespan development, socioemotional selectivity theory and selection, optimization, and compensation theory, make similar predictions for differences in the goal representations of younger and older adults. Our purpose was to test whether the goals of younger and older adults differed in ways predicted by these two…

  3. Designs of goal-free problems for trigonometry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnowati, E.; Maulidya, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the designs of goal-free problems particularly for trigonometry, which may be considered a difficult topic for high school students.Goal-free problem is an instructional design developed based on a Cognitive load theory (CLT). Within the design, instead of asking students to solve a specific goal of a mathematics problem, the instruction is to solve as many Pythagoras as possible. It was assumed that for novice students, goal-free problems encourage students to pay attention more to the given information and the mathematical principles that can be applied to reveal the unknown variables. Hence, students develop more structured knowledge while solving the goal-free problems. The resulted design may be used in regular mathematics classroom with some adjustment on the difficulty level and the allocated lesson time.

  4. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is…

  5. Does extrinsic goal framing enhance extrinsic goal-oriented individuals' learning and performance? An experimental test of the match perspective versus self-determination theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Timmermans, Tinneke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Previous work within self-determination theory has shown that experimentally framing a learning activity in terms of extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals results in poorer conceptual learning and performance, presumably because extrinsic goal framing detracts attention from the learning activity and is less directly satisfying of basic psychological needs. According to the match perspective, experimental extrinsic, compared to intrinsic, goal framing should enhance learning and performance f...

  6. Learning Goals Achievement of a Teacher in Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Marfu’ah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the achievement of teacher learning in cognitive, affective and psychomotor in conducting professional development. This study was categorized as a descriptive study. The respondents of this study were teachers and students in the Department of Electrical Engineering at a Vocational Secondary School in Bangka Belitung. Methods of data collection used questionnaires. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results of this study consisted of: (1 teachers’ opinion, most teachers had worked very well in learning of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor, (2 students’ opinion, several teachers had succeeded in cognitive learning, and managed very well on affective and psychomotor learning.

  7. The relationship of work avoidance and learning goals to perceived competence, externality and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, T L; O'Keefe, B A

    2001-03-01

    Motivational researchers have suggested that work avoidance may be an academic goal in which students seek to minimise the amount of work they do in school. Additionally, research has also suggested that emotions may be catalysts for goals. This study examined the relationship between emotions and learning or work avoidance goals. Do emotions explain goals? The participants were 512 senior high school students in Eastern Canada. Students completed a survey assessing motivation related constructs. A structural equation model was postulated in which students' affect predicted learning goals and work avoidant goals. A cluster analysis of affect scores was performed followed by between-group and within-group contrasts of goal scores. The structural equation model suggested that a sense of competence and control were predictive of a learning goal while lack of meaning was related to work avoidance. The cluster analysis showed that confidence and control were associated with a learning goal but that a sense of inadequacy, lack of control or lack of meaning could give rise to work avoidance. Emotions seem to be directly linked to goals. Teachers who foster feelings of self-assuredness will be helping students develop learning goals. Students who feel less competent, bored or have little control will adopt work avoidant goals.

  8. Statistical learning and selective inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J

    2015-06-23

    We describe the problem of "selective inference." This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have "cherry-picked"--searched for the strongest associations--means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis.

  9. Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers’ current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases

  10. Chinese Students' Goal Orientation in English Learning: A Study Based on Autonomous Inquiry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Goal orientation is a kind of theory of learning motivation, which helps learners to develop their capability by emphasis on new techniques acquiring and environment adapting. In this study, based on the autonomous inquiry model, the construction of Chinese students' goal orientations in English learning are summarized according to the data…

  11. The Effects of Goal-Oriented Instructions in Digital Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhel, Séverine; Jamet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of the instructions provided in educational computer games on cognitive processing and learning outcomes. In our experiment, we sought to compare the effects on learning outcomes of two different types of goal-oriented instructions: "mastery-goal" instructions, which prompt learners to develop…

  12. A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

  13. Goal Orientation, Deep Learning, and Sustainable Feedback in Higher Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitz, Gerry; Brinke, Desirée Joosten-ten; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Relations between and changeability of goal orientation and learning behavior have been studied in several domains and contexts. To alter the adopted goal orientation into a mastery orientation and increase a concomitant deep learning in international business students, a sustainable feedback intervention study was carried out. Sustainable…

  14. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  15. Does Extrinsic Goal Framing Enhance Extrinsic Goal-Oriented Individuals' Learning and Performance? An Experimental Test of the Match Perspective versus Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Timmermans, Tinneke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Previous work within self-determination theory has shown that experimentally framing a learning activity in terms of extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals results in poorer conceptual learning and performance, presumably because extrinsic goal framing detracts attention from the learning activity and is less directly satisfying of basic…

  16. Achievement Goals, Study Strategies, and Achievement: A Test of the "Learning Agenda" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hama, Hidetoshi; Belmonte, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Two classroom studies tested whether mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals nudge students to pursue different learning agendas. Each showed that mastery-approach goals promote an interest-based studying approach in which students allocate study time disproportionately to personally interesting material over duller material. Study 2…

  17. The correlation between achievement goals, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Hur, Yera; Park, Joo Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pursuit of achievement goals in medical students and to assess the relationship between achievement goals, learning strategy, and motivation. Two hundred seventy freshman and sophomore premedical students and sophomore medical school students participated in this study, which used the Achievement Goals Scale and the Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Questionnaire. The achievement goals of medical students were oriented toward moderate performance approach levels, slightly high performance avoidance levels, and high mastery goals. About 40% of the students were high or low in all three achievement goals. The most successful adaptive learners in the areas of learning strategies, motivation, and school achievement were students from group 6, who scored high in both performance approach and mastery goals but low in performance avoidance goals. And goal achievement are related to the academic self-efficacy, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students. In the context of academic achievement, mastery goals and performance approach goals are adaptive goals.

  18. Goal selection versus process control in a brain-computer interface based on sensorimotor rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Audrey S; He, Bin

    2009-02-01

    In a brain-computer interface (BCI) utilizing a process control strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to control the fine motor details normally handled by other parts of the brain. In a BCI utilizing a goal selection strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to determine the overall end goal of the user, and the BCI controls the fine motor details. A BCI based on goal selection may be an easier and more natural system than one based on process control. Although goal selection in theory may surpass process control, the two have never been directly compared, as we are reporting here. Eight young healthy human subjects participated in the present study, three trained and five naïve in BCI usage. Scalp-recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) were used to control a computer cursor during five different paradigms. The paradigms were similar in their underlying signal processing and used the same control signal. However, three were based on goal selection, and two on process control. For both the trained and naïve populations, goal selection had more hits per run, was faster, more accurate (for seven out of eight subjects) and had a higher information transfer rate than process control. Goal selection outperformed process control in every measure studied in the present investigation.

  19. A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-12-01

    Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.

  20. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jae-Yoon Chung

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration.

  1. Motivational Selectivity Prospectively Predicts Couples' Realization of Their Goal to Have a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauers, Antje; Böhnke, Anja; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Developmental theories have emphasized that motivational selectivity--focusing on a few goals instead of "wanting it all"--regulates development in individuals, dyads, or groups. We provide first evidence that this motivational strategy predicts an objective, goal-related developmental outcome years later. We followed up on initially…

  2. Achieving Service-Learning Goals in a Financial Accounting Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Darwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A financial accounting class in a Philippine university has a service-learning group project that involves setting up a simple accounting system for microenterprises. Aims: This paper examines the extent to which service-learning goals such as course learning, teamwork, civic responsibility, and impact on the client organization are…

  3. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes

  4. Mixed signals: The effect of conflicting reward- and goal-driven biases on selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Preciado, Daniel; Munneke, Jaap; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Attentional selection depends on the interaction between exogenous (stimulus-driven), endogenous (goal-driven), and selection history (experience-driven) factors. While endogenous and exogenous biases have been widely investigated, less is known about their interplay with value-driven attention. The present study investigated the interaction between reward-history and goal-driven biases on perceptual sensitivity (d?) and response time (RT) in a modified cueing paradigm presenting two coloured...

  5. Choosing Technology Tools to Meet Pronunciation Teaching and Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Marla Tritch

    2018-01-01

    For decades, researchers and teachers have suggested ways to apply technology in teaching and learning pronunciation, and there are many useful tools that can be used for this purpose. However, many teachers feel unsure about how to teach pronunciation at all, and the idea of using computers, mobile devices, or other technology may make…

  6. Learning about goals : development of action perception and action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    By using innovative paradigms, the present thesis provides convincing evidence that action-effect learning, and sensorimotor processes in general play a crucial role in the development of action- perception and production in infancy. This finding was further generalized to sequential action.

  7. Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  8. A Holistic Quality Evaluation, Selection and Improvement Approach driven by Multilevel Goals and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Rivera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizations should establish business goals and check for their achievement in a systematic and disciplined way. In order to know if a business goal is achieved, it should be necessary to consider information need goals that also can require satisfying measurement and evaluation goals at operational level. Furthermore, if measurement and evaluation goals are not aligned with top-level business goals such as tactical or strategic level goals, the organization could waste its effort and resources. Usually, the different goals established in an organization are operationalized through projects. For a given project, strategies should be used in order to help in the goal achievement. A strategy defines a set of activities and methods to be followed for a specific goal purpose. Ultimately, to engineering all these issues in a systematic way, organizations should adopt a holistic evaluation approach supported by a set of integrated strategies. By means of a systematic literature review as research method, we have observed that very few approaches support integrated strategies and multilevel goals. To bridge this gap, we have developed a holistic quality multilevel and multipurpose evaluation approach that ties together multilevel goals, projects and integrated strategies. As contributions, this paper discusses an enhanced conceptual base (specified by ontologies for linking business and information need goal concepts with project, strategy and nonfunctional requirements concepts. Then, it defines the step by step of our holistic quality evaluation approach, by listing the necessary activities to establish goals and projects at different organizational levels. Lastly, it specifies and illustrates evaluation scenarios for business/information need goal purposes such as understanding, improving, monitoring and controlling, comparing and selecting entities, which are supported by strategies and strategy patterns.

  9. Self-Regulation and Problem Solving Ability in 7E-Learning Cycle Based Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Noor, N. L.

    2017-04-01

    Goal orientation differences between mastery goals and performance goals can be a cause of high and low self-regulation and problem-solving abilities. To overcome these problems applied 7E-learning cycle in which students learn and develop ways to optimise the power of reason through the learning phase elicit, engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate, and extend. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of learning by 7E-learning cycle and describe self-regulation and mathematics problem solving based on goal-orientation after the implementation 7E-learning cycle. This study used mix method design with research subject is graders XII sciences MA NU Nurul Ulum Jekulo Kudus which divided into goal orientation is mastery goal and performance goal. The independent variable of this research is learning model, while the dependent variable is problem solving and self-regulation. Then, collecting data using scale, interviews and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, paired samples t-test, and Normality-gain. The results show problem-solving abilities of students through 7E-learning cycle the average of mathematical problem-solving capability class, self-regulation at 7E-learning cycle is better than the traditional model study. The problem-solving skills at 7E-learning cycle are better than the traditional model study, there is an increase in self-regulation through 7E-learning cycle of 0.4 (medium), and there is an increased problem-solving ability through 7E-learning cycle by 0.79 (high). Based on the qualitative analysis, self-regulation and problem-solving ability after the implementation of 7E-learning cycle students of a mastery goal group are better than the performance goal team. It is suggested to implement 7E-learning cycle to improve self-regulation and problem-solving ability as well as directing and fostering mastery goal on the student in the learning process.

  10. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  11. Distinguishing the desire to learn from the desire to perform: The social value of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna; Darnon, Céline; Mollaret, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We sought to distinguish mastery goals (i.e., desire to learn) from performance goals (i.e., desire to achieve more positive evaluations than others) in the light of social judgment research. In a pilot study, we made a conceptual distinction between three types of traits (agency, competence, and effort) that are often undifferentiated. We then tested the relevance of this distinction for understanding how people pursuing either mastery or performance goals are judged. On self-perception, results revealed that effort was predicted by the adoption of mastery goals and agency by performance goals (Study 1). On judgments, results showed that (a) the target pursuing mastery goals was perceived as oriented toward effort, and (b) the target pursuing performance goals was oriented toward agency (Study 2). Finally, these links were shown again by participants who inferred a target's goals from his traits (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of the social value of achievement goals at school.

  12. Mean-Variance stochastic goal programming for sustainable mutual funds' portfolio selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bernabeu, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mean-Variance Stochastic Goal Programming models (MV-SGP provide satisficing investment solutions in uncertain contexts. In this work, an MV-SGP model is proposed for portfolio selection which includes goals with regards to traditional and sustainable assets. The proposed approach is based on a two-step procedure. In the first step, sustainability and/or financial screens are applied to a set of assets (mutual funds previously evaluated with TOPSIS to determine the opportunity set. In a second step, satisficing portfolios of assets are obtained using a Goal Programming approach. Two different goals are considered. The first goal reflects only the purely financial side of the target while the second goal is referred to the sustainable side. Aversion to Risk Absolute (ARA coefficients are estimated and incorporated in our investment decision making approach using two different approaches.

  13. The development of learning material using learning goal orientation approach in digital electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitaningayu, P.; Anifah, L.; Kholis, N.

    2018-01-01

    Mastery of digital electronics principles is essential for future engineers in the digital era. This article describes the use of simulations in an undergraduate electrical engineering course to promote the adoption of a learning-goal orientation. This study used experimental method. This was done by providing students with a simulation environment which students freely use to experiment with various circuit models. Students were then invited to reflect on how the simulation results compare with results from lab experiments. The module got 82% of positive rating from 28 students and all of them passed in the examination with 81.8 as the average score. Those majority students were motivated by the combination of two learning goals written in the module. Moreover, they also gain the ability to design more complex systems because of their combined experience. Additionally, the module also has been validated and got 83% of reliability. The final product of this research hereafter can be recommended to be used as teaching material.

  14. The impact of Game-based learning on the achievement of learning goals and motivation for learning mathematics - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SH X-NONE X-NONE Information technologies are an integral part of a contemporary society which bases its progress on knowledge being one goal of education. Beside acquiring knowledge, skills and routines, the goal of education is to create a complete individual who can rationally and timely make decisions, purposefully react in new situations and be trained for life-long learning. In order to accomplish all this, it is necessary to make educational process more creative, contemporary and adjusted to new generations of computer literate pupils who demand quicker and more frequent interactions, a lot of information at the same time, generations who quickly acquire rules of computer games. Computer games meeting pedagogical criteria should become an integral part of learning. Teaching with mathematical computer games, which fulfil pedagogical criteria, influences pupils’ motivation, learning, retention and forgetting. This paper provides a review of literature in this field and determines whether the use of mathematical computer games contributes to more efficient realisation of educational goals at all level of education. Furthermore, considering prior research we have attempted to establish whether the use of mathematical games for teaching has an impact on the formation of a positive attitude of pupils of different ages toward the subject of mathematics, their motivation and knowledge acquisition when compared to learning without computer games. Finally, we have analysed different research methods concerning this issue and assessed the impact of pedagogically designed mathematical computer games on the realisation of educational goals and quality improvement of teaching and learning.

  15. Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information, 10(2), 4-24.

  16. Dissociable contributions of the human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex to incentive motivation and goal selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, F Sergio; Parkinson, John A; Hinton, Elanor; Holland, Anthony J; Owen, Adrian M; Roberts, Angela C

    2003-10-22

    Theories of incentive motivation attempt to capture the way in which objects and events in the world can acquire high motivational value and drive behavior, even in the absence of a clear biological need. In addition, for an individual to select the most appropriate goal, the incentive values of competing desirable objects need to be defined and compared. The present study examined the neural substrates by which appetitive incentive value influences prospective goal selection, using positron emission tomographic neuroimaging in humans. Sated subjects were shown a series of restaurant menus that varied in incentive value, specifically tailored for each individual, and in half the trials, were asked to make a selection from the menu. The amygdala was activated by high-incentive menus regardless of whether a choice was required. Indeed, activity in this region varied as a function of individual subjective ratings of incentive value. In contrast, distinct regions of the orbitofrontal cortex were recruited both during incentive judgments and goal selection. Activity in the medial orbital cortex showed a greater response to high-incentive menus and when making a choice, with the latter activity also correlating with subjective ratings of difficulty. Lateral orbitofrontal activity was observed selectively when participants had to suppress responses to alternative desirable items to select their most preferred. Taken together, these data highlight the differential contribution of the amygdala and regions within the orbitofrontal cortex in a neural system underlying the selection of goals based on the prospective incentive value of stimuli, over and above homeostatic influences.

  17. Relationship between motivational goal orientations, perceptions of general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chanut Poondej; Thanita Lerdpornkulrat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have reported empirical evidence that the deep approaches to learning account for significant successful learning. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between students' motivational goal orientation, their perceptions of the general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning strategies. Participants (N = 494) were first- and second-year college students enrolled in any of the general education courses in higher education in Thaila...

  18. Using Achievement Goals and Interest to Predict Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Chen, Ang; Guan, Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of an integrated theoretical approach to achievement motivation, the authors designed this study to investigate the potential influence of mastery goal, performance-approach and avoidance-approach goals, individual interest, and situational interest on students' learning in a physical education softball unit. The authors collected and…

  19. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  20. An Examination of Achievement Goals in Learning: A Quasi-Quantitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The achievement goals framework has been researched and used to explain and account for individuals' learning and academic achievements. Over the past three decades, progress has been made in the conceptualizations and research development of different possible theoretical models of achievement goals. Notably, in this study, we…

  1. Student goal orientation in learning inquiry skills with modifiable software advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Todd Adrian

    A computer support environment (SCI-WISE) for learning and doing inquiry was designed. The system incorporates software advisors that give task completion advice (eg., forming hypotheses), general purpose advice (e.g., brainstorming), or system modification advice. Advisors' knowledge includes concepts, strategies, examples, referrals to other advisors, and criteria for evaluating good products and skills. Students using SCI-WISE can select the advisors' advice type (specific, general, or hints), and when advisors give advice (anytime, alert, or ask). Students can also modify the advisors' knowledge. The system is designed partly on a theoretical framework that assumes giving students higher levels of agency will facilitate higher-level goal orientation (such as knowledge-building) and produce higher levels of competence. In two studies of sixth graders, science students took a pretest of an open-ended inquiry question and a questionnaire that measured their goal orientations. The students worked in pairs on an inquiry project about memory, using one of two versions of SCI-WISE, one modifiable and one not modifiable. After finishing the project, the students took a posttest similar to the pretest, and evaluated the system. The main hypotheses predicted that knowledge-oriented students using the modifiable version would rate the system higher, use it more effectively, and do better on the inquiry posttest than task-oriented students. The results supported many of the hypotheses generated from the theoretical framework. Knowledge-oriented students tended to rate SCI-WISE higher, use more general purpose and system development advisors, and select more general advice and hints than task-oriented students. On the posttest inquiry test, students with higher goal orientations scored higher on average, particularly when paired with another knowledge oriented student. The studies also showed that goal orientation was not correlated with grade point average. Finally, the

  2. Traditional versus Contemporary Goals and Methods in Accounting Education: Bridging the Gap with Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Tim M.

    1995-01-01

    In groups, 49 accounting students completed a 5-week analysis of audit reporting issues using cooperative learning. Positive student reactions and achievement suggested that contemporary active learning approaches are compatible with the traditional accounting goal of preparing for the Certified Public Accountants examination. (SK)

  3. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  4. Parental Autonomy Support and Student Learning Goals: A Preliminary Examination of an Intrinsic Motivation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark

    2011-01-01

    In a seven week quasi-experimental study, parents (n = 15) of elementary school students (n = 15) learned autonomy supportive communication techniques that included helping their children set learning goals for homework assignments. Treatment vs. comparison group (n = 30) ANCOVA analyses revealed that the parents in the treatment group perceived…

  5. Career Goal-Based E-Learning Recommendation Using Enhanced Collaborative Filtering and PrefixSpan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueying; Ye, Lu

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how e-learning recommender systems nowadays have applied different kinds of techniques to recommend personalized learning content for users based on their preference, goals, interests and background information. However, the cold-start problem which exists in traditional recommendation algorithms are still left over in…

  6. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  7. Patient-selected goals: the fourth dimension in assessment of pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; FitzGerald, Mary P; Kenton, Kimberly; Dooley, Yashika; Templehof, Mike; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between self-expressed urogynecologic goals, symptoms, and treatment choice. Charts of women presenting for urogynecology consultation were reviewed. Demographics, diagnoses and responses to the pelvic floor distress inventory and medical, social, and epidemiologic aspects of aging questionnaires were recorded. Patients listed urogynecology goals before consultation. We categorized goals into five categories and then compared these categories by symptom type, severity, and treatment. Three hundred five women reported 635 goals (median 2, range 1-6). The number of goals listed per patient did not differ by age, race, comorbidities, or clinical diagnosis (p > 0.05). The most frequent goal category was symptoms (67%), followed by information seeking (12%), lifestyle (11%), emotional (4%), and "other" (6%). Women selecting non-surgical treatment were more likely to list information seeking as primary goal than those who chose surgery (p = 0.009). One third of participants expressed a primary non-symptom goal and were more likely to seek non-surgical therapy.

  8. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  9. The issues of goal setting, interest, and reward in self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Makiko; 岡崎, 万紀子

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the theory developed in the field of educational psychology. SRL is based on the idea that behaviours are regulated by the self-concept. This self-concept is the basis of the social cognitive theory which does not depend on students' innate motivation (intrinsic motivation) at the initial stage of learning. This study examines three motivation-related factors in the concept of SRL: goals, interest, and rewards followed by the suggestion of a students' learning...

  10. Spatially dynamic recurrent information flow across long-range dorsal motor network encodes selective motor goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Peter E; Hagan, Maureen A; John, Sam E; Opie, Nicholas L; Ordidge, Roger J; O'Brien, Terence J; Oxley, Thomas J; Moffat, Bradford A; Wong, Yan T

    2018-03-08

    Performing voluntary movements involves many regions of the brain, but it is unknown how they work together to plan and execute specific movements. We recorded high-resolution ultra-high-field blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal during a cued ankle-dorsiflexion task. The spatiotemporal dynamics and the patterns of task-relevant information flow across the dorsal motor network were investigated. We show that task-relevant information appears and decays earlier in the higher order areas of the dorsal motor network then in the primary motor cortex. Furthermore, the results show that task-relevant information is encoded in general initially, and then selective goals are subsequently encoded in specifics subregions across the network. Importantly, the patterns of recurrent information flow across the network vary across different subregions depending on the goal. Recurrent information flow was observed across all higher order areas of the dorsal motor network in the subregions encoding for the current goal. In contrast, only the top-down information flow from the supplementary motor cortex to the frontoparietal regions, with weakened recurrent information flow between the frontoparietal regions and bottom-up information flow from the frontoparietal regions to the supplementary cortex were observed in the subregions encoding for the opposing goal. We conclude that selective motor goal encoding and execution rely on goal-dependent differences in subregional recurrent information flow patterns across the long-range dorsal motor network areas that exhibit graded functional specialization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits and peer dynamics: selection and influence processes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart; Giletta, Matteo; Kuppens, Peter; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Self-Determination Theory discerns goals and values in terms of whether they are intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. Although research substantiates the importance of goal preferences for a host of outcomes, few studies examined how such preferences develop, and studies that did pay attention to this focused on parental influence processes. The present study focuses on the role of peers. Social network analyses on longitudinal data gathered among senior high-school students (N = 695) confirm that peer similarity in goal pursuit exists, and that, although this similarity partly originates from adolescents selecting friends on the basis of perceived goal pursuit similarity, it also results from peers actively influencing each other. Hence, friends tend to become more alike in terms of goal pursuit over time. Data also suggest that, although changes in goal pursuit at this age can be predicted from peer dynamics, they cannot be attributed to parental goal promotion efforts. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning for Climate Change Adaptation among Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning for Climate Change Adaptation among Selected Communities of Lusaka ... This research was aimed at surveying perceptions of climate change and ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  13. Modulation of spatial attention by goals, statistical learning, and monetary reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sha, Li Z; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    This study documented the relative strength of task goals, visual statistical learning, and monetary reward in guiding spatial attention. Using a difficult T-among-L search task, we cued spatial attention to one visual quadrant by (i) instructing people to prioritize it (goal-driven attention), (ii) placing the target frequently there (location probability learning), or (iii) associating that quadrant with greater monetary gain (reward-based attention). Results showed that successful goal-driven attention exerted the strongest influence on search RT. Incidental location probability learning yielded a smaller though still robust effect. Incidental reward learning produced negligible guidance for spatial attention. The 95 % confidence intervals of the three effects were largely nonoverlapping. To understand these results, we simulated the role of location repetition priming in probability cuing and reward learning. Repetition priming underestimated the strength of location probability cuing, suggesting that probability cuing involved long-term statistical learning of how to shift attention. Repetition priming provided a reasonable account for the negligible effect of reward on spatial attention. We propose a multiple-systems view of spatial attention that includes task goals, search habit, and priming as primary drivers of top-down attention.

  14. Instance Selection for Classifier Performance Estimation in Meta Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Blachnik

    2017-01-01

    Building an accurate prediction model is challenging and requires appropriate model selection. This process is very time consuming but can be accelerated with meta-learning–automatic model recommendation by estimating the performances of given prediction models without training them. Meta-learning utilizes metadata extracted from the dataset to effectively estimate the accuracy of the model in question. To achieve that goal, metadata descriptors must be gathered efficiently and must be inform...

  15. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  16. Goal-selection and movement-related conflict during bimanual reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Grafton, Scott; Albert, Neil; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-12-01

    Conflict during bimanual movements can arise during the selection of movement goals or during movement planning and execution. We demonstrate a behavioral and neural dissociation of these 2 types of conflict. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants performed bimanual reaching movements with symmetric (congruent) or orthogonal (incongruent) trajectories. The required movements were indicated either spatially, by illuminating the targets, or symbolically, using centrally presented letters. The processing of symbolic cues led to increased activation in a left hemisphere network including the intraparietal sulcus, premotor cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction time cost for incongruent movements was substantially larger for symbolic than for spatial cues, indicating that the cost was primarily associated with the selection and assignment of movement goals, demands that are minimized when goals are directly specified by spatial cues. This goal-selection conflict increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area and cingulate motor areas. Both cueing conditions led to larger activation for incongruent movements in the convexity of the superior parietal cortex, bilaterally, making this region a likely neural site for conflict that arises during the planning and execution of bimanual movements. These results suggest distinct neural loci for 2 forms of constraint on our ability to perform bimanual reaching movements.

  17. Mirroring "meaningful" actions: sensorimotor learning modulates imitation of goal-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-06-19

    Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions. One reason for the lack of research on goal-directed actions is that imitation of such actions is commonly confounded with the tendency to respond in a spatially compatible manner. However, since the most prominent account of mirror neuron function, and hence of imitation, suggests that these cells encode goal-directed actions, it is important to establish whether sensorimotor learning can also modulate imitation of goal-directed actions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that imitation of goal-directed grasping can be measured while controlling for spatial compatibility, and Experiment 2 showed that this imitation effect can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Together these data support the hypothesis that the capacity for behavioural imitation, and the properties of the mirror neuron system, are constructed in the course of development through associative learning.

  18. Teachers' Influence on Goal Orientation: Exploring the Relationship between Eighth Graders' Goal Orientation, Their Emotional Development, Their Perceptions of Learning, and Their Teachers' Instructional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William Dee; Jones, Jeanneine P.; Hancock, Dawson R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how students' perceived learning relates to emotions, motivation, and goal orientation. Finds that students significantly reported more negative emotions than positive emotions, thus indicating that the emotions of the learner were more negative, the motivation was more extrinsic and the goal orientation of the learners could be…

  19. The Concept of L2 User and the goals of Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Juanggo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally considered that knowing one language is not enough in this era. People need to learn a second language in addition to their mother tongue to meet the demand of today’s life as many of them are becoming a part of multilingual society as well as to face the globalisation. This paper aims to demonstrate the reasons of people learning a second by looking at the several goals they want to achieve in current situation and link it to the second language learning in education context. Subsequently, it also provides some criticism against the majority of English language teachings that set native speaker’s competence as the ultimate goal and highlights the concept of L2 user as a new paradigm and its implication to second language learning.

  20. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  1. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  2. Volunteer Service and Service Learning: Opportunities, Partnerships, and United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Amerson, Roxanne; Foster, Jennifer; McWhinney-Dehaney, Leila; Magowe, Mabel; Nicholas, Patrice K; Pehrson, Karen; Leffers, Jeanne

    2016-09-01

    This article explores approaches to service involvement and provides direction to nurse leaders and others who wish to begin or further develop global (local and international) service or service learning projects. We review types of service involvement, analyze service-related data from a recent survey of nearly 500 chapters of the Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), make recommendations to guide collaborative partnerships and to model engagement in global and local service and service learning. This article offers a literature review and describes results of a survey conducted by the STTI International Service Learning Task Force. Results describe the types of service currently conducted by STTI nursing members and chapters, including disaster response, service learning, and service-related responses relative to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The needs of chapter members for information about international service are explored and recommendations for promoting global service and sustainability goals for STTI chapters are examined. Before engaging in service, volunteers should consider the types of service engagement, as well as the design of projects to include collaboration, bidirectionality, sustainability, equitable partnerships, and inclusion of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. STTI supports the learning, knowledge, and professional development of nurses worldwide. International service and collaboration are key to the advancement of the nursing profession. Culturally relevant approaches to international service and service learning are essential to our global organization, as it aims to impact the health status of people globally. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  4. Project evaluation and selection using fuzzy Delphi method and zero - one goal programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Suriana; Adna, Nofarziah; Arsad, Roslah; Soid, Siti Khuzaimah; Ali, Zaileha Md

    2014-12-01

    Project evaluation and selection is a factor affecting the impotence of board director in which is trying to maximize all the possible goals. Assessment of the problem occurred in organization plan is the first phase for decision making process. The company needs a group of expert to evaluate the problems. The Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is a systematic procedure to evoke the group's opinion in order to get the best result to evaluate the project performance. This paper proposes an evaluation and selection of the best alternative project based on combination of FDM and Zero - One Goal Programming (ZOGP) formulation. ZOGP is used to solve the multi-criteria decision making for final decision part by using optimization software LINDO 6.1. An empirical example on an ongoing decision making project in Johor, Malaysia is implemented for case study.

  5. The Concept of L2 User and the goals of Second Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Juanggo, Willy

    2017-01-01

    It is generally considered that knowing one language is not enough in this era. People need to learn a second language in addition to their mother tongue to meet the demand of today’s life as many of them are becoming a part of multilingual society as well as to face the globalisation. This paper aims to demonstrate the reasons of people learning a second by looking at the several goals they want to achieve in current situation and link it to the second language learning in education context....

  6. Bioinspired Architecture Selection for Multitask Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Bueno-Crespo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a new concept to learn, our brain does not work in isolation. It uses all previously learned knowledge. In addition, the brain is able to isolate the knowledge that does not benefit us, and to use what is actually useful. In machine learning, we do not usually benefit from the knowledge of other learned tasks. However, there is a methodology called Multitask Learning (MTL, which is based on the idea that learning a task along with other related tasks produces a transfer of information between them, what can be advantageous for learning the first one. This paper presents a new method to completely design MTL architectures, by including the selection of the most helpful subtasks for the learning of the main task, and the optimal network connections. In this sense, the proposed method realizes a complete design of the MTL schemes. The method is simple and uses the advantages of the Extreme Learning Machine to automatically design a MTL machine, eliminating those factors that hinder, or do not benefit, the learning process of the main task. This architecture is unique and it is obtained without testing/error methodologies that increase the computational complexity. The results obtained over several real problems show the good performances of the designed networks with this method.

  7. Do Psychology Department Mission Statements Reflect the American Psychological Association Undergraduate Learning Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Judith R.; Ruiz, Ana I.; You, Di

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the inclusion of the American Psychological Association's learning goals in the mission statements of undergraduate psychology programs across the US. We reviewed the mission statements available on websites for 1336 psychology programs listed in the Carnegie classification. Results of a content analysis revealed that of the…

  8. Students' goal preferences, ethnocultural background and the quality of cooperative learning in secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijzen, Daphne Minette

    2006-01-01

    The thesis presents an exploration of the relationships between students’ motivation, represented by students’ personal goals, and the quality of cooperative learning (CL) processes of first and second year students, enrolled in secondary vocational schools. Special attention has been paid to

  9. Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Patricia

    Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS) was a federally-funded project in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools in its fourth year of operation in 1992-93. It served 312 limited-English-proficient and 57 English-proficient students through instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA) in…

  10. Four Weeks of Goal-Directed Learning in Primary Physical Education Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platvoet, Sebastiaan W. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Kannekens, Rianne; de Niet, Mark; Visscher, Chris

    Relatively little is known about how practice relates to children's improvement in gross motor skill performance. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent 6- and 7-year-old children improve their gross motor skill performance in a four-week period, in which goal-directed learning is

  11. Resolving a Conflict between APA Learning Goals and APA Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corty, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Although American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Standards make it clear that instructors cannot require students to disclose personal information in class-related activities, an APA learning goal for undergraduate psychology students is that they reflect on their experiences to develop insight into their behavior and mental processes.…

  12. Workplace Learning within Teacher Education: The Role of Job Characteristics and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Donche, Vincent; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Within teacher education, it is widely recognised that internships play a major role in preparing prospective teachers. The current research examines if the learning activities students' undertake in the workplace can be explained by students' goal orientation and their perceptions of the workplace. In addition, it will be investigated…

  13. Work Engagement: Antecedents, the Mediating Role of Learning Goal Orientation and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Buckley, Finian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to explore the effects of state (trust in supervisor) and trait (trust propensity) trust on employees' work engagement. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and two forms of performance: in-role job performance and innovative…

  14. Second language learning and acculturation: The role of motivation and goal content congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rubenfeld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explored how having differing goals and motives for learning a second language influences adaptation in the foreign culture. Specifically, we compared English as a second language (ESL students in two programs, which differed in their long-term goal orientations. Some students were taking ESL courses in order to attend university in their second language, whereas other ESL students took courses that were not followed by an immediate reward. Students in both programs completed measures of acculturation as well as measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for learning English. We found that adaptation to the foreign culture, in the form of acculturation, is best facilitated by congruence between students’ motives and goals. The findings are discussed in terms of their methodological and pedagogical implications

  15. Goals and hurdles for a successful implementation of genomic selection in breeding programme for selected annual and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk Jan

    Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed. Efforts to find solutions for a better prediction and integration of environmental influences need to continue within applied breeding schemes. Goals of the implementation of genomic selection into crop breeding should be carefully defined and crop breeders in the private sector will play a substantial part in the decision-making process. However, the lack of published results from studies within, or in collaboration with, private companies diminishes the knowledge on the status of genomic selection within applied breeding programmes. Studies on the implementation of genomic selection in plant breeding need to evaluate models and methods with an enhanced emphasis on population-specific requirements and production environments. Adaptation of methods to breeding schemes or changes to breeding programmes for a better integration of genomic selection strategies are needed across species. More openness with a continuous exchange will contribute to successes.

  16. Learning Goals and Strategies in the Self-regulation of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta Gonzalez, Martha Leticia

    2013-01-01

    In order to self-regulate their learning, students need to use different strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning activities (meta-cognitive strategies), as well as to control their motivation and emotion (volitional strategies). Students' effectiveness in their self-regulated learning process also varies depending on the academic…

  17. What do I need to learn? An exercise to prioritize learning goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauttier, Stéphanie; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise for learners to identify what they should learn in order to meet their learning skills. Lifelong learners often undertake non-formal learning activities, when they try to gain knowledge outside of formal, structured, programs. They need to be self-directed and have

  18. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: Difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eScheiter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and

  19. Age Differences in Selective Memory of Goal-Relevant Stimuli Under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kelly A; Clewett, David; Huang, Ringo; Mather, Mara

    2018-02-01

    When faced with threat, people often selectively focus on and remember the most pertinent information while simultaneously ignoring any irrelevant information. Filtering distractors under arousal requires inhibitory mechanisms, which take time to recruit and often decline in older age. Despite the adaptive nature of this ability, relatively little research has examined how both threat and time spent preparing these inhibitory mechanisms affect selective memory for goal-relevant information across the life span. In this study, 32 younger and 31 older adults were asked to encode task-relevant scenes, while ignoring transparent task-irrelevant objects superimposed onto them. Threat levels were increased on some trials by threatening participants with monetary deductions if they later forgot scenes that followed threat cues. We also varied the time between threat induction and a to-be-encoded scene (i.e., 2 s, 4 s, 6 s) to determine whether both threat and timing effects on memory selectivity differ by age. We found that age differences in memory selectivity only emerged after participants spent a long time (i.e., 6 s) preparing for selective encoding. Critically, this time-dependent age difference occurred under threatening, but not neutral, conditions. Under threat, longer preparation time led to enhanced memory for task-relevant scenes and greater memory suppression of task-irrelevant objects in younger adults. In contrast, increased preparation time after threat induction had no effect on older adults' scene memory and actually worsened memory suppression of task-irrelevant objects. These findings suggest that increased time to prepare top-down encoding processes benefits younger, but not older, adults' selective memory for goal-relevant information under threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  1. To master or perform? Exploring relations between achievement goals and conceptual change learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M

    2013-09-01

    Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Seventy-three undergraduate students were assessed on their prior knowledge and misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics, and then reported their achievement goals and participated in think-aloud protocols while reading Newtonian physics texts. A mastery-approach goal orientation positively predicted deep processing strategies, shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change. In contrast, a performance-approach goal orientation did not predict either of the processing strategies, but negatively predicted conceptual change. A performance-avoidance goal orientation negatively predicted deep processing strategies and conceptual change. Moreover, deep and shallow processing strategies positively predicted conceptual change as well as recall. Finally, both deep and shallow processing strategies mediated relations between mastery-approach goals and conceptual change. Results provide some support for Dole and Sinatra's (1998) Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model of conceptual change but also challenge specific facets with regard to the role of depth of processing in conceptual change. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Majoring in Selection, and Minoring in Socialization: The Role of the College Experience in Goal Change Post-High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Jackson, Joshua J; Nagy, Nicole; Nagy, Gabriel; Roberts, Brent W; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Though it is frequently assumed that the college experience can influence our life goals, this claim has been relatively understudied. The current study examined the role of goals in college major selection, as well as whether major selection influences later goal change. In addition, we examined whether a person's perceptions of his or her peers' goals influence goal setting. Using a sample of German students (Mage  = 19 years; n = 3,023 at Wave 1), we assessed life goal levels and changes from high school into college across three assessment occasions. Participants reported their current aspirations, along with the perceived goals of their peers during the college assessments. Using latent growth curve models, findings suggest that life goals upon entering college significantly predict the majors students select. However, this major selection had limited influence on later changes in life goals. Stronger effects were found with respect to perceptions of peers' goals, with students tending to change their goals to better align with their peers. The current study provides evidence that life goals are relatively stable and yet can change during the emerging adult years, in ways that demonstrate the potential influence of the college experience. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mixed signals: The effect of conflicting reward- and goal-driven biases on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Daniel; Munneke, Jaap; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Attentional selection depends on the interaction between exogenous (stimulus-driven), endogenous (goal-driven), and selection history (experience-driven) factors. While endogenous and exogenous biases have been widely investigated, less is known about their interplay with value-driven attention. The present study investigated the interaction between reward-history and goal-driven biases on perceptual sensitivity (d') and response time (RT) in a modified cueing paradigm presenting two coloured cues, followed by sinusoidal gratings. Participants responded to the orientation of one of these gratings. In Experiment 1, one cue signalled reward availability but was otherwise task irrelevant. In Experiment 2, the same cue signalled reward, and indicated the target's most likely location at the opposite side of the display. This design introduced a conflict between reward-driven biases attracting attention and goal-driven biases directing it away. Attentional effects were examined comparing trials in which cue and target appeared at the same versus opposite locations. Two interstimulus interval (ISI) levels were used to probe the time course of attentional effects. Experiment 1 showed performance benefits at the location of the reward-signalling cue and costs at the opposite for both ISIs, indicating value-driven capture. Experiment 2 showed performance benefits only for the long ISI when the target was at the opposite to the reward-associated cue. At the short ISI, only performance costs were observed. These results reveal the time course of these biases, indicating that reward-driven effects influence attention early but can be overcome later by goal-driven control. This suggests that reward-driven biases are integrated as attentional priorities, just as exogenous and endogenous factors.

  4. Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.

  5. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach.

  6. Learning context conditions for BDI plan selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, D.; Sardina, S.; Padgham, L.; Airiau, S.; van der Hoek, W.; Kaminka, G.A.; Lespérance, Y.; Luck, M.; Sen, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important drawback to the popular Belief, Desire, and Intentions (BDI) paradigm is that such systems include no element of learning from experience. In particular, the so-called context conditions of plans, on which the whole model relies for plan selection, are restricted to be boolean formulas

  7. Why and when do learning goal orientation and attitude decrease with aging? : The role of perceived remaining time and work centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Zacher, H.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted two studies to improve our understanding of why and when older workers are focused on learning. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, which proposes that goal focus changes with age and the perception of time, we hypothesized and found that older workers perceive their remaining

  8. Into the Weeds: A Critical Analysis of Game Mechanics and Learning Goals in Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    In the broadest scope, the purpose of this research is to expose the range and complexity of how educational games support learning. In a more narrowed scope, the purpose is to develop a method to help identify the qualities of educational video games that support learning. This is accomplished by analyzing the design of the game and the…

  9. Did my M.D. really go to University to learn? Detrimental effects of numerus clausus on self-efficacy, mastery goals and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sommet

    Full Text Available Exams with numerus clausus are very common in Medicine, Business Administration and Law. They are intended to select a predefined number of academic candidates on the basis of their rank rather than their absolute performance. Various scholars and politicians believe that numerus clausus policies are a vector of academic excellence. We argue, however, that they could have ironic epistemic effects. In comparison with selective policies based on criterion-based evaluations, selection via numerus clausus creates negative interdependence of competence (i.e., the success of some students comes at the expense of the others. Thus, we expect it to impair students' sense of self-efficacy and--by extension--the level of mastery goals they adopt, as well as their actual learning. Two field studies respectively reported that presence (versus absence and awareness (versus ignorance of numerus clausus policies at University was associated with a decreased endorsement of mastery goals; this effect was mediated by a reduction in self-efficacy beliefs. Moreover, an experimental study revealed that numerus clausus negatively predicted learning; this effect was, again, mediated by a reduction in self-efficacy beliefs. Practical implications for the selection procedures in higher education are discussed.

  10. Emotion regulation strategy selection in daily life: The role of social context and goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ihno A.; John, Oliver P.; Gross, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e.g., avoid conflict). Distraction and reappraisal were used more when regulating for hedonic reasons (e.g., to feel better), but these strategies were also linked to certain instrumental goals (e.g., getting work done). When contra-hedonic regulation occurred, it primarily took the form of dampening positive emotion during high points. Suppression was more likely to be used for contra-hedonic regulation, whereas reappraisal and distraction were used more for pro-hedonic regulation. Overall, these findings highlight the social nature of emotion regulation and underscore the importance of examining regulation in both positive and negative contexts. PMID:28652647

  11. Emotion regulation strategy selection in daily life: The role of social context and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Lee, Ihno A; John, Oliver P; Gross, James J

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e.g., avoid conflict). Distraction and reappraisal were used more when regulating for hedonic reasons (e.g., to feel better), but these strategies were also linked to certain instrumental goals (e.g., getting work done). When contra-hedonic regulation occurred, it primarily took the form of dampening positive emotion during high points. Suppression was more likely to be used for contra-hedonic regulation, whereas reappraisal and distraction were used more for pro-hedonic regulation. Overall, these findings highlight the social nature of emotion regulation and underscore the importance of examining regulation in both positive and negative contexts.

  12. The perceptual effects of learning object categories that predict perceptual goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gulick, Ana E.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In classic category learning studies, subjects typically learn to assign items to one of two categories, with no further distinction between how items on each side of the category boundary should be treated. In real life, however, we often learn categories that dictate further processing goals, for instance with objects in only one category requiring further individuation. Using methods from category learning and perceptual expertise, we studied the perceptual consequences of experience with objects in tasks that rely on attention to different dimensions in different parts of the space. In two experiments, subjects first learned to categorize complex objects from a single morphspace into two categories based on one morph dimension, and then learned to perform a different task, either naming or a local feature judgment, for each of the two categories. A same-different discrimination test before and after each training measured sensitivity to feature dimensions of the space. After initial categorization, sensitivity increased along the category-diagnostic dimension. After task association, sensitivity increased more for the category that was named, especially along the non-diagnostic dimension. The results demonstrate that local attentional weights, associated with individual exemplars as a function of task requirements, can have lasting effects on perceptual representations. PMID:24820671

  13. How can leaders foster team learning? Effects of leader-assigned mastery and performance goals and psychological safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Shirley A; Macan, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Learning and adapting to change are imperative as teams today face unprecedented change. Yet, an important part of learning involves challenging assumptions and addressing differences of opinion openly within a group--the kind of behaviors that pose the potential for embarrassment or threat. How can leaders foster an environment in which team members feel it is safe to take interpersonal risks in order to learn? In a study of 71 teams, we found that psychological safety and learning behavior were higher for teams with mastery than performance goal instructions or no goal instructions. Team psychological safety mediated the relationship between mastery and performance goal instructions and learning behavior. Findings contribute to our understanding of how leader-assigned goals are related to psychological safety and learning behavior in a team context, and suggest approaches to foster such processes.

  14. Political Criteria for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG Selection and the Role of the Urban Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A flood of ideas and proposals on the shape and selection of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs has begun to rise since 2012. This article looks at some of them, trying to understand which kind of “boundary work” between science and policy is done here. Starting with a reflection on the epistemological and practical implications of “discussing SDGs”, it primarily addresses scientists, but also decision makers and activists interested in the post-2015 debate. In practical terms of SDG selection, the argument goes in favor of a self-reflective “politization of science”; i.e., against claims for broad scientific comprehensiveness of SDGs and in favor of an “exemplary” selection of thematic areas and targets, which would combine aspects of (i political opportunity and (ii societal visibility. These criteria are only very partially met in the proposals the article looks at. By applying them, the article emphasizes the political importance of addressing, through SDGs, the subnational level directly, thus making the case for an SDG on cities. Such an SDG should, by the same logic, be rather focused and exemplary than all-encompassing. The recently employed formula of “resilient, inclusive and connected cities” is considered useful, when accompanied by tangible and communicable indicators.

  15. Contextual Markup and Mining in Digital Games for Science Learning: Connecting Player Behaviors to Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnebrew John S.; Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Biswas, Gautam; Sengupta, Pratim; Minstrell, James; Martinez-Garza, Mario; Krinks, Kara

    2017-01-01

    Digital games can make unique and powerful contributions to K-12 science education, but much of that potential remains unrealized. Research evaluating games for learning still relies primarily on pre- and post-test data, which limits possible insights into more complex interactions between game design features, gameplay, and formal assessment.…

  16. Examining Motivational Orientation and Learning Strategies in Computer-Supported Self-Directed Learning (CS-SDL) for Mathematics: The Perspective of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Andrew Chan-Chio; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Huang, Mark C. L.; Ku, Oskar; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2017-01-01

    One-to-one technology, which allows every student to receive equal access to learning tasks through a personal computing device, has shown increasing potential for self-directed learning in elementary schools. With computer-supported self-directed learning (CS-SDL), students may set their own learning goals through the suggestions of the system…

  17. Learning and Chaining of Motor Primitives for Goal-directed Locomotion of a Snake-Like Robot with Screw-Drive Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Sromona; Nachstedt, Timo; Tamosiunaite, Minija

    2015-01-01

    -directed locomotion for the robot. The behavioural primitives of the robot are generated using a reinforcement learning approach called "Policy Improvement with Path Integrals" (PI2). PI2 is numerically simple and has the ability to deal with high-dimensional systems. Here, PI2 is used to learn the robot’s motor...... controls by finding proper locomotion control parameters, like joint angles and screw-drive unit velocities, in a coordinated manner for different goals. Thus, it is able to generate a large repertoire of motor primitives, which are selectively stored to form a primitive library. The learning process...

  18. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil); Selvatici, Antonio Henrique [Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Reali Costa, Anna Helena, E-mail: valdinei.freire@gmail.com, E-mail: antoniohps@uninove.br, E-mail: anna.reali@poli.usp.br [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  19. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei; Selvatici, Antonio Henrique; Reali Costa, Anna Helena

    2011-01-01

    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  20. Explicit goal-driven attention, unlike implicitly learned attention, spreads to secondary tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Douglas A; Tao, Jinyi; Remington, Roger W; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2018-03-01

    To what degree does spatial attention for one task spread to all stimuli in the attended region, regardless of task relevance? Most models imply that spatial attention acts through a unitary priority map in a task-general manner. We show that implicit learning, unlike endogenous spatial cuing, can bias spatial attention within one task without biasing attention to a spatially overlapping secondary task. Participants completed a visual search task superimposed on a background containing scenes, which they were told to encode for a later memory task. Experiments 1 and 2 used explicit instructions to bias spatial attention to one region for visual search; Experiment 3 used location probability cuing to implicitly bias spatial attention. In location probability cuing, a target appeared in one region more than others despite participants not being told of this. In all experiments, search performance was better in the cued region than in uncued regions. However, scene memory was better in the cued region only following endogenous guidance, not after implicit biasing of attention. These data support a dual-system view of top-down attention that dissociates goal-driven and implicitly learned attention. Goal-driven attention is task general, amplifying processing of a cued region across tasks, whereas implicit statistical learning is task-specific. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Portfolio selection problem: a comparison of fuzzy goal programming and linear physical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Kucukbay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Investors have limited budget and they try to maximize their return with minimum risk. Therefore this study aims to deal with the portfolio selection problem. In the study two criteria are considered which are expected return, and risk. In this respect, linear physical programming (LPP technique is applied on Bist 100 stocks to be able to find out the optimum portfolio. The analysis covers the period April 2009- March 2015. This period is divided into two; April 2009-March 2014 and April 2014 – March 2015. April 2009-March 2014 period is used as data to find an optimal solution. April 2014-March 2015 period is used to test the real performance of portfolios. The performance of the obtained portfolio is compared with that obtained from fuzzy goal programming (FGP. Then the performances of both method, LPP and FGP are compared with BIST 100 in terms of their Sharpe Indexes. The findings reveal that LPP for portfolio selection problem is a good alternative to FGP.

  2. Selection as a learning experience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F; Engbers, Rik; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Fluit, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Research on selection for medical school does not explore selection as a learning experience, despite growing attention for the learning effects of assessment in general. Insight in the learning effects allows us to take advantage of selection as an inclusive part of medical students' learning process to become competent professionals. The aims of this study at Radboud University Medical Center, the Netherlands, were 1) to determine whether students have learning experiences in the selection process, and, if so, what experiences; and 2) to understand what students need in order to utilize the learning effects of the selection process at the start of the formal curriculum. We used focus groups to interview 30 students admitted in 2016 about their learning experiences in the selection process. Thematic analysis was used to explore the outcomes of the interviews and to define relevant themes. In the selection process, students learned about the curriculum, themselves, their relation to others, and the profession they had been selected to enter, although this was not explicitly perceived as learning. Students needed a connection between selection and the curriculum as well as feedback to be able to really use their learning experiences for their further development. Medical school selection qualifies as a learning experience, and students as well as medical schools can take advantage of this. We recommend a careful design of the selection procedure, integrating relevant selection learning experiences into the formal curriculum, providing feedback and explicitly approaching the selection and the formal curriculum as interconnected contributors to students' development.

  3. Functional integration processes underlying the instruction-based learning of novel goal-directed behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-03-01

    How does the human brain translate symbolic instructions into overt behavior? Previous studies suggested that this process relies on a rapid control transition from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the anterior striatum (aSTR) and premotor cortex (PMC). The present fMRI study investigated whether the transfer from symbolic to pragmatic stimulus-response (S-R) rules relies on changes in the functional coupling among these and other areas and to which extent action goal representations might get integrated within this symbolic-pragmatic transfer. Goal integration processes were examined by manipulating the contingency between actions and differential outcomes (i.e. action goals). We observed a rapid strengthening of the functional coupling between the LPFC and the basal ganglia (aSTR and putamen) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as between the LPFC and the anterior dorsal PMC (pre-PMd), the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL), and the posterior superior parietal lobule (pSPL). Importantly, only some of these functional integration processes were sensitive to the outcome contingency manipulation, including LPFC couplings with aSTR, OFC, aIPL, and pre-PMd. This suggests that the symbolic-pragmatic rule transfer is governed by principles of both, instrumental learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aSTR/OFC) and ideomotor learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aIPL/pre-PMd). By contrast, increased functional coupling between LPFC and putamen was insensitive to outcome contingency possibly indicating an early stage of habit formation under instructed learning conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: the synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Sheldon, Kennon M; Deci, Edward L

    2004-08-01

    Three field experiments with high school and college students tested the self-determination theory hypotheses that intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) goals and autonomy-supportive (vs. controlling) learning climates would improve students' learning, performance, and persistence. The learning of text material or physical exercises was framed in terms of intrinsic (community, personal growth, health) versus extrinsic (money, image) goals, which were presented in an autonomy-supportive versus controlling manner. Analyses of variance confirmed that both experimentally manipulated variables yielded main effects on depth of processing, test performance, and persistence (all ps intrinsic goals and autonomy support were present. Effects were significantly mediated by autonomous motivation.

  5. How Learning Goal Orientation Fosters Leadership Recognition in Self-managed Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yih-Teen; Paunova, Minna

    2017-01-01

    understudied. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose and test an individual-level two-stage process model of generalised exchange linking LGO and leadership recognition in self-managed teams. Specifically, we posit that learning-oriented individuals will tend to feel safer in self-managed teams, which......Defined as a mental framework for how individuals interpret and respond to achievement situations, learning goal orientation (LGO) has received increasing attention in organisational research. However, its effect on leadership, especially in contexts absent of formal leadership, remains......, but that contextual role behavior alone does not mediate the effect of LGO on leadership recognition. LGO has an indirect effect on leadership recognition through the joint mediation of felt safety and contextual role behavior. Our results offer insight on the link between LGO and leadership, with practical...

  6. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Bourgeois

    Full Text Available In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention.

  7. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention.

  8. A Study on the Effects of Multiple Goal Orientation on Learning Motivation and Learning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie-Yi; Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In such an era when the value is constantly restructured and information is rapidly changed, education reform should cater for new challenges. The role and function of teachers is encountering a new change. Coping with current information generation, people with high self-efficacy of selecting and mastering large amount of information and higher…

  9. The specificity of parenting effects: Differential relations of parent praise and criticism to children's theories of intelligence and learning goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2018-04-24

    Individuals who believe that intelligence can be improved with effort (an incremental theory of intelligence) and who approach challenges with the goal of improving their understanding (a learning goal) tend to have higher academic achievement. Furthermore, parent praise is associated with children's incremental theories and learning goals. However, the influences of parental criticism, as well as different forms of praise and criticism (e.g., process vs. person), have received less attention. We examine these associations by analyzing two existing datasets (Study 1: N = 317 first to eighth graders; Study 2: N = 282 fifth and eighth graders). In both studies, older children held more incremental theories of intelligence, but lower learning goals, than younger children. Unexpectedly, the relation between theories of intelligence and learning goals was nonsignificant and did not vary with children's grade level. In both studies, overall perceived parent praise positively related to children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent criticism negatively related to incremental theories of intelligence. In Study 2, perceived parent process praise was the only significant (positive) predictor of children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent person criticism was the only significant (negative) predictor of incremental theories of intelligence. Finally, Study 2 provided some support for our hypothesis that age-related differences in perceived parent praise and criticism can explain age-related differences in children's learning goals. Results suggest that incremental theories of intelligence and learning goals might not be strongly related during childhood and that perceived parent praise and criticism have important, but distinct, relations with each motivational construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social learning and energy systems: implementing a high energy saving goal in a residential area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Linkoeping University, Department of Thematic Studies (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Generally, retrofitting existing housing stock is considered the area with the most energy-efficiency potential, since buildings last a long time and turnover is slow. This paper presents practice- based research into social learning in the domain of new energy systems in existing dwellings. A case study from Sweden is presented and analysed in relation to social learning. The methodology and data collection are guided by a 'thick description' approach that acknowledges the importance of putting human action in context. The theoretical framework chosen also stresses contexts, using social learning concepts from social shaping of technology (SST) theory. The energy systems as used and managed by professionals and tenants of this retrofitted housing project are the focus. I analyse three connected systems, i.e., the electricity, heating, and hot water system, all parts of a novel individual metering and debiting system installed during the retrofit. An overall goal of the retrofit was to reduce energy demand by 52 % which was achieved but not by the measures invested in. The delivery, metering, and debiting of the energy services are managed in-house by the housing company, but it is up to the tenants to reduce their energy demand. The housing company's technology and implementation policies were ambivalent and evolved in response to the needs of professionals and tenants. Statistics from the property owner's evaluation indicate that the project achieved its goal, but the figures hide that it might have been due to fewer flats, new tenants and new use of buildings

  11. Instance Selection for Classifier Performance Estimation in Meta Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Blachnik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate prediction model is challenging and requires appropriate model selection. This process is very time consuming but can be accelerated with meta-learning–automatic model recommendation by estimating the performances of given prediction models without training them. Meta-learning utilizes metadata extracted from the dataset to effectively estimate the accuracy of the model in question. To achieve that goal, metadata descriptors must be gathered efficiently and must be informative to allow the precise estimation of prediction accuracy. In this paper, a new type of metadata descriptors is analyzed. These descriptors are based on the compression level obtained from the instance selection methods at the data-preprocessing stage. To verify their suitability, two types of experiments on real-world datasets have been conducted. In the first one, 11 instance selection methods were examined in order to validate the compression–accuracy relation for three classifiers: k-nearest neighbors (kNN, support vector machine (SVM, and random forest. From this analysis, two methods are recommended (instance-based learning type 2 (IB2, and edited nearest neighbor (ENN which are then compared with the state-of-the-art metaset descriptors. The obtained results confirm that the two suggested compression-based meta-features help to predict accuracy of the base model much more accurately than the state-of-the-art solution.

  12. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  13. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  14. "What Is the Usefulness of Your Schoolwork?": The Differential Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Framing on Optimal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, Joke; Lens, Willy

    2009-01-01

    Various motivational frameworks converge to suggest that highlighting the relevance of a learning activity yields benefits for students' learning and performance. Herein, we review a set of studies grounded in self-determination theory's distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals, which show that the beneficial effect of a learning…

  15. Hispanics' SAT Scores: The Influences of Level of Parental Education, Performance-Avoidance Goals, and Knowledge about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    This study uncovers which learning (epistemic belief of learning), socioeconomic background (level of parental education, family income) or social-personality factors (performance-avoidance goals, test anxiety) mitigate the ethnic gap in SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) scores. Measures assessing achievement motivation, test anxiety, socioeconomic…

  16. The Relationship between Self-Determination, Achievement Goal Orientation and Satisfaction with the Learning Experience: Working with Adult Lifelong Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…

  17. A Correlation Study among Achievement Motivation, Goal-Setting and L2 Learning Strategy in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Lu, Qingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation as one of the most important parts in learning motivation indicates a concern with success in competition with some standard of excellence. Learners who are highly motivated to learn a language are likely to use a variety of strategies. Besides achievement motivation, goal setting, a very important cognitive mediator between…

  18. Selective social learning in infancy: looking for mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Cristina; Phillips, Sara; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2018-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that selective social learning begins in infancy, the psychological mechanisms underlying this ability are currently a controversial issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether theory of mind abilities and statistical learning skills are related to infants' selective social learning. Seventy-seven 18-month-olds were first exposed to a reliable or an unreliable speaker and then completed a word learning task, two theory of mind tasks, and a statistical learning task. If domain-general abilities are linked to selective social learning, then infants who demonstrate superior performance on the statistical learning task should perform better on the selective learning task, that is, should be less likely to learn words from an unreliable speaker. Alternatively, if domain-specific abilities are involved, then superior performance on theory of mind tasks should be related to selective learning performance. Findings revealed that, as expected, infants were more likely to learn a novel word from a reliable speaker. Importantly, infants who passed a theory of mind task assessing knowledge attribution were significantly less likely to learn a novel word from an unreliable speaker compared to infants who failed this task. No such effect was observed for the other tasks. These results suggest that infants who possess superior social-cognitive abilities are more apt to reject an unreliable speaker as informant. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/zuuCniHYzqo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  20. Analysis of mathematical literacy ability based on goal orientation in model eliciting activities learning with murder strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, R.; Waluya, S. B.; Masrukan

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research are (1) to analyze the learning quality of MEAs with MURDER strategy, (2) to analyze students’ mathematical literacy ability based on goal orientation in MEAs learning with MURDER strategy. This research is a mixed method research of concurrent embedded type where qualitative method as the primary method. The data were obtained using the methods of scale, observation, test and interviews. The results showed that (1) MEAs Learning with MURDER strategy on students' mathematical literacy ability is qualified, (2) Students who have mastery goal characteristics are able to master the seven components of mathematical literacy process although there are still two components that the solution is less than the maximum. Students who have performance goal characteristics have not mastered the components of mathematical literacy process with the maximum, they are only able to master the ability of using mathematics tool and the other components of mathematical literacy process is quite good.

  1. Goal orientation in surgical residents: a study of the motivation behind learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rebecca L; Hudak-Rosander, Cristina; Datta, Jashodeep; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2014-08-01

    The subconscious way in which an individual approaches learning, goal orientation (GO), has been shown to influence job satisfaction, job performance, and burnout in nonmedical cohorts. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate an instrument to assess GO in surgical residents, so that in the future, we can better understand how differences in motivation affect professional development. Residents were recruited to complete a 17-item survey adapted from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). The survey included three scales assessing GO in residency-specific terms. Items were scored on a 5-point Likert scale, and the psychometric properties of the adapted and original PALS were compared. Ninety-five percent of residents (61/64) participated. Median age was 30 y and 33% were female. Mean (standard deviation) scale scores for the adapted PALS were: mastery 4.30 (0.48), performance approach (PAP) 3.17 (0.99), and performance avoid 2.75 (0.88). Mean (standard deviation) scale scores for the original PALS items were: mastery 3.35 (1.02), PAP 2.76 (1.15), and performance avoid 2.41 (0.91). Cronbach alpha were α = 0.89 and α = 0.84 for the adapted PAP and avoid scales, respectively, which were comparable with the original scales. For the adapted mastery scale, α = 0.54. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors, and factor loadings for individual mastery items did not load consistently onto a single factor. This study represents the first steps in the development of a novel tool to measure GO among surgical residents. Understanding motivational psychology in residents may facilitate improved education and professional development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consideration of learning orientations as an application of achievement goals in evaluating life science majors in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-06-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics such as metacognition. We investigate a sample population of 218 students in a first-semester introductory algebra-based physics course, drawn from 14 laboratory sections within six semesters of course sections, to determine the influence of achievement goals on life science majors' attitudes towards physics. Learning orientations that, respectively, pertain to mastery goals and performance goals, in addition to a learning orientation that does not report a performance goal, were recorded from students in the specific context of learning a problem-solving framework during an in-class exercise. Students' learning orientations, defined within the context of students' self-reported statements in the specific context of a problem-solving-related research-based course implementation, are compared to pre-post results on physics problem-solving items in a well-established attitudinal survey instrument, in order to establish the categories' validity. In addition, mastery-related and performance-related orientations appear to extend to overall pre-post attitudinal shifts, but not to force and motion concepts or to overall course grade, within the scope of an introductory physics course. There also appears to be differentiation regarding overall course performance within health science majors, but not within biology majors, in terms of learning orientations; however, health science majors generally appear to fare less well on all measurements in the study than do biology majors, regardless of learning orientations.

  3. Achievement goals in the classroom and their possible influence on motivational patterns for chemistry learning in two Brazilian high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Mendes de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classroom structures constitute motivational aspects to learn, which can be easily manipulated by teachers during mediation of scientific knowledge to ensure students’ engagement. Organization of learning activities, evaluation and autonomy are some examples of such structures. Two types of goals may be developed in classrooms due to different instructional strategies: performance goals and mastery goals. This work’s objectives were to compare instructional strategies of two high school chemistry teachers (Teacher A and Teacher B from two public schools located in Viçosa (Brazil and infer possible motivational patterns found among students. The comparison was based on the achievement goal theory and organized within the three classroom structures. Data were gathered through field notes from participant observation in two Chemistry classes and semi-structured interviews with both of the teachers. It was verified that Teacher A utilized strategies aligned with mastery goals, while Teacher B utilized instructional strategies that were consistent with the two types of goals. It is concluded that this can influence student engagement during Chemistry classes, considering that teachers have an important role in the orchestration of classroom structures, articulating instructional strategies that favor learning and mediation of the scientific knowledge.

  4. Effects of psychosocial stress on the goal-directed and habit memory systems during learning and later execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marion; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Radel, Rémi

    2017-03-01

    Instrumental learning occurs through both goal-directed and habit memory systems, which are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Interestingly, stress may promote habits at the expense of goal-directed performance, since stress before training in an instrumental task was found to cause individuals to carry on with the learned association in spite of a devalued outcome. These findings nevertheless left pending questions, and it has been difficult to determine which system is primarily affected by stress (an improved habit system, an impaired goal-directed system, or both) and at what point the stress acts (at the moment of learning by making more resistant habits, or after devaluation by making individuals less sensitive to change in the outcome value). The present study (N=72 participants, 63 males and 9 females) aimed to answer these questions with (i) an instrumental task that dissociates the two memory systems and (ii) three conditions of psychosocial stress exposure (Trier Social Stress Test): stress induced before learning, before devaluation, and not induced for the control group. The study confirms that exposure to psychosocial stress leads to habitual performance. Moreover, it provides new insight into this effect by locating its origin as an impairment in the capacity of the goal-directed system rather than a reinforcement in habit learning. These results are discussed in light of recent neurobiological models of stress and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  6. Robot soccer action selection based on Q learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper researches robot soccer action selection based on Q learning . The robot learn to activate particular behavior given their current situation and reward signal. We adopt neural network to implementations of Q learning for their generalization properties and limited computer memory requirements

  7. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  8. Safety goals for seismic and tsunami risks: Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Genn

    2014-01-01

    water leaked through the truck entrance shutters and louver windows for the Diesel Generators’ air intakes. In view of the difficulties in predicting natural events when establishing the design basis for nuclear facilities, a drastic reappraisal of the safety design approach is essential when considering risks and uncertainties. The author proposes a new probabilistic seismic and tsunami safety goals be developed on the basis of lessons learned from the Fukushima disaster which would fortify the vulnerable systems thereby reducing seismic and tsunami risks as low as practical. The safety goal should also be used to enable stakeholders to find an answer to the question of ‘how safe is safe enough’. Through the development of the safety goals it is demonstrated that the risks of tsunami hazards are by far the largest risk to nuclear facilities in Japan due to its high recurrence period in certain regions of the country. It is essential to guard against tsunami-induced flooding and the need for more robust emergency power supply systems as well as special provisions for the disposal of hydrogen gas in the event of severe accidents

  9. Safety goals for seismic and tsunami risks: Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Genn, E-mail: sajig@bd5.so-net.ne.jp

    2014-12-15

    tsunami water leaked through the truck entrance shutters and louver windows for the Diesel Generators’ air intakes. In view of the difficulties in predicting natural events when establishing the design basis for nuclear facilities, a drastic reappraisal of the safety design approach is essential when considering risks and uncertainties. The author proposes a new probabilistic seismic and tsunami safety goals be developed on the basis of lessons learned from the Fukushima disaster which would fortify the vulnerable systems thereby reducing seismic and tsunami risks as low as practical. The safety goal should also be used to enable stakeholders to find an answer to the question of ‘how safe is safe enough’. Through the development of the safety goals it is demonstrated that the risks of tsunami hazards are by far the largest risk to nuclear facilities in Japan due to its high recurrence period in certain regions of the country. It is essential to guard against tsunami-induced flooding and the need for more robust emergency power supply systems as well as special provisions for the disposal of hydrogen gas in the event of severe accidents.

  10. Faking the desire to learn: a clarification of the link between mastery goals and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2009-08-01

    Research on achievement goals has demonstrated that mastery goals positively impact achievement-related outcomes, but paradoxically hold an inconsistent relation with academic achievement. We hypothesized that this relationship depends on the reason why students endorse mastery goals--namely, to garner teachers' appreciation (social desirability) or to succeed at university (social utility). First-year psychology students completed a mastery-goal scale in a standard format, with social-desirability instructions and social-utility instructions. Participants' grades on academic exams were recorded later in the semester. Results indicated that students' perceptions of both social desirability and social utility related to mastery goals moderated the relationship between the endorsement of mastery goals and final grades. This relationship was reduced by the increase of perceived social desirability of mastery goals, and strengthened by the increase of perceived social utility of these goals.

  11. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal

  12. The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-04-01

    There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Enhancing Peer Acceptance of Children with Learning Difficulties: Classroom Goal Orientation and Effects of a Storytelling Programme with Drama Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum; Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Tam, Zoe W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Peer acceptance is an important facilitator for the success of inclusive education. The aim of the current study is twofold: (1) to examine how classroom goal orientation is associated with children's acceptance of peers with learning difficulties; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of a storytelling programme with drama techniques on…

  14. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  15. Impact of Vicarious Learning Experiences and Goal Setting on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Technology Integration: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    This pilot study was designed to explore how vicarious learning experiences and goal setting influence preservice teachers' self-efficacy for integrating technology into the classroom. Twenty undergraduate students who were enrolled in an introductory educational technology course at a large midwestern university participated and were assigned…

  16. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Goal Orientations, and Participations in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Hasan; Yazici Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers' self-efficacy beliefs, goal orientations, and participations in an online learning environment. Embedded mixed design was used in the study. In the quantitative part of the study, the participants were 186 senior pre-service EFL teachers and data were collected on two scales and a questionnaire.…

  17. Neuromodulatory Adaptive Combination of Correlation-based Learning in Cerebellum and Reward-based Learning in Basal Ganglia for Goal-directed Behavior Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational...... and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role...... in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We...

  18. Optimizing learning path selection through memetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Gaeta, M.; Loia, V.; Ritrovato, P.; Salerno, S.

    2008-01-01

    e-Learning is a critical support mechanism for industrial and academic organizations to enhance the skills of employees and students and, consequently, the overall competitiveness in the new economy. The remarkable velocity and volatility of modern knowledge require novel learning methods offering

  19. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  20. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  1. Indonesian pre-service teachers learning motivations and goal achievements: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Tian Abdul; Purnomo, Yoppy Wahyu; Pramudiani, Puri

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Indonesian pre-service teachers' motivation and achievement goal who studied abroad. The participants of the study were two Indonesian students who enrolled at Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Department on one public university in Ankara, Turkey. Semi structured interview and classroom observation were conducted to understand participants' motivation, achievement goal and the ways to develop it. Findings of the study indicated that by considering Self-Determination Theory participants demonstrated various types of motivation, to wit: amotivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to study. In addition, in compliance with the 3 x 2 achievement goal model, they held multiple types of achievement goals. Different types of motivations and achievement goals led them to exhibit different means in developing their motivations and achievement goals. Implications of the study are discussed.

  2. Exploring the Relation between Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Conditions and Their Professional Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Schools' structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers' collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that support or impede professional learning but the way…

  3. Goal rationalities as a framework for evaluating the learning potential of the workplace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Loek; van Woerkom, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is conflicting empirical evidence regarding the learning potential of the workplace. Some studies conclude that workplaces should be seen as strong learning environments, whereas others show evidence of the ineffectiveness of the workplace as a learning environment. In this article, we argue

  4. System Quality Characteristics for Selecting Mobile Learning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SARRAB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased recognition and adoption by different organizations. With the high number of M-learning applications available today, making the right decision about which, application to choose can be quite challenging. To date there is no complete and well defined set of system characteristics for such M-learning applications. This paper presents system quality characteristics for selecting M-learning applications based on the result of a systematic review conducted in this domain.

  5. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  6. Assessing the Discipline: Aligning Curricular Structures and Student Learning with Disciplinary Goals in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…

  7. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  8. Alcohol-paired contextual cues produce an immediate and selective loss of goal-directed action in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean B Ostlund

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the presence of contextual cues paired with alcohol would disrupt rats’ capacity to express appropriate goal-directed action control. Rats were first given differential context conditioning such that one set of contextual cues was paired with the injection of ethanol and a second, distinctive set of cues was paired with the injection of saline. All rats were then trained in a third, neutral context to press one lever for grain pellets and another lever for sucrose pellets. They were then given two extinction tests to evaluate their ability to choose between the two actions in response to the devaluation of one of the two food outcomes with one test conducted in the alcohol-paired context and the other conducted in the control (saline-paired context. In the control context, rats exhibited goal-directed action control; i.e., they were able selectively to withhold the action that previously earned the now devalued outcome. However, these same rats were impaired when tested in the alcohol-paired context, performing both actions at the same rate regardless of the current value of their respective outcomes. Subsequent testing revealed that the rats were capable of overcoming this impairment if they were giving response-contingent feedback about the current value of the food outcomes. These results provide a clear demonstration of the disruptive influence that alcohol-paired cues can exert on decision-making in general and goal-directed action selection and choice in particular.

  9. Effects of Goal Relations on Self-Regulated Learning in Multiple Goal Pursuits: Performance, the Self-Regulatory Process, and Task Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of goal relations on self-regulation in the pursuit of multiple goals, focusing on self-regulated performance, the self-regulatory process, and task enjoyment. The effect of multiple goal relations on self-regulation was explored in a set of three studies. Goal relations were divided into…

  10. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.

  11. Learning Opportunities And Learning Behaviours Of Small Business Starters: Relations With Goal Achievement, Skill Development, And Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); L. van der Sluis; P. Jansen (Paul)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLearning is a vital issue for small business starters, contributing to short term and long term business performance, as well as to personal development. This study investigates when and how small business starters learn. It specifies the situations that offer learning opportunities, as

  12. Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norichika Kanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the next major challenges for research and policy on sustainability is setting the post-2015 Development Agenda. This challenge arises as a direct result of the formal ending of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2015 and as an outcome of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20. The post-2015 Development Agenda is expected to include two agendas: one on human well-being to advance the MDG targets and the other on planetary well-being, which requires a safe “operating space” within the Earth’s life-support system. In contrast to the MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs are meant to apply to both developing and developed countries and create a space for development within the stable functioning of the Earth’s systems. However, what might this all look like? For answers, this paper reviews the achievements and reflections of the MDGs to date and identifies new challenges entailed in the shift of development goals from “millennium” to “sustainable”. While most of the existing studies look at these two sets of issues separately, combining the two reveals two important features of the SDGs. First, SDGs need to integrate both human and planetary well-being in a goal, and second, goals, or sub-goals, need to be formulated at multiple levels, from global to local levels. While the MDGs represented no integrated goals, some of the existing proposals on SDGs include integrated goals. However, our analysis has shown that they do not present the vertical diffusion of goals. Considering both integration and diffusion in the architecture of SDGs is a remaining task.

  13. Fast algorithm selection using learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.; Abdulrahman, S.M.; Brazdil, P.; Vanschoren, J.; Fromont, E.; De Bie, T.; Leeuwen, van M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in Machine Learning to find a classifier and parameter settings that work well on a given dataset. Evaluating all possible combinations typically takes too much time, hence many solutions have been proposed that attempt to predict which classifiers are most promising to try. As

  14. Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Theory Course: An Assessment of Goals and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This project was designed to assess whether a collaborative learning approach to teaching sociological theory would be a successful means of improving student engagement in learning theory and of increasing both the depth of students' understanding of theoretical arguments and concepts and the ability of students to theorize for themselves. A…

  15. Exploring the relation between teachers’ perceptions of workplace conditions and their professional learning goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Schools’ structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers’ collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that

  16. An In-Depth Analysis of Learning Goals in Higher Education: Evidence from the Programming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that, despite the importance of programming education, there is limited research done on programming education experiences from the students' point of view and the need to do so is strong. By understanding the student behaviour, their learning styles, their expectation and motivation to learn, the quality of teaching…

  17. Understanding Teachers' Professional Learning Goals from Their Current Professional Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2018-01-01

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers' current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases have different reasons for engaging in professional…

  18. Computational Properties of the Hippocampus Increase the Efficiency of Goal-Directed Foraging through Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chalmers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is thought to use a version of Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL to guide goal-directed behavior, wherein animals consider goals and make plans to acquire desired outcomes. However, conventional MBRL algorithms do not fully explain animals’ ability to rapidly adapt to environmental changes, or learn multiple complex tasks. They also require extensive computation, suggesting that goal-directed behavior is cognitively expensive. We propose here that key features of processing in the hippocampus support a flexible MBRL mechanism for spatial navigation that is computationally efficient and can adapt quickly to change. We investigate this idea by implementing a computational MBRL framework that incorporates features inspired by computational properties of the hippocampus: a hierarchical representation of space, forward sweeps through future spatial trajectories, and context-driven remapping of place cells. We find that a hierarchical abstraction of space greatly reduces the computational load (mental effort required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions, and allows efficient scaling to large problems. It also allows abstract knowledge gained at high levels to guide adaptation to new obstacles. Moreover, a context-driven remapping mechanism allows learning and memory of multiple tasks. Simulating dorsal or ventral hippocampal lesions in our computational framework qualitatively reproduces behavioral deficits observed in rodents with analogous lesions. The framework may thus embody key features of how the brain organizes model-based RL to efficiently solve navigation and other difficult tasks.

  19. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  20. Explaining Health and Social Care Students' Experiences of Meaningfulness in Vocational Education: The Importance of Life Goals, Learning Support, Perceived Competence, and Autonomous Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støen Utvaer, Britt Karin

    2014-01-01

    The experience of meaning in a learning situation is a stated goal of Knowledge Promotion Reform in Norway. This study, guided by self-determination theory, examines how pursuing intrinsic and extrinsic life goals relates to the experience of meaning in vocational education. The study also examines how learning support, perceived competence, and…

  1. Achievement goal structures and self-regulated learning: relationships and changes in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; DeZee, Kent J; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; Durning, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Practicing physicians have a societal obligation to maintain their competence. Unfortunately, the self-regulated learning skills likely required for lifelong learning are not explicitly addressed in most medical schools. The authors examined how medical students' perceptions of the learning environment relate to their self-regulated learning behaviors. They also explored how students' perceptions and behaviors correlate with performance and change across medical school. The authors collected survey data from 304 students at different phases of medical school training. The survey items assessed students' perceptions of the learning environment, as well as their metacognition, procrastination, and avoidance-of-help-seeking behaviors. The authors operationalized achievement as cumulative medical school grade point average (GPA) and, for third- and fourth-year students, collected clerkship outcomes. Students' perceptions of the learning environment were associated with their metacognition, procrastination, and help-avoidance behaviors. These behaviors were also related to academic outcomes. Specifically, avoidance of help seeking was negatively correlated with cumulative medical school GPA (r=-0.23, P<.01) as well as exam (r=-0.22, P<.05) and clinical performance (r=-0.34, P<.01) in the internal medical clerkship; these help-avoidance behaviors were also positively correlated with students' presentation at a grade adjudication committee (r=0.20, P<.05). Additionally, students' perceptions of the learning environment varied as a function of their phase of training. Medical students' perceptions of the learning environment are related, in predictable ways, to their use of self-regulated learning behaviors; these perceptions seem to change across medical school.

  2. Selective Learning and Teaching among Japanese and German Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunae; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate; Itakura, Shoji; Ueno, Mika; Senju, Atsushi; Proust, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of studies demonstrating that young children selectively learn from others, and a few studies of children's selective teaching, the evidence almost exclusively comes from Western cultures, and cross-cultural comparison in this line of work is very rare. In the present research, we investigated Japanese and German…

  3. The Sweet Spot in Professional Learning: When Student Learning Goals and Educator Performance Standards Align, Everything Is Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen; Kennedy, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    A sweet spot is a place where a combination of factors comes together to produce the best results with greatest efficiency. As school systems around the world are increasing expectations for what students learn and what educators do to support their learning, they must aim for the sweet spot to achieve maximum results for their efforts. When…

  4. Over-Selectivity as a Learned Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Petrina, Neysa; McHugh, Louise

    2011-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effects of different levels of task complexity in pre-training on over-selectivity in a subsequent match-to-sample (MTS) task. Twenty human participants were divided into two groups; exposed either to a 3-element, or a 9-element, compound stimulus as a sample during MTS training. After the completion of training,…

  5. Urban Elementary Students' Conceptions of Learning Goals for Agricultural Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…

  6. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  7. Achievement Goals, Motivation to Learn, and Mathematics Anxiety among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…

  8. Goal Setting as Motivational Tool in Student's Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    The concept of management by objectives has long been used in business in enhancing good staff performance. There has been growing interest among teaching researchers in exploring the influence of goals within the academic field. Much of the early work in this area of motivational research has been done with children, rather than with college…

  9. A technology training protocol for meeting QSEN goals: Focusing on meaningful learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhong; Kalman, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how we designed and developed a 12-step technology training protocol. The protocol is meant to improve meaningful learning in technology education so that nursing students are able to meet the informatics requirements of Quality and Safety Education in Nursing competencies. When designing and developing the training protocol, we used a simplified experiential learning model that addressed the core features of meaningful learning: to connect new knowledge with students' prior knowledge and real-world workflow. Before training, we identified students' prior knowledge and workflow tasks. During training, students learned by doing, reflected on their prior computer skills and workflow, designed individualized procedures for integration into their workflow, and practiced the self-designed procedures in real-world settings. The trainer was a facilitator who provided a meaningful learning environment, asked the right questions to guide reflective conversation, and offered scaffoldings at critical moments. This training protocol could significantly improve nurses' competencies in using technologies and increase their desire to adopt new technologies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Joint Feature Selection and Classification for Multilabel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Guorong; Huang, Qingming; Wu, Xindong

    2018-03-01

    Multilabel learning deals with examples having multiple class labels simultaneously. It has been applied to a variety of applications, such as text categorization and image annotation. A large number of algorithms have been proposed for multilabel learning, most of which concentrate on multilabel classification problems and only a few of them are feature selection algorithms. Current multilabel classification models are mainly built on a single data representation composed of all the features which are shared by all the class labels. Since each class label might be decided by some specific features of its own, and the problems of classification and feature selection are often addressed independently, in this paper, we propose a novel method which can perform joint feature selection and classification for multilabel learning, named JFSC. Different from many existing methods, JFSC learns both shared features and label-specific features by considering pairwise label correlations, and builds the multilabel classifier on the learned low-dimensional data representations simultaneously. A comparative study with state-of-the-art approaches manifests a competitive performance of our proposed method both in classification and feature selection for multilabel learning.

  12. Selective increase of auditory cortico-striatal coherence during auditory-cued Go/NoGo discrimination learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas L. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal directed behavior and associated learning processes are tightly linked to neuronal activity in the ventral striatum. Mechanisms that integrate task relevant sensory information into striatal processing during decision making and learning are implicitly assumed in current reinforcementmodels, yet they are still weakly understood. To identify the functional activation of cortico-striatal subpopulations of connections during auditory discrimination learning, we trained Mongolian gerbils in a two-way active avoidance task in a shuttlebox to discriminate between falling and rising frequency modulated tones with identical spectral properties. We assessed functional coupling by analyzing the field-field coherence between the auditory cortex and the ventral striatum of animals performing the task. During the course of training, we observed a selective increase of functionalcoupling during Go-stimulus presentations. These results suggest that the auditory cortex functionally interacts with the ventral striatum during auditory learning and that the strengthening of these functional connections is selectively goal-directed.

  13. Machine learning techniques to select variable stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Varela Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a supervised classification of variable stars, we propose and evaluate a set of six features extracted from the magnitude density of the light curves. They are used to train automatic classification systems using state-of-the-art classifiers implemented in the R statistical computing environment. We find that random forests is the most successful method to select variables.

  14. The Effect of Goal Constraints on the Writing Performance of Urban Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Stephen; Mattoon, Cynthia Burt

    1990-01-01

    Forty-two inner city intermediate-grade learning-disabled students wrote fables when provided with the following stimuli: story starter, story ending with story content, and story ending with rhetorical purpose. The story ending groups did more story development planning than the story starter group, but composition quality was not significantly…

  15. Data Drive These Coaches: Literacy Project Merges School Goals with Teachers' Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittner, Anne; Helman, Lori; Burns, Matthew; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Research highlights the importance of individualized approaches and coaching to ongoing professional learning (Darling-Hammond, Wei, Andree, Richardson, & Orphanos, 2009). The purpose of this article is to describe an initiative that set out to help all students become proficient readers by 3rd grade. It demonstrates how coaching can support…

  16. Sports Business Unit Meets Cross-Curricular Learning Goals: Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A new online learning tool called the eCommSports Kit links a seven-step sports marketing curriculum with a school team to give students real-life experience in developing and executing a plan to boost game attendance. The kit, available through http://www.ecommsports.com, takes teens on a cross-curricular journey through conducting business…

  17. Our Compulsory Goals: Effective Teaching and Meaningful Learning through Powerful Cultural Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm asks, "But are new literacies just fun?" Then he immediately answers, "Absolutely not--if we as teachers provide the right context and conditions of their use." Offering research-based advice on incorporating technology to increase motivation and deepen learning, Wilhelm boils it down to this bottom line: it's engaged, substantive,…

  18. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  19. Multilingualism - a European Union goal - and incoming exchange students' language learning and language use in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    ' language learning and use in study abroad contexts. The study involves exchange students - but not language students - at four Scandinavian universities - two traditional ones and two specialised ones. Data for the project, which closes at the end of 2007, were collected through semi-structured individual...

  20. From Creatures of Habit to Goal-Directed Learners: Tracking the Developmental Emergence of Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  2. Goal-driven selective attention in patients with right hemisphere lesions: how intact is the ipsilesional field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jacqueline C; Mattingley, Jason B

    2006-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere (RH) lesions often display a spatial bias in attention towards the ipsilesional hemifield. The behavioural manifestations of this spatial bias are typically interpreted as reflecting increased or enhanced attention for stimuli within the 'intact' ipsilesional field, and impaired attentional functioning within the contralesional field. In the healthy brain, goal-driven and stimulus-driven attentional processes interact to determine which stimuli should be prioritized for selection. Although unilateral brain damage increases the relative attentional salience of stimuli within the ipsilesional field, it might also cause problems in filtering or attenuating task-irrelevant information. We examined whether goal-driven attention modulates the processing of ipsilesional and contralesional information in 6 patients with unilateral brain damage following RH stroke (5 male, 1 female; mean age 60.8 years) and a group of age and sex-matched controls. We used a flanker task in which participants made speeded judgements on a central target item (a coloured letter). On each trial the target was flanked by a coloured letter in the left and right hemifields. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to judge either the identity or the colour of the central target and to ignore the flankers. The flanker on one side could be congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the target, on either the letter or the colour dimension, whereas the flanker on the other side was always neutral on both dimensions. Healthy controls showed significant interference from incongruent flankers on either side. Crucially, however, this effect only occurred for the task-relevant dimension [F(2,10) = 24.60; P attention leads to unselective prioritization of all feature-based attributes of stimuli appearing within the ipsilesional hemifield, whether or not they are relevant to performance. Attentional selection for ipsilesional stimuli in disorders such as spatial

  3. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mandušić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to select the one that meets all defined parameters, with low costs/investment. Proper evaluation can save time and money.

  4. Gender differences in landmark learning for virtual navigation: the role of distance to a goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, V D; Artigas, A A; Sansa, J; Banterla, F

    2011-09-01

    We used a new virtual program in two experiments to prepare subjects to perform the Morris water task (www.nesplora.com). The subjects were Psychology students; they were trained to locate a safe platform amidst the presence of four pinpoint landmarks spaced around the edge of the pool (i.e., two landmarks relatively near the platform and two landmarks relatively distant away from it). At the end of the training phase, we administered one test trial without the platform and recorded the amount of time that the students had spent in the platform quadrant. In Experiment 1, we conducted the test trial in the presence of one or two of the distant landmarks. When only one landmark was present during testing, performance fell to chance. However, the men outperformed the women when the two distant landmarks were both present. Experiment 2 replicated the previous results and extended it by showing that no sex differences exist when the searching process is based on the near landmarks. Both the men and the women had similarly good performances when the landmarks were present both individually and together. When present together, an addition effect was found. Far landmark tests favor configural learning processes, whereas near landmark tests favor elemental learning. Our findings suggest that other factors in addition to the use of directional cues can underlie the sex differences in the spatial learning process. Thus, we expand upon previous research in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Shifting more than the goal posts: developing classroom norms of inquiry-based learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Fielding-Wells, Jill

    2018-03-01

    The 3-year study described in this paper aims to create new knowledge about inquiry norms in primary mathematics classrooms. Mathematical inquiry addresses complex problems that contain ambiguities, yet classroom environments often do not adopt norms that promote curiosity, risk-taking and negotiation needed to productively engage with complex problems. Little is known about how teachers and students initiate, develop and maintain norms of mathematical inquiry in primary classrooms. The research question guiding this study is, "How do classroom norms develop that facilitate student learning in primary classrooms which practice mathematical inquiry?" The project will (1) analyse a video archive of inquiry lessons to identify signature practices that enhance productive classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and facilitate learning, (2) engage expert inquiry teachers to collaborate to identify and design strategies for assisting teachers to develop and sustain norms over time that are conducive to mathematical inquiry and (3) support and study teachers new to mathematical inquiry adopting these practices in their classrooms. Anticipated outcomes include identification and illustration of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry, signature practices linked to these norms and case studies of primary teachers' progressive development of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and how they facilitate learning.

  6. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers’ knowledge-based selective word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory of mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children’s preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children’s developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504

  7. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The effects of social concern goals on the value of learning and on the intentions of medical students to change their majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Cho, Seunghee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    In the process of developing a professional medical expertise, goals can become a psychological impetus and act as a source of retaining an individual's persistency. Therefore, the goals of medical students should be considered when designing a curriculum for health professions. The purpose of this study was to examine relative effects of goal categories on the value of learning and intention to change one's major. Data were obtained from the Korea Education Longitudinal Study, which included 1938 representative Korean college freshmen majoring in medicine, engineering, natural science and humanities. They answered a survey questionnaire about goal categories (i.e., social concern, affiliation, self-growth, leisure, wealth, and fame), the value of learning, and intention to change one's major. For medical students, social concern goals were positively related to the value of learning and negatively related to the intention to change one's major. Social concern goals decreased the intention to change one's major directly, and also indirectly through increased value of learning. Providing context for enhancing medical students' social concern goals is necessary in a medical training curriculum, not only for the students' professional development but also for improving society. GCT: Goal contents theory GPA: Grade point average KELS: Korea education longitudinal study SDLA: Self-directed learning abilities SDT: Self-determination theory.

  9. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  10. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly…

  11. Biologically Predisposed Learning and Selective Associations in Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ain; Barot, Sabiha K.; Kim, Jeansok J.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern views on learning and memory accept the notion of biological constraints--that the formation of association is not uniform across all stimuli. Yet cellular evidence of the encoding of selective associations is lacking. Here, conditioned stimuli (CSs) and unconditioned stimuli (USs) commonly employed in two basic associative learning…

  12. Competition between landmarks in spatial learning: the role of proximity to the goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, V D; Manteiga, R D; Rodrigo, T; Mackintosh, N J

    2006-01-10

    In two experiments, rats were trained to find a hidden platform in a Morris pool in the presence of two landmarks. Landmark B was present on all training trials, on half the trials accompanied by landmark A, on the remainder by landmark C. For rats in Group Bn, B was near the location of the platform; for those in Group Bf, B was far from the platform. Group Bn performed better than Group Bf on test trials to B alone, but significantly worse on test trials to a new configuration formed by A and C. Thus, the spatial proximity of B to the platform affected not only how well it could be used to locate the platform, but also its ability to prevent learning about other landmarks.

  13. The impact of goal-oriented task design on neurofeedback learning for brain-computer interface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, S R; Tremblay, A; Boe, S G; Bardouille, T

    2018-02-01

    Neurofeedback training teaches individuals to modulate brain activity by providing real-time feedback and can be used for brain-computer interface control. The present study aimed to optimize training by maximizing engagement through goal-oriented task design. Participants were shown either a visual display or a robot, where each was manipulated using motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography signals. Those with the robot were instructed to quickly navigate grid spaces, as the potential for goal-oriented design to strengthen learning was central to our investigation. Both groups were hypothesized to show increased magnitude of these signals across 10 sessions, with the greatest gains being seen in those navigating the robot due to increased engagement. Participants demonstrated the predicted increase in magnitude, with no differentiation between hemispheres. Participants navigating the robot showed stronger left-hand MI increases than those with the computer display. This is likely due to success being reliant on maintaining strong MI-related signals. While older participants showed stronger signals in early sessions, this trend later reversed, suggesting greater natural proficiency but reduced flexibility. These results demonstrate capacity for modulating neurofeedback using MI over a series of training sessions, using tasks of varied design. Importantly, the more goal-oriented robot control task resulted in greater improvements.

  14. Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise: Lessons Learned and Progress Toward Key Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Jordan, John J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Gaye, Dame B; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-04-01

    The Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise was held from June 2-6, 2014, in Dakar, Senegal. The goal was to assist in familiarizing roles and responsibilities within 3 existing plans and to update the National Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan. There were 60 participants in the exercise, which was driven by a series of evolving disaster scenarios. During the separate Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan review, participants refined a list of projects, including specific tasks to provide a "road map" for completing each project, project timelines, and estimated resource requirements. Project staff administered a survey to conference participants. A total of 86% of respondents had improved knowledge of Senegal disaster plans as a result of the exercise. A total of 89% of respondents had a better understanding of their ministry's role in disaster response, and 92% had a better understanding of the role of the military during a pandemic. Participants also generated ideas for disaster management system improvement in Senegal through a formal "gap analysis." Participants were in strong agreement that the exercise helped them to better understand the contents of their disaster response plans, build relationships across ministerial lines, and effectively enhance future disaster response efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:183-189).

  15. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    of the person-specific effect, using information on individuals’ past histories in paid employment, confirm that serial entrepreneurs exhibit, on average, a larger person-specific effect than non-serial business owners. Moreover, ignoring serial entrepreneurs’ self-selection overestimates learning by doing......It remains a question whether serial entrepreneurs typically perform better than their novice counterparts owing to learning by doing effects or mostly because they are a selected sample of higher-than-average ability entrepreneurs. This paper tries to unravel these two effects by exploring a novel...... empirical strategy based on continuous time duration models with selection. We use a large longitudinal matched employer-employee dataset that allows us to identify about 220,000 individuals who have left their first entrepreneurial experience, out of which over 35,000 became serial entrepreneurs. We...

  16. Evaluating Machine Learning-Based Automated Personalized Daily Step Goals Delivered Through a Mobile Phone App: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Mintz, Yonatan; Goldberg, Ken; Kaminsky, Philip; Flowers, Elena; Aswani, Anil

    2018-01-25

    Growing evidence shows that fixed, nonpersonalized daily step goals can discourage individuals, resulting in unchanged or even reduced physical activity. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of an automated mobile phone-based personalized and adaptive goal-setting intervention using machine learning as compared with an active control with steady daily step goals of 10,000. In this 10-week RCT, 64 participants were recruited via email announcements and were required to attend an initial in-person session. The participants were randomized into either the intervention or active control group with a one-to-one ratio after a run-in period for data collection. A study-developed mobile phone app (which delivers daily step goals using push notifications and allows real-time physical activity monitoring) was installed on each participant's mobile phone, and participants were asked to keep their phone in a pocket throughout the entire day. Through the app, the intervention group received fully automated adaptively personalized daily step goals, and the control group received constant step goals of 10,000 steps per day. Daily step count was objectively measured by the study-developed mobile phone app. The mean (SD) age of participants was 41.1 (11.3) years, and 83% (53/64) of participants were female. The baseline demographics between the 2 groups were similar (P>.05). Participants in the intervention group (n=34) had a decrease in mean (SD) daily step count of 390 (490) steps between run-in and 10 weeks, compared with a decrease of 1350 (420) steps among control participants (n=30; P=.03). The net difference in daily steps between the groups was 960 steps (95% CI 90-1830 steps). Both groups had a decrease in daily step count between run-in and 10 weeks because interventions were also provided during run-in and no natural baseline was collected. The results showed the short-term efficacy of this intervention, which should be formally

  17. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea; Purdie, Thomas G.; Jaffray, David A.; Levinshtein, Alex; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Pekar, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  18. A numeric comparison of variable selection algorithms for supervised learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombo, G.; Narsky, I.

    2009-01-01

    Datasets in modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments are often described by dozens or even hundreds of input variables. Reducing a full variable set to a subset that most completely represents information about data is therefore an important task in analysis of HEP data. We compare various variable selection algorithms for supervised learning using several datasets such as, for instance, imaging gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC) data found at the UCI repository. We use classifiers and variable selection methods implemented in the statistical package StatPatternRecognition (SPR), a free open-source C++ package developed in the HEP community ( (http://sourceforge.net/projects/statpatrec/)). For each dataset, we select a powerful classifier and estimate its learning accuracy on variable subsets obtained by various selection algorithms. When possible, we also estimate the CPU time needed for the variable subset selection. The results of this analysis are compared with those published previously for these datasets using other statistical packages such as R and Weka. We show that the most accurate, yet slowest, method is a wrapper algorithm known as generalized sequential forward selection ('Add N Remove R') implemented in SPR.

  19. Pairwise Constraint-Guided Sparse Learning for Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection aims to identify the most informative features for a compact and accurate data representation. As typical supervised feature selection methods, Lasso and its variants using L1-norm-based regularization terms have received much attention in recent studies, most of which use class labels as supervised information. Besides class labels, there are other types of supervised information, e.g., pairwise constraints that specify whether a pair of data samples belong to the same class (must-link constraint) or different classes (cannot-link constraint). However, most of existing L1-norm-based sparse learning methods do not take advantage of the pairwise constraints that provide us weak and more general supervised information. For addressing that problem, we propose a pairwise constraint-guided sparse (CGS) learning method for feature selection, where the must-link and the cannot-link constraints are used as discriminative regularization terms that directly concentrate on the local discriminative structure of data. Furthermore, we develop two variants of CGS, including: 1) semi-supervised CGS that utilizes labeled data, pairwise constraints, and unlabeled data and 2) ensemble CGS that uses the ensemble of pairwise constraint sets. We conduct a series of experiments on a number of data sets from University of California-Irvine machine learning repository, a gene expression data set, two real-world neuroimaging-based classification tasks, and two large-scale attribute classification tasks. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed methods, compared with several established feature selection methods.

  20. Dynamics of the evolution of learning algorithms by selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo; Caticha, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    We study the evolution of artificial learning systems by means of selection. Genetic programming is used to generate populations of programs that implement algorithms used by neural network classifiers to learn a rule in a supervised learning scenario. In contrast to concentrating on final results, which would be the natural aim while designing good learning algorithms, we study the evolution process. Phenotypic and genotypic entropies, which describe the distribution of fitness and of symbols, respectively, are used to monitor the dynamics. We identify significant functional structures responsible for the improvements in the learning process. In particular, some combinations of variables and operators are useful in assessing performance in rule extraction and can thus implement annealing of the learning schedule. We also find combinations that can signal surprise, measured on a single example, by the difference between predicted and correct classification. When such favorable structures appear, they are disseminated on very short time scales throughout the population. Due to such abruptness they can be thought of as dynamical transitions. But foremost, we find a strict temporal order of such discoveries. Structures that measure performance are never useful before those for measuring surprise. Invasions of the population by such structures in the reverse order were never observed. Asymptotically, the generalization ability approaches Bayesian results

  1. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-term learning. This two timescale approach creates significant power in the developing system. We illustrate this with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection is simulated as dynamic competition between competing referents, and learning is simulated using associative (Hebbian) learning. This model can account for a range of findings including the delay in expressive vocabulary relative to receptive vocabulary, learning under high degrees of referential ambiguity using cross-situational statistics, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power-law) learning rates, fast-mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between individual differences in speed of processing and learning. Five theoretical points are illustrated. 1) Word learning does not require specialized processes – general association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature. 2) The processes of recognizing familiar words are not different than those that support novel words (e.g., fast-mapping). 3) Online competition may allow the network (or child) to leverage information available in the task to augment performance or behavior despite what might be relatively slow learning or poor representations. 4) Even associative learning is more complex than previously thought – a major contributor to performance is the pruning of incorrect associations

  2. Extracurricular participation and the development of school attachment and learning goal orientation: the impact of school quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Natalie; Theis, Désirée

    2014-06-01

    School motivation and attachment typically decline after the transition to middle school. According to the stage-environment fit approach, extracurricular activities are supposed to promote motivation. However, research has shown that the effects depend on the quality of the activities, which usually is measured by assessing students' individual perceptions. This article adds to previous studies in examining effects of school-based extracurricular participation on the development of individual motivation (learning goal orientation) and school attachment depending on the quality of the activities (i.e., amounts of challenge and social support) at the school level. We focused on the motivation development of 3,230 students at 98 schools who filled in questionnaires in Grades 5 (2005), 7 (2007), and 9 (2009). The quality of extracurricular activities was assessed on the basis of responses from 4,270 students in Grades 5, 7, and 9 at the same schools at the first measurement point (2005). Thus, individual development of the longitudinal sample was predicted by aggregated quality measures at the school level. Three-level hierarchical linear growth-curve models including school level, student level, and time were calculated. Cross-level interactions were analyzed to examine the influence of extracurricular participation on individual development as a function of school quality. Results show that the effects of extracurricular participation on the development of learning goal orientation are dependent on both features of school quality, whereas the development of school attachment in particular is influenced by activities offering social support. Thus, the effects of extracurricular activities are based not only on individual perceptions of activity features but also on school quality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future.

  4. Compromised NMDA/Glutamate Receptor Expression in Dopaminergic Neurons Impairs Instrumental Learning, But Not Pavlovian Goal Tracking or Sign Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alex S; Pennington, Zachary T; Tran, Phu; Jentsch, James David

    2015-01-01

    Two theories regarding the role for dopamine neurons in learning include the concepts that their activity serves as a (1) mechanism that confers incentive salience onto rewards and associated cues and/or (2) contingency teaching signal reflecting reward prediction error. While both theories are provocative, the causal role for dopamine cell activity in either mechanism remains controversial. In this study mice that either fully or partially lacked NMDARs in dopamine neurons exclusively, as well as appropriate controls, were evaluated for reward-related learning; this experimental design allowed for a test of the premise that NMDA/glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated mechanisms in dopamine neurons, including NMDA-dependent regulation of phasic discharge activity of these cells, modulate either the instrumental learning processes or the likelihood of pavlovian cues to become highly motivating incentive stimuli that directly attract behavior. Loss of NMDARs in dopamine neurons did not significantly affect baseline dopamine utilization in the striatum, novelty evoked locomotor behavior, or consumption of a freely available, palatable food solution. On the other hand, animals lacking NMDARs in dopamine cells exhibited a selective reduction in reinforced lever responses that emerged over the course of instrumental learning. Loss of receptor expression did not, however, influence the likelihood of an animal acquiring a pavlovian conditional response associated with attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues (sign tracking). These data support the view that reductions in NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons affect instrumental reward-related learning but do not lend support to hypotheses that suggest that the behavioral significance of this signaling includes incentive salience attribution.

  5. Learning from Fables: Moral Values in Three Selected English Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Mukhlash

    2016-01-01

    Fable is not just a fun story, but it certainly has the moral lesson(s) inside of the storyline. This research tries to portray ethical value(s) in three selected English fable stories as well as to let the readers know that they can learn something from the fables. With this study, the researcher also correlated the value(s) to real life and…

  6. Clickers don't always help: Classroom context and goals can mitigate clicker effects on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Amy; O'Rielly, Grant; Sims-Knight, Judith

    2014-03-01

    Clickers are commonly used in large-enrollment introductory courses in order to encourage attendance, increase student engagement and improve learning. We report the results from a highly controlled study of factual and conceptual clicker questions in calculus-based introductory physics courses, on students' performance on the factual and conceptual exam questions they targeted. We found that clicker questions did not enhance student performance on either type of exam question. The use of factual clicker questions actually decreased student performance on conceptual exam questions, however. Directing students' attention to surface features of the course content may distract them from the important underlying concepts. The conceptual clicker questions were likely ineffective because the practice students got on homework questions had a stronger effect than the single question posed in class. Interestingly, the same studies in general education biology and psychology courses show a strong, positive effect of clickers on student learning. This study suggest that the usefulness of clickers should be weighed in the context of other course activities and goals. Secondary analyses will explore the effect of students' GPA, motivation and study strategies on the results. This work was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, US Dept. of Education, through Grant R305A100625 to UMass Dartmouth. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the US Dept. of Education.

  7. The allocation of attention to learning of goal-directed actions: A cognitive neuroscience framework focusing on the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz eFranz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary brain functions have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called ‘split-brain’ (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres with a key focus on bimanual actions. The proposed multilevel cognitive-neural system of attention is built upon key processes of a highly-adaptive basal-ganglia-thalamic-cortical system. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged where appropriate, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains.

  8. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  9. Evolution of learning in fluctuating environments: when selection favors both social and exploratory individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.

  10. A Very Different Non-Stressful Comprehensive Final Exam that Achieve Our Goals for Student Evaluation and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Suketu

    2015-08-01

    I will introduce the radical concept of a final exam where the questions are given beforehand, a method I first encountered as a graduate student at Princeton University from an outstanding and well known astrophysicist and exceptional teacher, Lyman Spitzer.Every Instructor aspires for students to master all the material covered. A comprehensive final can assess the breadth and depth of their learning. Students are required to review early material in light of later topics, create connections and integrate understanding, thus retaining knowledge for the long term. Comprehensive finals can therefore be a significant basis for student learning and evaluation, but are especially daunting for non-STEM majors in required GE synthesis STEM classes. The exam format proposed here calmed student fears and encouraged thorough review.Ten days before the exam students received 20-30 challenging, well-crafted, numbered questions that interconnected and spanned the entire range of topics. The key is crafting questions that lead to deeply understanding the subject matter and mastering skills to solve problems. At the final, each student was required to pick a number out of a hat and answer that numbered question in a 5-minute presentation. They also had to critically comment on 10 other presentations of their peers. They are graded equally on both.The exam sets up definite goals for a student. Equally important, it enhances collaborative learning and peer mentoring. The conceptual questions and problems that students are required to answer can be studied together in study groups. The final presentation is theirs and they are not only encouraged but required to be constructively critical of their peer presentations.I will provide examples of some of the conceptual and problem solving questions I used. These were crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. This method requires students to be prepared for all of the multitude of crafted question encouraging

  11. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  12. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs reversal learning while sparing prior learning, new learning and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Carey, Lawrence M; Smith, Alexandra E; Gentry, Meredith; Sluka, Christina M; Corbin, Hannah E; Wu, Jie-En; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-10-01

    Chemotherapy is widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of cancer therapies is frequently undermined by adverse side effects that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment across a variety of domains including memory, learning, and attention. In the current study, the impact of paclitaxel, a taxane derived chemotherapeutic agent, on episodic memory, prior learning, new learning, and reversal learning were evaluated in rats. Neurogenesis was quantified post-treatment in the dentate gyrus of the same rats using immunostaining for 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67. Paclitaxel treatment selectively impaired reversal learning while sparing episodic memory, prior learning, and new learning. Furthermore, paclitaxel-treated rats showed decreases in markers of hippocampal cell proliferation, as measured by markers of cell proliferation assessed using immunostaining for Ki67 and BrdU. This work highlights the importance of using multiple measures of learning and memory to identify the pattern of impaired and spared aspects of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming for supplier selection considering imperfect-quality and price-quantity discounts in a multiple sourcing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Ter; Chen, Huang-Mu; Zhuang, Zheng-Yun

    2014-05-01

    Supplier selection (SS) is a multi-criteria and multi-objective problem, in which multi-segment (e.g. imperfect-quality discount (IQD) and price-quantity discount (PQD)) and multi-aspiration level problems may be significantly important; however, little attention had been given to dealing with both of them simultaneously in the past. This study proposes a model for integrating multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming to solve the above-mentioned problems by providing the following main contributions: (1) it allows decision-makers to set multiple aspiration levels on the right-hand side of each goal to suit real-world situations, (2) the PQD and IQD conditions are considered in the proposed model simultaneously and (3) the proposed model can solve a SS problem with n suppliers where each supplier offers m IQD with r PQD intervals, where only ? extra binary variables are required. The usefulness of the proposed model is explained using a real case. The results indicate that the proposed model not only can deal with a SS problem with multi-segment and multi-aspiration levels, but also can help the decision-maker to find the appropriate order quantities for each supplier by considering cost, quality and delivery.

  14. Evolution and natural selection: learning by playing and reflecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literacy is more than the simple reproduction of traditional school science knowledge and requires a set of skills, among them identifying scientific issues, explaining phenomena scientifically and using scientific evidence. Several studies have indicated that playing computer games in the classroom can support the development of students’ conceptual understanding about scientific phenomena and theories. Our paper presents a research study where the role of the video game Spore as a learning tool was analysed in a Biology class. An ethnographical perspective served as the framework for the organization and development of a workshop comprised of five sessions with 22 4th grade students, and their Biology teacher. The results show that this video game could become an interesting learning tool to improve students’ understanding of evolution and natural selection. The students could combine their previous knowledge with the academic knowledge obtained though the simulation presented by the video game. To sum up, an attempt has been made to give some empirical guidance about effective approaches to the utilisation of games in classrooms, additionally paying attention to a number of concerns related to the effectiveness of video games as learning tools.

  15. Stochastic subset selection for learning with kernel machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinelander, Jason; Liu, Xiaoping P

    2012-06-01

    Kernel machines have gained much popularity in applications of machine learning. Support vector machines (SVMs) are a subset of kernel machines and generalize well for classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks. The training procedure for traditional SVMs involves solving a quadratic programming (QP) problem. The QP problem scales super linearly in computational effort with the number of training samples and is often used for the offline batch processing of data. Kernel machines operate by retaining a subset of observed data during training. The data vectors contained within this subset are referred to as support vectors (SVs). The work presented in this paper introduces a subset selection method for the use of kernel machines in online, changing environments. Our algorithm works by using a stochastic indexing technique when selecting a subset of SVs when computing the kernel expansion. The work described here is novel because it separates the selection of kernel basis functions from the training algorithm used. The subset selection algorithm presented here can be used in conjunction with any online training technique. It is important for online kernel machines to be computationally efficient due to the real-time requirements of online environments. Our algorithm is an important contribution because it scales linearly with the number of training samples and is compatible with current training techniques. Our algorithm outperforms standard techniques in terms of computational efficiency and provides increased recognition accuracy in our experiments. We provide results from experiments using both simulated and real-world data sets to verify our algorithm.

  16. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition.

  17. How Important Are Student-Selected versus Instructor-Selected Literature Resources for Students' Learning and Motivation in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M.; Derous, Eva; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    In problem-based learning students are responsible for their own learning process, which becomes evident when they must act independently, for example, when selecting literature resources for individual study. It is a matter of debate whether it is better to have students select their own literature resources or to present them with a list of…

  18. Academic goals in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian

    2013-12-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  19. Teachers' Mastery Goals: Using a Self-Report Survey to Study the Relations between Teaching Practices and Students' Motivation for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2018-02-01

    Employing achievement goal theory (Ames Journal of Educational psychology, 84(3), 261-271, 1992), we explored science teachers' instruction and its relation to students' motivation for science learning and school culture. Based on the TARGETS framework (Patrick et al. The Elementary School Journal, 102(1), 35-58, 2001) and using data from 95 teachers, we developed a self-report survey assessing science teachers' usage of practices that emphasize mastery goals. We then used this survey and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses to study the relations between 35 science teachers' mastery goals in each of the TARGETS dimensions, the decline in their grade-level 5-8 students' ( N = 1.356) classroom and continuing motivation for science learning, and their schools' mastery goal structure. The findings suggest that adolescents' declining motivation for science learning results in part from a decreasing emphasis on mastery goals by schools and science teachers. Practices that relate to the nature of tasks and to student autonomy emerged as most strongly associated with adolescents' motivation and its decline with age.

  20. Teachers' Mastery Goals: Using a Self-Report Survey to Study the Relations between Teaching Practices and Students' Motivation for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2018-01-01

    Employing achievement goal theory (Ames "Journal of Educational psychology," 84(3), 261-271, 1992), we explored science teachers' instruction and its relation to students' motivation for science learning and school culture. Based on the TARGETS framework (Patrick et al. "The Elementary School Journal," 102(1), 35-58, 2001) and…

  1. The Importance of Multiple Representations of Mathematical Problems: Evidence from Chinese Preservice Elementary Teachers' Analysis of a Learning Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Rui; Liu, Di

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a study of how Chinese preservice teachers unpacked a learning goal pertaining to adding fractions and understanding the concepts underlying the operation. Based on work in the USA by Morris, Hiebert, and Spizter ("Journal for Research in Mathematics Education," 40(5), 491-529, 2009), 50 Chinese preservice teachers…

  2. Mathematics Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs about the Nature of Mathematics and the Goals of Mathematics Teaching and Learning in the Beginning of Their Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Antti; Asikainen, Mervi; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Finnish mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs concerning the nature of mathematics and the goals of mathematics teaching and learning solely in the beginning of their studies at university. A total of 18 students participated in a study consisting of a short questionnaire and interviews. The data was analyzed…

  3. The Impact of Personality, Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy on Participation of High School Teachers in Learning Activities in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal, Tine; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of personality traits, goal orientation and self-efficacy on high school teachers' participation in learning activities in the workplace (i.e. experimentation, informal interaction with colleagues, self-regulation and avoidance behaviour). A convenience sample of 95 teachers from six high schools in Flanders…

  4. Using Selective Redundancy and Testing to Optimize Learning from Multimedia Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Carole Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia learning refers to learning from a combination of words and images. In the present dissertation, a multimedia lesson is defined as an animated, narrated educational video that depicts a scientific process--a format of instructional material becoming increasingly common in online, hybrid, and traditional classrooms. The overarching goal of the present research was to investigate how to optimize learning from multimedia lessons using two related theories of multimedia learning (the...

  5. Processing and Integration of Contextual Information in Monkey Ventrolateral Prefrontal Neurons during Selection and Execution of Goal-Directed Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Stefania; Giorgetti, Valentina; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-08-26

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deemed to underlie the complexity, flexibility, and goal-directedness of primates' behavior. Most neurophysiological studies performed so far investigated PFC functions with arm-reaching or oculomotor tasks, thus leaving unclear whether, and to which extent, PFC neurons also play a role in goal-directed manipulative actions, such as those commonly used by primates during most of their daily activities. Here we trained two macaques to perform or withhold grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions, depending on the combination of two subsequently presented cues: an auditory go/no-go cue (high/low tone) and a visually presented target (food/object). By varying the order of presentation of the two cues, we could segment and independently evaluate the processing and integration of contextual information allowing the monkey to make a decision on whether or not to act, and what action to perform. We recorded 403 task-related neurons from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC): unimodal sensory-driven (37%), motor-related (21%), unimodal sensory-and-motor (23%), and multisensory (19%) neurons. Target and go/no-go selectivity characterized most of the recorded neurons, particularly those endowed with motor-related discharge. Interestingly, multisensory neurons appeared to encode a behavioral decision independently from the sensory modality of the stimulus allowing the monkey to make it: some of them reflected the decision to act or refraining from acting (56%), whereas others (44%) encoded the decision to perform (or withhold) a specific action (e.g., grasp-to-eat). Our findings indicate that VLPFC neurons play a role in the processing of contextual information underlying motor decision during goal-directed manipulative actions. We demonstrated that macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) neurons show remarkable selectivity for different aspects of the contextual information allowing the monkey to select and execute goal

  6. System Quality Characteristics for Selecting Mobile Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrab, Mohamed; Al-Shihi, Hafedh; Al-Manthari, Bader

    2015-01-01

    The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning) applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased…

  7. Selection of Learning Media Mathematics for Junior School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Sri Adi; Wahyudin

    2018-01-01

    One of the factors that determine the success of mathematics learning is the learning media used. Learning media can help students to create mathematical abstract mathematics that is abstract. In addition to media, meaningful learning is a learning that is adapted to the students' cognitive development. According to Piaget, junior high school…

  8. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  9. Differential Effects of Systemic Cholinergic Receptor Blockade on Pavlovian Incentive Motivation and Goal-Directed Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-01-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing—used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value—we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  10. Feature Selection with Conjunctions of Decision Stumps and Learning from Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Marchand, M; Corbeil, J

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of designing feature selection learning algorithms is to obtain classifiers that depend on a small number of attributes and have verifiable future performance guarantees. There are few, if any, approaches that successfully address the two goals simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, such algorithms that give theoretical bounds on the future performance have not been proposed so far in the context of the classification of gene expression data. In this work, we investigate the premise of learning a conjunction (or disjunction) of decision stumps in Occam's Razor, Sample Compression, and PAC-Bayes learning settings for identifying a small subset of attributes that can be used to perform reliable classification tasks. We apply the proposed approaches for gene identification from DNA microarray data and compare our results to those of the well-known successful approaches proposed for the task. We show that our algorithm not only finds hypotheses with a much smaller number of genes while giving competitive classification accuracy but also having tight risk guarantees on future performance, unlike other approaches. The proposed approaches are general and extensible in terms of both designing novel algorithms and application to other domains.

  11. Investments in Professional Learning Must Change: The Goals Are Ambitious, the Stakes Are High--And Resources Are the Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Adapted from the brief "Meet the Promise of Content Standards: Investing in Professional Learning," this article draws on the work of Learning Forward's initiative, Transforming Professional Learning to Prepare College- and Career-Ready Students: Implementing the Common Core. This multidimensional initiative is focused on developing…

  12. Lifelong Learning as a goal - Do autonomy and self-regulation in school result in well prepared pupils?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, M.; Schober, B.; Van de Schoot, R.; Wagner, P.; Finsterwald, M.; Spiel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering lifelong learning (LLL) is a topic of high relevance for current educational policy. School lays the cornerstone for the key components of LLL, specifically persistent motivation to learn and self-regulated learning behavior. The present study investigated the impact of classroom

  13. Pareto Optimal Solutions for Network Defense Strategy Selection Simulator in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If the defender knows his preferred reward distribution, the advantages of Pareto optimization can be retained by using a scalarization algorithm prior to the implementation of the MORL. In this paper, we simulate a network defense scenario by creating a multi-objective zero-sum game and using Pareto optimization and MORL to determine optimal solutions and compare those solutions to different scalarization approaches. We build a Pareto Defense Strategy Selection Simulator (PDSSS system for assisting network administrators on decision-making, specifically, on defense strategy selection, and the experiment results show that the Satisficing Trade-Off Method (STOM scalarization approach performs better than linear scalarization or GUESS method. The results of this paper can aid network security agents attempting to find an optimal defense policy for network security games.

  14. Dynamic Educational e-Content Selection Using Multiple Criteria in Web-Based Personalized Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Sampson, Demetrios

    This paper focuses on the way a multi-criteria decision making methodology is applied in the case of agent-based selection of offered learning objects. The problem of selection is modeled as a decision making one, with the decision variables being the learner model and the learning objects' educational description. In this way, selection of…

  15. Does personalized goal setting and study planning improve academic performance and perception of learning experience in a developing setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Yusuff, PhD

    2018-06-01

    .٢، والاختبارات النصفية ٢١.٩ (الانحراف المعياري = ٣.٧، والاختبارات النهائية ٤٢.٨ (الانحراف المعياري = ٥.٣، وكانت نسبة الإنجاز لأهداف المقرر أ (٧٧٪ و ب (٧٨٪ أعلى بكثير في مجموعة الدراسة. أظهرت التغذية الراجعة لنهاية المقرر اختلافات رئيسة في إدراك تجربة التعلم بين مجموعة الدراسة والمجموعة الضابطة. الاستنتاجات: يبدو أن تحديد الأهداف الشخصية والتخطيط للدراسة يؤدي إلى تحسن كبير في المشاركة المستمرة للتعلم، والتركيز على الأهداف الأكاديمية والأداء الأكاديمي. Abstract: Objective: The learning process for pharmacists must enable the skillful harnessing of metacognition, critical thinking, and effective application of specialized skills. This study assessed the impact of self-developed academic goals and study plans on pharmacy students' academic performance and perception of learning experience in a developing setting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, KSA, in a compulsory 4th year course (Pharmacy management. The study group was exposed to goal setting and study planning while the control group had only routine teaching and learning activities planned for the course. Academic performance was determined with quizzes, midterm, and final exams, and the percentage achievement for the course objectives. An end-of-course evaluation, with a pre-tested questionnaire, was used to assess the perception of learning experience. Results: The study group constituted 41.4% (29, while 58.6% (41 were in the control group, with a mean ± SD age of 22.9 (SD = 3.2 and 21.6 (SD = 6.1 years, respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes (8.4 (SD = 2

  16. Consideration of Learning Orientations as an Application of Achievement Goals in Evaluating Life Science Majors in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics…

  17. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance. Keywords: academic needs; academic performance; barriers to learning; ...

  18. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  19. Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful

  20. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Phalet, K.; Lens, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  1. Exploring Learning Goals and Assessment Approaches for Indigenous Health Education: A Qualitative Study in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Clare; Doughney, Lachlan; Bandler, Lilon; Harms, Louise; Andrews, Shawana; Nicholson, Patricia; Remedios, Louisa; Edmondson, Wendy; Kosta, Lauren; Ewen, Shaun

    2018-01-01

    In higher education, assessment is key to student learning. Assessments which promote critical thinking necessary for sustained learning beyond university are highly valued. However, the design of assessment tasks to achieve these types of thinking skills and dispositions to act in professional practice has received little attention. This research…

  2. The Big Five, Learning Goals, Exam Preparedness, and Preference for Flipped Classroom Teaching: Evidence from a Large Psychology Undergraduate Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Minna; Limniou, Maria; Schermbrucker, Ian; Hands, Caroline; Downes, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has found that the flipped classroom (i.e., learning prior to the lecture, and using the lecture time for consolidating knowledge) increases students' deep learning, and has an association with improved grades. However, not all students benefit equally from flipping the classroom, and there may be important individual differences…

  3. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with

  4. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.

  5. [Problem based learning: achievement of educational goals in the information and comprehension sub-categories of Bloom cognitive domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, P; Rodewald, A M

    1994-06-01

    The aim this work was to assess and compare the achievements of medical students, subjected to problem based learning methodology. The information and comprehension categories of Bloom were tested in 17 medical students in four different occasions during the physiopathology course, using a multiple choice knowledge test. There was a significant improvement in the number of correct answers towards the end of the course. It is concluded that these medical students obtained adequate learning achievements in the information subcategory of Bloom using problem based learning methodology, during the physiopathology course.

  6. Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available represent stimuli of interest, and rich feature sets which increase the dimensionality of the space and thus the difficulty of the learning problem. We focus on a multitask reinforcement learning setting, where the agent is learning domain knowledge...

  7. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Bojuwoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored Western Cape primary and secondary school learners' experiences regarding the provision and utilization of support services for improving learning. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted and data gathered through focus group interviews involving 90 learners. Results revealed that learners received and utilized various forms of learning support from their schools, teachers, and peers. The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance.

  8. Feature Selection and Kernel Learning for Local Learning-Based Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Cheung, Yiu-ming

    2011-08-01

    The performance of the most clustering algorithms highly relies on the representation of data in the input space or the Hilbert space of kernel methods. This paper is to obtain an appropriate data representation through feature selection or kernel learning within the framework of the Local Learning-Based Clustering (LLC) (Wu and Schölkopf 2006) method, which can outperform the global learning-based ones when dealing with the high-dimensional data lying on manifold. Specifically, we associate a weight to each feature or kernel and incorporate it into the built-in regularization of the LLC algorithm to take into account the relevance of each feature or kernel for the clustering. Accordingly, the weights are estimated iteratively in the clustering process. We show that the resulting weighted regularization with an additional constraint on the weights is equivalent to a known sparse-promoting penalty. Hence, the weights of those irrelevant features or kernels can be shrunk toward zero. Extensive experiments show the efficacy of the proposed methods on the benchmark data sets.

  9. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  10. Reinforcement Learning Approach to Generate Goal-directed Locomotion of a Snake-Like Robot with Screw-Drive Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Sromona; Nachstedt, Timo; Tamosiunaite, Minija

    2014-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper we apply a policy improvement algorithm called Policy Improvement using Path Integrals (PI2) to generate goal-directed locomotion of a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units. PI2 is numerically simple and has an ability to deal with high dimensional systems. Here...

  11. The effects of a learning-goal orientation training on self-regulation: A field experiment among unemployed job seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, G.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; van Mierlo, H.; van Dam, A.; Born, M.Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Finding reemployment after job loss is a complex and difficult task that requires extensive motivation and self-regulation. This study aimed to examine whether improving unemployed job seekers’ cognitive self-regulation can increase reemployment probabilities. Based on the goal orientation

  12. Novel Automatic Filter-Class Feature Selection for Machine Learning Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollsen, Morten Gill; Hallam, John; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    With the increased focus on application of Big Data in all sectors of society, the performance of machine learning becomes essential. Efficient machine learning depends on efficient feature selection algorithms. Filter feature selection algorithms are model-free and therefore very fast, but require...... model in the feature selection process. PCA is often used in machine learning litterature and can be considered the default feature selection method. RDESF outperformed PCA in both experiments in both prediction error and computational speed. RDESF is a new step into filter-based automatic feature...

  13. Evaluation Model for Applying an E-Learning System in a Course: An Analytic Hierarchy Process-Multi-Choice Goal Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Teng-Chiao; Ho, Hui-Ping; Chang, Ching-Ter

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread use of the Internet, adopting e-learning systems in courses has gradually become more and more important in universities in Taiwan. However, because of limitations of teachers' time, selecting suitable online IT tools has become very important. This study proposes an analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-multi-choice goal…

  14. Is it better to select or to receive? Learning via active and passive hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Douglas B; Gureckis, Todd M

    2014-02-01

    People can test hypotheses through either selection or reception. In a selection task, the learner actively chooses observations to test his or her beliefs, whereas in reception tasks data are passively encountered. People routinely use both forms of testing in everyday life, but the critical psychological differences between selection and reception learning remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that selection learning improves learning performance by enhancing generic cognitive processes related to motivation, attention, and engagement. Alternatively, we suggest that differences between these 2 learning modes derives from a hypothesis-dependent sampling bias that is introduced when a person collects data to test his or her own individual hypothesis. Drawing on influential models of sequential hypothesis-testing behavior, we show that such a bias (a) can lead to the collection of data that facilitates learning compared with reception learning and (b) can be more effective than observing the selections of another person. We then report a novel experiment based on a popular category learning paradigm that compares reception and selection learning. We additionally compare selection learners to a set of "yoked" participants who viewed the exact same sequence of observations under reception conditions. The results revealed systematic differences in performance that depended on the learner's role in collecting information and the abstract structure of the problem.

  15. A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five-Year-Olds? An Evaluation of the English Early Learning "Numbers" Goal in the Light of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to evaluate the English Early Years Foundation Stage Goal for Numbers, in relation to research evidence. The Goal, which sets out to provide "a good foundation in mathematics", has greater breadth of content and higher levels of difficulty than previous versions. Research suggests that the additional expectations…

  16. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Mandušić; Lucija Blašković

    2012-01-01

    Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to ...

  17. Dopamine selectively remediates 'model-based' reward learning: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Madeleine E; Foerde, Karin; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-02-01

    Patients with loss of dopamine due to Parkinson's disease are impaired at learning from reward. However, it remains unknown precisely which aspect of learning is impaired. In particular, learning from reward, or reinforcement learning, can be driven by two distinct computational processes. One involves habitual stamping-in of stimulus-response associations, hypothesized to arise computationally from 'model-free' learning. The other, 'model-based' learning, involves learning a model of the world that is believed to support goal-directed behaviour. Much work has pointed to a role for dopamine in model-free learning. But recent work suggests model-based learning may also involve dopamine modulation, raising the possibility that model-based learning may contribute to the learning impairment in Parkinson's disease. To directly test this, we used a two-step reward-learning task which dissociates model-free versus model-based learning. We evaluated learning in patients with Parkinson's disease tested ON versus OFF their dopamine replacement medication and in healthy controls. Surprisingly, we found no effect of disease or medication on model-free learning. Instead, we found that patients tested OFF medication showed a marked impairment in model-based learning, and that this impairment was remediated by dopaminergic medication. Moreover, model-based learning was positively correlated with a separate measure of working memory performance, raising the possibility of common neural substrates. Our results suggest that some learning deficits in Parkinson's disease may be related to an inability to pursue reward based on complete representations of the environment. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Designing Your Community-Based Learning Project: Five Questions To Ask about Your Pedagogical and Participatory Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion; Cadge, Wendy; Rivero, Estela; Curran, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Presents a set of five questions to be considered in the preliminary planning of a community-based learning (CBL) project. Discusses each question and outlines advantages and disadvantages of decisions, focusing on competing interests of students, instructors, and partner organizations. (Author/KDR)

  19. Goals and Values in School: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social Climate of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, Mara Westling

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity,…

  20. CREB Selectively Controls Learning-Induced Structural Remodeling of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middei, Silvia; Spalloni, Alida; Longone, Patrizia; Pittenger, Christopher; O'Mara, Shane M.; Marie, Helene; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of synaptic strength associated with learning is post-synaptically regulated by changes in density and shape of dendritic spines. The transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) is required for memory formation and in vitro dendritic spine rearrangements, but its role in learning-induced remodeling of neurons…

  1. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cost of selective attention in category learning: Developmental differences between adults and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914

  3. Selection of suitable e-learning approach using TOPSIS technique with best ranked criteria weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Husam Jasim; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd

    2017-11-01

    This paper compares the performances of four rank-based weighting assessment techniques, Rank Sum (RS), Rank Reciprocal (RR), Rank Exponent (RE), and Rank Order Centroid (ROC) on five identified e-learning criteria to select the best weights method. A total of 35 experts in a public university in Malaysia were asked to rank the criteria and to evaluate five e-learning approaches which include blended learning, flipped classroom, ICT supported face to face learning, synchronous learning, and asynchronous learning. The best ranked criteria weights are defined as weights that have the least total absolute differences with the geometric mean of all weights, were then used to select the most suitable e-learning approach by using TOPSIS method. The results show that RR weights are the best, while flipped classroom approach implementation is the most suitable approach. This paper has developed a decision framework to aid decision makers (DMs) in choosing the most suitable weighting method for solving MCDM problems.

  4. Use of Physics Innovative Device for Improving Students‟ Motivation and Performance in Learning Selected Concepts in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Songalia Sobremisana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was focused on the development and evaluation of physics innovative device in enhancing students’ motivation and performance in learning selected concepts in physics. The Physics innovative device was developed based upon research on student difficulties in learning relevant concepts in physics and their attitudes toward the subject. Basic concepts in mechanics were also made as baselines in the development of the locally-produced Physics innovative learning device. Such learning devices are valuable resources when used either in lecture or demonstration classes. The developmental, descriptive and quasi-experimental research methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness, in terms of motivation and performance, of the innovative device in Physics. The instruments used for the data collection were the Instructional Materials Motivational Scale (IMMS developed by Keller and the students’ performance test. Pretest and posttest mean scores were measured to determine if there is a mean gain score difference between the experimental and control groups. The study revealed that the group taught with the Physics innovative device performed significantly better than those taught in the traditional method and also the use of Physics innovative device generally improved students’ understanding of concepts and led to higher academic achievements. Analysis of the students’ level of motivation showed that their interests were captured, the instructions they received were relevant to their personal goals and motives, their confidence to learn on their own were build-up, and learning for them was rewarding and important. In the four dimensions (ARCS of IMMS students were found to be attentive, confident, and in agreement in using the fun-learning tool having realize its applicability and relevance in learning their Physics lessons. Results of the study disclosed students and teachers consider the novel device acceptable because it is

  5. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  6. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, L; Zhimin, H; Chase, HW; Wills, AJ; Troisi II, J; Leventhal, M; Mathew, AR; Hitsman, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus?response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to ...

  7. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  8. [The Medical Examination - Between Desire and Reality - Analysis of Consensus Between the Second Part of the Medical Licensing Exam (IMPP) and the National Catalogue of Expertise-based Learning Goals in Surgery (NKLC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterz, Jasmina; Rüsseler, Miriam; Britz, Vanessa; Stefanescu, Christina; Hoefer, Sebastian H; Adili, Farzin; Schreckenbach, Teresa; Schleicher, Iris; Weber, Roxane; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Voß, Friedericke; König, Sarah; Heinemann, Markus K; Kadmon, Martina

    2017-12-01

    Background The working party of the German Society for Surgery (DGCH) on undergraduate surgical education has developed a national expertise-based catalogue of learning goals in surgery (NKLC). This study analyses the extent to which the questions of the German second medical licensing examination compiled by the IMPP are congruent with the NKLC and which thematic focus is emphasised. Materials and Methods Firstly, a guideline and evaluation sheet were developed in order to achieve documentation of the individual examination questions of the second licensing examination with respect to the learning goals of the NKLC. In a retrospective analysis from autumn 2009 to autumn 2014, eleven licensing examinations in human medicine were screened independently by three different reviewers. In accordance with the guideline, the surgical questions were identified and subsequently matched to the learning goals of the NKLC. The analysis included the number of surgical learning goals as well as the number of surgical questions for each examination, learning goal, and different levels of expertise (LE). Results Thirteen reviewers from six surgical disciplines participated in the analysis. On average, reviewers agreed on the differentiation between surgical and non-surgical questions in 79.1% of all 3480 questions from 11 licensing examinations. For each examination (n = 320 questions), 98.8 ± 22.6 questions (min.: 69, max.: 150) were rated as surgical. For each surgical learning goal addressed, 2.2 ± 0.3 questions (min.: 1, max.: 16) were asked. For each examination, 23.5 ± 6.3 questions (min.: 11; max.: 31) referred to learning goals of LE 3, 52.5 ± 16.7 questions (min.: 34; max.: 94) addressed learning goals of LE 2 and 22.8 ± 7.7 questions (min.: 9; max.: 34) were related to learning goals of LE 1. 64 learning goals (27.8% of all learning goals of the NKLC) were not reflected in the examinations. With a total of 70 questions, the most frequently

  9. You see what you have learned. Evidence for an interrelation of associative learning and visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Uengoer, Metin; Schubö, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Besides visual salience and observers' current intention, prior learning experience may influence deployment of visual attention. Associative learning models postulate that observers pay more attention to stimuli previously experienced as reliable predictors of specific outcomes. To investigate the impact of learning experience on deployment of attention, we combined an associative learning task with a visual search task and measured event-related potentials of the EEG as neural markers of attention deployment. In the learning task, participants categorized stimuli varying in color/shape with only one dimension being predictive of category membership. In the search task, participants searched a shape target while disregarding irrelevant color distractors. Behavioral results showed that color distractors impaired performance to a greater degree when color rather than shape was predictive in the learning task. Neurophysiological results show that the amplified distraction was due to differential attention deployment (N2pc). Experiment 2 showed that when color was predictive for learning, color distractors captured more attention in the search task (ND component) and more suppression of color distractor was required (PD component). The present results thus demonstrate that priority in visual attention is biased toward predictive stimuli, which allows learning experience to shape selection. We also show that learning experience can overrule strong top-down control (blocked tasks, Experiment 3) and that learning experience has a longer-term effect on attention deployment (tasks on two successive days, Experiment 4). © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  11. Endogenously and exogenously driven selective sustained attention: Contributions to learning in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lucy C; Thiessen, Erik D; Godwin, Karrie E; Dickerson, John P; Fisher, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    Selective sustained attention is vital for higher order cognition. Although endogenous and exogenous factors influence selective sustained attention, assessment of the degree to which these factors influence performance and learning is often challenging. We report findings from the Track-It task, a paradigm that aims to assess the contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to selective sustained attention within the same task. Behavioral accuracy and eye-tracking data on the Track-It task were correlated with performance on an explicit learning task. Behavioral accuracy and fixations to distractors during the Track-It task did not predict learning when exogenous factors supported selective sustained attention. In contrast, when endogenous factors supported selective sustained attention, fixations to distractors were negatively correlated with learning. Similarly, when endogenous factors supported selective sustained attention, higher behavioral accuracy was correlated with greater learning. These findings suggest that endogenously and exogenously driven selective sustained attention, as measured through different conditions of the Track-It task, may support different kinds of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selection of appropriates E-learning personalization strategies from ontological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Essalmi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When there are several personalization strategies of E-learning, authors of courses need to be supported for deciding which strategy will be applied for personalizing each course. In fact, the time, the efforts and the learning objects needed for preparing personalized learning scenarios depend on the personalization strategy to be applied. This paper presents an approach for selecting personalization strategies according to the feasibility of generating personalized learning scenarios with minimal intervention of the author. Several metrics are proposed for putting in order and selecting useful personalization strategies. The calculus of these metrics is automated based on the analyses of the LOM (Learning Object Metadata standard according to the semantic relations between data elements and learners’ characteristics represented in the Ontology for Selection of Personalization Strategies (OSPS.

  13. Selective role for DNMT3a in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Adachi, Megumi; Na, Elisa S; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Methylation of cytosine nucleotides is governed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that establish de novo DNA methylation patterns in early embryonic development (e.g., DNMT3a and DNMT3b) or maintain those patterns on hemimethylated DNA in dividing cells (e.g., DNMT1). DNMTs continue to be expressed at high levels in mature neurons, however their impact on neuronal function and behavior are unclear. To address this issue we examined DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression following associative learning. We also generated forebrain specific conditional Dnmt1 or Dnmt3a knockout mice and characterized them in learning and memory paradigms as well as for alterations in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that experience in an associative learning task impacts expression of Dnmt3a, but not Dnmt1, in brain areas that mediate learning of this task. We also found that Dnmt3a knockout mice, and not Dnmt1 knockouts have synaptic alterations as well as learning deficits on several associative and episodic memory tasks. These findings indicate that the de novo DNA methylating enzyme DNMT3a in postmitotic neurons is necessary for normal memory formation and its function cannot be substituted by the maintenance DNA methylating enzyme DNMT1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 2. Extensive Efforts to Learn Lessons from Overseas Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of nuclear power plant (NPP) operating experiences is one of the important measures for the safe operation of NPPs. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO),World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), and Nuclear Information Center of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry are the organizations providing Japanese utilities with useful information on incidents and accidents that have occurred at foreign NPPs. The Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) has established two organizations to make extensive efforts to learn lessons from overseas NPPs: One is the Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Training Center (MTC), and the other is the Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS). This paper describes the function of these organizations in transferring knowledge and expertise to ensure the safe operation of Japanese NPPs as well as recent outcomes. MTC was set up in October 1983. Before its establishment, expertise on NPP maintenance was mainly transferred on an on-the-job basis through daily maintenance work. However, after various NPP incidents and accidents, the importance of off-site training for maintenance personnel was emphasized. MTC possesses full-sized or nearly full sized mockups of Mihama NPP Unit 3 and Takahama NPP Unit 3. Furthermore, many kinds of mechanical, electrical, and instrumental equipment are furnished for training. In 1999, more than 2400 (man/day) maintenance personnel in total had training at MTC. In the tube rupture accident of a steam generator of KEPCO's Mihama Unit 2 on February 9, 1991, the emergency core cooling system actuated for the first time in the history of NPP operation in Japan. The cause of the accident was a fault in the manufacturing process of the steam generator, which was not detected until the accident. After an in-depth evaluation of the accident, many corrective actions were taken to prevent the recurrence of a similar accident. As a part of the actions, KEPCO established INSS in March

  15. The Role of Executive Control of Attention and Selective Encoding for Preschoolers' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderer, Thomas; Krebs, Saskia; Schmid, Corinne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Selectivity in encoding, aspects of attentional control and their contribution to learning performance were explored in a sample of preschoolers. While the children are performing a learning task, their encoding of relevant and attention towards irrelevant information was recorded through an eye-tracking device. Recognition of target items was…

  16. When Average Is Not Good Enough: Students with Learning Disabilities at Selective, Private Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Erickson, Celeste P.; Till, Christina H.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with learning disabilities disproportionately come from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, show normative deficits in academic skills, and attend 2-year, public colleges instead of 4-year institutions. However, students with learning disabilities are well represented at the United States' most expensive and selective postsecondary…

  17. Lessons learned? Selected public acceptance case studies since Three Mile Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blee, D. [NAC International, Atlanta Corporate Headquarters, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    This paper will present an overview of the present situation, some recent polling survey information, and then look at lessons learned in terms of selected case studies and some global issues over the 22 years since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. That is quite an ambitious topic but there are some important lessons we can learn from the post-TMI era. (author)

  18. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  19. Impact of virtual learning environment (VLE): A technological approach to genetics teaching on high school students' content knowledge, self-efficacy and career goal aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Kamala M.

    This study examines the effect of a technology-based instructional tool 'Geniverse' on the content knowledge gains, Science Self-Efficacy, Technology Self-Efficacy, and Career Goal Aspirations among 283 high school learners. The study was conducted in four urban high schools, two of which have achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and two have not. Students in both types of schools were taught genetics either through Geniverse, a virtual learning environment or Dragon genetics, a paper-pencil activity embedded in traditional instructional method. Results indicated that students in all schools increased their knowledge of genetics using either type of instructional approach. Students who were taught using Geniverse demonstrated an advantage for genetics knowledge although the effect was small. These increases were more pronounced in the schools that had been meeting the AYP goal. The other significant effect for Geniverse was that students in the technology-enhanced classrooms increased in science Self-Efficacy while students in the non-technology enhanced classrooms decreased. In addition, students from Non-AYP schools showed an improvement in Science and Technology Self-Efficacy; however the effects were small. The implications of these results for the future use of technology-enriched classrooms were discussed. Keywords: Technology-based instruction, Self-Efficacy, career goals and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP).

  20. The Capacity Building programmes of GITEWS – visions, goals, lessons learned, and re-iterated needs and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schlurmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was envisioned that the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS should achieve an integral architecture and overarching technical design of an end-to-end tsunami early warning system (TEWS. In order to achieve this ambitious goal on a national and local level, a tailored set of capacity building measures has been started and implemented. The programme was meant and designed to meet requirements and urgent needs considering awareness raising campaigns, technical trainings and higher level education programs. These components have been integrated as complementary modules in order to ensure facilitating the early warning system to be operated, maintained and improved, and that institutions and people in coastal areas will respond adequately and timely in case of future tsunamis. Remarkable progress has been accomplished as well as programs and campaigns are being implemented in regard to a sustainable capacity development conducted by national institutions in Indonesia. Yet, local administrative and preparedness efforts on the Indonesian coastlines are still underdeveloped. This stems from the fact of missing links towards sustainable coastal zone management schemes on a broad local level. Yet, the demand and urgent need for an adequate and integrated disaster risk reduction and management addressing also other hazards in the region of interest is (still substantial. Given the tragic loss of life and severe damages resulting from the December 2004 tsunami and recent series of severe earthquakes, the need for urgent mitigating action in the imperilled coastal regions of Sumatra and Java remains extremely high. The conceptual Capacity Building framework, its anticipated goals in the beginning of the project and, lately, the finally achieved objectives are promising. A significant contribution for mainstreaming scientific approaches and transfer methodological disaster risk reduction attempts towards other regions

  1. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  2. Progressive sampling-based Bayesian optimization for efficient and automatic machine learning model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xueqiang; Luo, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Machine learning is broadly used for clinical data analysis. Before training a model, a machine learning algorithm must be selected. Also, the values of one or more model parameters termed hyper-parameters must be set. Selecting algorithms and hyper-parameter values requires advanced machine learning knowledge and many labor-intensive manual iterations. To lower the bar to machine learning, miscellaneous automatic selection methods for algorithms and/or hyper-parameter values have been proposed. Existing automatic selection methods are inefficient on large data sets. This poses a challenge for using machine learning in the clinical big data era. To address the challenge, this paper presents progressive sampling-based Bayesian optimization, an efficient and automatic selection method for both algorithms and hyper-parameter values. We report an implementation of the method. We show that compared to a state of the art automatic selection method, our method can significantly reduce search time, classification error rate, and standard deviation of error rate due to randomization. This is major progress towards enabling fast turnaround in identifying high-quality solutions required by many machine learning-based clinical data analysis tasks.

  3. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-01-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the

  4. Examining Self Regulated Learning in Relation to Certain Selected Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation is the controlling of a process or activity by the students who are involved in Problem solving in Physics rather than by an external agency (Johnson, 2011). Selfregulated learning consists of three main components: cognition, metacognition, and motivation. Cognition includes skills necessary to encode, memorise, and recall…

  5. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  6. Theoretical framework on selected core issues on conditions for productive learning in networked learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ponti, Marisa

    The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments.......The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments....

  7. Trip Travel Time Forecasting Based on Selective Forgetting Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time estimation on road networks is a valuable traffic metric. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based method for trip travel time estimation in road networks. The method uses the historical trip information extracted from taxis trace data as the training data. An optimized online sequential extreme machine, selective forgetting extreme learning machine, is adopted to make the prediction. Its selective forgetting learning ability enables the prediction algorithm to adapt to trip conditions changes well. Experimental results using real-life taxis trace data show that the forecasting model provides an effective and practical way for the travel time forecasting.

  8. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Evaluation Model To Select an Integrated Learning System in a Large, Suburban School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlette, William L.; And Others

    The systematic evaluation process used in Georgia's DeKalb County School System to purchase comprehensive instructional software--an integrated learning system (ILS)--is described, and the decision-making model for selection is presented. Selection and implementation of an ILS were part of an instructional technology plan for the DeKalb schools…

  10. Endogenously- and Exogenously-Driven Selective Sustained Attention: Contributions to Learning in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lucy C.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Dickerson, John P.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2015-01-01

    Selective sustained attention is vital for higher order cognition. Although endogenous and exogenous factors influence selective sustained attention, assessment of the degree to which these factors influence performance and learning is often challenging. We report findings from the Track-It task, a paradigm that aims to assess the contribution of…

  11. Feature selection is the ReliefF for multiple instance learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafra, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Ventura, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction and feature selection in particular are known to be of a great help for making supervised learning more effective and efficient. Many different feature selection techniques have been proposed for the traditional settings, where each instance is expected to have a label. In

  12. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space.

  13. Learning spectrum's selection in OLAM network for analysis cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ning; Wang Peng; Tang Daiquan; Hu Renlan

    2010-01-01

    It uses OLAM artificial neural network to analyze the samples of cement raw material. Two kinds of spectrums are used for network learning: pure-element spectrum and mix-element spectrum. The output of pure-element method can be used to construct a simulate spectrum, which can be compared with the original spectrum and judge the shift of spectrum; the mix-element method can store more message and correct the matrix effect, but the multicollinearity among spectrums can cause some side effect to the results. (authors)

  14. Sex Role Learning: A Test of the Selective Attention Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janice Westlund; Luria, Zella

    This paper reports three studies designed to determine whether children show selective attention and/or differential memory to slide pictures of same-sex vs. opposite-sex models and activities. Attention was measured using a feedback EEG procedure, which measured the presence or absence of alpha rhythms in the subjects' brains during presentation…

  15. The ATLAS3D project - I. A volume-limited sample of 260 nearby early-type galaxies: science goals and selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Scott, Nicholas; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Young, Lisa M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2011-05-01

    The ATLAS3D project is a multiwavelength survey combined with a theoretical modelling effort. The observations span from the radio to the millimetre and optical, and provide multicolour imaging, two-dimensional kinematics of the atomic (H I), molecular (CO) and ionized gas (Hβ, [O III] and [N I]), together with the kinematics and population of the stars (Hβ, Fe5015 and Mg b), for a carefully selected, volume-limited (1.16 × 105 Mpc3) sample of 260 early-type (elliptical E and lenticular S0) galaxies (ETGs). The models include semi-analytic, N-body binary mergers and cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. Here we present the science goals for the project and introduce the galaxy sample and the selection criteria. The sample consists of nearby (D 15°) morphologically selected ETGs extracted from a parent sample of 871 galaxies (8 per cent E, 22 per cent S0 and 70 per cent spirals) brighter than MK statistically representative of the nearby galaxy population. We present the size-luminosity relation for the spirals and ETGs and show that the ETGs in the ATLAS3D sample define a tight red sequence in a colour-magnitude diagram, with few objects in the transition from the blue cloud. We describe the strategy of the SAURON integral field observations and the extraction of the stellar kinematics with the pPXF method. We find typical 1σ errors of ΔV≈ 6 km s-1, Δσ≈ 7 km s-1, Δh3≈Δh4≈ 0.03 in the mean velocity, the velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite (GH) moments for galaxies with effective dispersion σe≳ 120 km s-1. For galaxies with lower σe (≈40 per cent of the sample) the GH moments are gradually penalized by pPXF towards zero to suppress the noise produced by the spectral undersampling and only V and σ can be measured. We give an overview of the characteristics of the other main data sets already available for our sample and of the ongoing modelling projects.

  16. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Kazama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13 yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and a lack in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 years and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not, or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e. areas 14/25. Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear followed both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama & Bachevalier, 2013, the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  17. Medical student selection and society: Lessons we learned from sociological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei, Minoo; Yazdani, Shahram; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the interaction between the society, applicants and medical schools in terms of medical student selection. In this study, the trends to implement social factors in the selection process were highlighted. These social factors were explored through functionalism and conflict theories, each focusing on different categories of social factors. While functionalist theorists pay attention to diversity in the selection process, conflict theorists highlight the importance of socio-economic class. Although both theories believe in sorting, their different views are reflected in their sorting strategies. Both theories emphasize the importance of the person-society relationship in motivation to enter university. Furthermore, the impacts of social goals on the selection policies are derived from both theories. Theories in the sociology of education offer an approach to student selection that acknowledges and supports complexity, plurality of approaches and innovative means of selection. Medical student selection does not solely focus on the individual assessment and qualification, but it focuses on a social and collective process, which includes all the influences and interactions between the medical schools and the society. Sociological perspective of medical student selection proposes a model that envelops the individual and the society. In this model, the selection methods should meet the criteria of merit at the individual level, while the selection policies should aim at the society goals at the institutional level.

  18. Evolution of learning and levels of selection: a lesson from avian parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Arnon; Biran-Yoeli, Inbar

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the evolution of behavior may be better understood as the evolution of the learning mechanisms that produce it, and that such mechanisms should be modeled and tested explicitly. However, this approach, which has recently been applied to animal foraging and decision-making, has rarely been applied to the social and communicative behaviors that are likely to operate in complex social environments and be subject to multi-level selection. Here we use genetic, agent-based evolutionary simulations to explore how learning mechanisms may evolve to adjust the level of nestling begging (offspring signaling of need), and to examine the possible consequences of this process for parent-offspring conflict and communication. In doing so, we also provide the first step-by-step dynamic model of parent-offspring communication. The results confirm several previous theoretical predictions and demonstrate three novel phenomena. First, negatively frequency-dependent group-level selection can generate a stable polymorphism of learning strategies and parental responses. Second, while conventional reinforcement learning models fail to cope successfully with family dynamics at the nest, a newly developed learning model (incorporating behaviors that are consistent with recent experimental results on learning in nestling begging) produced effective learning, which evolved successfully. Third, while kin-selection affects the frequency of the different learning genes, its impact on begging slope and intensity was unexpectedly negligible, demonstrating that evolution is a complex process, and showing that the effect of kin-selection on behaviors that are shaped by learning may not be predicted by simple application of Hamilton's rule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How motivation and reward learning modulate selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, A; Chelazzi, L; Vuilleumier, P

    2016-01-01

    Motivational stimuli such as rewards elicit adaptive responses and influence various cognitive functions. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that stimuli with particular motivational values can strongly shape perception and attention. These effects resemble both selective top-down and stimulus-driven attentional orienting, as they depend on internal states but arise without conscious will, yet they seem to reflect attentional systems that are functionally and anatomically distinct from those classically associated with frontoparietal cortical networks in the brain. Recent research in human and nonhuman primates has begun to reveal how reward can bias attentional selection, and where within the cognitive system the signals providing attentional priority are generated. This review aims at describing the different mechanisms sustaining motivational attention, their impact on different behavioral tasks, and current knowledge concerning the neural networks governing the integration of motivational influences on attentional behavior. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. USING A MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING APPROACH FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    KAMIŞLI ÖZTÜRK, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    Today, there's a wide variety of open and distance learning (ODL) systems around the world. Herein, for lifelong learning how to select an ODL program becomes a critic question for a learner who wants to extent abilities on his/her career path. This is a complex decision problem with interdependent criteria. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a multicriteria decision making methodology  that  reflects  these  interdependencies.  Within &...

  1. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W.

    2017-01-01

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear “mixed” selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli—and in particular, to combinations of stimuli (

  2. Feedback-based probabilistic category learning is selectively impaired in attention/hyperactivity deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Goldfarb, Liat

    2017-07-01

    Although Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is closely linked to executive function deficits, it has recently been attributed to procedural learning impairments that are quite distinct from the former. These observations challenge the ability of the executive function framework solely to account for the diverse range of symptoms observed in ADHD. A recent neurocomputational model emphasizes the role of striatal dopamine (DA) in explaining ADHD's broad range of deficits, but the link between this model and procedural learning impairments remains unclear. Significantly, feedback-based procedural learning is hypothesized to be disrupted in ADHD because of the involvement of striatal DA in this type of learning. In order to test this assumption, we employed two variants of a probabilistic category learning task known from the neuropsychological literature. Feedback-based (FB) and paired associate-based (PA) probabilistic category learning were employed in a non-medicated sample of ADHD participants and neurotypical participants. In the FB task, participants learned associations between cues and outcomes initially by guessing and subsequently through feedback indicating the correctness of the response. In the PA learning task, participants viewed the cue and its associated outcome simultaneously without receiving an overt response or corrective feedback. In both tasks, participants were trained across 150 trials. Learning was assessed in a subsequent test without a presentation of the outcome or corrective feedback. Results revealed an interesting disassociation in which ADHD participants performed as well as control participants in the PA task, but were impaired compared with the controls in the FB task. The learning curve during FB training differed between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that the ability to incrementally learn by feedback is selectively disrupted in ADHD participants. These results are discussed in relation to both

  3. Multi-level gene/MiRNA feature selection using deep belief nets and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rania; Yousri, Noha A; Ismail, Mohamed A; El-Makky, Nagwa M

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the most discriminative genes/miRNAs has been raised as an important task in bioinformatics to enhance disease classifiers and to mitigate the dimensionality curse problem. Original feature selection methods choose genes/miRNAs based on their individual features regardless of how they perform together. Considering group features instead of individual ones provides a better view for selecting the most informative genes/miRNAs. Recently, deep learning has proven its ability in representing the data in multiple levels of abstraction, allowing for better discrimination between different classes. However, the idea of using deep learning for feature selection is not widely used in the bioinformatics field yet. In this paper, a novel multi-level feature selection approach named MLFS is proposed for selecting genes/miRNAs based on expression profiles. The approach is based on both deep and active learning. Moreover, an extension to use the technique for miRNAs is presented by considering the biological relation between miRNAs and genes. Experimental results show that the approach was able to outperform classical feature selection methods in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by 9%, lung cancer by 6% and breast cancer by around 10% in F1-measure. Results also show the enhancement in F1-measure of our approach over recently related work in [1] and [2].

  4. Optimal Channel Selection Based on Online Decision and Offline Learning in Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a channel selection strategy with hybrid architecture, which combines the centralized method and the distributed method to alleviate the overhead of access point and at the same time provide more flexibility in network deployment. By this architecture, we make use of game theory and reinforcement learning to fulfill the optimal channel selection under different communication scenarios. Particularly, when the network can satisfy the requirements of energy and computational costs, the online decision algorithm based on noncooperative game can help each individual sensor node immediately select the optimal channel. Alternatively, when the network cannot satisfy the requirements of energy and computational costs, the offline learning algorithm based on reinforcement learning can help each individual sensor node to learn from its experience and iteratively adjust its behavior toward the expected target. Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness of our proposal and also prove that higher system throughput can be achieved by our channel selection strategy over the conventional off-policy channel selection approaches.

  5. How learning might strengthen existing visual object representations in human object-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brants, Marijke; Bulthé, Jessica; Daniels, Nicky; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2016-02-15

    Visual object perception is an important function in primates which can be fine-tuned by experience, even in adults. Which factors determine the regions and the neurons that are modified by learning is still unclear. Recently, it was proposed that the exact cortical focus and distribution of learning effects might depend upon the pre-learning mapping of relevant functional properties and how this mapping determines the informativeness of neural units for the stimuli and the task to be learned. From this hypothesis we would expect that visual experience would strengthen the pre-learning distributed functional map of the relevant distinctive object properties. Here we present a first test of this prediction in twelve human subjects who were trained in object categorization and differentiation, preceded and followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Specifically, training increased the distributed multi-voxel pattern information for trained object distinctions in object-selective cortex, resulting in a generalization from pre-training multi-voxel activity patterns to after-training activity patterns. Simulations show that the increased selectivity combined with the inter-session generalization is consistent with a training-induced strengthening of a pre-existing selectivity map. No training-related neural changes were detected in other regions. In sum, training to categorize or individuate objects strengthened pre-existing representations in human object-selective cortex, providing a first indication that the neuroanatomical distribution of learning effects depends upon the pre-learning mapping of visual object properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Secure relay selection based on learning with negative externality in wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caidan; Xiao, Liang; Kang, Shan; Chen, Guiquan; Li, Yunzhou; Huang, Lianfen

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate relay selection into a Chinese restaurant game. A secure relay selection strategy is proposed for a wireless network, where multiple source nodes send messages to their destination nodes via several relay nodes, which have different processing and transmission capabilities as well as security properties. The relay selection utilizes a learning-based algorithm for the source nodes to reach their best responses in the Chinese restaurant game. In particular, the relay selection takes into account the negative externality of relay sharing among the source nodes, which learn the capabilities and security properties of relay nodes according to the current signals and the signal history. Simulation results show that this strategy improves the user utility and the overall security performance in wireless networks. In addition, the relay strategy is robust against the signal errors and deviations of some user from the desired actions.

  7. Alignment of Learning Goals, Assessments and Curricula in an Earth Sciences Program to Prepare the Geoscience Workforce for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, recently completed a comprehensive revision of its undergraduate curriculum to meet challenges and opportunities in training the next generation geoscience workforce. The department has 280 undergraduate majors in degree options that include: geology, geography (physical and human), snow science, paleontology and GIS/planning. We used a 'backward design' approach by first considering the profile of a student leaving our program: what should they know and be able to do, in anticipation of professional development for traditional (exploration, environmental, regulatory agencies) and non-traditional (planning, policy, law, business, teaching) jobs or for further training in graduate school. We adopted an Earth system approach to be better aligned with contemporary approaches to Earth science and to demonstrate the connections between sub-disciplines across the curriculum. Learning sequences were designed according to Bloom's Taxonomy to develop higher level thinking skills (starting from observations and progressing to descriptions, interpretations, applications, integration of multiple lines of evidence, synthetic and analytical thinking and evaluation). Central themes are reinforced in multiple classes: history and evolution of the Earth system, composition and architecture of Earth, surface of Earth and the 'critical zone' and human dimensions. The cornerstones of the curriculum are strong background in cognate sciences, geologic 'habits of mind', an emphasis on geologic processes and field instruction. Ancillary learning goals include development of quantitative, communication, and interpersonal skills; use of Earth data and modeling; systems thinking; research and research-like experiences; and applications to societal issues. The first year course of study includes a slate of courses to explore the Earth system, primarily to engage and recruit students to the major. Second year studies are foundational for

  8. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, enhances inhibition of prepotent responding and spatial reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Holden D.; Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings indicate treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) facilitates behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a learned response pattern. The present experiment investigated whether acute treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram, affects behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a naturally-biased response pattern (elevated conflict test) and/or reversal of a learned response pattern (spatial reversal learning). An additional experiment was carried out to determine whether escitalopram, at doses that affected behavioral flexibility, also reduced anxiety as tested in the elevated plus-maze. In each experiment, Long-Evans rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or escitalopram (0.03, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to behavioral testing. Escitalopram, at all doses tested, enhanced acquisition in the elevated conflict test, but did not affect performance in the elevated plus-maze. Escitalopram (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) did not alter acquisition of the spatial discrimination, but facilitated reversal learning. In the elevated conflict and spatial reversal learning test, escitalopram enhanced the ability to maintain the relevant strategy after being initially selected. The present findings suggest that enhancing serotonin transmission with a SSRI facilitates inhibitory processes when conditions require a shift away from either a naturally-biased response pattern or a learned choice pattern. PMID:22219222

  9. Deep Learning Questions Can Help Selection of High Ability Candidates for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, Jane; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Stein, John

    2009-01-01

    Selection of students for places at universities mainly depends on GCSE grades and predictions of A-level grades, both of which tend to favour applicants from independent schools. We have therefore developed a new type of test that would measure candidates' "deep learning" approach since this assesses the motivation and creative thinking…

  10. Training Self-Regulated Learning Skills with Video Modeling Examples: Do Task-Selection Skills Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…

  11. Learning by Exporting or Self Selection? Which Way for the Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show some significant differences between exporters and non exporters. The results also show some evidence for learning-by-doing hypothesis and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. On the policy front the paper calls for more focus on improving exports in order for Kenya ...

  12. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  13. REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wen-Biao

    2017-03-01

    The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning. We further show that dendritic calcium spikes arising during REM sleep are important for pruning and strengthening new spines. Together, these findings indicate that REM sleep has multifaceted functions in brain development, learning and memory consolidation by selectively eliminating and maintaining newly formed synapses via dendritic calcium spike-dependent mechanisms.

  14. Teachers' goal orientations: Effects on classroom goal structures and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However, empirical research evaluating possible causal ordering and mediation effects involving these variables in teachers is presently lacking. The present 6-month longitudinal study investigated the relations between varied motivational, behavioural, and emotional variables in practising teachers. More specifically, this study examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relations between teachers' achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and teaching-related emotions, as well as cumulative mediational models in which observed causal relations were evaluated. Participants were 495 practising teachers from Canada (86% female, M = 42 years). Teachers completed a web-based questionnaire at two time points assessing their instructional goals, perceived classroom goal structures, achievement emotions, and demographic items. Results from cross-lagged analyses and structural equation modelling showed teachers' achievement goals to predict their perceived classroom goal structures that, in turn, predicted their teaching-related emotions. The present results inform both Butler's (2012, Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 726) theory on teachers' achievement goals and Frenzel's (2014, International handbook of emotions in education, Routledge, New York, NY) model of teachers' emotions in showing teachers' instructional goals to both directly predict their teaching-related emotions, as well as indirectly through the mediating effects of classroom goal structures. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. The study of selective property of college student’s learning space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Mizuki; Matsumoto, Yuji; Naka, Ryusuke

    2018-05-01

    These days, college students study not only at places designed for learning such as libraries in colleges, but also cafes in downtown while the number of facilities for learning run by colleges is increasing. Then I have researched facilities in college and those in downtown to find selective properties of college students’ learning space. First, I found by questionnaire survey that students chose “3rd place” such as cafes and fast food shops, second to their houses and libraries in college. Next, I found “psychological factor” were also affected their choice. Furthermore, they studied different subjects at different places. In experiments, I researched how effectively they studied each subject at every place. The results show that I find that places you like and places where learning efficiency is good are different. They learned the least effective at “3d place” regardless of what they learned. The result of how long they kept high-level intellectual activity at each place shows that they could work on the study with more motivation at their favorite place and 3rd place. On the other hand, at the 2nd place, they could study rather effectively, but could not keep concentration and motivation for a long time. In this way, college students have 2 patterns of choosing learning space.

  16. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  17. Machine learning etudes in astrophysics: selection functions for mock cluster catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajian, Amir; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Bond, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Making mock simulated catalogs is an important component of astrophysical data analysis. Selection criteria for observed astronomical objects are often too complicated to be derived from first principles. However the existence of an observed group of objects is a well-suited problem for machine learning classification. In this paper we use one-class classifiers to learn the properties of an observed catalog of clusters of galaxies from ROSAT and to pick clusters from mock simulations that resemble the observed ROSAT catalog. We show how this method can be used to study the cross-correlations of thermal Sunya'ev-Zeldovich signals with number density maps of X-ray selected cluster catalogs. The method reduces the bias due to hand-tuning the selection function and is readily scalable to large catalogs with a high-dimensional space of astrophysical features

  18. Machine learning etudes in astrophysics: selection functions for mock cluster catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, Amir; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Bond, J. Richard, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: bond@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Making mock simulated catalogs is an important component of astrophysical data analysis. Selection criteria for observed astronomical objects are often too complicated to be derived from first principles. However the existence of an observed group of objects is a well-suited problem for machine learning classification. In this paper we use one-class classifiers to learn the properties of an observed catalog of clusters of galaxies from ROSAT and to pick clusters from mock simulations that resemble the observed ROSAT catalog. We show how this method can be used to study the cross-correlations of thermal Sunya'ev-Zeldovich signals with number density maps of X-ray selected cluster catalogs. The method reduces the bias due to hand-tuning the selection function and is readily scalable to large catalogs with a high-dimensional space of astrophysical features.

  19. Learning processes of students pre-vocational secondary education: relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.; Teune, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information

  20. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills : A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostons, Danny; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    For self-regulated learning to be effective, students need to be able to accurately assess their own performance on a learning task and use this assessment for the selection of a new learning task. Evidence suggests, however, that students have difficulties with accurate self-assessment and task

  1. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. lita

    2002-11-01

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method. The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely: • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged. Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  2. Selective bilateral amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys fail to disrupt object reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2007-01-31

    Neuropsychological studies in nonhuman primates have led to the view that the amygdala plays an essential role in stimulus-reward association. The main evidence in support of this idea is that bilateral aspirative or radiofrequency lesions of the amygdala yield severe impairments on object reversal learning, a task that assesses the ability to shift choices of objects based on the presence or absence of food reward (i.e., reward contingency). The behavioral effects of different lesion techniques, however, can vary. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of selective, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala in rhesus monkeys on object reversal learning. For comparison, we tested the same monkeys on a task known to be sensitive to amygdala damage, the reinforcer devaluation task. Contrary to previous results based on less selective lesion techniques, monkeys with complete excitotoxic amygdala lesions performed object reversal learning as quickly as controls. As predicted, however, the same operated monkeys were impaired in making object choices after devaluation of the associated food reinforcer. The results suggest two conclusions. First, the results demonstrate that the amygdala makes a selective contribution to stimulus-reward association; the amygdala is critical for guiding object choices after changes in reward value but not after changes in reward contingency. Second, the results implicate a critical contribution to object reversal learning of structures nearby the amygdala, perhaps the subjacent rhinal cortex.

  3. Feature selection and multi-kernel learning for adaptive graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-20

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a popular part-based representation technique, does not capture the intrinsic local geometric structure of the data space. Graph regularized NMF (GNMF) was recently proposed to avoid this limitation by regularizing NMF with a nearest neighbor graph constructed from the input data set. However, GNMF has two main bottlenecks. First, using the original feature space directly to construct the graph is not necessarily optimal because of the noisy and irrelevant features and nonlinear distributions of data samples. Second, one possible way to handle the nonlinear distribution of data samples is by kernel embedding. However, it is often difficult to choose the most suitable kernel. To solve these bottlenecks, we propose two novel graph-regularized NMF methods, AGNMFFS and AGNMFMK, by introducing feature selection and multiple-kernel learning to the graph regularized NMF, respectively. Instead of using a fixed graph as in GNMF, the two proposed methods learn the nearest neighbor graph that is adaptive to the selected features and learned multiple kernels, respectively. For each method, we propose a unified objective function to conduct feature selection/multi-kernel learning, NMF and adaptive graph regularization simultaneously. We further develop two iterative algorithms to solve the two optimization problems. Experimental results on two challenging pattern classification tasks demonstrate that the proposed methods significantly outperform state-of-the-art data representation methods.

  4. LEARNING MATERIALS SELECTION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF FUTURE PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the

  5. An Adaptive Learning Based Network Selection Approach for 5G Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Networks will continue to become increasingly heterogeneous as we move toward 5G. Meanwhile, the intelligent programming of the core network makes the available radio resource be more changeable rather than static. In such a dynamic and heterogeneous network environment, how to help terminal users select optimal networks to access is challenging. Prior implementations of network selection are usually applicable for the environment with static radio resources, while they cannot handle the unpredictable dynamics in 5G network environments. To this end, this paper considers both the fluctuation of radio resources and the variation of user demand. We model the access network selection scenario as a multiagent coordination problem, in which a bunch of rationally terminal users compete to maximize their benefits with incomplete information about the environment (no prior knowledge of network resource and other users’ choices. Then, an adaptive learning based strategy is proposed, which enables users to adaptively adjust their selections in response to the gradually or abruptly changing environment. The system is experimentally shown to converge to Nash equilibrium, which also turns out to be both Pareto optimal and socially optimal. Extensive simulation results show that our approach achieves significantly better performance compared with two learning and non-learning based approaches in terms of load balancing, user payoff and the overall bandwidth utilization efficiency. In addition, the system has a good robustness performance under the condition with non-compliant terminal users.

  6. Unweaving Misconceptions: Guided Learning, Simulations, and Misconceptions in Learning Principles of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and…

  7. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  8. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children's Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla P McDonald

    Full Text Available This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1. Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2. These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students' knowledge attribution and learning preferences.

  9. Jointly Feature Learning and Selection for Robust Tracking via a Gating Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineng Zhong

    Full Text Available To achieve effective visual tracking, a robust feature representation composed of two separate components (i.e., feature learning and selection for an object is one of the key issues. Typically, a common assumption used in visual tracking is that the raw video sequences are clear, while real-world data is with significant noise and irrelevant patterns. Consequently, the learned features may be not all relevant and noisy. To address this problem, we propose a novel visual tracking method via a point-wise gated convolutional deep network (CPGDN that jointly performs the feature learning and feature selection in a unified framework. The proposed method performs dynamic feature selection on raw features through a gating mechanism. Therefore, the proposed method can adaptively focus on the task-relevant patterns (i.e., a target object, while ignoring the task-irrelevant patterns (i.e., the surrounding background of a target object. Specifically, inspired by transfer learning, we firstly pre-train an object appearance model offline to learn generic image features and then transfer rich feature hierarchies from an offline pre-trained CPGDN into online tracking. In online tracking, the pre-trained CPGDN model is fine-tuned to adapt to the tracking specific objects. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem, inspired by an observation that a visual target should be an object rather than not, we combine an edge box-based object proposal method to further improve the tracking accuracy. Extensive evaluation on the widely used CVPR2013 tracking benchmark validates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. [Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person.

  11. Feature selection and multi-kernel learning for sparse representation on a manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-03-01

    Sparse representation has been widely studied as a part-based data representation method and applied in many scientific and engineering fields, such as bioinformatics and medical imaging. It seeks to represent a data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic items in a dictionary. Gao etal. (2013) recently proposed Laplacian sparse coding by regularizing the sparse codes with an affinity graph. However, due to the noisy features and nonlinear distribution of the data samples, the affinity graph constructed directly from the original feature space is not necessarily a reliable reflection of the intrinsic manifold of the data samples. To overcome this problem, we integrate feature selection and multiple kernel learning into the sparse coding on the manifold. To this end, unified objectives are defined for feature selection, multiple kernel learning, sparse coding, and graph regularization. By optimizing the objective functions iteratively, we develop novel data representation algorithms with feature selection and multiple kernel learning respectively. Experimental results on two challenging tasks, N-linked glycosylation prediction and mammogram retrieval, demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform the traditional sparse coding methods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Feature selection and multi-kernel learning for sparse representation on a manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2014-03-01

    Sparse representation has been widely studied as a part-based data representation method and applied in many scientific and engineering fields, such as bioinformatics and medical imaging. It seeks to represent a data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic items in a dictionary. Gao et al. (2013) recently proposed Laplacian sparse coding by regularizing the sparse codes with an affinity graph. However, due to the noisy features and nonlinear distribution of the data samples, the affinity graph constructed directly from the original feature space is not necessarily a reliable reflection of the intrinsic manifold of the data samples. To overcome this problem, we integrate feature selection and multiple kernel learning into the sparse coding on the manifold. To this end, unified objectives are defined for feature selection, multiple kernel learning, sparse coding, and graph regularization. By optimizing the objective functions iteratively, we develop novel data representation algorithms with feature selection and multiple kernel learning respectively. Experimental results on two challenging tasks, N-linked glycosylation prediction and mammogram retrieval, demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform the traditional sparse coding methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety goals for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1984-02-01

    The key policy question in managing hazardous technologies is often some variant of How safe is safe enough. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently broached this topic by adopting safety goals defining acceptable risk levels for nuclear power plants. These goals are analyzed here with a general theory of standard setting (Fischhoff, 1983) which asks: (1) Are standards an appropriate policy tool in this case. (2) Can the Commission's safety philosophy be defended. (3) Do the operational goals capture that philosophy. The anlaysis shows the safety goals proposal to be sophisticated in some respects, incomplete in others. More generally, it points to difficulties with the concept of acceptable risk and any attempt to build policy instruments around it. Although focused on the NRC's safety goals, the present analysis is a prototype of what can be learned by similarly detailed consideration of other standards, not only for nuclear power but also for other hazardous technologies, as well as for issues unrelated to safety

  14. Toward Better Goal Clarity in Instruction: How Focus on Content, Social Exchange and Active Learning Supports Teachers in Improving Dialogic Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Martina; Seidel, Tina; Gröschner, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Goal clarity is an essential element of classroom dialogue and a component of effective instruction. Until now, teachers have been struggling to implement goal clarity in the classroom dialogue. In the present study, we investigated the classroom practice of teachers in a video-based intervention called the Dialogic Video Cycle (DVC) and compared…

  15. Learning processes of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune; P. den Brok

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n=719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing

  16. Learning Processes of Students in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Relations between Goal Orientations, Information Processing Strategies and Development of Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Maaike; Den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Teune, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing strategies were examined using questionnaires.…

  17. Fingerprint-Based Machine Learning Approach to Identify Potent and Selective 5-HT2BR Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rataj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of subtype-selective GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor ligands is a challenging task. In this study, we developed a computational protocol to find compounds with 5-HT2BR versus 5-HT1BR selectivity. Our approach employs the hierarchical combination of machine learning methods, docking, and multiple scoring methods. First, we applied machine learning tools to filter a large database of druglike compounds by the new Neighbouring Substructures Fingerprint (NSFP. This two-dimensional fingerprint contains information on the connectivity of the substructural features of a compound. Preselected subsets of the database were then subjected to docking calculations. The main indicators of compounds’ selectivity were their different interactions with the secondary binding pockets of both target proteins, while binding modes within the orthosteric binding pocket were preserved. The combined methodology of ligand-based and structure-based methods was validated prospectively, resulting in the identification of hits with nanomolar affinity and ten-fold to ten thousand-fold selectivities.

  18. Gene selection and classification for cancer microarray data based on machine learning and similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qingzhong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data have a high dimension of variables and a small sample size. In microarray data analyses, two important issues are how to choose genes, which provide reliable and good prediction for disease status, and how to determine the final gene set that is best for classification. Associations among genetic markers mean one can exploit information redundancy to potentially reduce classification cost in terms of time and money. Results To deal with redundant information and improve classification, we propose a gene selection method, Recursive Feature Addition, which combines supervised learning and statistical similarity measures. To determine the final optimal gene set for prediction and classification, we propose an algorithm, Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization. By using six benchmark microarray gene expression data sets, we compared Recursive Feature Addition with recently developed gene selection methods: Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination, Leave-One-Out Calculation Sequential Forward Selection and several others. Conclusions On average, with the use of popular learning machines including Nearest Mean Scaled Classifier, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes Classifier and Random Forest, Recursive Feature Addition outperformed other methods. Our studies also showed that Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization is superior to random strategy; Recursive Feature Addition with Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization obtained better testing accuracies than the gene selection method varSelRF.

  19. Feature Selection Methods for Zero-Shot Learning of Neural Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Caceres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionality poses a serious challenge when making predictions from human neuroimaging data. Across imaging modalities, large pools of potential neural features (e.g., responses from particular voxels, electrodes, and temporal windows have to be related to typically limited sets of stimuli and samples. In recent years, zero-shot prediction models have been introduced for mapping between neural signals and semantic attributes, which allows for classification of stimulus classes not explicitly included in the training set. While choices about feature selection can have a substantial impact when closed-set accuracy, open-set robustness, and runtime are competing design objectives, no systematic study of feature selection for these models has been reported. Instead, a relatively straightforward feature stability approach has been adopted and successfully applied across models and imaging modalities. To characterize the tradeoffs in feature selection for zero-shot learning, we compared correlation-based stability to several other feature selection techniques on comparable data sets from two distinct imaging modalities: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electrocorticography. While most of the feature selection methods resulted in similar zero-shot prediction accuracies and spatial/spectral patterns of selected features, there was one exception; A novel feature/attribute correlation approach was able to achieve those accuracies with far fewer features, suggesting the potential for simpler prediction models that yield high zero-shot classification accuracy.

  20. Fully automatic time-window selection using machine learning for global adjoint tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, J.; Lei, W.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Bozdag, E.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Selecting time windows from seismograms such that the synthetic measurements (from simulations) and measured observations are sufficiently close is indispensable in a global adjoint tomography framework. The increasing amount of seismic data collected everyday around the world demands "intelligent" algorithms for seismic window selection. While the traditional FLEXWIN algorithm can be "automatic" to some extent, it still requires both human input and human knowledge or experience, and thus is not deemed to be fully automatic. The goal of intelligent window selection is to automatically select windows based on a learnt engine that is built upon a huge number of existing windows generated through the adjoint tomography project. We have formulated the automatic window selection problem as a classification problem. All possible misfit calculation windows are classified as either usable or unusable. Given a large number of windows with a known selection mode (select or not select), we train a neural network to predict the selection mode of an arbitrary input window. Currently, the five features we extract from the windows are its cross-correlation value, cross-correlation time lag, amplitude ratio between observed and synthetic data, window length, and minimum STA/LTA value. More features can be included in the future. We use these features to characterize each window for training a multilayer perceptron neural network (MPNN). Training the MPNN is equivalent to solve a non-linear optimization problem. We use backward propagation to derive the gradient of the loss function with respect to the weighting matrices and bias vectors and use the mini-batch stochastic gradient method to iteratively optimize the MPNN. Numerical tests show that with a careful selection of the training data and a sufficient amount of training data, we are able to train a robust neural network that is capable of detecting the waveforms in an arbitrary earthquake data with negligible detection error

  1. Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fields, Chad L.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Iwanowicz, Luke

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment.

  2. Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E; Kolpin, Dana W; Fields, Chad L; Hladik, Michelle L; Iwanowicz, Luke R

    2017-10-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Brake fault diagnosis using Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm (CSCA – A statistical learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jegadeeshwaran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In automobile, brake system is an essential part responsible for control of the vehicle. Any failure in the brake system impacts the vehicle's motion. It will generate frequent catastrophic effects on the vehicle cum passenger's safety. Thus the brake system plays a vital role in an automobile and hence condition monitoring of the brake system is essential. Vibration based condition monitoring using machine learning techniques are gaining momentum. This study is one such attempt to perform the condition monitoring of a hydraulic brake system through vibration analysis. In this research, the performance of a Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm (CSCA for brake fault diagnosis has been reported. A hydraulic brake system test rig was fabricated. Under good and faulty conditions of a brake system, the vibration signals were acquired using a piezoelectric transducer. The statistical parameters were extracted from the vibration signal. The best feature set was identified for classification using attribute evaluator. The selected features were then classified using CSCA. The classification accuracy of such artificial intelligence technique has been compared with other machine learning approaches and discussed. The Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm performs better and gives the maximum classification accuracy (96% for the fault diagnosis of a hydraulic brake system.

  4. Selective visual scaling of time-scale processes facilitates broadband learning of isometric force frequency tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C; Newell, Karl M

    2015-10-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of selectively augmenting faster time scales of visual feedback information on the learning and transfer of continuous isometric force tracking tasks to test the generality of the self-organization of 1/f properties of force output. Three experimental groups tracked an irregular target pattern either under a standard fixed gain condition or with selectively enhancement in the visual feedback display of intermediate (4-8 Hz) or high (8-12 Hz) frequency components of the force output. All groups reduced tracking error over practice, with the error lowest in the intermediate scaling condition followed by the high scaling and fixed gain conditions, respectively. Selective visual scaling induced persistent changes across the frequency spectrum, with the strongest effect in the intermediate scaling condition and positive transfer to novel feedback displays. The findings reveal an interdependence of the timescales in the learning and transfer of isometric force output frequency structures consistent with 1/f process models of the time scales of motor output variability.

  5. Machinery fault diagnosis using joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis with selective ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2016-11-01

    The vibration signals of faulty machine are generally non-stationary and nonlinear under those complicated working conditions. Thus, it is a big challenge to extract and select the effective features from vibration signals for machinery fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new manifold learning algorithm, joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis (GLNDA), which aims to extract effective intrinsic geometrical information from the given vibration data. Comparisons with other regular methods, principal component analysis (PCA), local preserving projection (LPP), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and local LDA (LLDA), illustrate the superiority of GLNDA in machinery fault diagnosis. Based on the extracted information by GLNDA, a GLNDA-based Fisher discriminant rule (FDR) is put forward and applied to machinery fault diagnosis without additional recognizer construction procedure. By importing Bagging into GLNDA score-based feature selection and FDR, a novel manifold ensemble method (selective GLNDA ensemble, SE-GLNDA) is investigated for machinery fault diagnosis. The motivation for developing ensemble of manifold learning components is that it can achieve higher accuracy and applicability than single component in machinery fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the SE-GLNDA-based fault diagnosis method has been verified by experimental results from bearing full life testers.

  6. From Reactionary to Responsive: Applying the Internal Environmental Scan Protocol to Lifelong Learning Strategic Planning and Operational Model Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes and implements a necessary preliminary strategic planning procedure, the Internal Environmental Scanning (IES), and discusses its relevance to strategic planning and university-sponsored lifelong learning program model selection. Employing a qualitative research methodology, a proposed lifelong learning-centric IES process…

  7. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostons, Danny; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004

  8. Altering spatial priority maps via statistical learning of target selection and distractor filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Oscar; Patacca, Alessia; Di Caro, Valeria; Della Libera, Chiara; Santandrea, Elisa; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    The cognitive system has the capacity to learn and make use of environmental regularities - known as statistical learning (SL), including for the implicit guidance of attention. For instance, it is known that attentional selection is biased according to the spatial probability of targets; similarly, changes in distractor filtering can be triggered by the unequal spatial distribution of distractors. Open questions remain regarding the cognitive/neuronal mechanisms underlying SL of target selection and distractor filtering. Crucially, it is unclear whether the two processes rely on shared neuronal machinery, with unavoidable cross-talk, or they are fully independent, an issue that we directly addressed here. In a series of visual search experiments, participants had to discriminate a target stimulus, while ignoring a task-irrelevant salient distractor (when present). We systematically manipulated spatial probabilities of either one or the other stimulus, or both. We then measured performance to evaluate the direct effects of the applied contingent probability distribution (e.g., effects on target selection of the spatial imbalance in target occurrence across locations) as well as its indirect or "transfer" effects (e.g., effects of the same spatial imbalance on distractor filtering across locations). By this approach, we confirmed that SL of both target and distractor location implicitly bias attention. Most importantly, we described substantial indirect effects, with the unequal spatial probability of the target affecting filtering efficiency and, vice versa, the unequal spatial probability of the distractor affecting target selection efficiency across locations. The observed cross-talk demonstrates that SL of target selection and distractor filtering are instantiated via (at least partly) shared neuronal machinery, as further corroborated by strong correlations between direct and indirect effects at the level of individual participants. Our findings are compatible

  9. A calpain-2 selective inhibitor enhances learning & memory by prolonging ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Guoqi; Sun, Jiandong; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-06-01

    While calpain-1 activation is required for LTP induction by theta burst stimulation (TBS), calpain-2 activation limits its magnitude during the consolidation period. A selective calpain-2 inhibitor applied either before or shortly after TBS enhanced the degree of potentiation. In the present study, we tested whether the selective calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I), could enhance learning and memory in wild-type (WT) and calpain-1 knock-out (C1KO) mice. We first showed that C2I could reestablish TBS-LTP in hippocampal slices from C1KO mice, and this effect was blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK. TBS resulted in PTEN degradation in hippocampal slices from both WT and C1KO mice, and C2I treatment blocked this effect in both mouse genotypes. Systemic injection of C2I 30 min before training in the fear-conditioning paradigm resulted in a biphasic dose-response curve, with low doses enhancing and high doses inhibiting freezing behavior. The difference between the doses needed to enhance and inhibit learning matches the difference in concentrations producing inhibition of calpain-2 and calpain-1. A low dose of C2I also restored normal learning in a novel object recognition task in C1KO mice. Levels of SCOP, a ERK phosphatase known to be cleaved by calpain-1, were decreased in dorsal hippocampus early but not late following training in WT mice; C2I treatment did not affect the early decrease in SCOP levels but prevented its recovery at the later time-point and prolonged ERK activation. The results indicate that calpain-2 activation limits the extent of learning, an effect possibly due to temporal limitation of ERK activation, as a result of SCOP synthesis induced by calpain-2-mediated PTEN degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Less Is Sometimes More: Goal Content Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia; Lacante, Marlies

    2004-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theories, increasing the utility value of a learning activity should result in higher motivation and better learning. In contrast, self-determination theory posits that the content of the future goals (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) that enhance the utility value of the learning activity needs to be considered as well.…

  11. Gene selection for microarray data classification via subspace learning and manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chang; Cao, Lijuan; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Minhui

    2017-12-19

    With the rapid development of DNA microarray technology, large amount of genomic data has been generated. Classification of these microarray data is a challenge task since gene expression data are often with thousands of genes but a small number of samples. In this paper, an effective gene selection method is proposed to select the best subset of genes for microarray data with the irrelevant and redundant genes removed. Compared with original data, the selected gene subset can benefit the classification task. We formulate the gene selection task as a manifold regularized subspace learning problem. In detail, a projection matrix is used to project the original high dimensional microarray data into a lower dimensional subspace, with the constraint that the original genes can be well represented by the selected genes. Meanwhile, the local manifold structure of original data is preserved by a Laplacian graph regularization term on the low-dimensional data space. The projection matrix can serve as an importance indicator of different genes. An iterative update algorithm is developed for solving the problem. Experimental results on six publicly available microarray datasets and one clinical dataset demonstrate that the proposed method performs better when compared with other state-of-the-art methods in terms of microarray data classification. Graphical Abstract The graphical abstract of this work.

  12. ACTIVE LEARNING TO OVERCOME SAMPLE SELECTION BIAS: APPLICATION TO PHOTOMETRIC VARIABLE STAR CLASSIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Berian James, J. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Brink, Henrik [Dark Cosmology Centre, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Long, James P.; Rice, John, E-mail: jwrichar@stat.berkeley.edu [Statistics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Despite the great promise of machine-learning algorithms to classify and predict astrophysical parameters for the vast numbers of astrophysical sources and transients observed in large-scale surveys, the peculiarities of the training data often manifest as strongly biased predictions on the data of interest. Typically, training sets are derived from historical surveys of brighter, more nearby objects than those from more extensive, deeper surveys (testing data). This sample selection bias can cause catastrophic errors in predictions on the testing data because (1) standard assumptions for machine-learned model selection procedures break down and (2) dense regions of testing space might be completely devoid of training data. We explore possible remedies to sample selection bias, including importance weighting, co-training, and active learning (AL). We argue that AL-where the data whose inclusion in the training set would most improve predictions on the testing set are queried for manual follow-up-is an effective approach and is appropriate for many astronomical applications. For a variable star classification problem on a well-studied set of stars from Hipparcos and Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, AL is the optimal method in terms of error rate on the testing data, beating the off-the-shelf classifier by 3.4% and the other proposed methods by at least 3.0%. To aid with manual labeling of variable stars, we developed a Web interface which allows for easy light curve visualization and querying of external databases. Finally, we apply AL to classify variable stars in the All Sky Automated Survey, finding dramatic improvement in our agreement with the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, from 65.5% to 79.5%, and a significant increase in the classifier's average confidence for the testing set, from 14.6% to 42.9%, after a few AL iterations.

  13. ACTIVE LEARNING TO OVERCOME SAMPLE SELECTION BIAS: APPLICATION TO PHOTOMETRIC VARIABLE STAR CLASSIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Berian James, J.; Brink, Henrik; Long, James P.; Rice, John

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great promise of machine-learning algorithms to classify and predict astrophysical parameters for the vast numbers of astrophysical sources and transients observed in large-scale surveys, the peculiarities of the training data often manifest as strongly biased predictions on the data of interest. Typically, training sets are derived from historical surveys of brighter, more nearby objects than those from more extensive, deeper surveys (testing data). This sample selection bias can cause catastrophic errors in predictions on the testing data because (1) standard assumptions for machine-learned model selection procedures break down and (2) dense regions of testing space might be completely devoid of training data. We explore possible remedies to sample selection bias, including importance weighting, co-training, and active learning (AL). We argue that AL—where the data whose inclusion in the training set would most improve predictions on the testing set are queried for manual follow-up—is an effective approach and is appropriate for many astronomical applications. For a variable star classification problem on a well-studied set of stars from Hipparcos and Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, AL is the optimal method in terms of error rate on the testing data, beating the off-the-shelf classifier by 3.4% and the other proposed methods by at least 3.0%. To aid with manual labeling of variable stars, we developed a Web interface which allows for easy light curve visualization and querying of external databases. Finally, we apply AL to classify variable stars in the All Sky Automated Survey, finding dramatic improvement in our agreement with the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, from 65.5% to 79.5%, and a significant increase in the classifier's average confidence for the testing set, from 14.6% to 42.9%, after a few AL iterations.

  14. Active Learning to Overcome Sample Selection Bias: Application to Photometric Variable Star Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Brink, Henrik; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; James, J. Berian; Long, James P.; Rice, John

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great promise of machine-learning algorithms to classify and predict astrophysical parameters for the vast numbers of astrophysical sources and transients observed in large-scale surveys, the peculiarities of the training data often manifest as strongly biased predictions on the data of interest. Typically, training sets are derived from historical surveys of brighter, more nearby objects than those from more extensive, deeper surveys (testing data). This sample selection bias can cause catastrophic errors in predictions on the testing data because (1) standard assumptions for machine-learned model selection procedures break down and (2) dense regions of testing space might be completely devoid of training data. We explore possible remedies to sample selection bias, including importance weighting, co-training, and active learning (AL). We argue that AL—where the data whose inclusion in the training set would most improve predictions on the testing set are queried for manual follow-up—is an effective approach and is appropriate for many astronomical applications. For a variable star classification problem on a well-studied set of stars from Hipparcos and Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, AL is the optimal method in terms of error rate on the testing data, beating the off-the-shelf classifier by 3.4% and the other proposed methods by at least 3.0%. To aid with manual labeling of variable stars, we developed a Web interface which allows for easy light curve visualization and querying of external databases. Finally, we apply AL to classify variable stars in the All Sky Automated Survey, finding dramatic improvement in our agreement with the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, from 65.5% to 79.5%, and a significant increase in the classifier's average confidence for the testing set, from 14.6% to 42.9%, after a few AL iterations.

  15. Undergraduate students' goals for chemistry laboratory coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.

    Chemistry laboratory coursework has the potential to offer many benefits to students, yet few of these learning goals are realized in practice. Therefore, this study seeks to characterize undergraduate students' learning goals for their chemistry laboratory coursework. Data were collected by recording video of students completing laboratory experiments and conducting interviews with the students about their experiences that were analyzed utilizing the frameworks of Human Constructivism and Self-Regulated Learning. A cross-sectional sampling of students allowed comparisons to be made among students with varying levels of chemistry experience and interest in chemistry. The student goals identified by this study were compared to previously described laboratory learning goals of the faculty who instruct these courses in an effort to identify potential avenues to improve laboratory learning.

  16. Corticostriatal circuit mechanisms of value-based action selection: Implementation of reinforcement learning algorithms and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-09-15

    Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A Curriculum and Software Design Scaffolding Goal Directed Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    , the tool itself, and selected findings from qualitative and quantitative studies in the project. 2. International trends in goal oriented and data driven teaching The Danish curriculum reform builds on recent trends in school development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence...... development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence framework, learning goals and aggregation of classroom data to efficient teaching (Earl & Fullan 2003). Learning goals are supposed to support the student’s pace and sense of progression, inform classroom decisions, structure...... student has knowledge of text structure”). The curriculum can be presented in a number of graphical modes, e.g. in a matrix or in a hypertext structure. The curriculum reform was implemented in order to promote a goal oriented teaching and learning practice based heavily on research around data driven...

  18. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  19. Automatic selection of atomic fingerprints and reference configurations for machine-learning potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Giulio; Anelli, Andrea; Giofré, Daniele; Klees, Sinja; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-06-01

    Machine learning of atomic-scale properties is revolutionizing molecular modeling, making it possible to evaluate inter-atomic potentials with first-principles accuracy, at a fraction of the costs. The accuracy, speed, and reliability of machine learning potentials, however, depend strongly on the way atomic configurations are represented, i.e., the choice of descriptors used as input for the machine learning method. The raw Cartesian coordinates are typically transformed in "fingerprints," or "symmetry functions," that are designed to encode, in addition to the structure, important properties of the potential energy surface like its invariances with respect to rotation, translation, and permutation of like atoms. Here we discuss automatic protocols to select a number of fingerprints out of a large pool of candidates, based on the correlations that are intrinsic to the training data. This procedure can greatly simplify the construction of neural network potentials that strike the best balance between accuracy and computational efficiency and has the potential to accelerate by orders of magnitude the evaluation of Gaussian approximation potentials based on the smooth overlap of atomic positions kernel. We present applications to the construction of neural network potentials for water and for an Al-Mg-Si alloy and to the prediction of the formation energies of small organic molecules using Gaussian process regression.

  20. Extending the Peak Bandwidth of Parameters for Softmax Selection in Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kazunori

    2016-05-11

    Softmax selection is one of the most popular methods for action selection in reinforcement learning. Although various recently proposed methods may be more effective with full parameter tuning, implementing a complicated method that requires the tuning of many parameters can be difficult. Thus, softmax selection is still worth revisiting, considering the cost savings of its implementation and tuning. In fact, this method works adequately in practice with only one parameter appropriately set for the environment. The aim of this paper is to improve the variable setting of this method to extend the bandwidth of good parameters, thereby reducing the cost of implementation and parameter tuning. To achieve this, we take advantage of the asymptotic equipartition property in a Markov decision process to extend the peak bandwidth of softmax selection. Using a variety of episodic tasks, we show that our setting is effective in extending the bandwidth and that it yields a better policy in terms of stability. The bandwidth is quantitatively assessed in a series of statistical tests.

  1. Applications of machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Morris, P. W.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Marston, A. P.; Mauerhan, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated and applied machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates. Objects taken from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) catalogue of the infrared objects in the Galactic plane can be classified into different stellar populations based on the colours inferred from their broad-band photometric magnitudes [J, H and Ks from 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the four Spitzer/IRAC bands]. The algorithms tested in this pilot study are variants of the k-nearest neighbours approach, which is ideal for exploratory studies of classification problems where interrelations between variables and classes are complicated. The aims of this study are (1) to provide an automated tool to select reliable WR candidates and potentially other classes of objects, (2) to measure the efficiency of infrared colour selection at performing these tasks and (3) to lay the groundwork for statistically inferring the total number of WR stars in our Galaxy. We report the performance results obtained over a set of known objects and selected candidates for which we have carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations, and confirm the discovery of four new WR stars.

  2. Informative sensor selection and learning for prediction of lower limb kinematics using generative stochastic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eunsuk Chong; Taejin Choi; Hyungmin Kim; Seung-Jong Kim; Yoha Hwang; Jong Min Lee

    2017-07-01

    We propose a novel approach of selecting useful input sensors as well as learning a mathematical model for predicting lower limb joint kinematics. We applied a feature selection method based on the mutual information called the variational information maximization, which has been reported as the state-of-the-art work among information based feature selection methods. The main difficulty in applying the method is estimating reliable probability density of input and output data, especially when the data are high dimensional and real-valued. We addressed this problem by applying a generative stochastic neural network called the restricted Boltzmann machine, through which we could perform sampling based probability estimation. The mutual informations between inputs and outputs are evaluated in each backward sensor elimination step, and the least informative sensor is removed with its network connections. The entire network is fine-tuned by maximizing conditional likelihood in each step. Experimental results are shown for 4 healthy subjects walking with various speeds, recording 64 sensor measurements including electromyogram, acceleration, and foot-pressure sensors attached on both lower limbs for predicting hip and knee joint angles. For test set of walking with arbitrary speed, our results show that our suggested method can select informative sensors while maintaining a good prediction accuracy.

  3. Self-directed learning: Status of final-year students and perceptions of selected faculty leadership in a Nigerian medical school – a mixed analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T E Nottidge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-directed learning (SDL is the essential mechanism of lifelong learning, which, in turn, is required for medical professionals to maintain competency because of advancing technology and constantly evolving disease care and contexts. Yet, most Nigerian medical schools do not actively promote SDL skills for medical students. Objective. To evaluate the status of SDL behaviour among final-year students, and the perceptions of faculty leadership towards SDL in a Nigerian medical school. Methods. A mixed research method was used, with a survey consisting of a validated Likert-based self-rating scale for SDL (SRSSDL to assess students’ SDL behaviour. Focus group discussions with selected faculty leaders were thematically analysed to assess their perceptions of SDL. Results. The medical students reported moderate SDL behaviour, contrary to faculty, who considered their students’ SDL behaviour to be low. Faculty leadership further defined SDL as the self-motivated student demonstrating initiative in learning under the guidance of teachers, who use interactive forums for teaching. Furthermore, teachers and students should partner towards the goal of ensuring that student learning takes place. Teachers expressed concerns about SDL methods in medical schools owing to the fear that this will require medical students to teach themselves medicine without expert guidance from teachers. Conclusion. This study suggests that final-year students have a low to moderate level of SDL behaviour. The index faculty are willing to develop teacherguided self-motivated learning for their students, rather than strict SDL. Faculty should be concerned about this behaviour and should encourage SDL in such a way that students realise its benefits to become lifelong learners. Further study of the perceptions about self-regulated learning are recommended.

  4. The Toyota Production Systems fundamental nature at selected South African organisations A learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nortje, F. D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toyota Production System (TPS has been cited as being the pinnacle of continuous improvement approaches in manufacturing organisations, and many models of the TPS are well known. However, some authors question the effectiveness of established approaches, and propose Batesons theory of learning [1] to be an effective way to explain phenomena like the TPS. This paper investigates the degree to which TPS elements are found in selected South African organisations. It constructs a model of the TPS using Bateson's theory of learning as a framework. The adoption of TPS elements is investigated through multiple qualitative case studies in seven organisations. The analysis follows a clustering and cross-case approach combined with pattern matching. While elements vary in their use, the selected organisations practise the TPS substantially less than the model advocates, with the model being least practised in low volume job/batch manufacturing. Product-process differences and higher levels of the TPS model may clarify peculiar outcomes.

  5. Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Bucci, David J; Gorman, Linda K; Wiley, Ronald G; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were given injections of either 192 IgG-saporin, an apparently selective toxin for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (LES), or vehicle (CON) into either the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (nBM/SI). Place discrimination in the Morris water maze assessed spatial learning, and a trial-unique matching-to-place task in the water maze assessed memory for place information over varying delays. MS/VDB-LES and nBM/SI-LES rats were not impaired relative to CON rats in acquisition of the place discrimination, but were mildly impaired relative to CON rats in performance of the memory task even at the shortest delay, suggesting a nonmnemonic deficit. These results contrast with effects of less selective lesions, which have been taken to support a role for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in learning and memory. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. A Staff Development Program Designed To Reach the Partnership School's Goals: Cooperative Learning Strategies, Coaching Sessions and a Narrowed Academic Performance Gap among Student Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kathy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a staff-development program at Vivian Field Junior High School in Carrollton, Texas. The school is a member of the Texas Partnership School Initiative, which was created to give schools latitude in raising student achievement. The goal of the staff-development program was to identify gains in…

  7. The Role of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Instrumentality, Goal Commitment, and Motivation in Their Self-Regulation Strategies for Learning in Teacher Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jumi; Turner, Jeannine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of pre-service teachers' (n = 142) perceived endogenous/exogenous instrumentality, goal commitment, and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on their use of self-regulation strategies (effort regulation, management of time and study environment) for their teacher-education courses. Data were drawn from a customised…

  8. Reinforcement learning modulates the stability of cognitive control settings for object selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Sali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility reflects both a trait that reliably differs between individuals and a state that can fluctuate moment-to-moment. Whether individuals can undergo persistent changes in cognitive flexibility as a result of reward learning is less understood. Here, we investigated whether reinforcing a periodic shift in an object selection strategy can make an individual more prone to switch strategies in a subsequent unrelated task. Participants completed two different choice tasks in which they selected one of four objects in an attempt to obtain a hidden reward on each trial. During a training phase, objects were defined by color. Participants received either consistent reward contingencies in which one color was more often rewarded, or contingencies in which the color that was more often rewarded changed periodically and without warning. Following the training phase, all participants completed a test phase in which reward contingencies were defined by spatial location and the location that was more often rewarded remained constant across the entire task. Those participants who received inconsistent contingencies during training continued to make more variable selections during the test phase in comparison to those who received the consistent training. Furthermore, a difference in the likelihood to switch selections on a trial-by-trial basis emerged between training groups: participants who received consistent contingencies during training were less likely to switch object selections following an unrewarded trial and more likely to repeat a selection following reward. Our findings provide evidence that the extent to which priority shifting is reinforced modulates the stability of cognitive control settings in a persistent manner, such that individuals become generally more or less prone to shifting priorities in the future.

  9. Goals are not selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  10. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  11. Using Deep Learning for Targeted Data Selection, Improving Satellite Observation Utilization for Model Initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. J.; Bonfanti, C. E.; Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Govett, M.; Stewart, J.

    2017-12-01

    At present, a fraction of all satellite observations are ultimately used for model assimilation. The satellite data assimilation process is computationally expensive and data are often reduced in resolution to allow timely incorporation into the forecast. This problem is only exacerbated by the recent launch of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-16 satellite and future satellites providing several order of magnitude increase in data volume. At the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) we are researching the use of machine learning the improve the initial selection of satellite data to be used in the model assimilation process. In particular, we are investigating the use of deep learning. Deep learning is being applied to many image processing and computer vision problems with great success. Through our research, we are using convolutional neural network to find and mark regions of interest (ROI) to lead to intelligent extraction of observations from satellite observation systems. These targeted observations will be used to improve the quality of data selected for model assimilation and ultimately improve the impact of satellite data on weather forecasts. Our preliminary efforts to identify the ROI's are focused in two areas: applying and comparing state-of-art convolutional neural network models using the analysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) weather model, and using these results as a starting point to optimize convolution neural network model for pattern recognition on the higher resolution water vapor data from GOES-WEST and other satellite. This presentation will provide an introduction to our convolutional neural network model to identify and process these ROI's, along with the challenges of data preparation, training the model, and parameter optimization.

  12. Bias correction for selecting the minimal-error classifier from many machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Tang, Shaowu; Liao, Serena G; Jia, Jia; Oesterreich, Steffi; Lin, Yan; Tseng, George C

    2014-11-15

    Supervised machine learning is commonly applied in genomic research to construct a classifier from the training data that is generalizable to predict independent testing data. When test datasets are not available, cross-validation is commonly used to estimate the error rate. Many machine learning methods are available, and it is well known that no universally best method exists in general. It has been a common practice to apply many machine learning methods and report the method that produces the smallest cross-validation error rate. Theoretically, such a procedure produces a selection bias. Consequently, many clinical studies with moderate sample sizes (e.g. n = 30-60) risk reporting a falsely small cross-validation error rate that could not be validated later in independent cohorts. In this article, we illustrated the probabilistic framework of the problem and explored the statistical and asymptotic properties. We proposed a new bias correction method based on learning curve fitting by inverse power law (IPL) and compared it with three existing methods: nested cross-validation, weighted mean correction and Tibshirani-Tibshirani procedure. All methods were compared in simulation datasets, five moderate size real datasets and two large breast cancer datasets. The result showed that IPL outperforms the other methods in bias correction with smaller variance, and it has an additional advantage to extrapolate error estimates for larger sample sizes, a practical feature to recommend whether more samples should be recruited to improve the classifier and accuracy. An R package 'MLbias' and all source files are publicly available. tsenglab.biostat.pitt.edu/software.htm. ctseng@pitt.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Selected engagement factors and academic learning outcomes of undergraduate engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Patricia J.

    The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by George Kuh's, National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) at the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. In addition, research projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Academic Pathway Study (APS) at the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) and the Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE), Measuring Student and Faculty Engagement in Engineering Education, at the National Academy of Engineering. These research studies utilized the framework and data from the Engineering Change study by the Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State, that evaluated the impact of the new Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) EC2000 "3a through k" criteria identify 11 learning outcomes expected of engineering graduates. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent selected engagement factors of 1. institution, 2. social, 3. cognitive, 4. finance, and 5. technology influence undergraduate engineering students and quality student learning outcomes. Through the descriptive statistical analysis indicates that there maybe problems in the engineering program. This researcher would have expected at least 50% of the students to fall in the Strongly Agree and Agree categories. The data indicated that the there maybe problems in the engineering program problems in the data. The problems found ranked in this order: 1). Dissatisfaction with faculty instruction methods and quality of instruction and not a clear understanding of engineering majors , 2). inadequate Engineering faculty and advisors availability especially applicable

  14. Neuropsychological Test Selection for Cognitive Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis, clinical dementia rating; CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0 – 99.1%), geometric mean (60.9 – 98.1%), sensitivity (44.2 – 100%), and specificity (52.7 – 100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2 – 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. PMID:26332171

  15. Computerized adaptive testing in computer assisted learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Matteucci, Mariagiulia; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; De Wannemacker, Stefan; Clarebout, Geraldine; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A major goal in computerized learning systems is to optimize learning, while in computerized adaptive tests (CAT) efficient measurement of the proficiency of students is the main focus. There seems to be a common interest to integrate computerized adaptive item selection in learning systems and

  16. Effects of Peer-Assessed Feedback, Goal Setting and a Group Contingency on Performance and Learning by 10-12-Year-Old Academy Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Josh E.; Kinchin, Gary; Clarke, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coaches developing young talent in team sports must maximise practice and learning of essential game skills and accurately and continuously assess the performance and potential of each player. Relative age effects highlight an erroneous process of initial and on-going player assessment, based largely on subjective opinions of game…

  17. Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachha Behroze

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB/SH. Methods Twenty six children with SB/SH and 26 controls (age: 7 – 16 y with average intelligence, and monolingual English-speaking backgrounds participated in the study. Exclusion criteria for the SB/SH group were: prior history of shunt infection, history of seizure or shunt malfunction within the previous three months, prior diagnoses of attention disorders and/or clinical depression. Children were presented lists of words with equal exemplars each of two distinct semantic categories (e.g. fruits, animals, and told to make as high a score as possible by learning the words. The value of the words was designated by category membership (e.g. animals = low value; fruits = high value. The total number of words learned across three learning trials was used to determine memory span. Selective learning efficiency (SLE was computed as the efficiency with which items of greater value were selectively learned across three trials. Results Children with SB/SH did worse than controls on memory span (P Conclusion Success in school is often dependent on the ability to recall important facts selectively and ignore less important information. Children with SB/SH in our study had a poor memory span and were unable to monitor and report an efficient and workable metacognitive strategy required to remember a list of words. Preliminary findings may begin to explain our previous clinical and research findings wherein children with SB/SH often focus on extraneous details, but demonstrate difficulty remembering the main gist of a story/event.

  18. Different Goals for Different Folks: A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Goals across Nine Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi

    2017-01-01

    Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…

  19. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  20. Interactive prostate segmentation using atlas-guided semi-supervised learning and adaptive feature selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong, E-mail: yzgao@cs.unc.edu [Department of Computer Science, Department of Radiology, and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shi, Yinghuan, E-mail: syh@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate prostate segmentation is necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation from 3D CT images is very time-consuming and often causes large intra- and interobserver variations across clinicians. Many segmentation methods have been proposed to automate this labor-intensive process, but tedious manual editing is still required due to the limited performance. In this paper, the authors propose a new interactive segmentation method that can (1) flexibly generate the editing result with a few scribbles or dots provided by a clinician, (2) fast deliver intermediate results to the clinician, and (3) sequentially correct the segmentations from any type of automatic or interactive segmentation methods. Methods: The authors formulate the editing problem as a semisupervised learning problem which can utilize a priori knowledge of training data and also the valuable information from user interactions. Specifically, from a region of interest near the given user interactions, the appropriate training labels, which are well matched with the user interactions, can be locally searched from a training set. With voting from the selected training labels, both confident prostate and background voxels, as well as unconfident voxels can be estimated. To reflect informative relationship between voxels, location-adaptive features are selected from the confident voxels by using regression forest and Fisher separation criterion. Then, the manifold configuration computed in the derived feature space is enforced into the semisupervised learning algorithm. The labels of unconfident voxels are then predicted by regularizing semisupervised learning algorithm. Results: The proposed interactive segmentation method was applied to correct automatic segmentation results of 30 challenging CT images. The correction was conducted three times with different user interactions performed at different time periods, in order to

  1. Interactive prostate segmentation using atlas-guided semi-supervised learning and adaptive feature selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Yinghuan; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate prostate segmentation is necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation from 3D CT images is very time-consuming and often causes large intra- and interobserver variations across clinicians. Many segmentation methods have been proposed to automate this labor-intensive process, but tedious manual editing is still required due to the limited performance. In this paper, the authors propose a new interactive segmentation method that can (1) flexibly generate the editing result with a few scribbles or dots provided by a clinician, (2) fast deliver intermediate results to the clinician, and (3) sequentially correct the segmentations from any type of automatic or interactive segmentation methods. Methods: The authors formulate the editing problem as a semisupervised learning problem which can utilize a priori knowledge of training data and also the valuable information from user interactions. Specifically, from a region of interest near the given user interactions, the appropriate training labels, which are well matched with the user interactions, can be locally searched from a training set. With voting from the selected training labels, both confident prostate and background voxels, as well as unconfident voxels can be estimated. To reflect informative relationship between voxels, location-adaptive features are selected from the confident voxels by using regression forest and Fisher separation criterion. Then, the manifold configuration computed in the derived feature space is enforced into the semisupervised learning algorithm. The labels of unconfident voxels are then predicted by regularizing semisupervised learning algorithm. Results: The proposed interactive segmentation method was applied to correct automatic segmentation results of 30 challenging CT images. The correction was conducted three times with different user interactions performed at different time periods, in order to

  2. Interactive prostate segmentation using atlas-guided semi-supervised learning and adaptive feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Yinghuan; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-11-01

    Accurate prostate segmentation is necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation from 3D CT images is very time-consuming and often causes large intra- and interobserver variations across clinicians. Many segmentation methods have been proposed to automate this labor-intensive process, but tedious manual editing is still required due to the limited performance. In this paper, the authors propose a new interactive segmentation method that can (1) flexibly generate the editing result with a few scribbles or dots provided by a clinician, (2) fast deliver intermediate results to the clinician, and (3) sequentially correct the segmentations from any type of automatic or interactive segmentation methods. The authors formulate the editing problem as a semisupervised learning problem which can utilize a priori knowledge of training data and also the valuable information from user interactions. Specifically, from a region of interest near the given user interactions, the appropriate training labels, which are well matched with the user interactions, can be locally searched from a training set. With voting from the selected training labels, both confident prostate and background voxels, as well as unconfident voxels can be estimated. To reflect informative relationship between voxels, location-adaptive features are selected from the confident voxels by using regression forest and Fisher separation criterion. Then, the manifold configuration computed in the derived feature space is enforced into the semisupervised learning algorithm. The labels of unconfident voxels are then predicted by regularizing semisupervised learning algorithm. The proposed interactive segmentation method was applied to correct automatic segmentation results of 30 challenging CT images. The correction was conducted three times with different user interactions performed at different time periods, in order to evaluate both the efficiency

  3. Axiological, goal and substantial aspects of lifelong learning of teacher of higher school in context of informatization of his professional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurazakov Magomed M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues, related to insufficient competence of higher school teachers in the sphere of usingmodern informational resources and technologies in their professional activities are discussed in this paper. The suggestion offered in the paper is optimization of higher school teachers’lifelong learning. This optimization is possible due to the axiological approach to formation of substantial and procedural aspect of leaning. The support on axiological approach allows to consider the multidimensional nature of vocational and life experience, character of his base of values. The analysis of necessary content of lifelonglearning of a teacher for development of his information competence as expert, subject of activity, member of professional community and carrier of professional consciousness is presented in the paper. These aspects of professionalizing of a teacher are analyzed in the context of his learning, training and research activity.

  4. Selective Use of the Mother Tongue to Enhance Students’ English Learning Processes...Beyond the Same Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cuartas Alvarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of an action-research project that examines enhancing students’ English learning processes through the selective use of their mother tongues with the aim of overcoming their reluctant attitudes toward learning English in the classroom. This study involves forty ninth-graders from an all-girls public school in Medellin, Colombia. The data gathered included field notes, questionnaires, and participants’ focus group interviews. The findings show that the mother tongue plays an important role in students’ English learning processes by fostering students’ affective, motivational, cognitive, and attitudinal aspects. Thus, the mother tongue serves as the foothold for further advances in learning English when used selectively.

  5. Cognitive communication and cooperative hetnet coexistence selected advances on spectrum sensing, learning, and security approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    This book, written by experts from universities and major industrial research laboratories, is devoted to the very hot topic of cognitive radio and networking for cooperative coexistence of heterogeneous wireless networks. Selected highly relevant advanced research is presented on spectrum sensing and progress toward the realization of accurate radio environment mapping, biomimetic learning for self-organizing networks, security threats (with a special focus on primary user emulation attack), and cognition as a tool for green next-generation networks. The research activities covered include work undertaken within the framework of the European COST Action IC0902, which is geared towards the definition of a European platform for cognitive radio and networks. Communications engineers, R&D engineers, researchers, and students will all benefit from this complete reference on recent advances in wireless communications and the design and implementation of cognitive radio systems and networks.

  6. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  7. Identification of learning and memory genes in canine; promoter investigation and determining the selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi Moroudi, Reihane; Masoudi, Ali Akbar; Vaez Torshizi, Rasoul; Zandi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    One of the important behaviors of dogs is trainability which is affected by learning and memory genes. These kinds of the genes have not yet been identified in dogs. In the current research, these genes were found in animal models by mining the biological data and scientific literatures. The proteins of these genes were obtained from the UniProt database in dogs and humans. Not all homologous proteins perform similar functions, thus comparison of these proteins was studied in terms of protein families, domains, biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular location of metabolic pathways in Interpro, KEGG, Quick Go and Psort databases. The results showed that some of these proteins have the same performance in the rat or mouse, dog, and human. It is anticipated that the protein of these genes may be effective in learning and memory in dogs. Then, the expression pattern of the recognized genes was investigated in the dog hippocampus using the existing information in the GEO profile. The results showed that BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes are expressed in the dog hippocampus, therefore, these genes could be strong candidates associated with learning and memory in dogs. Subsequently, due to the importance of the promoter regions in gene function, this region was investigated in the above genes. Analysis of the promoter indicated that the HNF-4 site of BDNF gene and the transcription start site of CCK gene is exposed to methylation. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences of these genes showed high similarity in each of these three genes among the studied species. The dN/dS ratio for BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes indicates a purifying selection during the evolution of the genes.

  8. Prediction of selective estrogen receptor beta agonist using open data and machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu AQ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ai-qin Niu,1 Liang-jun Xie,2 Hui Wang,1 Bing Zhu,1 Sheng-qi Wang3 1Department of Gynecology, the First People’s Hospital of Shangqiu, Shangqiu, Henan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Image Diagnoses, the Third Hospital of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Mammary Disease, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, the Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Estrogen receptors (ERs are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. ERs have been validated as important drug targets for the treatment of various diseases, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. ERs have two subtypes, ER-α and ER-β. Emerging data suggest that the development of subtype-selective ligands that specifically target ER-β could be a more optimal approach to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce side effects. Methods: Herein, we focused on ER-β and developed its in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship models using machine learning (ML methods. Results: The chemical structures and ER-β bioactivity data were extracted from public chemogenomics databases. Four types of popular fingerprint generation methods including MACCS fingerprint, PubChem fingerprint, 2D atom pairs, and Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprint were used as descriptors. Four ML methods including Naïve Bayesian classifier, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine were used to train the models. The range of classification accuracies was 77.10% to 88.34%, and the range of area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve values was 0.8151 to 0.9475, evaluated by the 5-fold cross-validation. Comparison analysis suggests that both the random forest and the support vector machine are superior

  9. Multi-Label Learning via Random Label Selection for Protein Subcellular Multi-Locations Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2013-03-12

    Prediction of protein subcellular localization is an important but challenging problem, particularly when proteins may simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more different subcellular location sites. Most of the existing protein subcellular localization methods are only used to deal with the single-location proteins. In the past few years, only a few methods have been proposed to tackle proteins with multiple locations. However, they only adopt a simple strategy, that is, transforming the multi-location proteins to multiple proteins with single location, which doesn't take correlations among different subcellular locations into account. In this paper, a novel method named RALS (multi-label learning via RAndom Label Selection), is proposed to learn from multi-location proteins in an effective and efficient way. Through five-fold cross validation test on a benchmark dataset, we demonstrate our proposed method with consideration of label correlations obviously outperforms the baseline BR method without consideration of label correlations, indicating correlations among different subcellular locations really exist and contribute to improvement of prediction performance. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets also show that our proposed methods achieve significantly higher performance than some other state-of-the-art methods in predicting subcellular multi-locations of proteins. The prediction web server is available at http://levis.tongji.edu.cn:8080/bioinfo/MLPred-Euk/ for the public usage.

  10. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  11. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongrui Wu

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interaction (BCI and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL, active class selection (ACS, and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing.

  12. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J; Parsons, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing.

  13. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  14. Goals and everyday problem solving: manipulating goal preferences in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.

  15. Selection and Use of Online Learning Resources by First-Year Medical Students: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry; Elliott, Kristine

    2017-10-02

    Medical students have access to a wide range of learning resources, many of which have been specifically developed for or identified and recommended to them by curriculum developers or teaching staff. There is an expectation that students will access and use these resources to support their self-directed learning. However, medical educators lack detailed and reliable data about which of these resources students use to support their learning and how this use relates to key learning events or activities. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively document first-year medical student selection and use of online learning resources to support their bioscience learning within a case-based curriculum and assess these data in relation to our expectations of student learning resource requirements and use. Study data were drawn from 2 sources: a survey of student learning resource selection and use (2013 cohort; n=326) and access logs from the medical school learning platform (2012 cohort; n=337). The paper-based survey, which was distributed to all first-year students, was designed to assess the frequency and types of online learning resources accessed by students and included items about their perceptions of the usefulness, quality, and reliability of various resource types and sources. Of 237 surveys returned, 118 complete responses were analyzed (36.2% response rate). Usage logs from the learning platform for an entire semester were processed to provide estimates of first-year student resource use on an individual and cohort-wide basis according to method of access, resource type, and learning event. According to the survey data, students accessed learning resources via the learning platform several times per week on average, slightly more often than they did for resources from other online sources. Google and Wikipedia were the most frequently used nonuniversity sites, while scholarly information sites (eg, online journals and scholarly databases) were accessed

  16. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative, exploratory research design was used. ... Goals affect how learners approach mathematics learning activities, which could ... research on academic success and ADHD has focused on reading ... from the data analysis process. ... Achievement goal orientation is based on a ...... Research design: Qualitative,.

  17. Computer Support for Vicarious Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthienvichienchai, Rachada; Sasse, M. Angela

    This paper investigates how computer support for vicarious learning can be implemented by taking a principled approach to selecting and combining different media to capture educational dialogues. The main goal is to create vicarious learning materials of appropriate pedagogic content and production quality, and at the same time minimize the…

  18. Do children go for the nice guys? The influence of speaker benevolence and certainty on selective word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstra, Myrthe; DE Mulder, Hannah N M; Coopmans, Peter

    2018-04-06

    This study investigated how speaker certainty (a rational cue) and speaker benevolence (an emotional cue) influence children's willingness to learn words in a selective learning paradigm. In two experiments four- to six-year-olds learnt novel labels from two speakers and, after a week, their memory for these labels was reassessed. Results demonstrated that children retained the label-object pairings for at least a week. Furthermore, children preferred to learn from certain over uncertain speakers, but they had no significant preference for nice over nasty speakers. When the cues were combined, children followed certain speakers, even if they were nasty. However, children did prefer to learn from nice and certain speakers over nasty and certain speakers. These results suggest that rational cues regarding a speaker's linguistic competence trump emotional cues regarding a speaker's affective status in word learning. However, emotional cues were found to have a subtle influence on this process.

  19. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  20. Feature Selection for Motor Imagery EEG Classification Based on Firefly Algorithm and Learning Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor Imagery (MI electroencephalography (EEG is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA classifier. Both the fourth brain–computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain–computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain–computer interface systems.

  1. Feature Selection for Motor Imagery EEG Classification Based on Firefly Algorithm and Learning Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Xie, Yi; Chen, Anqi

    2017-11-08

    Motor Imagery (MI) electroencephalography (EEG) is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA) can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA) to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP) and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD) algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA) classifier. Both the fourth brain-computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain-computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain-computer interface systems.

  2. Object learning improves feature extraction but does not improve feature selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Holm

    Full Text Available A single glance at your crowded desk is enough to locate your favorite cup. But finding an unfamiliar object requires more effort. This superiority in recognition performance for learned objects has at least two possible sources. For familiar objects observers might: 1 select more informative image locations upon which to fixate their eyes, or 2 extract more information from a given eye fixation. To test these possibilities, we had observers localize fragmented objects embedded in dense displays of random contour fragments. Eight participants searched for objects in 600 images while their eye movements were recorded in three daily sessions. Performance improved as subjects trained with the objects: The number of fixations required to find an object decreased by 64% across the 3 sessions. An ideal observer model that included measures of fragment confusability was used to calculate the information available from a single fixation. Comparing human performance to the model suggested that across sessions information extraction at each eye fixation increased markedly, by an amount roughly equal to the extra information that would be extracted following a 100% increase in functional field of view. Selection of fixation locations, on the other hand, did not improve with practice.

  3. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  4. Prediction of selective estrogen receptor beta agonist using open data and machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ai-Qin; Xie, Liang-Jun; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bing; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. ERs have been validated as important drug targets for the treatment of various diseases, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. ERs have two subtypes, ER-α and ER-β. Emerging data suggest that the development of subtype-selective ligands that specifically target ER-β could be a more optimal approach to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce side effects. Herein, we focused on ER-β and developed its in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship models using machine learning (ML) methods. The chemical structures and ER-β bioactivity data were extracted from public chemogenomics databases. Four types of popular fingerprint generation methods including MACCS fingerprint, PubChem fingerprint, 2D atom pairs, and Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprint were used as descriptors. Four ML methods including Naïve Bayesian classifier, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine were used to train the models. The range of classification accuracies was 77.10% to 88.34%, and the range of area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve values was 0.8151 to 0.9475, evaluated by the 5-fold cross-validation. Comparison analysis suggests that both the random forest and the support vector machine are superior for the classification of selective ER-β agonists. Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprints and MACCS fingerprint performed better in structural representation between active and inactive agonists. These results demonstrate that combining the fingerprint and ML approaches leads to robust ER-β agonist prediction models, which are potentially applicable to the identification of selective ER-β agonists.

  5. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  6. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  7. The Relationship Between Selected Subtests of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude and Second Grade Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Charles; Chambless, Martha

    Relationships between reading achievement and perceptual skills as measured by selected subtests of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude were investigated in a sample of 73 second graders. Verbal opposites, visual memory for designs, and visual attention span for letters were significantly correlated with both word meaning and vocabulary…

  8. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  9. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills to foster self-regulated learning: Do trained skills transfer across domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F; Baars, Martine; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Students' ability to accurately self-assess their performance and select a suitable subsequent learning task in response is imperative for effective self-regulated learning. Video modeling examples have proven effective for training self-assessment and task-selection skills, and-importantly-such training fostered self-regulated learning outcomes. It is unclear, however, whether trained skills would transfer across domains. We investigated whether skills acquired from training with either a specific, algorithmic task-selection rule or a more general heuristic task-selection rule in biology would transfer to self-regulated learning in math. A manipulation check performed after the training confirmed that both algorithmic and heuristic training improved task-selection skills on the biology problems compared with the control condition. However, we found no evidence that students subsequently applied the acquired skills during self-regulated learning in math. Future research should investigate how to support transfer of task-selection skills across domains.

  10. Environmental Modeling, A goal of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program is to determine baseline levels of select priority pollutants and petroleum markers in areas with high probability for oil spills., Published in 1999, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 1999. A goal of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program is to determine baseline levels of select priority pollutants...

  11. Effects of the ISIS Recommender System for Navigation Support in Self-Organised Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; van den Berg, Bert; Eshuis, Jannes; Waterink, Wim; Nadolski, Rob; Berlanga, Adriana; Boers, Nanda; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The need to support users of the Internet with the selection of information is becoming more important. Learners in complex, self-organising Learning Networks have similar problems and need guidance to find and select most suitable learning activities, in order to attain their lifelong learning goals in the most efficient way. Several research…

  12. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...

  13. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  14. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  15. Integrating Agricultural and Ecological Goals into the Management of Species-Rich Grasslands: Learning from the Flowering Meadows Competition in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Danièle; de Sainte Marie, Christine; Plantureux, Sylvain; Agreil, Cyril; Amiaud, Bernard; Mestelan, Philippe; Mihout, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Current agri-environmental schemes for reconciling agricultural production with biodiversity conservation are proving ineffective Europe-wide, increasing interest in results-based schemes (RBSs). We describe here the French "Flowering Meadows" competition, rewarding the "best agroecological balance" in semi-natural grasslands managed by livestock farmers. This competition, which was entered by about a thousand farmers in 50 regional nature parks between 2007 and 2014, explicitly promotes a new style of agri-environmental scheme focusing on an ability to reach the desired outcome rather than adherence to prescriptive management rules. Building on our experience in the design and monitoring of the competition, we argue that the cornerstone of successful RBSs is a collective learning process in which the reconciliation of agriculture and environment is reconsidered in terms of synergistic relationships between agricultural and ecological functioning. We present the interactive, iterative process by which we defined an original method for assessing species-rich grasslands in agroecological terms. This approach was based on the integration of new criteria, such as flexibility, feeding value, and consistency of use, into the assessment of forage production performance and the consideration of biodiversity conservation through its functional role within the grassland ecosystem, rather than simply noting the presence or abundance of species. We describe the adaptation of this methodology on the basis of competition feedback, to bring about a significant shift in the conventional working methods of agronomists and conservationists (including researchers).The potential and efficacy of RBSs for promoting ecologically sound livestock systems are discussed in the concluding remarks, and they relate to the ecological intensification debate.

  16. Utilization of Smartphones in Science Teaching and Learning in Selected Universities in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twum, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the use of mobile phone, a widespread technology, and determined how this technology influences science students' learning. The study intended to examine the use of smartphones in science teaching and learning and propose of model in the use of smartphones for teaching and learning. The research design employed…

  17. Greeting You Online: Selecting Web-Based Conferencing Tools for Instruction in E-Learning Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Academic distance learning programs have gained popularity and added to the demand for online library services. Librarians are now conducting instruction for distance learning students beyond their traditional work. Technology advancements have enhanced the delivery mode in distance learning across academic disciplines. Online conference tools…

  18. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  19. Neuropsychological characteristics of selective attention in children with nonverbal learning disabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静进; 王庆雄; 杨斌让; 陈学彬

    2004-01-01

    Background Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) usually manifest defective attention function. This study sought to investigate the neuropsychological characteristics of selective attention, such as attention control, working memory, and attention persistence of the frontal lobe in children with NLD. Methods Using the auditory detection test (ADT), Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), and C-WISC, 27 children with NLD and 33 normal children in the control group were tested, and the results of C-WISC subtests were analyzed with factor analysis. Results Compared with the control group, the correct response rate in the auditory detection test in the NLD group was much lower (P<0.01), and the number of incorrect responses was much higher (P<0.01); NLD children also scored lower in WCST categories achieved (CA) and perseverative errors (PE) (P<0.05). Factor analysis showed that perceptual organization (PO) related to visual space and freedom from distractibility (FD) relating to attention persistence in the NLD group were obviously lower than in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusions Children with NLD have attention control disorder and working memory disorder mainly in the frontal lobe. We believe that the disorder is particularly prominent in the right frontal lobe.

  20. Learning to selectively attend from context-specific attentional histories: A demonstration and some constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of evidence from the attention and performance literature show that attention filtering can be controlled by higher level voluntary processes and lower-level cue-driven processes (for recent reviews see Bugg, 2012; Bugg & Crump, 2012; Egner, 2008). The experiments were designed to test a general hypothesis that cue-driven control learns from context-specific histories of prior acts of selective attention. Several web-based flanker studies were conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Attention filtering demands were induced by a secondary one-back memory task after each trial prompting recall of the last target or distractor letter. Blocking recall demands produced larger flanker effects for the distractor than target recall conditions. Mixing recall demands and associating them with particular stimulus-cues (location, colour, letter, and font) sometimes showed rapid, contextual control of flanker interference, and sometimes did not. The results show that subtle methodological parameters can influence whether or not contextual control is observed. More generally, the results show that contextual control phenomena can be influenced by other sources of control, including other cue-driven sources competing for control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Infants Show Stability of Goal-Directed Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across…

  2. Local-learning-based neuron selection for grasping gesture prediction in motor brain machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Wang, Yiwen; Wang, Yueming; Wang, Fang; Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Shaomin; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The high-dimensional neural recordings bring computational challenges to movement decoding in motor brain machine interfaces (mBMI), especially for portable applications. However, not all recorded neural activities relate to the execution of a certain movement task. This paper proposes to use a local-learning-based method to perform neuron selection for the gesture prediction in a reaching and grasping task. Approach. Nonlinear neural activities are decomposed into a set of linear ones in a weighted feature space. A margin is defined to measure the distance between inter-class and intra-class neural patterns. The weights, reflecting the importance of neurons, are obtained by minimizing a margin-based exponential error function. To find the most dominant neurons in the task, 1-norm regularization is introduced to the objective function for sparse weights, where near-zero weights indicate irrelevant neurons. Main results. The signals of only 10 neurons out of 70 selected by the proposed method could achieve over 95% of the full recording's decoding accuracy of gesture predictions, no matter which different decoding methods are used (support vector machine and K-nearest neighbor). The temporal activities of the selected neurons show visually distinguishable patterns associated with various hand states. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed method can better eliminate the irrelevant neurons with near-zero weights and provides the important neuron subset with the best decoding performance in statistics. The weights of important neurons converge usually within 10-20 iterations. In addition, we study the temporal and spatial variation of neuron importance along a period of one and a half months in the same task. A high decoding performance can be maintained by updating the neuron subset. Significance. The proposed algorithm effectively ascertains the neuronal importance without assuming any coding model and provides a high performance with different

  3. The use of EMG biofeedback for learning of selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L

    2010-01-01

    the serratus anterior with visual EMG biofeedback, while the activity of four parts of the serratus anterior and four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. One subject was able to selectively activate both the upper and the lower serratus anterior respectively. Moreover, three subjects managed...... to selectively activate the lower serratus anterior, and two subjects learned to selectively activate the upper serratus anterior. During selective activation of the lower serratus anterior, the activity of this muscle part was 14.4+/-10.3 times higher than the upper serratus anterior activity (P....05). The corresponding ratio for selective upper serratus vs. lower serratus anterior activity was 6.4+/-1.7 (Ptimes higher synergistic activity of the lower trapezius compared with the upper trapezius (P

  4. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 1. Lessons to Learn from Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Tokaimura and the New Era of the European Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, Frigyes

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the reasons, the progression, and the improvements made in the aftermath of the world's three most disastrous and publicized nuclear accidents, as well as the lessons still to be learned. At present, the entire European electrical grid is integrated, and reactor manufacturers have become fewer and bigger. Until now, largely only the operators were accused of committing human errors. This contradicts the claim that later technological improvements offset the possibility of a repetition of the accident. To improve the safety culture, new complementary views are presented that previously had been overlooked. Technological improvements and safety culture deficiencies at the managerial level are still missing. Although the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl, and Tokaimura occurred on different continents at entirely different plants, these accidents share many common features in terms of precursors, progression, and succession. In the actual work, these common features are analyzed, and as a result, some recommendations are made. The results of the analyses show the following deficiencies in safety culture: 1. The precursors were not properly evaluated, and consequently, the correct conclusions were not deduced and applied. 2. The operators need much improved information about the status of the process that they control to be able to make the right decisions. 3. Operators must improve their awareness of observing deviations at an early stage to avoid accidents, and they also must improve their preparedness to meet the challenges of unexpected occurrences. 4. Management must learn to see the activities at the plant through the operators' eyes. 5. The price of the 'profit' of meeting time schedules by pressuring people is all to high for these practices to continue. The significance of the results is that they give direction to an improved safety culture, as follows: 1. Industry and management authority must assume

  5. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  6. Oxytocin selectively facilitates learning with social feedback and increases activity and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-06-01

    In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Practical goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This book and its treatment of goal programming will help organizations meet targets and objectives. The book includes many worked-out examples and tutorial exercises, and is designed to demostrate and teach its readers good modeling practice.

  8. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  9. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  10. Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: A comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning (DL) is a representation learning approach ideally suited for image analysis challenges in digital pathology (DP). The variety of image analysis tasks in the context of DP includes detection and counting (e.g., mitotic events), segmentation (e.g., nuclei), and tissue classification (e.g., cancerous vs. non-cancerous). Unfortunately, issues with slide preparation, variations in staining and scanning across sites, and vendor platforms, as well as biological variance, such as the presentation of different grades of disease, make these image analysis tasks particularly challenging. Traditional approaches, wherein domain-specific cues are manually identified and developed into task-specific "handcrafted" features, can require extensive tuning to accommodate these variances. However, DL takes a more domain agnostic approach combining both feature discovery and implementation to maximally discriminate between the classes of interest. While DL approaches have performed well in a few DP related image analysis tasks, such as detection and tissue classification, the currently available open source tools and tutorials do not provide guidance on challenges such as (a) selecting appropriate magnification, (b) managing errors in annotations in the training (or learning) dataset, and (c) identifying a suitable training set containing information rich exemplars. These foundational concepts, which are needed to successfully translate the DL paradigm to DP tasks, are non-trivial for (i) DL experts with minimal digital histology experience, and (ii) DP and image processing experts with minimal DL experience, to derive on their own, thus meriting a dedicated tutorial. This paper investigates these concepts through seven unique DP tasks as use cases to elucidate techniques needed to produce comparable, and in many cases, superior to results from the state-of-the-art hand-crafted feature-based classification approaches. Specifically, in this tutorial on DL for DP image

  11. Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: A comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Janowczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep learning (DL is a representation learning approach ideally suited for image analysis challenges in digital pathology (DP. The variety of image analysis tasks in the context of DP includes detection and counting (e.g., mitotic events, segmentation (e.g., nuclei, and tissue classification (e.g., cancerous vs. non-cancerous. Unfortunately, issues with slide preparation, variations in staining and scanning across sites, and vendor platforms, as well as biological variance, such as the presentation of different grades of disease, make these image analysis tasks particularly challenging. Traditional approaches, wherein domain-specific cues are manually identified and developed into task-specific "handcrafted" features, can require extensive tuning to accommodate these variances. However, DL takes a more domain agnostic approach combining both feature discovery and implementation to maximally discriminate between the classes of interest. While DL approaches have performed well in a few DP related image analysis tasks, such as detection and tissue classification, the currently available open source tools and tutorials do not provide guidance on challenges such as (a selecting appropriate magnification, (b managing errors in annotations in the training (or learning dataset, and (c identifying a suitable training set containing information rich exemplars. These foundational concepts, which are needed to successfully translate the DL paradigm to DP tasks, are non-trivial for (i DL experts with minimal digital histology experience, and (ii DP and image processing experts with minimal DL experience, to derive on their own, thus meriting a dedicated tutorial. Aims: This paper investigates these concepts through seven unique DP tasks as use cases to elucidate techniques needed to produce comparable, and in many cases, superior to results from the state-of-the-art hand-crafted feature-based classification approaches. Results : Specifically, in

  12. Natural variation in learning and memory dynamics studied by artificial selection on learning rate in parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.; Duivenvoorde, L.; Wang, G.; Tribuhl, S.V.; Bukovinszky, T.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the neural and genetic pathways underlying learning and memory formation seem strikingly similar among species of distant animal phyla, several more subtle inter- and intraspecific differences become evident from studies on model organisms. The true significance of such variation can only

  13. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Quality Function Deployment for Selection of E-Learning Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazancoglu, Yigit; Aksoy, Murat

    2011-01-01

    According to the Internet World Stats (2010), the growth rate of internet usage in the world is 444.8 % from 2000 to 2010. Since the number of internet users is rapidly increasing with each passed year, e-learning is often identified with web-based learning. The institutions, which deliver e-learning service via the use of computer and internet,…

  14. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children’s Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyla P.; Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1). Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students’ knowledge attribution and learning preferences. PMID:26636980

  15. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  16. Goals, Methods, and Progress in Neuroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Colin F. Camerer

    2013-01-01

    Neuroeconomics shares the main goals of microeconomics: to understand what causes choices, and the welfare properties of choice. The novel goal is linking mathematical constructs and observable behavior to mechanistic details of neural circuitry. Several complementary methods are used. An initial insight from neuroscience is that distinct systems guide choice: Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning (learning) of state-value and response-value associations, overlearned habits, and model- (or ...

  17. A hybrid gene selection approach for microarray data classification using cellular learning automata and ant colony optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaee Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Mosafer, Sara; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for gene selection in microarray data. The proposed approach consists of a primary filter approach using Fisher criterion which reduces the initial genes and hence the search space and time complexity. Then, a wrapper approach which is based on cellular learning automata (CLA) optimized with ant colony method (ACO) is used to find the set of features which improve the classification accuracy. CLA is applied due to its capability to learn and model complicated relationships. The selected features from the last phase are evaluated using ROC curve and the most effective while smallest feature subset is determined. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are K-nearest neighbor; support vector machine and naïve Bayes. The proposed approach is evaluated on 4 microarray datasets. The evaluations confirm that the proposed approach can find the smallest subset of genes while approaching the maximum accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Goal setting education and counseling practices of diabetes educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malemute, Charlene L; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Ballejos, Miriam; Butkus, Sue; Early, Kathaleen Briggs

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify goal setting education practices used by diabetes educators working with type 2 diabetes patients. Data were collected by a mail questionnaire with 179 diabetes educators purposively selected from the 2008 American Association of Diabetes Educators membership listing. Many diabetes educators (52%) reported that more than 75% of their patients set goals for diabetes control. Independent factor patterns for the frequency of information collected from the patient for the first diabetes education session showed that educators either focused on patients' self-management practices (exercise and dietary practices, knowledge, and social impacts of diabetes) or issues with learning about self-management, such as understanding the patient's learning style and motivation for managing diabetes. Factor patterns overall showed diverse approaches to working with patients, including strategies used with patients struggling with dietary goals and the importance of tasks to complete during the first patient session. Although most educators reported practices that were largely patient centered as promoted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and models of chronic disease management, patterns of practice suggest that diabetes educators vary considerably in how they apply education practices, especially with dietary self-management education.

  19. Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

  20. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  1. Instructional Designers' Media Selection Practices for Distributed Problem-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fells, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The design of online or distributed problem-based learning (dPBL) is a nascent, complex design problem. Instructional designers are challenged to effectively unite the constructivist principles of problem-based learning (PBL) with appropriate media in order to create quality dPBL environments. While computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools and…

  2. Own song selectivity in the songbird auditory pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poirier, Colline; Boumans, Tiny; Vellema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Like human speech, birdsong is a learned behavior that supports species and individual recognition. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine suspected to play a role in song learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of norepinephrine in bird's own song selectivity, a prope...

  3. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  4. A Model of Statistics Performance Based on Achievement Goal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…

  5. Beyond SMART? A New Framework for Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Trevor; Tosey, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy…

  6. Presenting the students’ academic achievement causal model based on goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRAHIM NASIRI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.

  7. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  8. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  9. Helping reasoners succeed in the Wason selection task: when executive learning discourages heuristic response but does not necessarily encourage logic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Rossi

    Full Text Available Reasoners make systematic logical errors by giving heuristic responses that reflect deviations from the logical norm. Influential studies have suggested first that our reasoning is often biased because we minimize cognitive effort to surpass a cognitive conflict between heuristic response from system 1 and analytic response from system 2 thinking. Additionally, cognitive control processes might be necessary to inhibit system 1 responses to activate a system 2 response. Previous studies have shown a significant effect of executive learning (EL on adults who have transferred knowledge acquired on the Wason selection task (WST to another isomorphic task, the rule falsification task (RFT. The original paradigm consisted of teaching participants to inhibit a classical matching heuristic that sufficed the first problem and led to significant EL transfer on the second problem. Interestingly, the reasoning tasks differed in inhibiting-heuristic metacognitive cost. Success on the WST requires half-suppression of the matching elements. In contrast, the RFT necessitates a global rejection of the matching elements for a correct answer. Therefore, metacognitive learning difficulty most likely differs depending on whether one uses the first or second task during the learning phase. We aimed to investigate this difficulty and various matching-bias inhibition effects in a new (reversed paradigm. In this case, the transfer effect from the RFT to the WST could be more difficult because the reasoner learns to reject all matching elements in the first task. We observed that the EL leads to a significant reduction in matching selections on the WST without increasing logical performances. Interestingly, the acquired metacognitive knowledge was too "strictly" transferred and discouraged matching rather than encouraging logic. This finding underlines the complexity of learning transfer and adds new evidence to the pedagogy of reasoning.

  10. Helping reasoners succeed in the Wason selection task: when executive learning discourages heuristic response but does not necessarily encourage logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sandrine; Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain; Delcroix, Nicolas; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Reasoners make systematic logical errors by giving heuristic responses that reflect deviations from the logical norm. Influential studies have suggested first that our reasoning is often biased because we minimize cognitive effort to surpass a cognitive conflict between heuristic response from system 1 and analytic response from system 2 thinking. Additionally, cognitive control processes might be necessary to inhibit system 1 responses to activate a system 2 response. Previous studies have shown a significant effect of executive learning (EL) on adults who have transferred knowledge acquired on the Wason selection task (WST) to another isomorphic task, the rule falsification task (RFT). The original paradigm consisted of teaching participants to inhibit a classical matching heuristic that sufficed the first problem and led to significant EL transfer on the second problem. Interestingly, the reasoning tasks differed in inhibiting-heuristic metacognitive cost. Success on the WST requires half-suppression of the matching elements. In contrast, the RFT necessitates a global rejection of the matching elements for a correct answer. Therefore, metacognitive learning difficulty most likely differs depending on whether one uses the first or second task during the learning phase. We aimed to investigate this difficulty and various matching-bias inhibition effects in a new (reversed) paradigm. In this case, the transfer effect from the RFT to the WST could be more difficult because the reasoner learns to reject all matching elements in the first task. We observed that the EL leads to a significant reduction in matching selections on the WST without increasing logical performances. Interestingly, the acquired metacognitive knowledge was too "strictly" transferred and discouraged matching rather than encouraging logic. This finding underlines the complexity of learning transfer and adds new evidence to the pedagogy of reasoning.

  11. Engaging in Argument from Evidence and the Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 3-5: A case study in complementing professional learning experiences with instructional materials aligned to instructional goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    K-5 science teachers, who often lack a science background, have been tasked with a huge challenge in implementing NGSS—to completely change their instructional approach from one that views science as a body of knowledge to be imparted to one that is epistemic in nature. We have found that providing high-quality professional learning (PL) experiences is often not enough and that teachers must have instructional materials that align with their instructional goals. We describe a case study in which the Lawrence Hall of Science (the Hall) used the Hall-developed Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 3-5 (OSS 3-5) to support a rigorous PL program for grade 3-5 teachers focused on the NGSS science and engineering practice, engaging in argument from evidence. Developed prior to the release of NGSS, the Ocean Literacy Framework and the NGSS precursor, A Framework for K-12 Science Education, informed the content and instructional approaches of OSS 3-5. OSS 3-5 provides a substantial focus on making evidence-based explanations (and other science practices), while building students' ocean sciences content knowledge. From 2013-2015, the Hall engaged cohorts of teachers in a rigorous PL experience focused on engaging in argument from evidence. During the summer, teachers attended a week-long institute, in which exemplar activities from OSS 3-5 were used to model instructional practices to support arguing from evidence and related practices, e.g., developing and using models and constructing explanations. Immediately afterward, teachers enacted what they'd learned during a two-week summer school practicum. Here, they team-taught the OSS 3-5 curriculum, participated in video reflection groups, and received coaching and just-in-time input from instructors. In the subsequent academic year, many teachers began by teaching OSS 3-5 so that they could practice engaging students in argumentation in curriculum they'd already used for that purpose. Throughout the year, teachers

  12. Parents' Goals for and Perceptions of Alphabet Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sarah N.; Evans, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parents' goals for reading ABC books with their children and their perceptions of page features. Factor analysis of a questionnaire answered by 225 parents of junior and senior kindergarten students revealed four goals for reading alphabet books. In order of importance as rated by parents the goals were: Learning to Read,…

  13. Mastery and Performance Goals Predict Epistemic and Relational Conflict Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnon, Celine; Muller, Dominique; Schrager, Sheree M.; Pannuzzo, Nelly; Butera, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The present research examines whether mastery and performance goals predict different ways of reacting to a sociocognitive conflict with another person over materials to be learned, an issue not yet addressed by the achievement goal literature. Results from 2 studies showed that mastery goals predicted epistemic conflict regulation (a conflict…

  14. Preparatory Training, States of Goal Orientation, and Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scielzo, Shannon; Neeper, Michael; Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    We used an online academic-advising program to examine the effects of preparatory training designed to elicit high states of learning-goal orientation and low states of avoid goal orientation. Results indicate that training was effective in some cases for manipulating states of goal orientation. The training did not directly affect behaviors as…

  15. Formative use of select-and-fill-in concept maps in online instruction: Implications for students of different learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Charles William

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning

  16. A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-noise pollution using feature selection and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of environmental noise in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental noise and environmental-noise magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-noise prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure level descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-noise modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A data science approach to candidate gene selection of pain regarded as a process of learning and neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred; Kringel, Dario; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Lötsch, Jörn

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of "big data" enables novel research approaches to chronic pain while also requiring novel techniques for data mining and knowledge discovery. We used machine learning to combine the knowledge about n = 535 genes identified empirically as relevant to pain with the knowledge about the functions of thousands of genes. Starting from an accepted description of chronic pain as displaying systemic features described by the terms "learning" and "neuronal plasticity," a functional genomics analysis proposed that among the functions of the 535 "pain genes," the biological processes "learning or memory" (P = 8.6 × 10) and "nervous system development" (P = 2.4 × 10) are statistically significantly overrepresented as compared with the annotations to these processes expected by chance. After establishing that the hypothesized biological processes were among important functional genomics features of pain, a subset of n = 34 pain genes were found to be annotated with both Gene Ontology terms. Published empirical evidence supporting their involvement in chronic pain was identified for almost all these genes, including 1 gene identified in March 2016 as being involved in pain. By contrast, such evidence was virtually absent in a randomly selected set of 34 other human genes. Hence, the present computational functional genomics-based method can be used for candidate gene selection, providing an alternative to established methods.

  18. An investigation of the impact of selected prereading activities on student content learning through laboratory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Jesse (Shaya)

    This study investigated whether two prereading activities impacted student learning from hands-on science activities. The study was based on constructivist learning theory. Based on the work of Piaget, it was hypothesized that students who activated prior knowledge would learn more from the activities. Based on the work of Vygotsky it was hypothesized that students who talk more and write more would learn more from the activity. The K-W-L chart and anticipation guide strategies were used with eighth grade students at Graves Middle School in Whittier, California before learning about levers and convection currents. D. M. Ogle (1986) created the three-column K-W-L chart to have students activate prior knowledge. In the first column, the students write what they already know about a subject, in the second column, the students write what they want to know about the subject, and the students complete the third column after learning about a subject by writing answers to the questions that they asked in the second column. Duffelmeyer (1994) created the anticipation guide based on Herber's (1978) reasoning guide. In the anticipation guide, the teacher creates three or four sentences that convey the major ideas of the topic and the students either agree or disagree with the statements. After learning about the topic, students revisit their answers and decide if they were correct or incorrect and they must defend their choices. This research used the Solomon (1947) four-square design and compared both the experimental groups to a control group that simply discussed the concepts before completing the activity. The research showed no significant difference between the control group and either of the treatment groups. The reasons for the lack of significant differences are considered. It was hypothesized that since the students were unfamiliar with the prereading activities and did not have much experience with using either writing-to-learn or talking-to-learn strategies, the

  19. Personal Learning Environments for Supporting Out-of-Class Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo

    2014-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) it is a combination of tools (usually digital) and resources chosen by the learner to support different aspects of the learning process, from goal setting to materials selection to assessment. The importance of PLEs for teachers lies in their ability to help students develop autonomy and prepare them for…

  20. Improving AACSB Assurance of Learning with Importance-Performance and Learning Growth: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James W.; McCrohan, Kevin F.

    2017-01-01

    Two fallacious assumptions can mislead assurance of learning (AoL) loop closing. Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business guidance states that learning goals should reflect the outcomes most valued by the program, but evidence shows that schools assign equal priorities to the skills selected. The second false assumption is that…