WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning effective strategies

  1. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students.

  2. Effective Strategies for Sustaining Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs), in which educators work collaboratively to improve learning for students, need effective strategies to sustain them. PLCs promote continuous improvement in student learning and build academic success with increased teacher expertise. Grounded in organizational systems theory, participative leadership…

  3. Using Learning Strategies to Inhibit the Nocebo Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Veronica F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Learning is a key mechanism underpinning the development of the nocebo effect. The learning literature has cataloged and explored numerous ways in which the environment can be manipulated to prevent, reduce, or eradicate learning. Knowledge of these processes could be used to both inhibit the development of nocebo effects and reduce already established nocebo learning. This review describes the available evidence on how such learning strategies have, or could be, applied to reduce the nocebo effect in both healthy participants and patients to date. These learning strategies include overshadowing, latent inhibition, extinction, and contingency degradation. These strategies represent important new avenues for investigation and should be used by researchers to design and test interventions to reduce nocebo effects. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of cooperative learning strategy on undergraduate kinesiology students' learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwsen, Harry J; King, George A; Pederson, Rockie

    2005-10-01

    A growing body of research supports cooperative learning as an effective teaching strategy. A specific cooperative learning strategy, Team-based Learning, was applied to a convenience sample of four undergraduate sophomore-level motor behavior courses over four semesters from Fall 2002 to Spring 2004 to examine whether this strategy would affect students' learning styles. The data from the Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales indicated that this teaching strategy was associated with a significant decrease in the negative Avoidant and Dependent learning styles and an improvement in the positive Participant learning style.

  5. The effectiveness of a learning strategies program for university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roces Montero, Cristina; Sierra Y Arizmendiarrieta, Beatriz

    2017-11-01

    University lecturers often complain about their students’ lack of learning strategies, but not many universities in Spain offer specific courses in this area. Studies on their effectiveness are also rare. This study presents the results of a Learning Strategies Course implemented at the School of Teacher Training and Education, University of Oviedo, Spain. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experi-mental (n = 60) and a control group (n = 57) of students on the Educational Psychology course. A Spanish adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ): the CEAMR2 was used as a pre and post-test measure. Group A (EG) received training in learning strategies, while group B (CG) received no training. Post-test measures showed significant differences in five out of the ten learning strategies assessed: elaboration, organization, repetition, self-questioning and study space, and also an improvement in one out of the six motivational scales: control of learning beliefs. The results suggest that learning strategies courses with proven effectiveness should be offered to university students.

  6. Learning strategies during clerkships and their effects on clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lohuizen, M. T.; Kuks, J. B. M.; van Hell, E. A.; Raat, A. N.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research revealed relationships between learning strategies and knowledge acquisition. During clerkships, however, students' focus widens beyond mere knowledge acquisition as they further develop overall competence. This shift in focus can influence learning strategy use. Aim:

  7. Effect of group conselling on learning and remembering strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study investigated the effect of group counseling on learning and remembering strategies of diploma students in University of Maiduguri and its implications for examination malpractices. Two objectives and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population consisted of all the diploma students in ...

  8. The effect of student learning strategies on performance and carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the learning strategies of 500 undergraduate students in higher education in the Wa Campus of the University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana and the effect on their performance and carrier aspirations. Twenty lecturers and managers of three development organisations that receive students ...

  9. Learning strategies during clerkships and their effects on clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lohuizen, M T; Kuks, J B M; van Hell, E A; Raat, A N; Cohen-Schotanus, J

    2009-11-01

    Previous research revealed relationships between learning strategies and knowledge acquisition. During clerkships, however, students' focus widens beyond mere knowledge acquisition as they further develop overall competence. This shift in focus can influence learning strategy use. We explored which learning strategies were used during clerkships and their relationship to clinical performance. Participants were 113 (78%) clerks at the university hospital or one of six affiliated hospitals. Learning strategies were assessed using the 'Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire' (deep, surface-rational and surface-disorganised learning). Clinical performance was calculated by taking the mean of clinical assessment marks. The relationship between learning strategies and clinical performance was explored using regression analysis. Most students (89%) did not clearly prefer a single learning strategy. No relationship was found between learning strategies and clinical performance. Since overall competence comprises integration of knowledge, skills and professional behaviour, we assume that students without a clear preference use more than one learning strategy. Finding no relationship between learning strategies and clinical performance reflects the complexity of clinical learning. Depending on circumstances it may be important to obtain relevant information quickly (surface-rational) or understand material thoroughly (deep). In future research we will examine when and why students use different learning strategies.

  10. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  11. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  12. Effectiveness of Learning Strategies Taught to Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Gizem; Dikbayir, Ahmet; Genç, Salih Zeki

    2017-01-01

    The research was carried out with 41 people educated in Ege University, Faculty of Education, Social Studies Teacher Training Department during the fall semester of 2015-2016 academic year. Quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Within the scope of the research, prospective teachers were taught learning strategies lasting for ten weeks.…

  13. Predicting intraindividual changes in learning strategies: The effects of previous achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Buško, Vesna; Mujagić, Amela

    2013-01-01

    Socio-cognitive models of self-regulated learning (e.g., Pintrich, 2000) emphasize contextualized nature oflearning process, and within-person variation in learning processes, along with between-person variability in selfregulation.Previous studies about contextual nature of learning strategies have mostly focused on the effects ofdifferent contextual factors on interindividual differences in learning strategies utilization. However, less attentionwas given to the question about contextual ef...

  14. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... It was also found that numerical ability had a significant main effect on the ... are indispensable tools for geographers at different levels. .... analysis of the “Effect of face-to-face cooperative learning: Do recent studies falsify or.

  15. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José A; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Merí, Alex; Molina-Ros, Antoni; Molina-Tomás, M Carmen; Masdeu, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to implement innovative teaching methods--blended learning strategies--that include the use of new information technologies in the teaching of human anatomy and to analyse both the impact of these strategies on academic performance, and the degree of user satisfaction. The study was carried out among students in Year 1 of the biology degree curriculum (human biology profile) at Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. Two groups of students were tested on knowledge of the anatomy of the locomotor system and results compared between groups. Blended learning strategies were employed in 1 group (BL group, n = 69); the other (TT group; n = 65) received traditional teaching aided by complementary material that could be accessed on the Internet. Both groups were evaluated using the same types of examination. The average marks presented statistically significant differences (BL 6.3 versus TT 5.0; P < 0.0001). The percentage pass rate for the subject in the first call was higher in the BL group (87.9% versus 71.4%; P = 0.02), reflecting a lower incidence of students who failed to sit the examination (BL 4.3% versus TT 13.8%; P = 0.05). There were no differences regarding overall satisfaction with the teaching received. Blended learning was more effective than traditional teaching for teaching human anatomy.

  16. Comparative Effect of Memory and Cognitive Strategies Training on EFL Intermediate Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisaeid, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…

  17. A Study of Effective Strategies to Stimulate College Non-English Majors' Motivation for Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向玉

    2008-01-01

    As an English teacher for non-English majors in a college in Wuhan,I find that most of my students are not interested in learning English.Thus.I am concerned about how to stimulate my students' motivation in learning English.This paper discusses some effective strategies to stimulate college non-English majors' motivation for learning English.such as creating a comfortable atmosphere,buiIding students' confidence,promoting cooperative learning.and incorporating the multiple intelligences concept in the classroom.These strategies do have practical application in my classroom and have motivated my students' interest in English learning.

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Reading Skill Moderate the Effectiveness of Strategy Training in Learning from Hypertext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Johannes; Richter, Tobias; Christmann, Ursula; Groeben, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are particularly important for learning with hypertext. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on available working memory resources. Thus, especially learners high on working memory capacity can profit from strategy training, while learners low on working memory capacity might easily be…

  19. Exploring Effectiveness and Moderators of Language Learning Strategy Instruction on Second Language and Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola O.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized recent research on strategy instruction (SI) effectiveness to estimate SI effects and their moderators for two domains: second/foreign language and self-regulated learning. A total of 37 studies (47 independent samples) for language domain and 16 studies (17 independent samples) for self-regulated learning domain…

  20. Learning about the Types of Plastic Wastes: Effectiveness of Inquiry Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheng, Nga-Yee Irene; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Zhan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impacts of the inquiry learning strategies employed in a "Plastic Education Project" on primary students' knowledge, beliefs and intended behaviour in Hong Kong. Student questionnaires and a test on plastic types were adopted for data collection. Results reveal that the inquiry learning strategies…

  1. Case-based learning in VTLE: An effective strategy for improving learning design

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Ortiz, Lourdes; Sangrà, Albert; Maina, Marcelo Fabián

    2014-01-01

    This article presents preliminary research from an instructional design perspective on the design of the case method as an integral part of pedagogy and technology. Key features and benefits using this teaching and learning strategy in a Virtual Teaching and Learning Environment (VTLE) are identified, taking into account the requirements of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) for a competence-based curricula design. The implications of these findings for a learning object appro...

  2. The Effectiveness of Using Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call In Learning Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraina Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of three vocabulary learning methods that are Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy, and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL in learning vocabulary among ESL learners. First, it aims at finding which of the vocabulary learning methods namely Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL that may result in the highest number of words learnt in the immediate and delayed recall tests. Second, it compares the results of the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test to determine the differences of learning vocabulary using the methods. A quasi-experiment that tested the effectiveness of learning vocabulary using Dictionary Strategy, Contextual clues, and CALL involved 123 first year university students. Qualitative procedures included the collection of data from interviews which were conducted to triangulate the data obtain from the quantitative inquiries. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences when students were exposed to Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues and CALL in the immediate recall tests but not in the Delayed Recall Post-test. Also, there were significant differences when t test was used to compare the scores between the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test in using the three methods of vocabulary learning. Although many researchers have advocated the relative effectiveness of Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL in learning vocabulary, the study however, is still paramount since there is no study has ever empirically investigated the relative efficacy of these three methods in a single study.

  3. Facilitating Effective Digital Game-Based Learning Behaviors and Learning Performances of Students Based on a Collaborative Knowledge Construction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recognized the potential of educational computer games in improving students' learning engagement and outcomes; however, facilitating effective learning behaviors during the gaming process remains an important and challenging issue. In this paper, a collaborative knowledge construction strategy was incorporated into an educational…

  4. The Effects of Metacognitive Learning Strategy in Writing Enhancement of English Studen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Tyfekci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of metacognitive learning strategy in writing enhancement of English language and literature students in Kosovo. The research examined students’ metacognitive knowledge and regulation about their priorities regarding drafting, planning, organizing, summarizing, composing, reviewing and later on evaluation. Divided into two phases to first measure their awareness towards metacognition, and then to evaluate their capability in composition through learning strategies, the results of the research suggest that, contrary to the traditional view, in Kosovo, that places its importance on the teacher and not the student, the experimental participants proved that by utilizing metacognitive learning strategy enhances their writing efficiency and effectiveness. Findings also suggest that students’ attitude towards new and modern learning strategies is potently positive and welcoming.

  5. Effects of cooperative and problem-solving learning strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning is internalised faster and better when students are given opportunity to interact with one another in small groups; when topics are structured to solve real life problems, studying becomes fun and learning is facilitated and internalised; students learn better when a problem is used as a starting point for new ...

  6. Examining the Mediating Effect of Learning Strategies on the Relationship between Students' History Interest and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese

    2014-01-01

    Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain of…

  7. Effects of Computer-Assisted Jigsaw II Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Achievement and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted Jigsaw II cooperative strategy on physics achievement and retention. The study also determined how moderating variables of achievement levels as it affects students' performance in physics when Jigsaw II cooperative learning is used as an instructional strategy. Purposive sampling technique…

  8. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-02-28

    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Binnur; Kanadli, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Self-regulated learning strategies (cognitive, metacognitive, resource management, and motivational strategies) influence students' academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and motivation. Reviewing the national literature about self-regulated learning strategies, studies have indicated both significant and insignificant…

  10. Effects of Self-Instructional Learning Strategy on Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... on the learning achievement of senior secondary school students. Three research ... On the other hand, the control group was taught the same ... scientific, industrial, technological and social progress of a society. It is a ... also designed to assist middle and secondary school students who have difficulty ...

  11. The Effect of Language Learning Strategies on Proficiency, Attitudes and School Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Habók

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines language learning strategy (LLS use in connexion with foreign language attitude, proficiency and general school achievement among lower secondary students in Years 5 and 8 (n = 868 in Hungary. An adapted version of the Strategies Inventory for Language Learning questionnaire was used for data collection. The results showed that Hungarian students mainly engage in metacognitive strategies in both years. Differences between more and less proficient language learners’ strategy use have also been found. With regard to the effect of LLS on foreign language attitude, the foreign language mark and school achievement, path analysis indicated a good fit in both years. The metacognitive, social and memory strategies primarily influenced foreign language attitudes and marks in Year 5. The metacognitive strategies had a slight impact on school achievement as well as on foreign language marks. We demonstrated the dominant effect of metacognitive strategies and the low effect of memory strategies in Year 8. In addition, metacognitive strategies also influenced foreign language marks. The effect of foreign language marks on school achievement was also remarkable. There was a strong impact on the children’s attitudes through these variables.

  12. The Effect of Language Learning Strategies on Proficiency, Attitudes and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habók, Anita; Magyar, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines language learning strategy (LLS) use in connexion with foreign language attitude, proficiency and general school achievement among lower secondary students in Years 5 and 8 ( n = 868) in Hungary. An adapted version of the Strategies Inventory for Language Learning questionnaire was used for data collection. The results showed that Hungarian students mainly engage in metacognitive strategies in both years. Differences between more and less proficient language learners' strategy use have also been found. With regard to the effect of LLS on foreign language attitude, the foreign language mark and school achievement, path analysis indicated a good fit in both years. The metacognitive, social and memory strategies primarily influenced foreign language attitudes and marks in Year 5. The metacognitive strategies had a slight impact on school achievement as well as on foreign language marks. We demonstrated the dominant effect of metacognitive strategies and the low effect of memory strategies in Year 8. In addition, metacognitive strategies also influenced foreign language marks. The effect of foreign language marks on school achievement was also remarkable. There was a strong impact on the children's attitudes through these variables.

  13. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  14. Effects of the SOLVE Strategy on the Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…

  15. The Effect of Reflective Science Journal Writing on Students' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawahi, Nawar M.; Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of grade-ten students' reflective science journal writing on their self-regulated learning strategies. We used a pre-post control group quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 62 tenth-grade students (15 years old) in Oman, comprising 32 students in the experimental group and 30 students…

  16. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  17. Effects of Constructing versus Playing an Educational Game on Student Motivation and Deep Learning Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and…

  18. Effects of constructing versus playing an educational game on student motivation and deep learning strategy use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, N.W.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Denessen, E.J.P.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128)

  19. Recommendation strategies for e-learning: preliminary effects of a personal recommender system for lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Van den Berg, Bert; Eshuis, Jannes; Berlanga, Adriana; Nadolski, Rob; Waterink, Wim; Boers, Nanda; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., Van den Berg, B., Eshuis, J., Berlanga, A. J., Nadolski, R. J., Waterink, W., Boers, N., & Koper, R. (2007). Recommendation strategies for e-learning: preliminary effects of personal recommender system for lifelong learners. Unpublished manuscript.

  20. Effect of Writing-to-Learn Strategy on Undergraduates' Conceptual Understanding of Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Sengül

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of Writing-to-Learn (WTL) strategy on undergraduates' conceptual understanding of electrostatics. The sample of the study was 54 university students registered at elementary school mathematics education department. While the experimental group was asked to conduct WTL activities like explanatory…

  1. Novel Symbol Learning-Induced Stroop Effect: Evidence for a Strategy-Based, Utility Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The automaticity level and attention priority/strategy are two major theories that have attempted to explain the mechanism underlying the Stroop effect. Training is an effective way to manipulate the experience with the two dimensions (ink color and color word) in the Stroop task. In order to distinguish the above two factors (the automaticity or…

  2. Effects of observational learning on students' use of and attitude towards reading and learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniep, J.; Janssen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that observation can be effective for learning in various domains, for instance writing, reading and creative art work. By observing models at work, students may develop strategic knowledge and they may also change their conception of what the modeled skill involves. The

  3. Learning to modulate one's own brain activity: The effect of spontaneous mental strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using neurofeedback (NF, individuals can learn to modulate their own brain activity, in most cases electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms. Although a large body of literature reports positive effects of NF training on behavior and cognitive functions, there are hardly any reports on how participants can successfully learn to gain control over their own brain activity. About one third of people fail to gain significant control over their brain signals even after repeated training sessions. The reasons for this failure are still largely unknown. In this context, we investigated the effects of spontaneous mental strategies on NF performance. Twenty healthy participants performed either a SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15 Hz based or a Gamma (40-43 Hz based NF training over ten sessions. After the first and the last training session, they were asked to write down which mental strategy they have used for self-regulating their EEG. After the first session, all participants reported the use of various types of mental strategies such as visual strategies, concentration, or relaxation. After the last NF training session, four participants of the SMR group reported to employ no specific strategy. These four participants showed linear improvements in NF performance over the ten training sessions. In contrast, participants still reporting the use of specific mental strategies in the last NF session showed no changes in SMR based NF performance over the ten sessions. This effect could not be observed in the Gamma group. The Gamma group showed no prominent changes in Gamma power over the NF training sessions, regardless of the mental strategies used. These results indicate that successful SMR based NF performance is associated with implicit learning mechanisms. Participants stating vivid reports on strategies to control their SMR probably overload cognitive resources, which might be counterproductive in terms of increasing SMR power.

  4. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  5. Blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Natasa; Masic, Srdjan; Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Trajkovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena; Bukumiric, Zoran; Savic, Marko; Cirkovic, Andja; Gajic, Milan; Stanisavljevic, Dejana

    2018-04-01

    We sought to determine whether blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics. The trial was conducted with 69 Masters' students of public health attending the School of Public Health at University of Belgrade. Students were exposed to the traditional and blended learning styles. Blended learning included a combination of face-to-face and distance learning methodologies integrated into a single course. Curriculum development was guided by competencies as suggested by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER). Teaching methods were compared according to the final competence score. Forty-four students were enrolled in the traditional method of education delivery, and 25 to the blended learning format. Mean exam scores for the blended learning group were higher than for the on-site group for both the final statistics score (89.65 ± 6.93 vs. 78.21 ± 13.26; p  0.8). A blended learning approach is an attractive and effective way of acquiring biostatistics competence for Masters of Public Health (MPH) graduate students.

  6. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  7. Examining the Effects of Two Computer Programming Learning Strategies: Self-Explanation versus Reading Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study described here explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on learning the computer programming language JavaScript. Students’ test performance and perceptions of effectiveness toward the two strategies were examined. An online interactive tutorial instruction implementing worked-examples and multimedia learning principles was developed for this study. Participants were 147 high school students (ages 14 to 18 of a computer introductory course in six periods which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 78; n = 69 of three periods each. The two groups alternated learning strategies to learn five lessons. Students’ prerequisite knowledge of XHTML and motivation to learn computer programming languages were measured before starting the tutorial. Students largely expressed their preference toward self-explanation over reading questions and answers. They thought self-explanation incurred much more work yet was more effective. However, the two learning strategies did not have differential effects on students’ test performance. The seeming discrepancy arising from students’ preferred strategy and their test performance was discussed in the areas of familiar versus new strategy, difficulty of learning materials and testing method, and experimental duration.

  8. The effects of mother-child mediated learning strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shomron, Vered

    2018-06-01

    The theoretical framework of the current study is based on mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which is similar to the scaffolding concept. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). Secondary questions were to what extent the home environment, severity of boy's LD, and mother's attitude towards her child's LD affect her MLE strategies and consequently the child's psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. The main objectives of this study were the following: (a) to investigate the effects of mother-child MLE strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability among 7- to 10-year-old boys with LD, (b) to study the causal effects of distal factors (i.e., socio-economic status [SES], home environment, severity of child's LD, mother's attitude towards LD) and proximal factors (i.e., MLE strategies) on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. A sample of mother-child dyads (n = 100) were videotaped during a short teaching interaction. All children were boys diagnosed as children with LD. The interaction was analysed for MLE strategies by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. Children were administered psychological resilience tests and their cognitive modifiability was measured by dynamic assessment using the Analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery. Home environment was rated by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and mothers answered a questionnaire of attitudes towards child's LD. The findings showed that mother-child MLE strategies, HOME, and socio-economic level contributed significantly to prediction of psychological resilience (78%) and cognitive modifiability (51%). Psychological resilience was positively correlated with cognitive modifiability (Rc = 0.67). Structural equation modelling analysis supported, in general

  9. The Combined Effects of Classroom Teaching and Learning Strategy Use on Students' Chemistry Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2015-02-01

    For students to be successful in school chemistry, a strong sense of self-efficacy is essential. Chemistry self-efficacy can be defined as students' beliefs about the extent to which they are capable of performing specific chemistry tasks. According to Bandura (Psychol. Rev. 84:191-215, 1977), students acquire information about their level of self-efficacy from four sources: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. No published studies have investigated how instructional strategies in chemistry lessons can provide students with positive experiences with these four sources of self-efficacy information and how the instructional strategies promote students' chemistry self-efficacy. In this study, questionnaire items were constructed to measure student perceptions about instructional strategies, termed efficacy-enhancing teaching, which can provide positive experiences with the four sources of self-efficacy information. Structural equation modeling was then applied to test a hypothesized mediation model, positing that efficacy-enhancing teaching positively affects students' chemistry self-efficacy through their use of deep learning strategies such as metacognitive control strategies. A total of 590 chemistry students at nine secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in the survey. The mediation model provided a good fit to the student data. Efficacy-enhancing teaching had a direct effect on students' chemistry self-efficacy. Efficacy-enhancing teaching also directly affected students' use of deep learning strategies, which in turn affected students' chemistry self-efficacy. The implications of these findings for developing secondary school students' chemistry self-efficacy are discussed.

  10. Impact of Guided Reflection with Peers on the Development of Effective Problem Solving Strategies and Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation, and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial…

  11. The effect of problem-based learning with cooperative-learning strategies in surgery clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Sevgi; Konan, Ali; Kılıç, Yusuf Alper; Özvarış, Şevkat Bahar; Sayek, Iskender

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative learning is used often as part of the problem-based learning (PBL) process. But PBL does not demand that students work together until all individuals master the material or share the rewards for their work together. A cooperative learning and assessment structure was introduced in a PBL course in 10-week surgery clerkship, and the difference was evaluated between this method and conventional PBL in an acute abdominal pain module. An experimental design was used. No significant differences in achievement were found between the study and control group. Both the study and control group students who scored low on the pretest made the greatest gains at the end of the education. Students in the cooperative learning group felt that cooperation helped them learn, it was fun to study and expressed satisfaction, but they complained about the amount of time the groups had to work together, difficulties of group work, and noise during the sessions. This study evaluated the impact of a cooperative learning technique (student team learning [STL]) in PBL and found no differences. The study confirms that a relationship exists between allocated study time and achievement, and student's satisfaction about using this technique. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on learning of front crawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Priscila Garcia; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on motor skill learning. For this purpose, beginner and intermediate learner swimmers practised the front crawl. Seventy college students took part in this experiment. They comprised 40 novice learners, both male (n=19) and female (n=21), with an average age of 20.7 years (±0.44), and 30 intermediate learners, both male (n=17) and female (n=13), with an average age of 21.1 years (±0.86). The design involved a pretest (one day), four acquisition sessions (four days), and a retention test (one day). They were divided into three groups: (1) choice, which could choose to watch a video with their best or overall performance during practise; (2) yoked, which were paired to those of the choice group; and (3) control (did not watch any video). The measures included the performance of front crawl and self-efficacy. The results showed that: (1) beginners who chose a type of observation strategy had superior motor skill learning; (2) for intermediate learners, self-observation promoted better motor learning, regardless of the control of choices; (3) self-observation improved self-efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. Aim To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Materials and Methods Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic ‘gout’, they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students’ and faculty’s responses were collected on a Likert scale. Results Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. Discussion The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. Conclusion PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning

  14. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Maya; Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G

    2016-12-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic 'gout', they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students' and faculty's responses were collected on a Likert scale. Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning strategy for students in medical schools where PBL is part of the curriculum. It

  15. The Effect of Focus Strategies on ADHD Students' English Vocabulary Learning in Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. ADHD is also among the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting school-aged children"(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000. Too many young girls are not getting the help they need because of hidden symptoms and late diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of focus strategies on vocabulary learning of ADHD students at two junior high schools. To this end, eight female ADHD and eight normal students from two public schools were assigned to the both control group and the experimental one. The quantitative data was gathered from each student and was analyzed through 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA in a factorial arrangement with two repetitions. An orthogonal test was used to compare the strategies that were used in the control group (word list and the experimental group (key word method, concentration, making sentences and fold overs. The instrument of this study contained a questionnaire sent to the parents and English teachers, an interview with a psychologist, a pre-test and a post-test. The results indicated that the four focus strategies in the experimental group increased the vocabulary learning in ADHD students for the short term retention and this increase was significant in the first focus strategy (key word method and mostly the last one (fold overs in the normal and ADHD students. The mean scores of control group were lower than the treatment group both in the normal and ADHD students. The results of delayed post-test revealed that although focus strategies improved the scores of the normal students compared to the ADHD students, this difference was not significant.

  16. The Effects of Game Strategy and Preference-Matching on Flow Experience and Programming Performance in Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Chen, Ming-Puu

    2010-01-01

    Learning to program is difficult for novices, even for those undergraduates who have majored in computer science. The study described in this paper has investigated the effects of game strategy and preference-matching on novice learners' flow experience and performance in learning to program using an experiential gaming activity. One hundred and…

  17. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  18. Effects of Higher-order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist Reasoning and Fact Learning in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist

  19. The effects of strength-based versus deficit-based self-regulated learning strategies on students' effort intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students’ intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e.,

  20. The Effect of Emotionality and Openness to Experience on Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Ranjbaran Oskouei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and learner variables of Iranian learners of English as a foreign Language (EFL with special reference to their personality types to examine what implications these associations have for teaching EFL. It tried to find any possible relation between vocabulary learning strategies use of Iranian EFL students and two personality types, namely emotionality and openness to experience. For so doing, a representative sample of the EFL students was chosen, which comprised 120 second year EFL students from Islamic Azad university of Tabriz.  The data were collected using two questionnaires - Schmitt’s vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire and HEXACO personality assessment questionnaire;only two dimensions of emotionality and openness to experience were investigated in this research. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the associations between the learner variables and use of vocabulary learning strategies. The findings showed differences in strategy use indicating that these strategy choices are correlated with their personality type. It was found that there is a positive relation between emotionality and cognitive strategies, and also between emotionality and metacognitive strategies. The results also showed that there is a positive relation between openness to experience and memory, and social strategies.

  1. Flipped-Class Pedagogy Enhances Student Metacognition and Collaborative-Learning Strategies in Higher Education But Effect Does Not Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, E. A.; Winnips, J. C.; Brouwer, N.

    2015-01-01

    In flipped-class pedagogy, students prepare themselves at home before lectures, often by watching short video clips of the course contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flipped classes on motivation and learning strategies in higher education using a controlled, pre- and posttest approach. The same students were followed in a traditional course and in a course in which flipped classes were substituted for part of the traditional lectures. On the basis of the validated Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), we found that flipped-class pedagogy enhanced the MSLQ components critical thinking, task value, and peer learning. However, the effects of flipped classes were not long-lasting. We therefore propose repeated use of flipped classes in a curriculum to make effects on metacognition and collaborative-learning strategies sustainable. PMID:26113628

  2. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  4. Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Instructional Tools With Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy on the Topic of Cuboid and Cube Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhuda; Lukito, A.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to develop instructional tools and implement it to see the effectiveness. The method used in this research referred to Designing Effective Instruction. Experimental research with two-group pretest-posttest design method was conducted. The instructional tools have been developed is cooperative learning model with predict-observe-explain strategy on the topic of cuboid and cube volume which consist of lesson plans, POE tasks, and Tests. Instructional tools were of good quality by criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. These instructional tools was very effective for teaching the volume of cuboid and cube. Cooperative instructional tool with predict-observe-explain (POE) strategy was good of quality because the teacher was easy to implement the steps of learning, students easy to understand the material and students’ learning outcomes completed classically. Learning by using this instructional tool was effective because learning activities were appropriate and students were very active. Students’ learning outcomes were completed classically and better than conventional learning. This study produced a good instructional tool and effectively used in learning. Therefore, these instructional tools can be used as an alternative to teach volume of cuboid and cube topics.

  5. Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Diana

    2015-01-01

    "Teaching and Learning Strategies" is a practical guide for pre-service teachers who know and understand the content of the curriculum and are looking for additional tools to teach it effectively. This book will help students to develop a comprehensive knowledge of teaching and learning strategies, which is essential in ensuring lessons…

  6. Impact of guided reflection with peers on the development of effective problem solving strategies and physics learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial verbal representation to other suitable representation, e.g., diagrammatic representation, during the initial conceptual analysis can facilitate fur...

  7. Quantitative learning strategies based on word networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue-Tian-Yi; Jia, Zi-Yang; Tang, Yong; Xiong, Jason Jie; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Learning English requires a considerable effort, but the way that vocabulary is introduced in textbooks is not optimized for learning efficiency. With the increasing population of English learners, learning process optimization will have significant impact and improvement towards English learning and teaching. The recent developments of big data analysis and complex network science provide additional opportunities to design and further investigate the strategies in English learning. In this paper, quantitative English learning strategies based on word network and word usage information are proposed. The strategies integrate the words frequency with topological structural information. By analyzing the influence of connected learned words, the learning weights for the unlearned words and dynamically updating of the network are studied and analyzed. The results suggest that quantitative strategies significantly improve learning efficiency while maintaining effectiveness. Especially, the optimized-weight-first strategy and segmented strategies outperform other strategies. The results provide opportunities for researchers and practitioners to reconsider the way of English teaching and designing vocabularies quantitatively by balancing the efficiency and learning costs based on the word network.

  8. Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang

    2009-01-01

    A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

  9. Effects of Teaching Strategies on Student Motivation to Learn in High School Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toles, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To succeed in an increasing technological and global society, students need to develop strong mathematical and problem-solving skills. This qualitative grounded theory study examined student perceptions of the ways in which teaching strategies in high school mathematics classes affect student motivation to learn the subject. Study participants…

  10. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  11. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuen, Yoong Li; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS) used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students.…

  12. Impact of Guided Reflection with Peers on the Development of Effective Problem Solving Strategies and Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-05-01

    Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation, and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial verbal representation to other suitable representation, e.g., diagrammatic representation, during the initial conceptual analysis can facilitate further analysis of the problem. But without guidance, many introductory physics students solve problems using superficial clues and cues and do not perceive problem solving as an opportunity for learning. Here, we describe a study that suggests that engaging students in reflection with peers about effective problem solving strategies while effective approaches are modeled for them and prompt feedback is provided may enhance desirable skills.

  13. Effectiveness of E-learning for the Teaching of English: A Study of Comparative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of English in Saudi Arabia (KSA is on top priority these days. Linguists, researchers, pedagogues and teachers have different perceptions and views regarding the approaches/methods/techniques of teaching of English in EFL/ESL classrooms. In today’s modern learning scenario, it is believed that appropriate utilization of sophisticated tools of e-learning has generally been recommended in order to yield best possible results in a given situation. It is found that many students are found indifferent towards learning the target language (English. Different reasons are attributed to this situation. However, in order to overcome learning difficulties and motivate the concerned learners it is suggested that the students should be well involved in the teaching/learning activities. Online resources in particular can catch the attention of even a passive learner. While ascertaining the effectiveness of e-learning in general, the following aspects were also taken into account: relevance of e-learning, utilization of e-resource, e-training for the teachers etc. The effectiveness has been measured on account of the observation, responses of the questionnaires, experiment on the sample. The findings of the study are hopefully going to be effective and useful in the current practice of teaching English. Keywords: Teaching, E-learning, online learning, pedagogues, linguists, resource utilization, e-training

  14. Flipped-Class Pedagogy Enhances Student Metacognition and Collaborative-Learning Strategies in Higher Education but Effect Does Not Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, E. A.; Winnips, J. C.; Brouwer, N.

    2015-01-01

    In flipped-class pedagogy, students prepare themselves at home before lectures, often by watching short video clips of the course contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flipped classes on motivation and learning strategies in higher education using a controlled, pre- and posttest approach. The same students were followed…

  15. Flipped-Class Pedagogy Enhances Student Metacognition and Collaborative-Learning Strategies in Higher Education But Effect Does Not Persist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, E. A.; Winnips, J. C.; Brouwer, N.

    2015-01-01

    In flipped-class pedagogy, students prepare themselves at home before lectures, often by watching short video clips of the course contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flipped classes on motivation and learning strategies in higher education using a controlled, pre- and

  16. A COMPARATIVE LOOK INTO HOW TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES: THROUGH USING PERCENTAGES OR CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hakkı ERTEN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the appropriateness of two statistical procedures for measuring the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies: percentages and correlation coefficients. To do this a group of 20 learners of English were asked to study 12 words in a written list, with their pronunciations, dictionary definitions, and example sentences. Data was collected through introspection where students were asked to verbalize their mental processes as they studied the target words. A pre-test and post-test were given to measure the task achievement. The qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and content-analysed for tokens of strategy use as well as by noting whether each use of strategies led to successful recall of the words on which they were used. To calculate the strategy effectiveness, both simple percentage calculation and correlation coefficients were employed for comparison. The findings indicated that percentage calculation can give a more realistic picture of strategy effectiveness than correlation coefficients.

  17. Effective post-literacy learning: A question of a national human resource strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    1989-12-01

    Initial literacy courses must be followed by opportunities for consolidating the mechanics of literacy skills and practical application of three skills in life. Experience has shown that these `post-literacy' objectives can be achieved, not by a second stage of the literacy course, but by a range of opportunities for learning and application of learning through a network of continuing education opportunities geared to the diverse needs and circumstances of different categories of neo-literates. A taxonomy of learner categories and learning needs is seen as a basis for planning and supporting the network of post-literacy learning. Examples from China, India and Thailand demonstrate the importance of recognizing the continuity of literacy and post-literacy efforts, the need for commitment of resources for this continuum of learning, the role of an organizational structure to deal with this continuum in a coordinated way, and the value of a comprehensive range of learning opportunities for neo-literates. A necessary condition for success in building a network of continuing learning opportunities and contributing to the creation of a `learning society' is to make human resource development the core of national development. It is argued that the scope and dimensions of post-literacy continuing education are integrally linked with the goal of mass basic education and ultimately with the vision of a `learning society'. Such a vision can be a reality only with a serious human resource development focus in national development that will permit the necessary mobilization of resources, the coordination of sectors of government and society and the generation of popular enthusiasm. A radical or an incremental approach can be taken to move towards the primacy of a human resource strategy in national development. In either case, a functioning coordination and support mechanism has to be developed for the key elements of mass basic education including post-literacy learning.

  18. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  19. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  20. Helping students learn effective problem solving strategies by reflecting with peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-07-01

    We study how introductory physics students engage in reflection with peers about problem solving. The recitations for an introductory physics course with 200 students were broken into a "peer reflection" (PR) group and a traditional group. Each week in recitation, small teams of students in the PR group reflected on selected problems from the homework and discussed why the solutions of some students employed better problem solving strategies than others. The graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants in the PR recitations provided guidance and coaching to help students learn effective problem solving heuristics. In the traditional group recitations students could ask the graduate TA questions about the homework before they took a weekly quiz. The traditional group recitation quiz questions were similar to the homework questions selected for peer reflection in the PR group recitations. As one measure of the impact of this intervention, we investigated how likely students were to draw diagrams to help with problem solving on the final exam with only multiple-choice questions. We found that the PR group drew diagrams on more problems than the traditional group even when there was no explicit reward for doing so. Also, students who drew more diagrams for the multiple-choice questions outperformed those who did not, regardless of which group they were a member.

  1. Do Young Learners Exploit the Same Learning Strategies as Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrozková, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Learning strategies are considered to be one of the key factors affecting the learning process, its effectiveness and study results. They are important for lifelong learning of foreign languages and as a learning skill they represent a priority in the process of European globalization and integration. Moreover, learning strategies as a foreign…

  2. Effect of Feedback Strategy and Motivation of Achievement to Improving Learning Results Concept in Learning Civic Education in Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Setyosari, Punaji; Haryono

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of feedback strategies on understanding and applying the concept of National ideology to students who have different achievement motivation, on learning Citizenship Education in vocational high schools. This research uses quasi experiment research design (Quasi Experiment). The subjects of this study were 133…

  3. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  4. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  5. Effect of brain-based learning strategy on students achievement in senior secondary school mathematics in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adejare Awolola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One dominant factor on how well students learn mathematics is the quality of teaching. Studies have shown that typical mathematics classroom is frosted with teaching technique that centered on explain – practice – memorize. There is a paucity particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the effect of brain-based learning strategy on the achievement regarding the learning of Mathematics of 522 Senior Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The moderator effect of cognitive style was also examined on independent variable (instructional strategy and dependent variable (mathematics achievement. The study adopted a pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design in a quasi – experimental setting. The ANCOVA statistic was used to analyzed the data collected fro the study. The result revealed significant main effect of treatment, (F(1,510 = 75.0; P < 0.05, cognitive style (F(1,510 = 23.78; P < 0.05 and significant interaction effect of treatment and cognitive style (F(1,510 = 5.027; P < 0.05 on achievement in mathematics. The result showed that brain-based instructional strategy enhanced students’ achievement in mathematics more than the conventional lecture method. It is therefore recommended that Teachers of mathematics should adopt the strategy in teaching mathematics in senior secondary school.

  6. Mental Model Progression in Learning the Electron Transport Chain: Effects of Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Hemphill, Jennifer; Nelson, David W.; Boulware, Wilma; Liang, Xinya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two instructional strategies, segmented and holistic, on the progression over time of learners' mental models toward that of an expert with the moderator of cognitive flexibility. Sixty-four juniors and seniors in a college metabolism course were randomly assigned to one of the two strategies for instruction…

  7. Effect of learner-centered teaching on motivation and learning strategies in a third-year pharmacotherapy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Kai I

    2009-05-27

    To develop, implement, and assess a learner-centered approach to teaching a third-year pharmacotherapy course in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. The pharmacotherapy course was restructured according to the learner-centered approach. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was administered to students before and after taking the course, and changes in MSLQ subscales from baseline were evaluated. Students' response to the learner-centered approach and characteristics associated with MSLQ scores were also evaluated. Compared to baseline, students' intrinsic goal orientation control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy, critical thinking, and metacognitive self-regulation improved after taking the course. Students responded positively to the learner-centered approach. Additionally, students with a clinical practice career orientation or who prepared frequently for classes scored higher on several MSLQ domains. The learner-centered approach was effective in promoting several domains of motivation and learning strategies in a third-year pharmacotherapy course.

  8. Flipped-Class Pedagogy Enhances Student Metacognition and Collaborative-Learning Strategies in Higher Education But Effect Does Not Persist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, E A; Winnips, J C; Brouwer, N

    2015-01-01

    In flipped-class pedagogy, students prepare themselves at home before lectures, often by watching short video clips of the course contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flipped classes on motivation and learning strategies in higher education using a controlled, pre- and posttest approach. The same students were followed in a traditional course and in a course in which flipped classes were substituted for part of the traditional lectures. On the basis of the validated Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), we found that flipped-class pedagogy enhanced the MSLQ components critical thinking, task value, and peer learning. However, the effects of flipped classes were not long-lasting. We therefore propose repeated use of flipped classes in a curriculum to make effects on metacognition and collaborative-learning strategies sustainable. © 2015 E. A. van Vliet et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Effectiveness of Information Processing Strategy Training on Academic Task Performance in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntorn, Sutinun; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Munkhetvit, Peeraya

    2017-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child's ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP) System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM) of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group ( n = 10) and the control group ( n = 10). Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants' ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.

  10. Effectiveness of Information Processing Strategy Training on Academic Task Performance in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutinun Juntorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning disabilities (LD can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child’s ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group (n=10 and the control group (n=10. Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants’ ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.

  11. Teaching basic medical sciences at a distance: strategies for effective teaching and learning in internet-based courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, Peggy A; Nour, Abdelfattah Y M

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has become an effective and accessible delivery mechanism for distance education. In 2003, 81% of all institutions of higher education offered at least one fully online or hybrid course. By 2005, the proportion of institutions that listed online education as important to their long-term goals had increased by 8%. This growth in available online courses and their increased convenience and flexibility have stimulated dramatic increases in enrollment in online programs, including the Veterinary Technology Distance Learning Program (VT-DLP) at Purdue University. Regardless of the obvious benefits, distance learning (DL) can be frustrating for the learners if course developers are unable to merge their knowledge about the learners, the process of instructional design, and the appropriate uses of technology and interactivity options into effective course designs. This article describes strategies that we have used to increase students' learning of physiology content in an online environment. While some of these are similar, if not identical, to strategies that might be used in a face-to-face (f2f) environment (e.g., case studies, videos, concept maps), additional strategies (e.g., animations, virtual microscopy) are needed to replace or supplement what might normally occur in a f2f course. We describe how we have addressed students' need for instructional interaction, specifically in the context of two foundational physiology courses that occur early in the VT-DLP. Although the teaching and learning strategies we have used have led to increasingly high levels of interaction, there is an ongoing need to evaluate these strategies to determine their impact on students' learning of physiology content, their development of problem-solving skills, and their retention of information.

  12. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  13. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    . Correspondingly, there were no significant findings for field-independent students of the effects of style awareness on learning strategies. The findings also revealed significant differences in terms of style awareness and its interactions with achievement on the multiple-choice test. Both field-dependent and field-independent students with style awareness achieved higher scores than their counterparts who received no style awareness. There were however no significant findings with respect to the effects of style awareness on performance on the design task. Overall this study demonstrated that providing middle-school students with cognitive-style awareness training can improve both their academic performance as well as enable them to adopt more effective learning strategies when learning in hypermedia environments.

  14. An evidence-based analysis of learning practices: the need for pharmacy students to employ more effective study strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel

    Learning is a process of constructing neural connections between what is being learned and what has already been learned. Superficial thought processes associated with memorization produce shallow, short-term learning. Higher-order thought processing (critical thinking) produces deep, long-term learning. Pharmacy students should study in ways that enable them to retain and apply what they learn. Investigators who surveyed the learning practices of pharmacy students have reported that most students resort to cramming in preparation for an upcoming exam. The practice of routinely keeping up with course material through regular study is much less common. Most students highlight or re-read material when studying rather than quizzing themselves, and many multitask or study with distractions such as texting, checking e-mails or using social media. Studies in cognitive psychology and education provide evidence to confirm the efficacy of the following learning practices: plan and manage study time, space out and repeat study, interleave (mix up) topics or methods, incorporate retrieval practice (self-quizzing, deliberative reading, or written paraphrasing), minimize distractions, leverage mistakes, and sleep at least seven hours a night. Pharmacy students need to become proficient, lifelong learners. A superficial, memorization-oriented approach to learning is detrimental to professional growth. Faculty members should guide students to employ more effective evidence-based study strategies, while also exploring how curricular design, course content, academic policy or pedagogy might be predisposing students to pursue suboptimal learning practices. The issue calls for the academy to focus greater attention on how students learn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Blended Learning Strategy on Achievement in Biology and Social and Environmental Attitude of Students at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Tara S.; Bindu, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning is mostly understood as the use of resources which combine e-learning with other educational resources. In this study, a blended learning strategy was designed with a variety of factors addressed to create a meaningful learning environment facilitated by a variety of modes, methods and moments through a combination of Objectives…

  16. Strategies for Effective Dissemination of the Outcomes of Teaching and Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Deborah; Gannaway, Deanne; Orrell, Janice; Chalmers, Denise; Abraham, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study that addresses the question of how higher education institutions can disseminate effectively the outcomes of projects that seek to achieve large-scale change in teaching and learning. Traditionally, dissemination of innovation and good practice is strongly advocated within universities, but little…

  17. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING STRATEGY AND READING INTEREST TO THE READING UNDERSTANDING ABILITY OF STUDENTS OF IAIN BUKIT TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influence of learning strategies and reading interest on the ability of reading comprehension of IAIN Bukittinggi students. The question posed is: Whether the discoveri learning strategy associated with learning interests is better than expository learning. The research population is a 5th semester student at the Department of Religious Education at IAIN Bukittinggi. Samples are taken in two classes where one class is taught by a discoveri strategy and the other is taught by an expository strategy. Data were analyzed by using t test (different test. The results show that discover learning strategies in high interest groups and low interest have higher learning outcomes than classes taught with expository strategies

  18. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  19. Is testing a more effective learning strategy than note-taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Gerst, Kathleen; Wagner, Simon

    2017-09-01

    The testing effect is both robust and generalizable. However, most of the underlying studies compare testing to a rather ineffective control condition: massed repeated reading. This article therefore compares testing with note-taking, which has been shown to be more effective than repeated reading. Experiment 1 is based on a 3 × 3 between-participants design with the factors learning condition (repeated reading vs. repeated testing vs. repeated note-taking) and final test delay (5 min vs. 1 week vs. 2 weeks). It shows that in the immediate condition, learning performance is best after note-taking. After 1 week, both the note-taking and the testing groups outperform the rereading group, and after 2 weeks, testing is superior to both note-taking and rereading. Since repeated notetaking may not be the most effective (and common) operationalization of note-taking, Experiment 2 contrasts repeated testing with 2 other note-taking conditions: note-taking plus note-reading and note-taking plus testing (with only a 2-week final test delay). Both conditions that include a testing phase result in better long-term learning than note-taking plus note-reading. In summary, our findings indicate that-in the long run-testing is a powerful learning tool both in isolation and in combination with note-taking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Cognitive Strategies for Learning from Static and Dynamic Visuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, D.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the effects of including static or dynamic visuals in an expository text on a learning outcome and the use of learning strategies when working with these visuals. Results for 60 undergraduates for both types of illustration indicate different frequencies in the use of learning strategies relevant for the learning outcome. (SLD)

  1. The effectiveness of research-based physics learning module with predict-observe-explain strategies to improve the student’s competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmeldi

    2018-05-01

    The preliminary study shows that many students are difficult to master the concept of physics. There are still many students who have not mastery learning physics. Teachers and students still use textbooks. Students rarely do experiments in the laboratory. One model of learning that can improve students’ competence is a research-based learning with Predict- Observe-Explain (POE) strategies. To implement this learning, research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy are used. The research aims to find out the effectiveness of implementation of research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy to improving the students’ competence. The research used a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest group control design. Data were collected using observation sheets, achievement test, skill assessment sheets, questionnaire of attitude and student responses to learning implementation. The results of research showed that research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy was effective to improve the students’ competence, in the case of (1) mastery learning of physics has been achieved by majority of students, (2) improving the students competency of experimental class including high category, (3) there is a significant difference between the average score of students’ competence of experimental class and the control class, (4) the average score of the students competency of experimental class is higher than the control class, (5) the average score of the students’ responses to the learning implementation is very good category, this means that most students can implement research-based learning with POE strategies.

  2. Learning Effectiveness of a Strategic Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Melinda S.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a postsecondary strategic learning course for improving metacognitive awareness and regulation was evaluated through systematic program assessment. The course emphasized students' awareness of personal learning through the study of learning theory and through practical application of specific learning strategies. Students…

  3. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  4. Training in summarizing notes: Effects of teaching students a self-regulation study strategy in science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebres, Michelle

    The last two decades of national data assessments reveal that there has been a sharp decline in nationwide standardized test scores. International assessment data show that in 2012 a very low amount of American students were performing at proficiency or above in science literacy. Research in science literacy education suggests that students benefit most when they are self-regulated (SR) learners. Unfortunately, SR poses a challenge for many students because students lack these skills. The effects of having learned few SR strategies at an early age may lead to long term learning difficulties--preventing students from achieving academic success in college and beyond. As a result, some researchers have begun to investigate how to best support students' SR skills. In order for studying to be successful, students need to know which SR study strategies to implement. This can be tricky for struggling students because they need study strategies that are well defined. This needs to be addressed through effective classroom instruction, and should be addressed prior to entering high school in order for students to be prepared for higher level learning. In this study, students underwent a treatment in which they were taught a SR study strategy called summarizing notes. A crossover repeated measures design was employed to understand the effectiveness of the treatment. Results indicated a weak, but positive correlation between how well students summarized notes and how well they performed on science tests. Self-regulation skills are needed because these are the types of skills young adults will use as they enter the workforce. As young adults began working in a professional setting, they will be expected to know how to observe and become proficient on their own. This study is pertinent to the educational field because it is an opportunity for students to increase SR, which affords students with the skills needed to be a lifelong learner.

  5. Academic Buoyancy Mediates Academic Anxiety's Effects on Learning Strategies: An Investigation of English- and Chinese-Speaking Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal our study was to explore whether relations between academic anxiety and students' use of a range of learning strategies (memorisation, elaboration, personal best [PB] goals and cooperation) were mediated by academic buoyancy. We were also interested in extending knowledge of anxiety and its role in students' learning strategy use.…

  6. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

  7. Redesigning Human Body Systems: Effective Pedagogical Strategy for Promoting Active Learning and STEM Education

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    Abour H. Cherif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a remarkable biological machine maintained by interdependent body systems and organized biochemical reactions. Evolution has worked on humans for hundreds of thousands of years, yet the current pace of technological and social change have radically affected our life style and have exposed possible human frailties. This raises the question of whether or not nature’s work could be improved upon. We provide two-sided perspectives as a rationale for the need for the redesign of the human body. Then, we describe pedagogical strategy through which students study morphological and anatomical structures and the physiological functions of the human body systems and their respective organs and parts. The students select their own favorite system or organ to redesign in order to optimize the efficiency of the anatomical structural, physiological function, and/or the aesthetic and functional morphology; a redesign that might lead to, for example, lowering risk of diabetes, heart attack, and/or stroke. Through group work and interaction (student groups compete for a prestigious “in-house” patent award, students actively engage in the learning process in order to understand the role of design in the efficiency and functionality and vulnerability to disease of the human body system.

  8. Learning how to learn: Meta-learning strategies for the challenges of learning pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Nursing students have difficulty with pharmacology courses because of the complicated nomenclature and the difficulty of applying drug information to actual patient care. As part of a new pharmacology course being created, meta-learning strategies designed to diminish the difficulties of learning this difficult content were part of the course pedagogy. Strategies were demonstrated, reviewed in class, and implemented through homework assignments. The setting was an Academic Health Center's School of Nursing in the southern United States. Participants were third-year nursing students in an undergraduate nursing program. Surveys of students' opinions of learning gains were conducted at the end of the course over several semesters. In addition, pharmacology scores on a standardized exit exam were compared prior to implementing the course and after. Students reported learning dry material more easily, having greater confidence, and finding substantial value in the learning strategies. Students indicated the most helpful strategies, in descending order, as follows: making charts to compare and contrast drugs and drug classes, writing out drug flash cards, making or reviewing creative projects, prioritizing information, making or using visual study aids, and using time and repetition to space learning. Implementation of the new course improved pharmacology scores on a standardized exit exam from 67.0% to 74.3%. Overall response to learning strategies was positive, and the increase in the pharmacology standardized exit exam scores demonstrated the effectiveness of this instructional approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effectiveness of SSCS Learning Model with KNWS Strategy towards Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability and Self Confidence of Students

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    Asa Kuntifatin Warda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Type of this study is quantitative. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of SSCS learning model with KNWS strategy towards mathematical creative thinking ability and self confidence of students. The populations of this study was students at grade VIII SMP Muhammadiyah 8 Semarang academic year 2016/2017. The sampling was done by cluster random sampling technique, which were chosen VIIIA as experiment class and VIIIC as control class. Data collection methods used documentation, a test, a questionnaire, and an observation. The result of this study stated that the mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students had reached the classical completeness, percentage of mastery learning on mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students was better than that percentage of the control class students, average of test result on mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students was better than that average of the control class students, average of self confidence score of the experiment class students was better than that average of the control class students, teacher ability and the learning activities at the experiment class students included in good category, response of the experiment class students to joint the learning is positive.

  10. Learning Goals and Strategies in the Self-regulation of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta Gonzalez, Martha Leticia

    2013-01-01

    In order to self-regulate their learning, students need to use different strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning activities (meta-cognitive strategies), as well as to control their motivation and emotion (volitional strategies). Students' effectiveness in their self-regulated learning process also varies depending on the academic…

  11. Strategies for Effective Faculty Involvement in Online Activities Aimed at Promoting Critical Thinking and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razzak, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Highly-traditional education systems that mainly offer what is known as "direct instruction" usually result in graduates with a surface approach to learning rather than a deep one. What is meant by deep-learning is learning that involves critical analysis, the linking of ideas and concepts, creative problem solving, and application…

  12. Effect of Kolb's Experiential Learning Strategy on Enhancing Pedagogical Skills of Pre-Service Teachers of Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmad'sa, Laveena; Vijayakumari, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of Kolb's Experiential Learning Strategy on enhancing the pedagogical skills of pre-service teachers of secondary school level. Kolb's Experiential Learning is a method of acquiring knowledge, skills, and experiences by creating situation to gain first hand experiences. According to Kolb optimal…

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO FOSTER PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Munazza; Iqbal, Khadija; Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that utilizes problems or cases as a context for students to acquire problem solving skills. It promotes communication skills, active learning, and critical thinking skills. It encourages peer teaching and active participation in a group. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, in one month duration. This study was conducted on 193 students of both 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Each PBL consists of three sessions, spaced by 2-3 days. In the first session students were provided a PBL case developed by both basic and clinical science faculty. In Session 2 (group discussion), they share, integrate their knowledge with the group and Wrap up (third session), was concluded at the end. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions. Teaching through PBLs greatly improved the problem solving and critical reasoning skills with 60% students of first year and 71% of 2nd year agreeing that the acquisition of knowledge and its application in solving multiple choice questions (MCQs) was greatly improved by these sessions. They observed that their self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation and skills to relate basic concepts with clinical reasoning which involves higher order thinking have greatly enhanced. Students found PBLs as an effective strategy to promote teamwork and critical thinking skills. PBL is an effective method to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  14. Learning Strategy Training in English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulselvi, M. Evangelin

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental task of schools is to endow students with strategies, which enable them to elaborate, transform, contrast and critically rebuild knowledge, that develops strategic knowledge. Learning strategy is the specific action to make the students better in learning a second language. Learning Strategy Training is based on problems the…

  15. The Effectiveness of Using an Explicit Language Learning Strategy-Based Instruction in Developing Secondary School Students' EFL Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…

  16. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  17. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Knowledge of Math Problem-Solving Processes of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade…

  18. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  19. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Students' Acquisition and Practice of Scientific Skills in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatila, Hanadi; Al Husseiny, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Recent research findings have shown that cooperative learning improves students' thinking skills as it allows them to communicate actively with each other (Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 2014). Therefore, cooperative learning has been proposed by many educators to be implemented in classrooms to produce lifelong learners and critical thinkers…

  20. The Effect of Scaffolded Strategies on Content Learning in a Designed Science Cyberlearning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    Scientific inscriptions--graphs, diagrams, and data--and argumentation are integral to generating and communicating scientific understanding. Scientific inscriptions and argumentation are also important to learning science. However, previous research has indicated that learners struggle to understand and learn science content represented in…

  1. Adult Professional Development: Can Brain-Based Teaching Strategies Increase Learning Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Brain-based teaching strategies, compared to facilitative student-centered teaching strategies, were employed with 62 real estate professionals in a quasi-mixed-methods study. Participants attended a 2-day proprietary real estate continuing education course. Both the experimental and control groups received the same facilitative instruction, as…

  2. Routing strategy in a distribution network when the driver learning effect is considered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battini, Daria; Faccio, Maurizio; Persona, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This paper faces one critical short term decision: the construction of routes for daily goods' deliveries in a distribution network. It investigates the possibility of applying a fixed routing strategy instead of a daily routing optimisation strategy, analysing the benefits derived from the drive...

  3. Effects of laterality and sex on cognitive strategy in a water maze place learning task and modification by nicotine and nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanit, L; Koylu, E O; Erdogan, O; Pogun, S

    2005-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in learning strategies and to elucidate the mechanisms, which may underlie these differences. In two separate experiments, rats were presented with different strategies that could be employed to learn the position of a platform in a water maze (WM); furthermore, rats received treatments that could influence these strategies. In the first experiment, we demonstrated that the response-learning paradigm can be applied to the WM and can be compared with visually cued learning and reversal learning. Naïve rats of either sex could acquire this protocol relatively easily. On the probe trial, where the rats are presented with a choice between using response versus visually cued learning, initially response learning was preferred, however, during these experiments, laterality emerged as a significant factor and rats trained to turn right had difficulty in reversing the learned pattern to find the platform. The second part of our study evaluated the effects of nicotine and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the aforementioned parameters. Drug treatments impaired acquisition compared to saline treatments and the effect was more pronounced with NOS inhibition. During the probe trial, while NOS inhibition enhanced the right-side bias in both sexes, nicotine treatment had the same effect only in males. In conclusion, naïve rats can acquire place learning using visible cues or response learning; however, there is a right side bias in both sexes and the laterality effect is more pronounced in male rats. In drug-treated animals, while NOS inhibition enhances laterality (right bias) in both sexes similarly, nicotine modifies the cognitive strategy in a sexually dimorphic manner by augmenting the right bias only in male rats.

  4. The Effects of Enhancing Prospective EFL Teachers' Knowledge Management Strategies in Virtual Learning Environments on Their Ideational Flexibility and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have witnessed an increased interest in moving away from traditional language instruction settings towards more hybrid and virtual learning environments. Face-to-face interaction, guided practice, and uniformity of knowledge sources and skills are all replaced by settings where multiplicity of views from different learning communities, interconnectedness, self-directedness, and self-management of knowledge and learning are increasingly emphasized. This shift from walled-classroom instruction with its limited scope and resources to hybrid and virtual learning environments with their limitless provisions requires that learners be equipped with requisite skills and strategies to manage knowledge and handle language learning in ways commensurate with the nature and limitless possibilities of these new environments. The current study aimed at enhancing knowledge management strategies of EFL teachers in virtual learning environments and examine the impact on their ideational flexibility and engagement in language learning settings. A knowledge management model was proposed and field-test on a cohort of prospective EFL teachers in the Emirati context. Participants were prospective EFL teachers enrolled in the Methods of Teaching Courses and doing their practicum in the Emirati EFL context. Participants' ideational flexibility was tapped via a bi-methodical approach including a contextualized task and a decontextualized one. Their engagement in virtual language learning settings was tapped via an engagement scale. Results of the study indicated that enhancing prospective EFL teachers' knowledge management strategies in virtual learning environments had a significant impact on their ideational flexibility and engagement in foreign language learning settings. Details of the instructional intervention, instruments for tapping students’ ideational flexibility and engagement, and results of the study are discussed. Implications for

  5. Strategies of learning from failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy C

    2011-04-01

    Many executives believe that all failure is bad (although it usually provides Lessons) and that Learning from it is pretty straightforward. The author, a professor at Harvard Business School, thinks both beliefs are misguided. In organizational life, she says, some failures are inevitable and some are even good. And successful learning from failure is not simple: It requires context-specific strategies. But first leaders must understand how the blame game gets in the way and work to create an organizational culture in which employees feel safe admitting or reporting on failure. Failures fall into three categories: preventable ones in predictable operations, which usually involve deviations from spec; unavoidable ones in complex systems, which may arise from unique combinations of needs, people, and problems; and intelligent ones at the frontier, where "good" failures occur quickly and on a small scale, providing the most valuable information. Strong leadership can build a learning culture-one in which failures large and small are consistently reported and deeply analyzed, and opportunities to experiment are proactively sought. Executives commonly and understandably worry that taking a sympathetic stance toward failure will create an "anything goes" work environment. They should instead recognize that failure is inevitable in today's complex work organizations.

  6. Effects of Matching Multiple Memory Strategies with Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' Statistics Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Lin, Wen-He

    2016-01-01

    In the era when digitalization is pursued, numbers are the major medium of information performance and statistics is the primary instrument to interpret and analyze numerical information. For this reason, the cultivation of fundamental statistical literacy should be a key in the learning area of mathematics at the stage of compulsory education.…

  7. Strategies for Using Peer-Assisted Learning Effectively in an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Casey; Ayon, Carlos; Moberg-Parker, Jordan; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Sanders, Erin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used a mixed methods approach to evaluate hybrid peer-assisted learning approaches incorporated into a bioinformatics tutorial for a genome annotation research project. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from undergraduates who enrolled in a research-based laboratory course during two different academic terms at UCLA.…

  8. Task Demands in OSCEs Influence Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Alexandre; Laflamme, Jonathan; Leppink, Jimmie; Côté, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis"). When studying for HDPE, students will dedicate more time to hypothesis-driven discussions and practice than when studying for a part-task OSCE ("Perform the shoulder exam"). It is expected that the whole-task nature of HDPE will lead to a hypothesis-oriented use of the learning resources, a frequent use of adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. In a mixed-methods study, 40 medical students were randomly paired and filmed while studying together for two hypothetical OSCE stations. Each 25-min study period began with video cues asking to study for either a part-task OSCE or an HDPE. In a crossover design, sequences were randomized for OSCEs and contents (shoulder or spine). Time-on-task for discussions or practice were categorized as "hypothesis-driven" or "sequence of signs and maneuvers." Content analysis of focus group interviews summarized students' perception of learning resources, adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. When studying for HDPE, students allocate significantly more time for hypothesis-driven discussions and practice. Students use resources contrasting diagnoses and report persistence with learning. When studying for part-task OSCEs, time-on-task is reversed, spent on rehearsing a sequence of signs and maneuvers. OSCEs with

  9. The Effect of Speech-to-Text Technology on Learning a Writing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Katrina N.; Klein, Perry D.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that speech-to-text (STT) software can support students in producing a given piece of writing. This is the 1st study to investigate the use of STT to teach a writing strategy. We pretested 45 Grade 5 students on argument writing and trained them to use STT. Students participated in 4 lessons on an argument writing…

  10. Effectiveness of distance learning strategies for continuing professional development (CPD) for rural allied health practitioners: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Angela; Murray, Carolyn M; Kennedy, Kate; Stanley, Mandy J; Gilbert-Hunt, Susan

    2017-07-12

    Allied health professionals working in rural areas face unique challenges, often with limited access to resources. Accessing continuing professional development is one of those challenges and is related to retention of workforce. Effectiveness of distance learning strategies for continuing professional development in rural allied healthcare workers has not been evaluated. We searched 17 databases and the grey literature up to September 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines. Any primary studies were included that focussed on allied health and distance delivery regardless of education topic or study design. Two independent reviewers extracted data and critically appraised the selected studies. The search returned 5257 results. With removal of duplicate references, we reviewed 3964 article titles and abstracts; n = 206 appeared potentially eligible and were scrutinised via full text screening; n = 14 were included. Studies were published between 1997 and 2016, were of varied methodological quality and were predominantly from Australia, USA and Canada with a focus on satisfaction of learners with the delivery method or on measures of educational outcomes. Technologies used to deliver distance education included video conference, teleconference, web based platforms and virtual reality. Early papers tended to focus more on the technology characteristics than educational outcomes. Some studies compared technology based delivery to face to face modes and found satisfaction and learning outcomes to be on par. Only three studies reported on practice change following the educational intervention and, despite a suggestion there is a link between the constructs, none measured the relationship between access to continuing professional development and workforce retention. Technology based options of delivery have a high utility, however the complex inter-relatedness of time, use, travel, location, costs, interactivity, learning outcomes and educational design suggest a need

  11. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Learning Strategies in the Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveja, Marsha E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between perceived parenting styles and urban adolescents' learning and studying strategies. Results revealed that those adolescents who perceived their parents as being authoritative tended to engage in more effective learning and study strategies. Discusses implications for counselors and teachers using this information…

  12. Strategies for active learning in online continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janet M

    2005-01-01

    Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.

  13. The effectiveness of concept mapping and retrieval practice as learning strategies in an undergraduate physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving information that was previously coded into memory. The relative benefits of these two methods have never been tested against each other in a classroom setting. Our study was designed to investigate whether or not concept mapping or retrieval practice produced a significant learning benefit in an undergraduate physiology course as measured by exam performance and, if so, was the benefit of one method significantly greater than the other. We found that there was a trend toward increased exam scores for the retrieval practice group compared with both the control group and concept mapping group, and that trend achieved statistical significance for one of the four module exams in the course. We also found that women performed statistically better than men on the module exam that contained a substantial amount of material relating to female reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  14. Learning How the Electron Transport Chain Works: Independent and Interactive Effects of Instructional Strategies and Learners' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C.; Nelson, David W.; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course…

  15. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  16. Guided university debate: Effect of a new teaching-learning strategy for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Marta; Unanue, Saloa; Merida, David

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that the traditional lecture suffers from limitations in the development of many important competencies such as reasoning ability for nursing professionals. In view of this issue, the authors present a promising alternative to the traditional lecture: the Guided University Debate (GUD). With regard to this aim a teaching-learning sequence of schizophrenia is described based on the GUD. Next, the improvement in the argumentative and declarative knowledge of the students who have participated in the said methodology is demonstrated. Quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design to measure differences in the improvement of declarative and argumentative knowledge. To determine if there is a statistically significant difference in the score obtained in the pre-test and in the post-test score a parametric t-tests was carried. 64 students participated in the study. Implementation of the study took place during the 2015-2016 academic year in the third year of the Nursing undergraduate degree course in the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) as part of the Mental Health class. The results showed a statistically-significant improvement in the students' scores for all learning outcomes analysed: Identifies symptoms of schizophrenia (p≤0.001), identifies the nursing interventions (p≤0.001), provides a rationale for nursing interventions (p≤0.001) and provides evidence of nursing interventions (p≤0.001). That is, the declarative and argumentative capacity of the group improved significantly with the Guided University Debate methodology. Although the teaching design feasibility and outcomes may vary in different contexts, based on this studies' positive outcome, the authors call today's educators to be able to use GUD as a teaching method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Training, Modality, and Redundancy on the Development of a Historical Inquiry Strategy in a Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Andrea L.; Doolittle, Peter E.; Hicks, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of training, modality, and redundancy on the participants' ability to apply and recall a historical inquiry strategy. An experimental research design was utilized with presentation mode as the independent variable and strategy application and strategy recall as the dependent variables. The…

  18. Learning how the electron transport chain works: independent and interactive effects of instructional strategies and learners' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C; Nelson, David W; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies' in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course (n = 151). Additionally, the participants' cognitive flexibility, prior knowledge, and mental effort in the learning process are also investigated. The data were analyzed using a series of general linear models to compare the strategies. Although the two strategies did not differ significantly in terms of mental model progression and learning outcomes, both groups' mental models progressed significantly. Mental effort and prior knowledge were identified as significant predictors of mental model progression. An interaction between instructional strategy and cognitive flexibility revealed that the backward instruction was more efficient than the conventional (forward) strategy for students with lower cognitive flexibility, whereas the conventional instruction was more efficient for students with higher cognitive flexibility. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research on the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility in the area of health education are presented.

  19. Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Use, Gender, and Learning Achievement: a Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between metacognitive language learning strategies (MLLS and gender and achievement of EFL students. Metacognitive language learning strategies are crucial for students of English as a foreign language to learn effectively. The theoretical issues discuss metacognitive language learning strategies in particular, and language learning strategies (LLS in general. The practical research took place at the English language department at Farhat Abbes University, Sétif, Algeria, with third year students learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between metacognitive language learning strategies use and achievement. Two main parts following a qualitative design constitute the body of the present research. The first part uses the Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MLLSQ to account for differences in the reported frequency of metacognitive strategies use across all the students, and across gender differences. The second part uses interviews to account for the use of these strategies at the individual level, in their relation to the students’ gender and achievement in language learning. The results of the first part revealed a significant use of metacognitive strategies among all the students and significant differences between male students and female students in the frequency of use of these strategies. Moreover, the results of the second part reflected more significant differences in the use of Metacognitive strategies at the level of gender and learning achievement. The study concludes by bringing together key findings and some suggestions for further research.

  20. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  1. A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Two Strategies of Etymological Elaboration and Pictorial Elucidation on Idiom Learning: A Case of Young EFL Iranian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Mahsa Sadat Mousavi; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of etymological elaboration, pictorial elucidation, and integration of these 2 strategies on idiom learning by L2 learners. A total number of 80 homogeneous intermediate learners studying English at 3 language institutes in Isfahan, Iran, were selected. The intermediate participants were selected as the result of…

  2. The Effect of Flipped Classroom Strategy Using Blackboard Mash-Up Tools in Enhancing Achievement and Self-Regulated Learning Skills of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Senousy, Hala; Alquda, Jumana

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom strategy (FCRS) is an innovative instructional approach that flips the traditional teacher-centered classroom into student-centered learning, by switching the classroom and home activities using the available educational technology. This paper examined the effect of (FCRS) on students' achievement and self-regulated learning…

  3. Relative Effectiveness of Computer-Supported Jigsaw II, STAD and TAI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Performance, Attitude, and Retention of Secondary School Students in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of computer-supported cooperative learning strategies on the performance, attitudes, and retention of secondary school students in physics. A purposive sampling technique was used to select four senior secondary schools from Minna, Nigeria. The students were allocated to one of four groups:…

  4. Colors vision effect: learning and teaching strategies based on reading nature images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D.; Jiménez, Y.; Vivanco, O.; Cuenca, L.; Granda, C.; Sánchez, A.

    2017-09-01

    The present work shows the teaching and motivation of University students to think about optics and color effects. The methodology consists of studying the different optical phenomena that occur through the sunsets and then do a correlation of this information with the phenomena and optical effects of the color of class presentations; to determine the motivation and attention of students.

  5. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  6. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  7. Learning algebra through MCREST strategy in junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Nurfadilah; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, J.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this paper are to describe the use of MCREST strategy in learning algebra and to obtain empirical evidence on the effect of MCREST strategy es specially on reasoning ability. Students in eight grade in one of schools at Cimahi City are chosen as the sample of this study. Using pre-test and post-test control group design, the data then analyzed in descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of this study show the students who got MCREST strategy in their class have better result in test of reasoning ability than students who got direct learning. It means that MCREST strategy gives good impact in learning algebra.

  8. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.

  9. The Effects of Segmentation and Personalization on Superficial and Comprehensive Strategy Instruction in Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Short, cause-and-effect instructional multimedia tutorials that provide learner control of instructional pace (segmentation) and verbal representations of content in a conversational tone (personalization) have been demonstrated to benefit problem solving transfer. How might a more comprehensive multimedia instructional environment focused on…

  10. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemroh Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies

  11. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  12. The Effects of Advance Graphic Organizers Strategy Intervention on Academic Achievement, Self Efficacy, and Motivation to Learn Social Studies in Learning Disabled Second Year Prep Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…

  13. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  15. BLENDED LEARNING STRATEGY IN TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian F. Byrka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the implementation of blended learning strategy in teacher training programs as an innovation in online learning. The blended learning idea comes from blending elements which use online technology with more traditional face-to-face teaching in the same course. The article analyses teacher training programs offered by Chernivtsi Regional Institute of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education. Additional data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to teachers who attended training courses. The characteristics of blended learning strategy, its benefits and limitations for teacher training are supported by a review of literature. The article closes with the comparison of curriculum components (content delivery, learner activities, materials, and required competences between traditional and blended learning teacher training programs. Having obvious benefits in teacher training programs, the implementation of blended learning strategy sets some additional requirements to a learner, as well as to course instructors and lectors.

  16. The Effects of the Paired Associates Strategy (PAS) on the Recall of Factual Information by Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Madaus, Joseph W.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the success of independence-oriented interventions such as strategy instruction (SI) in secondary populations, very little research has examined the effectiveness of SI at the postsecondary level. Thus, we sought to determine if one form of SI, the Paired Associates Strategy (PAS), improved the recall of factual information by…

  17. Assessment of Learning Strategies: Self-Report Questionnaire or Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Two types of assessment instruments were developed to assess middle school students' learning strategies, and their effectiveness in predicting various learning outcomes was examined. The participants were 565 middle school students. Three subscales (rehearsal, organization, elaboration) from the "Motivated Strategies for Learning…

  18. Learning strategies during fear conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Russ E.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model of fear learning, in which subjects have an option of behavioral responses to impending social defeat. The model generates two types of learning: social avoidance and classical conditioning, dependent upon 1) escape from or 2) social subordination to an aggressor. We hypothesized that social stress provides the impetus as well as the necessary information to stimulate dichotomous goal-oriented learning. Specialized tanks were constructed to subject rainbow trout t...

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based Learning Environment for Teachers: Assessment of Learning Strategies in Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Glogger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Training teachers to assess important components of self-regulated learning such as learning strategies is an important, yet somewhat neglected, aspect of the integration of self-regulated learning at school. Learning journals can be used to assess learning strategies in line with cyclical process models of self-regulated learning, allowing for rich formative feedback. Against this background, we developed a computer-based learning environment (CBLE that trains teachers to assess learning strategies with learning journals. The contents of the CBLE and its instructional design were derived from theory. The CBLE was further shaped by research in a design-based manner. Finally, in two evaluation studies, student teachers (N1=44; N2=89 worked with the CBLE. We analyzed satisfaction, interest, usability, and assessment skills. Additionally, in evaluation study 2, effects of an experimental variation on motivation and assessment skills were tested. We found high satisfaction, interest, and good usability, as well as satisfying assessment skills, after working with the CBLE. Results show that teachers can be trained to assess learning strategies in learning journals. The developed CBLE offers new perspectives on how to support teachers in fostering learning strategies as central component of effective self-regulated learning at school.

  20. Can Strategies Facilitate Learning from Illustrated Science Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of schema training in illustration types and text-illustration relations for learning from college level physiology texts and discusses findings that are consistent with prior research on learning from illustrated materials and with dual coding theory. Considers future directions for strategy training research and…

  1. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Business Spoken English Learning Strategies for Chinese Enterprise Staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Li

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of promoting effective Business Spoken English of Enterprise Staff in China.It aims to assess the assessment of spoken English learning methods and identify the difficulties of learning English oral expression concerned business area.It also provides strategies for enhancing Enterprise Staff’s level of Business Spoken English.

  3. The Effectiveness of Using the 7E's Learning Cycle Strategy on the Immediate and Delayed Mathematics Achievement and the Longitudinal Impact of Learning among Preparatory Year Students at King Saud University (KSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of teaching Mathematics by using 7E's Learning Cycle strategy in immediate and delayed achievement and retention among Preparatory Year students at King Saud University (KSU)--Saudi Arabia, in comparison with the traditional method. The study sample consisted of (73) Preparatory Year students at…

  4. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

  5. Counselling strategies for students learning and career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to identify counselling strategies applicable in classroom where teaching and learning take place. The concepts guidance and counselling were defined to show meaning and relevance towards promoting learning and career development of students in secondary school. This paper also ...

  6. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What…

  7. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  8. Making strategy: learning by doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M

    1997-01-01

    Companies find it difficult to change strategy for many reasons, but one stands out: strategic thinking is not a core managerial competence at most companies. Executives hone their capabilities by tackling problems over and over again. Changing strategy, however, is not usually a task that they face repeatedly. Once companies have found a strategy that works, they want to use it, not change it. Consequently, most managers do not develop a competence in strategic thinking. This Manager's Tool Kit presents a three-stage method executives can use to conceive and implement a creative and coherent strategy themselves. The first stage is to identify and map the driving forces that the company needs to address. The process of mapping provides strategy-making teams with visual representations of team members' assumptions, those pictures, in turn, enable managers to achieve consensus in determining the driving forces. Once a senior management team has formulated a new strategy, it must align the strategy with the company's resource-allocation process to make implementation possible. Senior management teams can translate their strategy into action by using aggregate project planning. And management teams that link strategy and innovation through that planning process will develop a competence in implementing strategic change. The author guides the reader through the three stages of strategy making by examining the case of a manufacturing company that was losing ground to competitors. After mapping the driving forces, the company's senior managers were able to devise a new strategy that allowed the business to maintain a competitive advantage in its industry.

  9. Effectiveness of Game and Poem Enhanced Instructional Strategies and Verbal Ability on Students' Interest in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick-Jonah, Toinpere Mercy; Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of game and poem-enhanced instructional strategies on students' interest in mathematics. The moderating effects of verbal ability were also examined on the dependent variable. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred and forty four students in the sixth year of their primary education (primary 6…

  10. The Effects of Self-Regulation Strategies on Reading Comprehension, Motivation for Learning, and Self-Efficacy with Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Cassandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the effect of a self-regulation treatment on sixth grade students' reading comprehension, motivation for learning, and self-efficacy perceptions. The research took place in three urban schools in the northeast United States in the winter of 2016. The study's quasi-experimental design…

  11. Learning Strategies at Work and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemer, Hannah Deborah; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo; Cassiano, Simone Kelli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the prediction of current and evolutionary perceptions of professional development through five learning strategies at work and through training and how individual and job characteristics predict those strategies. Design/methodology/approach: Variables were measured in a cross-sectional survey, with 962…

  12. Metacognitive awareness of learning strategies in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Two studies examined undergraduates' metacognitive awareness of six empirically-supported learning strategies. Study 1 results overall suggested an inability to predict the learning outcomes of educational scenarios describing the strategies of dual-coding, static-media presentations, low-interest extraneous details, testing, and spacing; there was, however, weak endorsement of the strategy of generating one's own study materials. In addition, an independent measure of metacognitive self-regulation was correlated with scenario performance. Study 2 demonstrated higher prediction accuracy for students who had received targeted instruction on applied memory topics in their psychology courses, and the best performance for those students directly exposed to the original empirical studies from which the scenarios were derived. In sum, this research suggests that undergraduates are largely unaware of several specific strategies that could benefit memory for course information; further, training in applied learning and memory topics has the potential to improve metacognitive judgments in these domains.

  13. Strategies to improve learning of all students in a class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraishkumar, G. K.

    2018-05-01

    The statistical distribution of the student learning abilities in a typical undergraduate engineering class poses a significant challenge to simultaneously improve the learning of all the students in the class. With traditional instruction styles, the students with significantly high learning abilities are not satisfied due to a feeling of unfulfilled potential, and the students with significantly low learning abilities feel lost. To address the challenge in an undergraduate core/required course on 'transport phenomena in biological systems', a combination of learning strategies such as active learning including co-operative group learning, challenge exercises, and others were employed in a pro-advising context. The short-term and long-term impacts were evaluated through student course performances and input, respectively. The results show that it is possible to effectively address the challenge posed by the distribution of student learning abilities in a class.

  14. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  15. Effectiveness of a Test-Taking Strategy on Achievement in Essay Tests for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning…

  16. The Effects of Cooperative and Collaborative Strategies on Student Achievement and Satisfaction in Blended and Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Christine E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether cooperative versus collaborative strategies used for a group project had differential effects on students' achievement, process and solution satisfaction, value and preference for collaboration, and perceptions of community of inquiry in online and blended environments. The study sample consisted of…

  17. Language Learning Strategies of EFL College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Furwana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were (1 to investigate the most dominant language learning strategies (LLS used by sixth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty at UIN Alauddin Makassar and (2 to find out the differences of using LLS between high achieving students and low achieving students. The result of the quantitative data through questionnaire showed that (1 metacognitive strategies was the most dominant LLS used, and (2 the high achieving students used metacognitive strategies with the highest preference and low achieving students used compensation strategies with the highest preference. The result of the qualitative data through think aloud showed that (1 the most dominant LLS employed by students were listening music, utilizing time for practicing and self-evaluating, (2 the most dominant LLS used by high achieving students were utilizing time for practicing, practicing English together and self-evaluating, whereas the most dominant LLS used by low achieving students were listening music, asking friend and selecting topic. The data were collected through documentation used to classify high achieving students and low achieving students based on their grade point average. It is concluded that the most dominant language learning strategies employed by students was metacognitive strategies. High achieving students employed different strategy than low achieving students. High achieving students used learning strategies more frequently than low achieving students.

  18. Hi-Tek Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Selman; Jerry Selman

    2011-01-01

    Unorthodox ways currently used in colleges to accelerate the velocity of learning are reviewed. To augment persuasion and articulation ability of business school students, stand-up comedy is used (University of Chicago). Song writing, storytelling and improvisation (VanderbiltUniversity-Owens Management), and for Shakespearean motivation for other management skills at the corporate execu-tive level (Northrup Grumman). Food chow-down, before and during classes, including pizza and chocolate ca...

  19. The Interaction of Motivation, Self-Regulatory Strategies, and Autonomous Learning Behavior in Different Learner Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…

  20. Particle Swarm Optimization With Interswarm Interactive Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Quande; Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Li; Shi, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    The learning strategy in the canonical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is often blamed for being the primary reason for loss of diversity. Population diversity maintenance is crucial for preventing particles from being stuck into local optima. In this paper, we present an improved PSO algorithm with an interswarm interactive learning strategy (IILPSO) by overcoming the drawbacks of the canonical PSO algorithm's learning strategy. IILPSO is inspired by the phenomenon in human society that the interactive learning behavior takes place among different groups. Particles in IILPSO are divided into two swarms. The interswarm interactive learning (IIL) behavior is triggered when the best particle's fitness value of both the swarms does not improve for a certain number of iterations. According to the best particle's fitness value of each swarm, the softmax method and roulette method are used to determine the roles of the two swarms as the learning swarm and the learned swarm. In addition, the velocity mutation operator and global best vibration strategy are used to improve the algorithm's global search capability. The IIL strategy is applied to PSO with global star and local ring structures, which are termed as IILPSO-G and IILPSO-L algorithm, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithms with eight popular PSO variants. From the experimental results, IILPSO demonstrates the good performance in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed, and reliability. Finally, the variations of the population diversity in the entire search process provide an explanation why IILPSO performs effectively.

  1. Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Cownden, D; Enquist, M; Eriksson, K; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Ghirlanda, S; Lillicrap, T; Laland, K N

    2010-04-09

    Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most effectively. To address these questions, we organized a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (for example, trial-and-error learning) to acquire adaptive behavior in a complex environment. Most current theory predicts the emergence of mixed strategies that rely on some combination of the two types of learning. In the tournament, however, strategies that relied heavily on social learning were found to be remarkably successful, even when asocial information was no more costly than social information. Social learning proved advantageous because individuals frequently demonstrated the highest-payoff behavior in their repertoire, inadvertently filtering information for copiers. The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied nearly exclusively on social learning and weighted information according to the time since acquisition.

  2. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

  3. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result...... showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities....... There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the total study load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw...

  4. Discovering Learning Strategy to Increase Metacognitive Knowledge in Biology Learning in Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at finding an effective learning strategy that can increase metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge is a standard that based on 2016-revised edition of 2013 curriculum needs to be achieved by every graduate in all level of education in Indonesia. The study is conducted in three different schools and engages 207 students, which then divided into six groups. The groups are students who study under mind mapping strategy, concept mapping, reciprocal teaching using summary notes, reciprocal teaching using mind mapping, problem-based learning, and investigation group. The results showed that those studying under problem-based learning strategy spent a significantly higher numbers in metacognitive knowledge in biology learning and followed by students who study under reciprocal teaching using mind mapping. According to the finding, it is expected that teachers of Biology will practice problem-based learning strategy in their classroom in order to increase the Metacognitive knowledge.

  5. [Motivation and learning strategies in pediatric residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Carrada-Legaria, Sol; Reyes-Lagunes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is an internal mood that moves individuals to act, points them in certain directions, and maintains them in activities, playing a very important role in self-regulated learning and academic performance. Our objective was to evaluate motivation and self-regulation of knowledge in pediatric residents in a third-level hospital, and to determine if there are differences according to the type of specialty and sociodemographic variables. All residents who agreed to participate responded to the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Cronbach alpha was performed to determine reliability. The mean value of each subscale was compared with Student's t test or ANOVA, correlation of subscales with Pearson test. A value of p≤0.05 was considered significant. We included 118 residents. The questionnaire was highly reliable (α=0.939). There were no significant differences in motivation or learning strategies according to sex, marital status, or age. Those residents studying a second or third specialization had significantly higher scores in elaboration, critical thinking, and peer learning. There were significant correlations between intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy with the development of knowledge strategies such as elaboration, critical thinking, and metacognitive self-regulation. Our students present average-to-high scores of motivation and knowledge strategies, with a significant difference according to type of specialization. There is a high correlation between motivation and knowledge strategies.

  6. Critical Thinking and Collaboration: A Strategy to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies relative to collaboration and critical thinking, an instructional strategy called Team- Based Learning has proven to be an effective approach to teaching and learning. Team-Based Learning utilizes a specific sequence of individual work, group work and immediate feedback to create a motivational framework in which students increasingly hold each other accountable for coming to class prepared and contributing to discussion. Using an action research conceptual model diffusion of innovation theory, the process of P-20 quality enhancement using Team-Based Learning is examined.

  7. Effects of Technology-Based Teacher Training and Teacher-Led Classroom Implementation on Learning Reading Comprehension Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Michael; Sales, Gregory C.; Lawrenz, Frances; Robelia, Beth; Richardson, Jayson W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a professionally developed comprehensive reading comprehension strategies program when compared to traditional reading comprehension instruction presented to 865 fourth and fifth graders (682 with full data sets) in 34 classrooms in the United States. The treatment included a strong, technology-based teacher training component as well as highly motivational materials for 53 classroom-delivered student lessons. The research design was a randomized tria...

  8. Parallel strategy for optimal learning in perceptrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirotti, J P

    2010-01-01

    We developed a parallel strategy for learning optimally specific realizable rules by perceptrons, in an online learning scenario. Our result is a generalization of the Caticha-Kinouchi (CK) algorithm developed for learning a perceptron with a synaptic vector drawn from a uniform distribution over the N-dimensional sphere, so called the typical case. Our method outperforms the CK algorithm in almost all possible situations, failing only in a denumerable set of cases. The algorithm is optimal in the sense that it saturates Bayesian bounds when it succeeds.

  9. Evaluation of teaching and learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Lechner

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing awareness of the importance of teaching and learning in universities and the need to move towards evidence-based teaching, it behooves the professions to re-examine their educational research methodology. While the what, how and why of student learning have become more explicit, the professions still struggle to find valid methods of evaluating the explosion of new innovation in teaching/learning strategies. This paper discusses the problems inherent in applying traditional experimental design techniques to advances in educational practice.

  10. Who Knows? Metacognitive Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-05-05

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions about when they should copy other agents, and who they should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the ‘phenotypic gambit’; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this ‘blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the ‘social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are ‘planetary'—they depend on domain-general cognitive processes—some SLSs, found only in humans, are ‘cook-like'—they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such as copy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning. PMID:27069046

  13. Strategies for Better Learning of English Grammar: Chinese vs. Thais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakorn, Patnarin; Feng, Min; Limmun, Wanida

    2018-01-01

    The success of language learning significantly depends on multiple sets of complex factors; among these are language-learning strategies of which learners in different countries may show different preferences. Needed areas of language learning strategy research include, among others, the strategy of grammar learning and the context-based approach…

  14. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  15. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (i) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ii) the variables affecting the use of language learning st...

  16. Maximing Learning Strategies to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.

  17. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  18. Comparing problem-based learning students to students in a lecture-based curriculum: learning strategies and the relation with self-study time

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie; Smeets, Guus; Kroeze, Maarten; Molen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn educational theory, deep processing (i.e., connecting different study topics together) and self-regulation (i.e., taking control over one’s own learning process) are considered effective learning strategies. These learning strategies can be influenced by the learning environment. Problem-based learning (PBL), a student-centered educational method, is believed to stimulate the use of these effective learning strategies. Several aspects of PBL such as discussions of real-life pro...

  19. How People Learn in an Asynchronous Online Learning Environment: The Relationships between Graduate Students' Learning Strategies and Learning Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomkyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…

  20. LC-REHAB: randomised trial assessing the effect of a new patient education method--learning and coping strategies--in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole; Beauchamp, Alison; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Wittrup, Inge

    2014-12-13

    Due to improved treatments and ageing population, many countries now report increasing prevalence in rates of ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Cardiac rehabilitation has potential to reduce morbidity and mortality, but not all patients complete. In light of favourable effects of cardiac rehabilitation it is important to develop patient education methods which can enhance adherence to this effective program. The LC-REHAB study aims to compare the effect of a new patient education strategy in cardiac rehabilitation called 'learning and coping' to that of standard care. Further, this paper aims to describe the theoretical basis and details of this intervention. Open parallel randomised controlled trial conducted in three hospital units in Denmark among patients recently discharged with ischemic heart disease or heart failure. Patients are allocated to either the intervention group with learning and coping strategies incorporated into standard care in cardiac rehabilitation or the control group who receive the usual cardiac rehabilitation program. Learning and coping consists of two individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as educators together with health professionals and theory based, situated and inductive teaching. Usual care in cardiac rehabilitation is characterised by a structured deductive teaching style with use of identical pre-written slides in all hospital units. In both groups, cardiac rehabilitation consists of training three times a week and education once a week over eight weeks. The primary outcomes are adherence to cardiac rehabilitation, morbidity and mortality, while secondary outcomes are quality of life (SF-12, Health education impact questionnaire and Major Depression Inventory) and lifestyle and risk factors (Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, exercise work capacity, lipid profile and DXA-scan). Data collection occurs four times; at baseline, at immediate completion of cardiac

  1. The Effect of Learning Strategies Instruction on the Oral Production Development of English Undergraduate Students from the Federal University of Pará: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. M. Gaignoux

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating how learning strategies instruction may enhance the development of oral production. Instruments used to conduct this case study were field notes, questionnaires, interviews and class audio recordings. Seven female third level undergraduate students of the Curso de Letras of the Federal University of Pará were the subjects of this study. Since the oral production is the main concern of most foreign language learners, this investigation aims at contributing to a better understanding of this issue by suggesting that the explicit learning strategies teaching may conduct to more satisfactory outcomes. Results showed that there were changes in the learning strategies repertoire used by participants.

  2. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  3. Language Learning Strategies used by Students learning Kiswahili1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in learning a second language nevertheless an African language has proven a tremendous effort on the part of foreign adult learners enrolled in universities. Motivation and attitude as well as the strategies used by the learners themselves play an important role. However, the greatest challenge for this group of ...

  4. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  5. Collaborative testing as a learning strategy in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Sheryl S

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nurses to work collaboratively as members of interprofessional health care teams on behalf of patients. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision making, and group processing skills. This study incorporated a quasi-experimental design with a comparison group to examine the effect of collaborative testing as a learning strategy on student learning and retention of course content as well as group process skills and student perceptions of their learning and anxiety. The setting was a baccalaureate nursing program; the sample consisted of two groups of senior students enrolled in Medical-Surgical Nursing II. Student learning, as measured by unit examination scores, was greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Retention of course content, as measured by final examination scores, was not greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Student perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, with students reporting increased learning as a result of the collaborative testing experiences. Despite the lack of data to support increased retention, collaborative testing may be a learning strategy worth implementing in nursing education. Students reported more positive interactions and collaboration with their peers, skills required by the professional nurse.

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Medical Explorers a Case Study Curriculum on Critical Thinking, Attitude Toward Life Science, and Motivational Learning Strategies in Rural High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Lance G.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve student attitudes of the life sciences. The target population for this study was secondary students enrolled in advanced life science programs. The resulting sample (n = 71) consisted of 36 students in the case-based experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Furthermore, this study employed an experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. The treatment consisted of two instructional strategies: case-based learning and teacher-guided learning. Analysis of covariance indicated no treatment effect on critical thinking ability or Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning. However, the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum did show a treatment effect on student attitudes toward the life sciences. These results seem to indicate that case-based curriculum has a positive impact on students' perspectives and attitudes about the study of life science as well as their interest in life science based careers. Such outcomes are also a good indicator that students enjoy and perceive the value to use of case studies in science, and because they see value in the work that they do they open up their minds to true learning and integration. Of additional interest was the observationthat on average eleventh graders showed consistently stronger gains in critical thinking, motivation and self-regulation of learning strategies, and attitudes toward the life sciences as compared to twelfth grade students. In fact, twelfth grade students showed a pre to post loss on the Watson-Glaser and the MSLQ scores while eleventh grade students showed positive gains on each of these instruments. This decline in twelfth

  7. Comparing Problem-Based Learning Students to Students in a Lecture-Based Curriculum: Learning Strategies and the Relation with Self-Study Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Smeets, Guus; Kroeze, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    In educational theory, deep processing (i.e., connecting different study topics together) and self-regulation (i.e., taking control over one's own learning process) are considered effective learning strategies. These learning strategies can be influenced by the learning environment. Problem-based learning (PBL), a student-centered educational…

  8. Investigation the Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…

  9. Investigating the Language Learning Strategies of Students in the Foundation Program of United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Al Khatib, Ahmad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, language learning strategies have gained a lot of importance in different parts of the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Successful foreign or second language learning attempts are viewed in the light of using appropriate and effective language learning strategies. This study investigated the patterns of language learning…

  10. Does a Strategy Training Foster Students' Ability to Learn from Multimedia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Gerjets, Peter; Stalbovs, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the general effectiveness of multimedia instruction, students do not always benefit from it. This study examined whether students' learning from multimedia can be improved by teaching them relevant learning strategies. On the basis of current theories and research on multimedia learning, the authors developed a strategy training for…

  11. Language Learning Strategies Used by Distance Learners of English: A Study with a Group of Turkish Distance Learners of EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Use of language learning strategies is important for language learning. Some researchers state that language learning strategies are important because their use affects the development of communicative competence (Lessard-Clouston, 1997 & Oxford, 1990). Effective use of language learning strategies has particular importance for distance…

  12. Strategies of learning in the process of transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation.......The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation....

  13. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  14. Is case-based learning an effective teaching strategy to challenge students' alternative conceptions regarding chemical kinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Taştan-Kırık, Özgecan; Boz, Yezdan; Yıldıran, Demet

    2012-07-01

    Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is simply teaching the concept to the students based on the cases. CBL involves a case, which is a scenario based on daily life, and study questions related to the case, which allows students to discuss their ideas. Chemical kinetics is one of the most difficult concepts for students in chemistry. Students have generally low levels of conceptual understanding and many alternative conceptions regarding it. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the effect of CBL on dealing with students' alternative conceptions about chemical kinetics. Sample: The sample consists of 53 high school students from one public high school in Turkey. Design and methods : Nonequivalent pre-test and post-test control group design was used. Reaction Rate Concept Test and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Convenience sampling technique was followed. For data analysis, the independent samples t-test and ANOVA was performed. Results : Both concept test and interview results showed that students instructed with cases had better understanding of core concepts of chemical kinetics and had less alternative conceptions related to the subject matter compared to the control group students, despite the fact that it was impossible to challenge all the alternative conceptions in the experimental group. Conclusions: CBL is an effective teaching method for challenging students' alternative conceptions in the context of chemical kinetics. Since using cases in small groups and whole class discussions has been found to be an effective way to cope with the alternative conceptions, it can be applied to other subjects and grade levels in high schools with a higher sample size. Furthermore, the effect of this method on academic achievement, motivation and critical thinking skills are other variables that can be investigated for future studies in the subject area of chemistry.

  15. Civic Engagement and Organizational Learning Strategies for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tami L.; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2014-01-01

    Students succeed in college by engaging with faculty, peers, and the community. Institutional leaders can utilize organizational learning strategies to learn what works to support civic learning outcomes and student success.

  16. Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A

    2016-07-19

    During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.

  17. Computer games: Apprehension of learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer games and mainly videogames have proved to be an important tendency in Brazilian children’s play. They are part of the playful culture, which associates modern technology to traditional play preserving the importance of the latter. Based on Vygotsky and Chadwick’s ideas, this work studies the alternatives in the use of videogame by the occupational therapist, educator or parents, aiming prevention of learning difficulty by means of apprehension of learning strategies. Sixty children were investigated under dialectic, descriptive qualitative/quantitative focus. There was a semi-structured interview, direct observation and focused group applied to this intentional sample. Out of the 60 children playing in 3 videogame rental shops in Fortaleza-CE and Quixadá-CE, 30 aged 4 to 6 years old and the other 30 aged 7 and 8. Results indicate that the determination that the videogame is played in-group favors the apprehension of learning and affective strategies, processing, and meta-cognition. Therefore, videogame can be considered an excellent resource in terms of preventing learning difficulties, enabling children to their reality.

  18. The Effectiveness of Game-Based Learning as an Instructional Strategy to Engage Students in Higher Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Raymond; Tham, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The Internet Generation today is accustomed to multi-tasking, graphics, fun, and fantasy. Educators are finding it challenging to engage and motivate students with the traditional mode of teaching. They are increasingly seeking to tap the potential of game-based learning to engage and motivate learners. Game-based learning is also catching on in…

  19. Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railean, Elena, Ed.; Alev Elçi, Ed.; Elçi, Atilla, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Metacognition plays an important role in numerous aspects of higher educational learning strategies. When properly integrated in the educational system, schools are better equipped to build more efficient and successful learning strategies for students in higher education. "Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher…

  20. The Influence of Pronunciation Learning Strategies on Mastering English Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoszewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of strategies in learning the pronunciation of the target language. First, an outline of various general classifications of language learning strategies is provided. Next, pronunciation learning strategies are defined and their various taxonomies are presented. This is followed by the description of the study…

  1. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  2. Differential use of learning strategies in first-year higher education: the impact of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Coertjens, Liesje; Van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Although the evidence in support of the variability of students' learning strategies has expanded in recent years, less is known about the explanatory base of these individual differences in terms of the joint influences of personal and contextual characteristics. Previous studies have often investigated how student learning is associated with either personal or contextual factors. This study takes an integrative research perspective into account and examines the joint effects of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies on students' learning strategies in a same educational context in first-year higher education. In this study, 1,126 undergraduate students and 90 lecturers from eight professional bachelor programmes in a university college participated. Self-report measures were used to measure students' personality, academic motivation, and learning strategies. Students' processing and regulation strategies are mapped using the Inventory of Learning Styles. Key characteristics of more content-focused versus learning-focused teaching strategies were measured. Multivariate multi-level analysis was used to take the nested data structure and interrelatedness of learning strategies into account. Different personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism) and academic motivation (amotivation, autonomous, and controlled motivation) were found to be independently associated with student learning strategies. Besides these student characteristics, also teaching strategies were found to be directly associated with learning strategies. The study makes clear that the impact of teaching strategies on learning strategies in first-year higher education cannot be overlooked nor overinterpreted, due to the importance of students' personality and academic motivation which also partly explain why students learn the way they do. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. How Instructional Strategies Impact Students' Learning, Motivation, and Learning Strategies in Introductory Geology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of

  4. Effective strategies for preventing and overcoming learned helplesness among children with special needs in primary school education

    OpenAIRE

    Obolnar Hrnjičić, Maja; Pirih, Neža

    2013-01-01

    Children with special needs are commonly faced with faliure due to their special needs. Therefore they gradually develop a belief that thay can not influence their academic success, which leads to passivity. Learned helplessness influences academic, emotional and motivational aspect of their lives. Children who are facing learned helplessness tend to generalize their belief that they do not have an influence on their success on different areas of their lives. In our diploma thesis we w...

  5. Latent Class Analysis of Students' Mathematics Learning Strategies and the Relationship between Learning Strategy and Mathematical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-Wei; Tai, Wen-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how various mathematics learning strategies affect the mathematical literacy of students. The data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data of Taiwan. The PISA learning strategy survey contains three types of learning strategies: elaboration, control, and…

  6. Student Learning Strategy and Soft-skill in Clothing Business Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampera, D.

    2018-02-01

    Clothing Business Management course is a subject delivering knowledge and skills about how to manage clothing business. This course requires students’ ethics, leadership, commitment, toughness, honesty, and the ability to take initiative, argue logically, and work together. However, students are not fully efficient in managing a business during practical task. The purpose of the study is to investigate: (1) the differences of students’ learning achievement between those receiving gradual and conventional learning strategy, (2)the effect of interactions between learning strategy and soft skills toward students learning achievement, (3) the differences of learning achievement of high soft skills students who receive gradual and conventional learning strategy, (4) the differences of learning achievement of low soft skills students who receive gradual and conventional learning strategy. The 2x2 treatment-by-level experimental study was carried out in Dressmaking Study Program. The result proved significantly that, overall, differences of students learning achievement exist, except of low soft skills students.

  7. Not-so-social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M

    2015-03-07

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a 'phenotypic gambit'-from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Intergenerational learning in organizations : An effective way to stimulate older employee learning and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Donald Ropes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – To illustrate the possibilities of implementing intergenerational learning as a strategy for promoting older worker learning and development. Design/methodology/approach – Review of literature. Findings – Intergenerational learning is theoretically a natural and effective way for

  9. Multidimensional (OLAP) Analysis for Designing Dynamic Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, A.; Deliyska, B.

    2010-10-01

    Learning strategy in an intelligent learning system is generally elaborated on the basis of assessment of the following factors: learner's time for reaction, content of the learning object, amount of learning material in a learning object, learning object specification, e-learning medium and performance control. Current work proposes architecture for dynamic learning strategy design by implementing multidimensional analysis model of learning factors. The analysis model concerns on-line analytical processing (OLAP) of learner's data structured as multidimensional cube. Main components of the architecture are analysis agent for performing the OLAP operations on learner data cube, adaptation generator and knowledge selection agent for performing adaptive navigation in the learning object repository. The output of the analysis agent is involved in dynamic elaboration of learning strategy that fits best to learners profile and behavior. As a result an adaptive learning path for individual learner and for learner groups is generated.

  10. Organizational Learning Strategies and Verbal Memory Deficits in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Larsen, Emmett; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E

    2017-04-01

    Verbal memory (VM) impairment is prominent in bipolar disorder (BD) and is linked to functional outcomes. However, the intricacies of VM impairment have not yet been studied in a large sample of BD patients. Moreover, some have proposed VM deficits that may be mediated by organizational strategies, such as semantic or serial clustering. Thus, the exact nature of VM break-down in BD patients is not well understood, limiting remediation efforts. We investigated the intricacies of VM deficits in BD patients versus healthy controls (HCs) and examined whether verbal learning differences were mediated by use of clustering strategies. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was administered to 113 affectively stable BD patients and 106 HCs. We compared diagnostic groups on all CVLT indices and investigated whether group differences in verbal learning were mediated by clustering strategies. Although BD patients showed significantly poorer attention, learning, and memory, these indices were only mildly impaired. However, BD patients evidenced poorer use of effective learning strategies and lower recall consistency, with these indices falling in the moderately impaired range. Moreover, relative reliance on semantic clustering fully mediated the relationship between diagnostic category and verbal learning, while reliance on serial clustering partially mediated this relationship. VM deficits in affectively stable bipolar patients were widespread but were generally mildly impaired. However, patients displayed inadequate use of organizational strategies with clear separation from HCs on semantic and serial clustering. Remediation efforts may benefit from education about mnemonic devices or "chunking" techniques to attenuate VM deficits in BD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 358-366).

  11. Motivation and Learning Strategies in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahinaz A. Bukhary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a fundamental factor to fructify any functional and effective classroom setting with interest, hope and expressive fruitful teaching experience. Motivating foreign language learners to advance successfully in learning the target language (English is a domain that has been discussed widely in many language learning studies. In fact, there is still much argumentation on to what extent motivation influence language learning as there is not clear evidence of how motivation manipulates the success or failure of the target language. It is noticeable that language learners, in this case Saudi university students, do not invest as much time in learning English as they do in learning their specialist subjects.  This paper tends to look at the meaning of motivation and how far does it go to affect language learning. It also attempts to investigate factors that frustrate learners by conducting different research tools such as interviews and questionnaires for both English students and instructors.  Research results present that many students dislike English classes and wish not to participate or attend them.  Additionally, teachers comment that despite the efforts to promote language learning, the outcome of their students is considered to be unsatisfactory. Teachers believe that this can be contributed to the fact that they are pressed to complete fixed curriculum in a limited period of time and abide by strict instruction to evaluate their students with no room left for them to personalize their own learning experience. Therefore, teachers need to be given opportunities to broaden their pedagogical repertoires and make English learning more engaging and more meaningful. The study implications shed the light on some useful hints to be applied in EFL classes.

  12. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Medical Students: Croatian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Rogulj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to be able to fully develop their academic and professional competencies, medical doctors (MDs need to be highly proficient in English, which, among other things, implies the acquisition of vocabulary as an essential part of language knowledge. The current study aims at exploring vocabulary learning strategies (VLS employed by freshman and sophomore medical students at the University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia. In particular, it focuses on (a most and least frequently used VLS; (b relationship between VLS subscales and different types of vocabulary knowledge; (c differences in the mean strategy use between male and female students, and among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. The instruments used in the research were adapted version of the VLS Questionnaire (Pavičić Takač, 2008, p.152 and a vocabulary test designed by the author. The results indicate that medical students use a core inventory of VLS, whereby showing preference for the category of self-initiated vocabulary learning (SI-IVL strategies and some individual formal vocabulary learning (FVL and spontaneous vocabulary learning (SVL strategies. Although students were not in favour of FVL at the level of the category as a whole, the results showed that the more frequently they employed FVL strategies, the better they scored on vocabulary tasks measuring controlled-productive type of vocabulary knowledge. Correlations revealed that female students used SI-IVL and FVL strategies significantly more often than their male counterparts. Results also suggest that there are no statistically significant differences in the mean VLS use among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. In conclusion, the results of this study provide a preliminary insight into the VLS used by medical students and their effect on students' vocabulary learning outcomes as well as into differences by gender and vocabulary proficiency. Since findings have proved rather inconclusive, these

  13. [Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.

  14. Local Learning Strategies for Wake Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Alsalman, Mohamad; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Swimming agents, biological and engineered alike, must navigate the underwater environment to survive. Tasks such as autonomous navigation, foraging, mating, and predation require the ability to extract critical cues from the hydrodynamic environment. A substantial body of evidence supports the hypothesis that biological systems leverage local sensing modalities, including flow sensing, to gain knowledge of their global surroundings. The nonlinear nature and high degree of complexity of fluid dynamics makes the development of algorithms for implementing localized sensing in bioinspired engineering systems essentially intractable for many systems of practical interest. In this work, we use techniques from machine learning for training a bioinspired swimmer to learn from its environment. We demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy by learning how to sense global characteristics of the wakes of other swimmers measured only from local sensory information. We conclude by commenting on the advantages and limitations of this data-driven, machine learning approach and its potential impact on broader applications in underwater sensing and navigation.

  15. TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY TERTIARY ENGLISH MAJORS

    OpenAIRE

    TAN KHYE CHUIN; SARJIT KAUR

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of lan...

  16. Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolyon Troscianko

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey more effectively. The overall value of a camouflage strategy may, therefore, reflect both its ability to prevent detection by predators and resist predator learning. We conducted four experiments with humans searching for hidden targets of different camouflage types (disruptive, distractive, and background matching of various contrast levels over a series of touch screen trials. As with previous work, disruptive coloration was the most successful method of concealment overall, especially with relatively high contrast patterns, whereas potentially distractive markings were either neutral or costly. However, high contrast patterns incurred faster decreases in detection times over trials compared to other stimuli. In addition, potentially distractive markings were sometimes learnt more slowly than background matching markings, despite being found more readily overall. Finally, learning effects were highly dependent upon the experimental paradigm, including the number of prey types seen and whether subjects encountered targets simultaneously or sequentially. Our results show that the survival advantage of camouflage strategies reflects both their ability to avoid initial detection (sensory mechanisms and predator learning (perceptual mechanisms.

  17. Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Lown, Alice E; Hughes, Anna E; Stevens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns) and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey more effectively. The overall value of a camouflage strategy may, therefore, reflect both its ability to prevent detection by predators and resist predator learning. We conducted four experiments with humans searching for hidden targets of different camouflage types (disruptive, distractive, and background matching of various contrast levels) over a series of touch screen trials. As with previous work, disruptive coloration was the most successful method of concealment overall, especially with relatively high contrast patterns, whereas potentially distractive markings were either neutral or costly. However, high contrast patterns incurred faster decreases in detection times over trials compared to other stimuli. In addition, potentially distractive markings were sometimes learnt more slowly than background matching markings, despite being found more readily overall. Finally, learning effects were highly dependent upon the experimental paradigm, including the number of prey types seen and whether subjects encountered targets simultaneously or sequentially. Our results show that the survival advantage of camouflage strategies reflects both their ability to avoid initial detection (sensory mechanisms) and predator learning (perceptual mechanisms).

  18. Learning Predictive Statistics: Strategies and Brain Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-08-30

    When immersed in a new environment, we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. However, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events. By combining behavioral training and multisession fMRI in human participants (male and female), we track the corticostriatal mechanisms that mediate learning of temporal sequences as they change in structure complexity. We show that learning of predictive structures relates to individual decision strategy; that is, selecting the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) versus matching the exact sequence statistics. These strategies engage distinct human brain regions: maximizing engages dorsolateral prefrontal, cingulate, sensory-motor regions, and basal ganglia (dorsal caudate, putamen), whereas matching engages occipitotemporal regions (including the hippocampus) and basal ganglia (ventral caudate). Our findings provide evidence for distinct corticostriatal mechanisms that facilitate our ability to extract behaviorally relevant statistics to make predictions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Making predictions about future events relies on interpreting streams of information that may initially appear incomprehensible. Past work has studied how humans identify repetitive patterns and associative pairings. However, the natural environment contains regularities that vary in complexity from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we combine behavior and multisession fMRI to track the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to

  19. D4 S4: A Four Dimensions Instructional Strategy for Web-based and Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. ABDELAZIZ,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Web-based education is facing a paradigm shift under the rapid development of information and communication technology. The new paradigm of learning requires special techniques of course design, special instructional models, and special methods of evaluation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of an adaptive instructional strategy for teaching and learning through the Web and blended learning environments. The central theme of this strategy is that instructional strategies give instructors and students a conceptual as well as a practical mode of delivery from which to teach and learn. Considering and applying new instructional strategy can help instructors to understand the uses of pedagogical content knowledge, as well as to reflect the role of technological content knowledge that can be adapted and/or adopted in teaching in all educational levels and environments. The main objective of this paper was to develop a holonomic instructional strategy for Web-based and blended learning. This strategy is guided by the non-linear and interactive features of learning environments. The strategy is consisted of four dimensions: designing, developing, delving and distributing. In this new instructional strategy, learning is holonomic and adaptive. Learning occurs in an open learning environment, in which instructors are designing a shared vision, developing a sharable e-learning task, delving students’ learning through scaffolding and salvaging students’ knowledge. The expected outcome of this instructional strategy is that each learner will develop a cognitive schema to be used to organize and construct knowledge and meaning in similar context of learning which may increase the generalizability, trustworthiness and transferability of learning. The results of applying this new strategy showed that this strategy is effective on developing both achievement and deep learning levels among a sample of graduate students.

  20. Science writing heurisitc: A writing-to-learn strategy and its effect on student's science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caukin, Nancy S.

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine if employing the writing-to-learn strategy known as a "Science Writing Heuristic" would positively effect students' science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view. The publications Science for All American, Blueprints for Reform: Project 2061 (AAAS, 1990; 1998) and National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) strongly encourage science education that is student-centered, inquiry-based, active rather than passive, increases students' science literacy, and moves students towards a constructivist view of science. The capacity to learn, reason, problem solve, think critically and construct new knowledge can potentially be experienced through writing (Irmscher, 1979; Klein, 1999; Applebee, 1984). Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is a tool for designing science experiences that move away from "cookbook" experiences and allows students to design experiences based on their own ideas and questions. This non-traditional classroom strategy focuses on claims that students make based on evidence, compares those claims with their peers and compares those claims with the established science community. Students engage in reflection, meaning making based on their experiences, and demonstrate those understandings in multiple ways (Hand, 2004; Keys et al, 1999, Poock, nd.). This study involved secondary honors chemistry students in a rural prek-12 school in Middle Tennessee. There were n = 23 students in the group and n = 8 in the control group. Both groups participated in a five-week study of gases. The treatment group received the instructional strategy known as Science Writing Heuristic and the control group received traditional teacher-centered science instruction. The quantitative results showed that females in the treatment group outscored their male counterparts by 11% on the science achievement portion of the study and the males in the control group had a more constructivist scientific

  1. Comparing problem-based learning students to students in a lecture-based curriculum: learning strategies and the relation with self-study time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wijnen (Marit); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); G. Smeets (Guus); M.J. Kroeze (Maarten); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn educational theory, deep processing (i.e., connecting different study topics together) and self-regulation (i.e., taking control over one’s own learning process) are considered effective learning strategies. These learning strategies can be influenced by the learning environment.

  2. [Teaching practices and learning strategies in health careers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Z, Constanza; Pérez V, Cristhian; Torres A, Graciela; Fasce H, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Medical Education, according to the constructivist education paradigm, puts students as the protagonists of the teaching and learning process. It demands changes in the practice of teaching. However, it is unclear whether this new model is coherent with the teachers’ ways to cope with learning. To analyze the relationship between teaching practices and learning strategies among teachers of health careers in Chilean universities. The Teaching Practices Questionnaire and Learning Strategies Inventory of Schmeck were applied to 200 teachers aged 24 to 72 years (64% females). Teachers use different types of teaching practices. They commonly use deep and elaborative learning strategies. A multiple regression analysis showed that learning strategies had a 13% predictive value to identify student-centered teaching, but they failed to predict teacher-centered teaching. Teaching practices and learning strategies of teachers are related. Teachers frequently select constructivist model strategies, using different teaching practices in their work.

  3. EXPOSING LEARNERS WITH LEARNING STRATEGIES IN STRATEGY TRAING: ONE OF THE WAYS FOR IMPROVING THEIR STUDY SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Nuswantara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing our own learning strategies is an effective way to help ourselves to self evaluate for what we have done in our own learning. One among other factors leading to a successful learning is due to the effective learning strategies. However, not all learners are aware of what they have been doing in learning, or they even sometimes do not know how to learn. If this is the problem, learning strategy training can be very beneficial for the learners with this problem. Why should be through strategy training? The answer might lie on the fact that strategy is quite amenable to change, and by nature, teachable as well as learneable (Oxford, 1990. In addition, Nuswantara (2008 also found out that the successful learners (i.e. in learning English were triggered by the courage of using various learning strategies, the more varied the learners are willing to try out, the broader the chance for success. Training is the way that can be selected to present to the learners’ various strategies that they can choose and at the same time employ when learning is taken place. Moreover, by means of training, learners are made aware of the strategy, and they can mend their own strategy, as a result, they become more self - directed rather than dependent. This article attempts to frame out from the perspective of how to bring reading strategies that are applicable for handling various reading content texts to the learners, and present the result of a one-group experimental study. Thus, training is prepared for college learners who are inevitably deal with various English content textbooks and the final aim of the training is to improve learners’ study skills. Then, one group experimental study using correlated sample provides some evidences supporting the effectiveness of the training. Specifying on reading strategies, SQ3R that is joined with other learning strategies involving writing activity, annotating a text and paraphrasing/summarizing is exposed to

  4. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  5. Expectancy as a mediator of the relation between learning strategies and academic achievement among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurbanovska Orhideja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mediation role of the expectancy component of motivation (self-efficacy and control beliefs for learning in the relationship between learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, resource management strategies and academic achievement. The sample consisted of 155 university students (85 psychology students and 70 architecture students. Learning strategies section from the MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was taken to assess the extent of learning strategies usage during exam preparation. Motivation for learning was measured by the Expectancy scale as a part of the Motivation section of the MSLQ. Mediation analysis was used for data processing. Following the proposed steps for mediation effect testing, a series of regression analyses was conducted: first, the expectancy component of motivation was regressed on learning strategies; second, academic achievement was regressed on learning strategies; and third, academic achievement was regressed on the expectancy component of motivation. It was found that learning strategies influence academic achievement indirectly through the expectancy component of motivation (Sobel test=2.18; p=.029. It is emphasized that students should be encouraged to use learning strategies in knowledge acquisition.

  6. Computer-based learning: games as an instructional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J; Goodman, J

    1999-01-01

    Games are a creative teaching strategy that enhances learning and problem solving. Gaming strategies are being used by the authors to make learning interesting, stimulating and fun. This article focuses on the development and implementation of computer games as an instructional strategy. Positive outcomes have resulted from the use of games in the classroom.

  7. Peer Instruction in Chemistry Education: Assessment of Students' Learning Strategies, Conceptual Learning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…

  8. Learning strategy as a guide to career succes in organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    Our lack of understanding regarding how managers learn is in sharp contrast to the importance attached and money spend on management development. This research explores how managers acquire their competences by establishing the relationships between organizational structure, learning strategy and

  9. Teaching Learning Strategies to Increase Success of First-Term College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Kennedy, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effect of taking a learning strategies course on grade point average, retention, and graduation rate of 351 first-year students over their first 4 terms in comparison with 351 matched non-course takers. The course taught 4 learning strategies and 8 substrategies to help students overcome procrastination,…

  10. Learning from Errors in Dual Vocational Education: Video-Enhanced Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto A. P.; Boldrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Starting from the identification of some theoretically driven instructional principles, this paper presents a set of empirical cases based on strategies to learn from errors. The purpose of this paper is to provide first evidence about the feasibility and the effectiveness for learning of video-enhanced error-based strategies in…

  11. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  12. The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

  13. Family orientation, strategy and organizational learning as predictors of knowledge management in Dutch SMEs : A test of lagged effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlaner, L.M.; Tan, S.; Meijaard, J.

    2007-01-01

    Past research suggests a negative effect of family orientation on innovation performance. However, many past studies have certain limitations that this study is designed to overcome. In particular,this study estimates lagged effects of family orientation on innovation performance while controlling

  14. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  15. Reinforcement learning produces dominant strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Harper

    Full Text Available We present tournament results and several powerful strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma created using reinforcement learning techniques (evolutionary and particle swarm algorithms. These strategies are trained to perform well against a corpus of over 170 distinct opponents, including many well-known and classic strategies. All the trained strategies win standard tournaments against the total collection of other opponents. The trained strategies and one particular human made designed strategy are the top performers in noisy tournaments also.

  16. Reinforcement learning produces dominant strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Marc; Knight, Vincent; Jones, Martin; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Glynatsi, Nikoleta E; Campbell, Owen

    2017-01-01

    We present tournament results and several powerful strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma created using reinforcement learning techniques (evolutionary and particle swarm algorithms). These strategies are trained to perform well against a corpus of over 170 distinct opponents, including many well-known and classic strategies. All the trained strategies win standard tournaments against the total collection of other opponents. The trained strategies and one particular human made designed strategy are the top performers in noisy tournaments also.

  17. Training in Metacognitive Strategies for Students’ Vocabulary Improvement by Using Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a set of five interventions based on the cognitive academic language learning approach instructional model. These interventions, together with journaling progress, were used to train them in the use of the metacognitive strategies planning, monitoring, and evaluating. The findings showed that metacognitive strategy training has positively contributed to vocabulary acquisition skills, as participants were able to raise consciousness about some learning strategies and the use of metacognitive strategies to increase their vocabulary learning.

  18. Design of Mobile Learning strategies through blended learning enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Boude Figueredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation that developed in the municipality of Fusagasuga in late 2013 by the University of La Sabana are presented, whose objective was to determine the contribution of a process of teacher training in the design of strategies for mobile learning. A methodological level a qualitative study, with exploratory scope, was conducted through a case study. In it, 245 teachers participated in 13 educational institu-tions. The main results show that teachers recognize the importance of using mobile devices to support the development of their teaching practices, and promote the participation of their students as well as some aspects that hinder and facilitate the development of this type of training processes. The main conclusion is that although the use of devices is increasingly in classrooms, this use does not respond to a didactic planning by the teacher.

  19. Influence of learning strategy on response time during complex value-based learning and choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Farashahi

    Full Text Available Measurements of response time (RT have long been used to infer neural processes underlying various cognitive functions such as working memory, attention, and decision making. However, it is currently unknown if RT is also informative about various stages of value-based choice, particularly how reward values are constructed. To investigate these questions, we analyzed the pattern of RT during a set of multi-dimensional learning and decision-making tasks that can prompt subjects to adopt different learning strategies. In our experiments, subjects could use reward feedback to directly learn reward values associated with possible choice options (object-based learning. Alternatively, they could learn reward values of options' features (e.g. color, shape and combine these values to estimate reward values for individual options (feature-based learning. We found that RT was slower when the difference between subjects' estimates of reward probabilities for the two alternative objects on a given trial was smaller. Moreover, RT was overall faster when the preceding trial was rewarded or when the previously selected object was present. These effects, however, were mediated by an interaction between these factors such that subjects were faster when the previously selected object was present rather than absent but only after unrewarded trials. Finally, RT reflected the learning strategy (i.e. object-based or feature-based approach adopted by the subject on a trial-by-trial basis, indicating an overall faster construction of reward value and/or value comparison during object-based learning. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the pattern of RT can be informative about how reward values are learned and constructed during complex value-based learning and decision making.

  20. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care.

  1. A strategy learning model for autonomous agents based on classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śnieżyński Bartłomiej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a strategy learning model for autonomous agents based on classification. In the literature, the most commonly used learning method in agent-based systems is reinforcement learning. In our opinion, classification can be considered a good alternative. This type of supervised learning can be used to generate a classifier that allows the agent to choose an appropriate action for execution. Experimental results show that this model can be successfully applied for strategy generation even if rewards are delayed. We compare the efficiency of the proposed model and reinforcement learning using the farmer-pest domain and configurations of various complexity. In complex environments, supervised learning can improve the performance of agents much faster that reinforcement learning. If an appropriate knowledge representation is used, the learned knowledge may be analyzed by humans, which allows tracking the learning process

  2. Learning Strategies: Secondary LD Students in the Mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Alice; And Others

    The paper presents four learning strategy techniques--the SQ3R method of study, the Multipass Strategy, the Advanced Study Guide Technique, and Cognitive Mapping--for use with secondary level learning disabled students. The SQ3R method involves the five steps of survey, question, read, recite, and review. An adaption of the SQ3R method, the…

  3. Locus of control and learning strategies as predictors of academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the research was to determine the relationships which exist between academic success, learning strategies and locus of control. In order to achieve this aim a small-scale quantitative study, utilising two inventories, was done. The first measuring instrument is the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, which is ...

  4. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum ...

  5. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  6. The Who, What, and Where of Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumford, Amber D.; Cogswell, Cindy A.; Miller, Angie L.

    2016-01-01

    Learning strategies have been shown to be an important part of success in the classroom, but little research exists that examines differences across major fields concerning the use and faculty emphasis of learning strategies. This study uses data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement to explore…

  7. Types of Language Learning Strategies Used by Tertiary English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuin, Tan Khye; Kaur, Sarjit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students' perceptions of using…

  8. New Learning Strategies in the upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgnakke, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the Danish fieldwork and analyses it-based strategies and school development on three levels: Leadership, teaching and learning......The article describes the Danish fieldwork and analyses it-based strategies and school development on three levels: Leadership, teaching and learning...

  9. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  10. Emotional Intelligence Profiles and Learning Strategies in Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglés, Cándido J.; Martínez-Monteagudo, María C.; Pérez Fuentes, Maria C.; García-Fernández, José M.; Molero, María del Mar; Suriá-Martinez, Raquel; Gázquez, José J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship among emotional intelligence (EI) and learning strategies, identifying different emotional intelligence profiles and determining possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies through the identified profiles. Thousand and seventy-one Spaniards secondary school students…

  11. Motivation's Influence on English Learning and Strategies for Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玢; 张亚铃

    2009-01-01

    The article mainly focuses on the relationship between motivation and English learning,the influence of motivation on English learning(That is,English learning motive may be simply viewed as the reason of learning English;different motives will lead to different learning methods;generally speaking,surface motive does not endure longer than deep motive.;strong motivation can lead to final Success.)and six strategies of improving English learning(That is,developing proper attitudes towards English learning and letting students know the pressure of it;goal and feedback;praise and criticism;contest and cooperation;expectation and appraisement;achievement motive.).

  12. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  13. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Learning styles and strategies in the medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Torres García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Much has been done and researched to find out learning strategies and styles in the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn ( 1975 focu sed on identifying relevant stimulus which could influence on the learning process and on the school environment ; approximately at the same time; Joseph Renzulli (1994 recommended a variety of learning strategies . The authors of this work intend to approa ch the didactic importance ascribed to the strategies and styles of learning in the educational learning process of medical students, as well as to show some of the strategies that these students adopt to facilitate the learning of contents among which Eng lish for Specific Purpose s is included.

  15. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  16. An Analytic Framework to Support E.Learning Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss and demonstrate the relevance of a new conceptual framework for leading and managing the development of learning and teaching to e.learning strategy development. Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing and discussing the research literature on e.learning in higher education institutions from…

  17. Enhancing the Design and Analysis of Flipped Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Martin; Bokosmaty, Rena; Brown, Melanie; Browne, Chris; Gao, Qi; Hanson, Julie; Kupatadze, Ketevan

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous calls in the literature for research into the flipped learning approach to match the flood of popular media articles praising its impact on student learning and educational outcomes. This paper addresses those calls by proposing pedagogical strategies that promote active learning in "flipped" approaches and improved…

  18. Malaysian Gifted Students' Use of English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…

  19. User Studies: Developing Learning Strategy Tool Software for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Koury, Kevin A.; Peng, Hsinyi

    This paper is a report of user studies for developing learning strategy tool software for children. The prototype software demonstrated is designed for children with learning and behavioral disabilities. The tools consist of easy-to-use templates for creating organizational, memory, and learning approach guides for use in classrooms and at home.…

  20. Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies beyond Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, knowledge and learning management have made a significant impact on the IT research community. "Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies Beyond Tools" presents learning and knowledge management from a point of view where the basic tools and applications are provided by open source technologies.…

  1. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2012-07-01

    Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation in scheduled learning activities, have been found to relate to student performance. Although participation may be a form of SRL, little is known about the relationships among motivational beliefs, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. This study aimed to test and cross-validate a hypothesised model of relationships among motivational beliefs (value and self-efficacy), learning strategies (deep learning and resource management), participation (lecture attendance, skills training attendance and completion of optional study assignments) and Year 1 performance at medical school. Year 1 medical students in the cohorts of 2008 (n = 303) and 2009 (n = 369) completed a questionnaire on motivational beliefs and learning strategies (sourced from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and participation. Year 1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year 1 course examination grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Participation and self-efficacy beliefs were positively associated with Year 1 performance (β = 0.78 and β = 0.19, respectively). Deep learning strategies were negatively associated with Year 1 performance (β =- 0.31), but positively related to resource management strategies (β = 0.77), which, in turn, were positively related to participation (β = 0.79). Value beliefs were positively related to deep learning strategies only (β = 0.71). The overall structural model for the 2008 cohort accounted for 47% of the variance in Year 1 grade point average and was cross-validated in the 2009 cohort. This study suggests that participation mediates the relationships between motivation and learning strategies, and medical school

  2. Grammar Learning Strategies and Language Attainment: Seeking a Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak Mirosław

    2009-01-01

    Despite major advances in research on language learning strategies, there are still areas that have received only scant attention, and one of them is undoubtedly learning grammar. The paper contributes to the paucity of empirical investigations in this domain by presenting the findings of a study which sought to investigate the relationship between the use of grammar learning strategies (GLS) reported by 142 English Department students and target language attainment, operationalized as their ...

  3. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  4. The effectiveness of e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    A structured search of library databases revealed that research examining the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last five years. After taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that previous researchers defined and investigated effectiveness....... The paper answers the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e-Learning defined? How is the effectiveness of e-Learning measured? What makes e-Learning solutions effective? The authors discovered 19 distinct ways to define effectiveness, the most common of which is ‘learning outcome...... to the findings of the literature study. The study suggests that it is difficult to use e-Learning to improve teaching performance, as participating teachers can apply several strategies to avoid substantially changing their work-related practices. Furthermore, the study shows that only using the fulfilment...

  5. Investigating learning strategies in a dispositional learning analytics context: the case of worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to recent developments in empirical studies on students’ learning strategies, whereby the use of trace data is combined with self-report data to distinguish profiles of learning strategy use [3–5]. We do so in the context of an application of dispositional learning

  6. Students’ goal orientations and learning strategies in a powerful learning environment : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Beijaard, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Dutch secondary education, experiments with powerful social constructivist learning environments are conducted that aim to appeal to students’ intrinsic goal orientations, use of deep cognitive learning strategies, and self-direction of meta-cognitive learning strategies. The aim of this study is

  7. The effects of student support services peer tutoring on learning and study strategies, grades, and retention at a rural community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their

  8. Implementing a learning technology strategy: top–down strategy meets bottom–up culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lisewski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using interview-based ‘insider case study' research, this paper outlines why the University of Salford has adopted a Learning Technologies Strategy and examines the factors which are likely to lead to its successful implementation. External reasons for the adoption focused on the need to: respond to ‘increased Higher Education (HE competition', meet student expectations of learning technology use, provide more flexibility and access to the curriculum, address the possible determining effect of technology and establish a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE presence in this ‘particular area of the HE landscape'. Internal drivers centred on the need to: continue a ‘bottom– up' e-learning pilot project initiative, particularly given that a VLE is a ‘complex tool' which requires effective strategic implementation, and promote the idea that learning technology will play an important role in determining the type of HE institution that the University of Salford wishes to become. Likely success factors highlighted the need to: create ‘time and space' for innovation, maintain effective communication and consultation at all levels of the organization, emphasize the operational aspects of the strategy, establish a variety of staff development processes and recognize the negotiatory processes involved in understanding the term ‘web presence' in local teaching cultures. Fundamentally, the paper argues that policy makers should acknowledge the correct ‘cultural configuration' of HE institutions when seeking to manage and achieve organizational change. Thus, it is not just a question of establishing ‘success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualized appropriately within a ‘correct' characterization of the organizational culture.

  9. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  10. Strategies for service-learning assessment in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee

    2013-10-01

    A large body of literature exists on the instructional pedagogy known as service-learning. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach characterized by the dental hygiene student's practical application of academic studies and occurs within a community setting, to the benefit of both the student and community. Dental hygiene educators use service-learning to enhance student knowledge and application of oral health curriculum. This manuscript reports on the importance of service-learning assessment to the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda as well as the future of the profession of dental hygiene and the successful strategies in service-learning evaluation available for utilization by dental hygiene educators.

  11. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  12. Design, implementation and evaluation of innovative science teaching strategies for non-formal learning in a natural history museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning.

  13. Classroom acoustics and intervention strategies to enhance the learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Christal

    The classroom environment can be an acoustically difficult atmosphere for students to learn effectively, sometimes due in part to poor acoustical properties. Noise and reverberation have a substantial influence on room acoustics and subsequently intelligibility of speech. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA, 1995) developed minimal standards for noise and reverberation in a classroom for the purpose of providing an adequate listening environment. A lack of adherence to these standards may have undesirable consequences, which may lead to poor academic performance. The purpose of this capstone project is to develop a protocol to measure the acoustical properties of reverberation time and noise levels in elementary classrooms and present the educators with strategies to improve the learning environment. Noise level and reverberation will be measured and recorded in seven, unoccupied third grade classrooms in Lincoln Parish in North Louisiana. The recordings will occur at six specific distances in the classroom to simulate teacher and student positions. The recordings will be compared to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards for noise and reverberation. If discrepancies are observed, the primary investigator will serve as an auditory consultant for the school and educators to recommend remediation and intervention strategies to improve these acoustical properties. The hypothesis of the study is that the classroom acoustical properties of noise and reverberation will exceed the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards; therefore, the auditory consultant will provide strategies to improve those acoustical properties.

  14. A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-12-01

    Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.

  15. IMITATION STRATEGIES FOR SME’S LEARNING PROCESS TOWARDS INNOVATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sulistiyani

    2013-01-01

    The research results are as follow: the learning experience to use imitation strategy which covers stages of imitation, research, development and  creation. This learning process is the result of interaction between personal and behavior factors, as well as the enabler and barriers. The owners of leather small industries which leave the imitation strategy and switch to innovation strategy are craftsmen who have an entrepreneurial spirit. they are able to balance entrepreneurial and business aspects.

  16. Multiagent Cooperative Learning Strategies for Pursuit-Evasion Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yih Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the pursuit-evasion problem for coordinating multiple robotic pursuers to locate and track a nonadversarial mobile evader in a dynamic environment. Two kinds of pursuit strategies are proposed, one for agents that cooperate with each other and the other for agents that operate independently. This work further employs the probabilistic theory to analyze the uncertain state information about the pursuers and the evaders and uses case-based reasoning to equip agents with memories and learning abilities. According to the concepts of assimilation and accommodation, both positive-angle and bevel-angle strategies are developed to assist agents in adapting to their environment effectively. The case study analysis uses the Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit (REPAST to implement a multiagent system and demonstrates superior performance of the proposed approaches to the pursuit-evasion game.

  17. Instructional Utility and Learning Efficacy of Common Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConell, David A.; Chapman, LeeAnna; Czaijka, C. Douglas; Jones, Jason P.; Ryker, Katherine D.; Wiggen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active learning instructional practices in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses has been shown to result in improvements in student learning, contribute to increased retention rates, and reduce the achievement gap among different student populations. Descriptions of active learning strategies…

  18. Individual Learning Accounts: A Strategy for Lifelong Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY, FOREIGN LANGUAGE APTITUDE AND MOTIVATIONS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Tri Febriani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Language learning belief and language learning strategies are two essential predictors that have significant effect toward students’ language proficiency. Learners’ belief is dealing with what comes from inside the learners in learning the language, such as foreign language aptitude; difficulty of language learning; nature of language learning; learning and communication strategies; and motivation. Meanwhile, language learning strategies are learners’ plan in achieving certain goals or mastering the target language. A preliminary research was conducted in order to find what strategy mostly used by the learners. It turned out that the strategy mostly used by them was metacognitive strategies. Thus, this study aims to investigate about the correlation between metacognitive strategies and certain belief’ variables in students’ language learning which are foreign language aptitude and motivation. Moreover, twenty postgraduate students of English education department participated in this study. This study used correlational research, in which the BALLI (Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and SILL (Strategies Inventory for Language Learners questionnaires were adopted as the instruments in collecting the data. The findings of this study indicated that there is negative linear correlation between metacognitive strategy and foreign language aptitude (rXY = -0,049 while there is significant positive linear correlation between metacognitive and motivation (rXY =+0,79 in students’ language learning. Furthermore, this study also provide some recommendations, which is it is expected that there will be more researches use studies using different respondents with various contexts. Secondly, the further research will use both of quantitative and qualitative data relating to this issue in order to make a more accurate data.

  20. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  1. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  2. E-learning: new strategies and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Martini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a personal point of view on the possible future trends in distance learning. The starting point of this study is represented by a review of the main innovations in digital and information technologies. This step is necessary since the evolution of distance learning is strictly correlated to the evolution of the technology that can be exploited to increase learning quality. The main arguments discussed in this paper are: massive open on-line courses (MOOCs, flipped classrooms and the evolution of the learning objects based on web and on internet technology. Concerning MOOCs, a critical analysis of the status of this type of learning is necessary to understand their possible evolution and/or their substitution. A huge number of case studies demonstrated the validity of the flipped classroom and the possibility to adopt this approach into e-learning is surely interesting. The last part of the paper is instead dedicated to future technologies like: mobile learning, 3D virtual laboratories and internet of things. As discussed, this latest innovations can push the evolution of distance learning offering real student-centered solutions.

  3. Strategies in probabilistic feedback learning in Parkinson patients OFF medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, C; Kobza, S; Ferrea, S; Schnitzler, A; Pollok, B; Südmeyer, M

    2016-04-21

    Studies on classification learning suggested that altered dopamine function in Parkinson's Disease (PD) specifically affects learning from feedback. In patients OFF medication, enhanced learning from negative feedback has been described. This learning bias was not seen in observational learning from feedback, indicating different neural mechanisms for this type of learning. The present study aimed to compare the acquisition of stimulus-response-outcome associations in PD patients OFF medication and healthy control subjects in active and observational learning. 16 PD patients OFF medication and 16 controls were examined with three parallel learning tasks each, two feedback-based (active and observational) and one non-feedback-based paired associates task. No acquisition deficit was seen in the patients for any of the tasks. More detailed analyses on the learning strategies did, however, reveal that the patients showed more lose-shift responses during active feedback learning than controls, and that lose-shift and win-stay responses more strongly determined performance accuracy in patients than controls. For observational feedback learning, the performance of both groups correlated similarly with the performance in non-feedback-based paired associates learning and with the accuracy of observed performance. Also, patients and controls showed comparable evidence of feedback processing in observational learning. In active feedback learning, PD patients use alternative learning strategies than healthy controls. Analyses on observational learning did not yield differences between patients and controls, adding to recent evidence of a differential role of the human striatum in active and observational learning from feedback. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. On Learning Motivation and Strategies of Non-English Major College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Based on the positive correlation between learning motivation and strategies,this paper investigates the influence of different motivation orientations on learner’s management of learning strategies.The relation between learning strategies and language proficiency is further probed in order to highlight the significance of managing learning strategies and adjusting motivational orientation in the process of language learning.

  5. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  6. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN UNIVERSITY COURSES IN ITALIAN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosi-Randić, Neala; Ružić, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The present work explores relationships among motivation, the use of learning strategies and anxiety. In this research 93 university students took part; 84 females and 9 males, 19 to 26 years old. Obtained results indicate existence of positive and significant correlations between motivation and the use of learning strategies. More motivated students organise their personal activities better, they are more active during lectures and they elaborate materials better compared to the less motivat...

  8. [Learning Portfolio: A New Strategy in Health Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Ching-Ju; Chang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Li-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Health education is the teaching by healthcare professionals of healthcare-related knowledge and skills to students in order that these students learn to help patients self-manage their disease and maintain health. This article introduces a new strategy in health education known as the learning portfolio and presents the theoretical basis and function of the learning portfolio and the current application of this approach in academic and health education. The learning portfolio is a learner-centric approach that collects evidence related to an individual's learning process systematically. This approach helps educators understand learner needs and conditions, while allowing the learner to observe his / her learning process in a manner that promotes self-reflection, continual inspection, and behavioral modification throughout the learning process. The results enhance the motivation of learners and strengthen their care confidence in accomplishing learning tasks.

  9. Gaming: a teaching strategy to enhance adult learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J M

    1997-01-01

    As a nurse educator, I encountered many complaints from staff nurses about mandatory inservice education programs, stating that they are repetitious, time-consuming, often too basic, and at times, downright boring. One exception was an Infection Control Week education session that was done in the form of a game. This session set attendance records and had very positive feedback from staff nurses. As a result of this feedback, the use of gaming as a teaching strategy in nursing education was explored. A review of the literature on gaming as a teaching strategy was conducted with special attention to its history, current use, and successes in nursing education. Introduced as a formal teaching strategy more than 75 years ago, gaming offers many advantages over more traditional teaching methods. Games connect theory more closely to real life situation and add innovation, diversity, and the opportunity for immediate feedback. Although gaining in popularity, gaming is not extensively used in nursing education as it is not considered a serious educational tool. However, recent literature suggests much success with its use. Gaming as a teaching strategy has proven to be an effective way of conveying information in a stimulating, appealing manner. Games facilitate both beginning and experienced nurses' learning by providing an opportunity for experience without the danger or fear of jeopardizing patient safety.

  10. Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direc...

  11. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  12. E-learning Paradigms and The Development of E-learning Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2006-01-01

    The e-learning area is characterized by a magnitude of different products, systems and approaches. The variations can also be observed in differences in the views and notions of e-learning among business people, researchers and journalists. This article attempts to disentangle the area by using...... economic and sociological theories, the theories of marketing management and strategy as well as practical experience gained by the author while working with leading edge suppliers of e-learning. On this basis, a distinction between knowledge creation e-learning and knowledge transfer e-learning....... The selection of which paradigm to use in the development of an e-learning strategy may prove crucial for success. Implications for the development of an e-learning strategy in businesses and learning institutions are outlined....

  13. Educating for Digital Futures: What the Learning Strategies of Digital Media Professionals Can Teach Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgstock, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how universities might engage more effectively with the imperative to develop students' twenty-first century skills for the information society, by examining learning challenges and professional learning strategies of successful digital media professionals. The findings of qualitative interviews with professionals from…

  14. Development of a Mobile Learning System Based on a Collaborative Problem-Posing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Ya-Chi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a problem-posing strategy is proposed for supporting collaborative mobile learning activities. Accordingly, a mobile learning environment has been developed, and an experiment on a local culture course has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Three classes of an elementary school in southern Taiwan…

  15. Applying an Experiential Learning Model to the Teaching of Gateway Strategy Board Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aiko; de Haan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The board game hobby has rapidly grown and evolved in recent years, but most of the non-digital games lack tips and tutorials and remain difficult to learn and teach effectively. In this project, we integrated a popular hobbyist approach to teaching modern strategy games with classical experiential learning elements (i.e., demonstration,…

  16. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…

  17. Strategies for improving students' motivation in the learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for improving students' motivation in the learning of French as a foreign language. ... learning should be made fun. The paper recommends that French teachers should give themselves to reading, writing and interaction with colleagues in French and in addition use varieties of methods and materials in teaching.

  18. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  19. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Yan

    Full Text Available We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  20. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  1. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasdar, Mansoreh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12), guidance (13-15), high…

  2. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation

  3. The Strategies To Advance the Internationalization of Learning (SAIL) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kenneth B.; Burnett, Jane

    This report documents the Strategies to Advance the Internalization of Learning (SAIL) program developed at Michigan State University (MSU) to promote international, comparative, and cross-cultural learning and cross-cultural understanding in the university community. A total of 350 foreign and U.S. students who had international experience…

  4. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  5. The Role of Motivational Strategies in Self-Regulated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of motivational techniques for promoting self-regulated learning in college students focuses on two methods students use to anticipate and negotiate the affective consequences of success and failure. The strategies, defensive pessimism and self-handicapping, are described and a study of their impact on self-regulated learning of 127…

  6. Engaging Students in Large Health Classes with Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Huelskamp, Amelia; Hritz, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Creative K-12 health teachers can engage students in large classes by utilizing active learning strategies. Active learning involves engaging students in higher-order tasks, such as analysis and synthesis, which is a crucial element of the movement toward what is commonly called "learner-centered" teaching. Health education teachers who…

  7. Generation of Tutorial Dialogues: Discourse Strategies for Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-29

    AND SUBTITLE Generation of Tutorial Dialogues: Discourse Strategies for active Learning AUTHORS Dr. Martha Evens 7. PERFORMING ORGANI2ATION NAME...time the student starts in on a new topic. Michael and Rovick constantly attempt to promote active learning . They regularly use hints and only resort...Controlling active learning : How tutors decide when to generate hints. Proceedings of FLAIRS 󈨣. Melbourne Beach, FL. 157-161. Hume, G., Michael

  8. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  9. Learning through debate during problem-based learning: an active learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sadaf; Latif, Rabia

    2017-09-01

    We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016. Each cohort of students was randomly split into 10 small PBL groups and exposed to weekly PBL activity. Within each group, the students were divided into a proposition half and an opposition half. Students were given 1 wk for debate preparation. The students' responses were recorded on a formulated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, and results are presented as percentages. The usefulness of debate in alleviating potential difficulties in communicating with patients was agreed to by 69% ( n = 126) of participants. That these sessions evoked critical thinking among students was reported by 78% ( n = 142). This series of debates helped 61% ( n = 111) of students to learn effectively about controversial issues. Seventy-one percent ( n = 130) considered that debate promoted argument generation and interpretation skills. Enhanced ability to analyze and research evidence was reported by 59% ( n = 108) of students. One hundred and thirteen students (62%) agreed that debate helped them to improve clinical decision-making, and 75% of students agreed that debates encouraged tolerance toward diverse viewpoints/convincing strategies. The majority of our medical students found debating enhanced analytic decision-making, communication, and critical thinking skills. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Student Motivation And Instructional Strategies In English Learning In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been referred to as the single most important ingredient of learning Wieman 2013. However it does not come by chance application of appropriate instructional strategies are necessary. The present study conducted in-depth inquiry into the relevance of student motivation and its relationship with higher achievement in L2 learning. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified sampling technique 60 students were sampled from three public schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Also by means of purposive sampling six English teachers were selected in the three schools as participants. Set of questionnaires were the instrument for the study and analysis involved simple frequencies percentages tables and Pearsons Correlation Coefficient r. The study revealed that students can be motivated by simplicity clarity practical and insightful analogies making lessons lively and interesting and most importantly generous use of TLMs. Positive relationship also existed between students motivation and the use of effective instructional strategies with the attendant proficiency in English. Unequivocally student motivation is pivotal to facilitating proficiency in English a key to riding the crest of globalization and technology.

  11. Positive versus Negative Communication Strategies in Task-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Siti

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task-Based Learning (TBL) would shape or change students' use of oral communication strategies. Students' problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis…

  12. Impact of E-Learning Strategy on Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...

  13. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  14. FIVES: An Integrated Strategy for Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Mary; Roberts, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a strategy that emphasizes the integration of all language and literacy skills for learning across content areas as well as the importance CCSS place on learners' ability to ask questions about information, phenomena, or ideas encountered (Ciardiello, 2012/2013). FIVES is a strategy that meaningfully integrates…

  15. An Investigation of Pronunciation Learning Strategies of Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…

  16. Active Learning: 101 Strategies To Teach Any Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mel

    This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…

  17. Learning Strategies of Students Attending a "Second Chance" School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Sylvie C.; Langevin, Louise; Robert, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in Quebec with 608 students (aged 16-19) in four "second chance" schools of the greater Montreal area. The objectives were twofold: (a) to identify the strategies of these students in the context of five learning activities; and (b) to compare the strategies of students who had withdrawn from school after their…

  18. Cognitive Strategy in Learning Chemistry: How Chunking and Learning Get Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Norma Che; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Hassan, Ruhaya

    2014-01-01

    The study explores chunking strategies applied in Short Term Memory (STM) by upper secondary students of mixed chemistry learning abilities. The aim of the study is to observe variations in chunking strategies utilized by these students when learning the Periodic Table of Elements in the Form Four Chemistry syllabus. Findings show that students…

  19. PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN GENIUS LEARNING TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR FISIKA SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Siagian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar Fisika siswa dengan menerapkan strategi pembelajaran Genius Learning. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Pancur Batu, di mana dari kelas X-A sebagai kelas eksperimen (strategi pembelajaran Genius Learning dan kelas X-B sebagai kela kontrol (pembelajaran konvensional dengan masing-masing kelas berjumlah 40 siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian quasi experiment dengan menggunakan metode groups pretest-posttest desaign dalam pengambilan data penelitian. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa rata-rata hasil belajar fisika siswa dengan strategi pembelajaran Genius Learning mengalami peningkatan. Data penelitian berupa hasil belajar kognitif diperoleh dari test hasil belajar yang diperoleh untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar siswa. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan adanya peningkatan hasil belajar kognitif. Dari hasil analisis tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa penerapan stategi pembelajaran Genius Learning dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar fisika siswa.

  20. Targeting Academic Programs to Student Diversity Utilizing Learning Styles and Learning-Study Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Sue K.

    1995-01-01

    A diagnostic, prescriptive model was utilized (n=394) in identification of learning styles and learning-study strategies of diverse student groups and in the analysis of prescriptive methods to address their specific needs. High-risk groups demonstrated auditory, tactile concrete, and group learning style preferences and were weaker on cognitive,…

  1. Supporting Learning from Illustrated Texts: Conceptualizing and Evaluating a Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag, Sabine; Ploetzner, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Texts and pictures are often combined in order to improve learning. Many students, however, have difficulty to appropriately process text-picture combinations. We have thus conceptualized a learning strategy which supports learning from illustrated texts. By inducing the processes of information selection, organization, integration, and…

  2. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  3. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  4. Motivation, strategy, and English as a foreign language vocabulary learning: A structural equation modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yining; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Zhang, Dongbo; Choi, Yunjeong

    2017-03-01

    In spite of considerable advancements in our understanding of the different factors involved in achieving vocabulary-learning success, the overall pattern and interrelationships of critical factors involved in L2 vocabulary learning - particularly, the mechanisms through which learners regulate their motivation and learning strategies - remain unclear. This study examined L2 vocabulary learning, focusing on the joint influence of different motivational factors and learning strategies on the vocabulary breadth of adolescent learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in China. The participants were 107 tenth graders (68 females, 39 males) in China. The data were collected via two questionnaires, one assessing students' motivation towards English-vocabulary learning and the other their English vocabulary-learning strategies, along with a test measuring vocabulary breadth. Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that learning strategy partially mediated the relationship between motivation (i.e., a composite score of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation) and vocabulary learning. Separate SEM analyses for intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) revealed that there were significant and positive direct and indirect effects of IM on vocabulary knowledge; and while EM's direct effect over and above that of learning strategies did not achieve significance, its indirect effect was significant and positive. The findings suggest that vocabulary-learning strategies mediate the relationship between motivation and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, IM may have a greater influence on vocabulary learning in foreign-language contexts. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Learning from Schelling's Strategy of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Roger B. Myerson

    2009-01-01

    Thomas Schelling's Strategy of Conflict is a masterpiece that should be recognized as one of the most important and influential books in social theory. This paper reviews some of the important ideas in Strategy of Conflict and considers some of the broader impact that this book has had on game theory, economics, and social theory. By his emphasis on the critical importance of information and commitment in strategic dynamics, Schelling played a vital role in stimulating the development of nonc...

  6. INFLUENCE OF LEARNING STRATEGIES ON LEARNING STYLES: THEIR IMPACT ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF COLLEGE STUDENTS FROM BUENOS AIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Freiberg-Hoffmann

    2017-02-01

    Motivation explain to the Assimilating style in a significant and positive way. The Pragmatist and Converging styles are explained significantly but negatively by the Motivation and Information 2.0 Management Competence strategies respectively. Finally, Converging style explained Academic Achievement in a significant and negative way. These findings led to the possibility to plan specific actions to train students' learning styles. Furthermore, this information could be useful for different actors in higher education, such as -institutions, teachers, educational psychologists, students, etc., in order to design academic activities which require the repeated use of the specific learning strategies which each student needs to train, aiming at the improvement of particular learning styles able to facilitate learning. At this point, it seems important to discourage the use of Converging style given the negative effect it would have on the students’ performance. Results and limitations of the study are discussed and future research lines are proposed.

  7. Teacher recommended academic and student engagement strategies for learning disabled students: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Bethel C.

    There has been a push towards the education of students with Learning Disabilities in inclusive educational settings with their non-disabled peers. Zigmond (2003) stated that it is not the placement of students with disabilities in general education setting alone that would guarantee their successes; instead, the strategies teachers use to ensure that these children are being engaged and learning will enable them become successful. Despite the fact that there are several bodies of research on effective teaching of students with learning disabilities, special education teachers continue to have difficulties concerning the appropriate strategies for promoting student engagement and improving learning for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings (Zigmond, 2003). This qualitative study interviewed and collected data from fifteen high performing special education teachers who were employed in a Southern state elementary school district to uncover the strategies they have found useful in their attempts to promote student engagement and attempts to improve student achievement for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings. The study uncovered strategies for promoting engagement and improving learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive classrooms. The findings showed that in order to actually reach the students with learning disabilities, special education teachers must go the extra miles by building rapport with the school communities, possess good classroom management skills, and become student advocates.

  8. The relationship between strategy making and organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela França Versiani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper discusses the role of strategy making in organizational learning. By linking organizational learning and strategyas-practice literatures, the objective of this research was to analyze how intertwined the cognitive process and strategic activities are in organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach – The metodology used is a longitudinal qualitative single case study of one of the largest Brazilian companies in the power industry. The unit of analysis is the firm’s growth strategy through mergers and acquisitions from 2003 to 2012. Findings – The findings show that organizational learning involved four sequenced causal flows in which specific types of strategic activities contributed directly or indirectly to learning loops. Originality/value – Our main contribution is to show that the implementation of strategic activities is the key to strategic renewal.

  9. MODERN OR TRADITIONAL TEACHING STRATEGY IN LEARNING ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAZALI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available First-year engineering students of the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, UKM are in the process of transition in the way they learn mathematics from pre-university level to the undergraduate level. It is essential for good engineers to have the ability to unfold mathematical problems in an efficient way. Thus, this research is done to investigate students preference in learning KKKQ1123 Engineering Mathematics I (Vector Calculus (VC course; either individually or in a team; using modern (e-learning or traditional (cooperative-learning teaching strategy. Questionnaires are given to the first year Chemical and Process Engineering students from academic year 2015/2016 and the results were analysed. Based on the finding, the students believed that the physical educators or teachers play an important role and that they have slightest preference in the traditional teaching strategy to learn engineering mathematics course.

  10. EFL learners’ motivational beliefs and their use of learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Najibi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to examine the relationship between English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners’ motivational beliefs and their use of learning strategies. The three components of motivation, i.e. expectancy component, value component and affective component, were examined in relation to metacognitive, cognitive and effort management strategies. Two hundred and fifty seven EFL learners representing different proficiency levels completed the Persian version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, which consisted of motivation scale and learning strategies scale. The analysis of the effect of proficiency level on motivational beliefs showed a significant effect of proficiency level on test anxiety and extrinsic goal orientation, suggesting that less proficient learners were significantly more anxious and more extrinsically oriented compared to advanced learners of English. It was also found that self-efficacy, control of learning beliefs, intrinsic goal orientation and task value could account for 70% of variations in self-regulated learning (SRL strategies. Based on the findings of this study, several suggestions are made to aid instructors in creating a non-product-oriented approach to learning, which promotes foreign language learners’ learning outcomes.

  11. Learning disabilities: definitions, epidemiology, diagnosis, and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagae, Lieven

    2008-12-01

    Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  12. Mapping as a learning strategy in health professions education: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudelko, Beatrice; Young, Meredith; Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe; Charlin, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Mapping is a means of representing knowledge in a visual network and is becoming more commonly used as a learning strategy in medical education. The assumption driving the development and use of concept mapping is that it supports and furthers meaningful learning. The goal of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning strategy in health professions education. The authors conducted a critical analysis of recent literature on the use of concept mapping as a learning strategy in the area of health professions education. Among the 65 studies identified, 63% were classified as empirical work, the majority (76%) of which used pre-experimental designs. Only 24% of empirical studies assessed the impact of mapping on meaningful learning. Results of the analysis do not support the hypothesis that mapping per se furthers and supports meaningful learning, memorisation or factual recall. When documented improvements in learning were found, they often occurred when mapping was used in concert with other strategies, such as collaborative learning or instructor modelling, scaffolding and feedback. Current empirical research on mapping as a learning strategy presents methodological shortcomings that limit its internal and external validity. The results of our analysis indicate that mapping strategies that make use of feedback and scaffolding have beneficial effects on learning. Accordingly, we see a need to expand the process of reflection on the characteristics of representational guidance as it is provided by mapping techniques and tools based on field of knowledge, instructional objectives, and the characteristics of learners in health professions education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  13. Language learning strategy research and modern foreign language teaching and learning in England

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses language learner strategy research. It arises from two sources: firstly, an individual background in research and writing about Language Learning Strategy research in the context of Modern Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in the UK over the past decades; secondly, a newly constituted British based interest group dedicated to this area of applied linguistics - UK Project on Language Learner Strategies (UKPOLLS). The aim of this SIG paper is to introduce and present t...

  14. [Learning strategies of autonomous medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Bustamante D, Carolina; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Ortiz M, Liliana; Espinoza P, Camila; Bastías V, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how autonomous students are capable of regulating their own learning process is essential to develop self-directed teaching methods. To understand how self-directed medical students approach learning in medical schools at University of Concepción, Chile. A qualitative and descriptive study, performed according to Grounded Theory guidelines, following Strauss & Corbin was performed. Twenty medical students were selected by the maximum variation sampling method. The data collection technique was carried out by a semi-structured thematic interview. Students were interviewed by researchers after an informed consent procedure. Data were analyzed by the open coding method using Atlas-ti 7.5.2 software. Self-directed learners were characterized by being good planners and managing their time correctly. Students performed a diligent selection of contents to study based on reliable literature sources, theoretical relevance and type of evaluation. They also emphasized the discussion of clinical cases, where theoretical contents can be applied. This modality allows them to gain a global view of theoretical contents, to verbalize knowledge and to obtain a learning feedback. The learning process of autonomous students is intentional and planned.

  15. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  16. Active Learning Strategies for the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, John

    2018-01-01

    Active learning involves students engaging with course content beyond lecture: through writing, applets, simulations, games, and more (Prince, 2004). As mathematics is often viewed as a subject area that is taught using more traditional methods (Goldsmith & Mark, 1999), there are actually many simple ways to make undergraduate mathematics…

  17. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Sharpe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curriculum development and evaluation of school-supported projects. It is clear that the implementation of the e-learning strategy has led to a large and increasing proportion of our students experiencing blended learning. In addition, there are initial indications that this has enhanced some learning and teaching processes. Where there has been sustainable embedding of effective e-learning, the following levers were identified as particularly important: flexibility in practices that allow schools to contextualise their plans for change, the facilitation of communities of key staff and creating opportunities for staff to voice and challenge their beliefs about e-learning.

  19. Structure and strategies in children's educational television: the roles of program type and learning strategies in children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or expository) and learning strategies embedded in the macrostructure that support learning in print-based contexts. In Study 2, regression analyses were used to predict outcomes involving 71 second and third graders (average age=7.63 years). Strategies were categorized as organizing, rehearsing, elaborating, or affective in function. Outcomes were uniformly higher for narrative macrostructures. Strategies used in narratives predicted relatively homogenous relations across outcomes, whereas strategies in expositories predicted quite heterogeneous relations across outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Evaluating Executive Strategies (Management Strategies and Teaching-Learning Strategies) of Graduate Curriculum: Case Study in Isfahan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanpour, Muhammad; Ahmadi, Mojtaba; Hatami, Mostafa; Mirzaee, Hamzeh

    2017-01-01

    The present study seeks to evaluate executive strategies in graduate Curriculum of Isfahan University from the point of view of management and teaching-learning strategies. This study is an applied survey. The population comprised BA students and faculty members of the University of Isfahan. In order to do so, 141 professors and 278 students were…

  1. Learning in Neural Networks: VLSI Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan Anh

    1995-01-01

    Fully-parallel hardware neural network implementations may be applied to high-speed recognition, classification, and mapping tasks in areas such as vision, or can be used as low-cost self-contained units for tasks such as error detection in mechanical systems (e.g. autos). Learning is required not only to satisfy application requirements, but also to overcome hardware-imposed limitations such as reduced dynamic range of connections.

  2. COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ON NOUN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shierly Novalita Yappy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning English for non-English department students is not as easy as it seems. Besides, as much as it is necessary to know how successful learners learn, not less important is to know how less successful learners learn. Using think aloud method, this study aims at finding out the cognitive strategies used by the engineering department students in answering incorrectly problems on TOEFL noun structure-the grammar point in which students made the most errors. Findings uncover the students' strategies and reasoning upon which pedagogical implications can be put forth so that more effective and fruitful instruction can be tailored.

  3. Proven Strategies for Teaching and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Brown (David)

    2004-01-01

    textabstract50 technology-using professors at 50 of America's most-wired campuses were asked to explain how their teaching strategies have been augmented by the use of computers. From their responses emerges a pattern. Most professors are using computers in teaching in order to enable more

  4. Learning and coping strategies versus standard education in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Learning and coping education strategies (LC) was implemented to enhance patient attendance in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. This study assessed the cost-utility of LC compared to standard education (standard) as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with ischemic heart...... disease and heart failure. Methods The study was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial with 825 patients who were allocated to LC or standard rehabilitation and followed for 5 months. The LC approach was identical to the standard approach in terms of physical training and education...... to estimate the net benefit of the LC and to illustrate cost effectiveness acceptability curves. The statistical analysis was based on means and bootstrapped standard errors. Results An additional cost of DKK 6,043 (95 % CI −5,697; 17,783) and a QALY gain of 0.005 (95 % CI −0.001; 0.012) was estimated for LC...

  5. Metacognitive reading strategies of children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2017-05-15

    to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.

  6. Social Learning Strategies: Bridge-Building between Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel L; Boogert, Neeltje J; Rendell, Luke; Laland, Kevin N; Webster, Mike; Jones, Patricia L

    2018-07-01

    While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following 'social learning strategies' (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns. The field would also benefit from the simultaneous study of mechanism and function. SLSs provide a useful vehicle for bridge-building between cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Future Learning Strategy and ePortfolios in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dorninger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change of the information andknowledge Society does no stop at education:communication, teaching and learning are changing due todigital media. Therefore at Austrian schools a “FutureLearning”- strategy was started in October 2007, where newforms of learning are underlined by new media and socialsoftware. This strategy will be presented. An important partof the strategy is the introduction of electronic Portfolios forstudents. Portfolios could be powerful tools to realizeindividualisation in formal education. There are two maintypes, the process portfolio for learning, working andreflection and the application portfolio for assessmentpurposes and job application. It is now possible to collectformal and informal competences and skills-orientedknowledge for the later professional career.

  8. The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation

  9. The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation.

  10. Collaborative Learning: Theoretical Foundations and Applicable Strategies to University Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor D. Roselli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education. Firstly, three converging theoretical sources are analyzed: socio-cognitive conflict theory, intersubjectivity theory and distributed cognition theory. Secondly, a model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to develop socio-cognitive collaboration is presented. This model integrates and systematizes several academic group animation techniques developed within the collaborative learning field. These integrated techniques, within a coherent and unified didactic intention, allow talking more about strategies than independent and dissociated techniques. Each strategy is specifically described, which refers to six areas: encouragement of dialogue, listening to others and reciprocal assessment; collaboration for negotiation and consensus building; activity organization; study and appropriation of bibliographic information; conceptual development; collective writing. These strategies proposed (designed to stimulate the collaboration between 2, 4 and exceptionally, 6 or 8 students are not the only possible strategies, they can be combined with the ones the teacher might suggest. The strict pattern of each strategy is a characteristic of the proposal. The teacher is also encouraged to benchmark the results obtained using each strategy and those obtained using individual or non-collaborative strategies. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the implementation of these strategies are discussed.

  11. Developing students' listening metacognitive strategies using online videotext self-dictation-generation learning activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote metacognitive listening development. Two theories were used to guide the online video-SDG learning activity: a student question-generation method and a metacognitive listening training model in a second language (L2. The study investigated how college students in the online video-SDG activity enhanced the use of listening strategies by developing metacognitive listening skills. With emphasis on the metacognitive instructional process, students could promote their listening comprehension of advertisement videos (AVs. Forty-eight students were recruited to participate in the study. Through data collected from the online learning platform, questionnaires, a focus-group interview, and pre- and post- achievement tests, the results revealed that the online video-SDG learning activity could effectively engage students in reflecting upon their perceptions of specific problems countered, listening strategy usages, and strategic knowledge exploited in the metacognitive instructional process. The importance of employing cost-effective online video-SGD learning activities is worthy of consideration in developing students’ metacognitive listening knowledge for enhancing EFL listening strategy instruction.

  12. The connection between teaching and learning: Linking teaching quality and metacognitive strategy use in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Svenja; Naumann, Alexander; Decristan, Jasmin; Fauth, Benjamin; Klieme, Eckhard; Büttner, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    In order for teaching to be successful, students need to be actively involved in learning. However, research on teaching effectiveness often neglects students' learning activities. Although it is assumed that effective teaching promotes the use of beneficial learning activities, empirical evidence for this connection is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the connection between effective teaching and reported learning activities. We hypothesize specific relations between a three-dimensional model of teaching quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, and classroom management) and students' reported use of metacognitive strategies. Students' intrinsic motivation is considered as a mediator and a moderator of this connection. N = 1,052 students from 53 German primary school classes and their science teachers participated. Data were collected through classroom or video observation and questionnaires over a period of approximately 2 months. Multilevel analysis was utilized to test our hypotheses. Each dimension of teaching quality positively predicted students' reported use of metacognitive strategies. For supportive climate, this connection was mediated by students' intrinsic motivation. Cognitive activation negatively predicted the slopes between students' reported metacognitive strategy use and motivation. The results support the notion that effective teaching is connected to learning activities and stress the importance of students' learning motivation. Results from the cross-level interaction could indicate that especially less motivated students' reported metacognitive strategy use might be supported by cognitively activating teaching. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Beatriz Stover

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in testing a predictive model of academic achievement including motivation and learning strategies as predictors. Motivation is defined as the energy and the direction of behaviors; it is categorized in three types of motivation –intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985. Learning strategies are deliberate operations oriented towards information processing in academic activities (Valle, Barca, González & Núñez, 1999. Several studies analysed the relationship between motivation and learning strategies in high school and college environments. Students with higher academic achievement were intrinsically motivated and used a wider variety of learning strategies more frequently. A non-experimental predictive design was developed. The sample was composed by 459 students (55.2% high-schoolers; 44.8% college students. Data were gathered by means of sociodemographic and academic surveys, and also by the local versions of the Academic Motivation Scale –EMA, Echelle de Motivation en Éducation (Stover, de la Iglesia, Rial Boubeta & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Vallerand, Blais, Briere & Pelletier, 1989 and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory –LASSI (Stover, Uriel & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Weinstein, Schulte & Palmer, 1987. Several path analyses were carried out to test a hypothetical model to predict academic achievement (Kline, 1998. Results indicated that self-determined motivation explained academic achievement through the use of learning strategies. The final model obtained an excellent fit (χ2=16.523, df= 6, p=0.011; GFI=0.987; AGFI=0.955; SRMR=0.0320; NFI=0.913; IFI=0.943; CFI=0.940. Results are discussed considering Self Determination Theory and previous research.

  14. POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN TASK-BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task Based Learning (TBL would shape or change students’ use of oral communication strategies. Students’ problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis throughmulti-methods of questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion, learning journals, and classroom observation. Participants were 26 second year students of the State Polytechnic of Malang. Data collection was conducted for one semester. Findingsshow linguistic and non-linguistic problems encountered by students during one-semester implementation of TBL. Students also performedincreased use of positive strategies but reduced use of negative strategies after the implementation of TBL.

  15. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Safian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL at University Putra Malaysia.  There are five different categories of vocabulary leaning strategies determination, social, memory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Quantitative research design has been used in this study by providing a set of questionnaire of 58 items that was given out to 50 participants at the Faculty of Educational Studies in UPM. The findings of this research hope to help all educators to acknowledge the type of vocabulary strategies used by students in acquiring second language (L2.

  16. Debate: a teaching-learning strategy for developing competence in communication and critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The literature highlights key benefits from debate as a teaching-learning strategy for developing critical thinking and analytical skills while fostering teamwork and communication. Authors report that this method of teaching-learning has been implemented successfully in nursing and occupational therapy programs and would benefit other academic programs in the health sciences, particularly in courses that cover controversial issues. Although there are disadvantages to using the debate as a teaching-learning strategy, the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages. In conclusion, debating is an effective pedagogical strategy because of the level of responsibility for learning and active involvement required by all student debaters. Moreover, it provides an experience by which students can develop competencies in researching current issues, preparing logical arguments, actively listening to various perspectives, differentiating between subjective and evidence-based information, asking cogent questions, integrating relevant information, and formulating their own opinions based on evidence. After the debate is over, students also report that the experience is FUN!

  17. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Applied to Undergraduate, Graduate and Specialization Students from Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Redaelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The current demand for civil engineering work requires new skills and knowledge and calls for new and effective learning methods. This paper shows self-regulated learning strategies applied to undergraduate, graduate and specialization students from Civil Engineering in a Brazilian University. A Scale of Evaluation of Learning Strategies was administered with a view to identifying students´ cognitive, metacognitive and dysfunctional learning strategies.

  18. Assessment: Continuous Learning. Strategies for Teaching and Learning Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Lois

    This publication is part of a series of monographs on the art of teaching. Each volume, focusing on a specific discipline, explores theory in the context of teaching strategies Three techniques for using the series: dialogues (as self-evaluation and in study groups), shop talk (review of current professional literature), and teacher-to-teacher…

  19. Second foreign language learning strategies and their variations across language proficiency levels among Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazhakh, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.

  20. Learning foreign languages in teletandem: Resources and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. TELLES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Teletandem is a virtual, collaborative, and autonomous context in which two speakers of different languages use the text, voice, and webcam image resources of VOIP technology (Skype to help each other learn their native language (or language of proficiency. This paper focuses on learners' studying processes and their responses to teletandem. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from 134 university students through an online questionnaire. Results show the content of students' learning processes, resources, activities, and strategies. We conclude with a critical discussion of the results and raise pedagogical implications for the use o-f teletandem as a mode of online intercultural contact to learn foreign languages.

  1. The Place of e-Learning in Romanian Universities’ Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona LACUREZEANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational policy documents at European level reaffirm professors’ status as key players of strategies aimed to stimulate socio-economic development. In a powerful knowledge-based society, the e-Learning system has the capacity to transform education, creating major initiatives required to identify new skills and behaviors. In this paper we try to outline the position of this new educational system in the Romanian higher education strategy.

  2. Instructional strategies for online introductory college physics based on learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwue, Eleazer U.

    The practical nature of physics and its reliance on mathematical presentations and problem solving pose a challenge toward presentation of the course in an online environment for effective learning experience. Most first-time introductory college physics students fail to grasp the basic concepts of the course and the problem solving skills if the instructional strategy used to deliver the course is not compatible with the learners' preferred learning styles. This study investigates the effect of four instructional strategies based on four learning styles (listening, reading, iconic, and direct-experience) to improve learning for introductory college physics in an online environment. Learning styles of 146 participants were determined with Canfield Learning Style inventory. Of the 85 learners who completed the study, research results showed a statistically significant increase in learning performance following the online instruction in all four learning style groups. No statistically significant differences in learning were found among the four groups. However, greater significant academic improvement was found among learners with iconic and direct-experience modes of learning. Learners in all four groups expressed that the design of the unit presentation to match their individual learning styles contributed most to their learning experience. They were satisfied with learning a new physics concept online that, in their opinion, is either comparable or better than an instructor-led classroom experience. Findings from this study suggest that learners' performance and satisfaction in an online introductory physics course could be improved by using instructional designs that are tailored to learners' preferred ways of learning. It could contribute toward the challenge of providing viable online physics instruction in colleges and universities.

  3. Surveying and Modeling Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies for Mobile-Assisted Seamless Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…

  4. How are learning strategies reflected in the eyes? Combining results from self-reports and eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, Leen; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Lesterhuis, Marije; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2018-03-01

    Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures. This study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies. Twenty students with different generic learning profiles (according to self-report questionnaires) read an expository text, while their eye movements were registered to answer questions on the content afterwards. Eye-tracking data were analysed with generalized linear mixed-effects models. The results indicate that students with an all-high profile, combining both deep and surface learning strategies, spend more time on rereading the text than students with an all-low profile, scoring low on both learning strategies. This study showed that we can use eye-tracking to distinguish very strategic students, characterized using cognitive processing and regulation strategies, from low strategic students, characterized by a lack of cognitive and regulation strategies. These students processed the expository text according to how they self-reported. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. E-pedagogical strategies in the profession oriented learning context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgnakke, Karen; Lyngsø, Anita

    The paper is focusing on e-pedagogical strategies in online nursing education and summarizes empirical findings from ongoing fieldwork. In the ethnographic research close up analysis of the e-pedagogical practice bring light to the process of learning. Following the shifting online and offline...... activities, the analysis of the digital classroom and observations of the students in the clinical practice show how the students creates strategies in interaction with both students fellows, supervisors and patients. The paper will give examples from the fieldwork and hereby show how strategies and the e...

  6. The Influence of Learning Context and Age on the Use of L2 Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of foreign language learning context (three-month study-abroad; versus "at-home" instruction) and age (10-11-year-old children versus university students) on the development of effective foreign language communication strategies (CS) in monologue production. Participants (N = 95) were all Spanish/Catalan…

  7. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  8. Replacing Stressful Challenges with Positive Coping Strategies: A Resilience Program for Clinical Placement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C.; Miller, K. J.; El-Ansary, D.; Remedios, L.; Hosseini, A.; McLeod, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical education is foundational to health professional training. However, it is also a time of increased stress for students. A student's perception of stressors and their capacity to effectively manage them is a legitimate concern for educators, because anxiety and decreased coping strategies can interfere with effective learning, clinical…

  9. Multimedia Instructional Tools' Impact on Student Motivation and Learning Strategies in Computer Applications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Debra; Wang, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way effectively and economically present instructional material. MMITs are commonly used in introductory computer applications courses as MMITs should be effective in increasing student knowledge and positively impact motivation and learning strategies, without increasing costs. This…

  10. Stress Modulates the Use of Spatial versus Stimulus-Response Learning Strategies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippsen, Christine; Richter, Steffen; Bohringer, Andreas; Wippich, Werner; Schachinger, Hartmut; Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S.

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies provided evidence that stress modulates multiple memory systems, favoring caudate nucleus-based "habit" memory over hippocampus-based "cognitive" memory. However, effects of stress on learning strategy and memory consolidation were not differentiated. We specifically address the effects of psychosocial stress on the applied learning…

  11. A Study on Developing Learning Strategies in Violin Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan, Senol; Cilden, Seyda

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of developing a valid and reliable learning strategies scale for students receiving violin education in Departments of Music at Fine Arts High Schools. The scale was applied to 391 violin students receiving education in the 11th and 12th grades in Departments of Music at Fine Arts High Schools in the…

  12. Collaborative Learning: Theoretical Foundations and Applicable Strategies to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Nestor D.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education. Firstly, three converging theoretical sources are analyzed: socio-cognitive conflict theory, intersubjectivity theory and distributed cognition theory. Secondly, a model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to…

  13. Motivated strategies for learning and their association with academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Most instruments, including the well-known Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), have been designed in western homogeneous settings. Use of the MSLQ in health professions education is limited. Objective. To assess the MSLQ and its association with the academic performance of a ...

  14. Strategies for enhancing the teaching and learning of technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated strategies for enhancing the teaching and learning of technical drawing in technical colleges in ebonyi state, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured interview from twenty technical drawing teachers and 120 technical drawing students in the study area. Data were analysed using mean ...

  15. ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper centres on ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies: benefits and setbacks in Nigeria education system. It is in fact among the academic struggle to bring to the lime-light, the knowledge of ICT to scholars especially in the domain of education. The paper captured interesting discussion on the ...

  16. Training and Learning Strategies of Family Businesses: An Irish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the training and learning strategies adopted by family businesses in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: In order to implement the study a database of family businesses was compiled. A number of sources were used to compile the database. Primary data from a stratified random sample of independent…

  17. Global Corporate Priorities and Demand-Led Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to start the process of exploring how to optimise connections between the strategic needs of an organisation as directed by top management and its learning management structures and strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The article takes a broad brush approach to a complex and large subject area that is…

  18. Organisational Learning through International M&A Integration Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wayne; Salama, Alzira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to explore the learning process associated with international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) integration strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a comparative case study methodology, utilising qualitative data through in-depth interviews with top management responsible for…

  19. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  20. An integrated mentoring strategy for service learning in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education in South Africa, in general, has been charged with the lack of clear strategy and commitment to relevant teaching and research that is grounded in experiential and emancipatory approaches to learning, especially given the dearth of institutional responsiveness to social responsibility. The result is that ...

  1. Teaching Organizational Skills through Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case story of how an occupational therapist worked with Joe, a junior high student with Asperger's Syndrome, to develop better organizational skills. Self-regulated learning strategies were used to teach Joe how to keep track of his assignments as well as his grades. In addition, the case story provides a clear example of…

  2. Designing Instructional Strategies which Facilitate Learning for Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Jones, Beau Fly

    The "state of the craft" of instruction within the context of the mastery learning model is discussed. Little has been said in the past about specific instructional strategies that are applicable to particular instructional units or objectives, or to the daily classroom life of teachers. This paper is organized into six major sections. The first…

  3. Factor Validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in Asynchronous Online Learning Environments (AOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Summers, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in asynchronous online learning environments. In order to check the factor validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with 193 cases. Using CFA, it was found that the original measurement model fit for…

  4. Learning Pre-Played Solos: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Jazz/Improvised Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…

  5. Field of Study, Learning Styles, and Language Learning Strategies of University Students: Are There Any Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahragard, Rahman; Khajavi, Yaser; Abbasian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationships between field of study, learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among university students majoring in the fields of arts and humanities, science, engineering, social sciences, and English as a foreign language. To this end, 376 university students completed the…

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Learning Styles in Turkish Freshman Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Özgül

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the language learning strategies of freshman students and their learning styles. This study is a descriptive research and employs a relational screening model. Participants of the study were 328 freshman students majoring in different fields at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet…

  7. Academic performance and perception of learning following a peer coaching teaching and assessment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Westwater-Wood, Sarah; Kerry, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Peer coaching has been associated with positive effects on learning. Specifically, these associations have been explored in complex healthcare professions. A social theory of learning has been proposed as a key component of the utility of peer coaching. Further, within the peer coaching model, assessment has been considered as an important driver. Empirical support for these dimensions of the model is lacking. To quantify assessment achievements and explore emergent attitudes and beliefs about learning related to a specific peer coaching model with integrated assessment. A longitudinal study based in a UK Higher Education Institute recorded assessment achievements and surveyed attitudes and beliefs in consecutive Year 1 undergraduate (physiotherapy) students (n = 560) between 2002 and 2012. A 6% improvement in academic achievement was demonstrated following the introduction of a peer coaching learning model. This was increased by a further 5% following the implementation of an integrated assessment. The improvement related to an overall averaged increase of one marking band. Students valued the strategy, and themes relating to the importance of social learning emerged from survey data. Peer coaching is an evidence-based teaching and learning strategy which can facilitate learning in complex subject areas. The strategy is underpinned by social learning theory which is supported by emergent student-reported attitudes.

  8. Indirect effects of recovery strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jake

    -based models of fish communities indicate that theserelationships have lawful dynamics that continue to be expressed, even when individualspecies become rarer - as predators or as prey. An ecosystem based management recoverystrategies of a given species or group of species should therefore not be seen...... in isolation,but the expected consequences for the rest of the ecosystem must be analyzed. We use ageneral size- and trait-based model to calculate the ecosystem effects of fishing andrecovery. We present a general analysis of a recovery strategies targeting either large fishes(consumer fishery), small fishes...

  9. The relationship between students' perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size

    OpenAIRE

    Gorevanova, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...

  10. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  11. Learning Strategy in Class Management: A Reflection from Manado Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi Wekke, Ismail; Yandra, Alexander; Hamuddin, Budianto

    2017-12-01

    This article is a research conducted with qualitative approach with various case studies underlining a strategy that becomes the basis for classroom management. The article discusses and links to the learning revolution that becomes today’s demands, including a discussion that analyses the condition of learners. The article based its data preliminary study conducted in Manado in the province of North Sulawesi in Indonesia. This region has its own characteristics with the encounter of Muslims and the Protestant community for century. Due to its uniqueness 3 Moslem schools and 3 Protestant schools in Manado were selected to study. Data collection was conducted for a year, from May 2016 to April 2017. The study employ four stages research steps: identification, data collection, data validity checking, and directed discussion. The stages include observation and in-depth interviews and conducting focus group discussions. Two important thought about the essence of learning strategy and learning revolution in class were shared briefly within this article.

  12. Introspective Multistrategy Learning: Constructing a Learning Strategy under Reasoning Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Barsalou, Hale & Cox, 1989) that was designed to present domain knowledge about lawn mower engines, test their troubleshooting ability, and collect reaction...consider a lawn mower . When the lawn mower breaks down, someone has to repair it so that it will work right in the future. Strategy con- struction is like...choosing the right tools from the a tool box and planning how to use them to fix the broken lawn mower (see Figure 1). The person who does the repair is

  13. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  14. Effects of Cooperative E-Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shang-Pao; Fu, Hsin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of E-Learning and cooperative learning on learning outcomes. E-Learning covers the dimensions of Interpersonal communication, abundant resources, Dynamic instruction, and Learning community; and, cooperative learning contains three dimensions of Cooperative motive, Social interaction, and Cognition…

  15. Empowering Students with Word-Learning Strategies: Teach a Child to Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Michael F.; Schneider, Steven; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2018-01-01

    This article on word-learning strategies describes a theory- and research-based set of procedures for teaching students to use word-learning strategies--word parts, context clues, the dictionary, and a combined strategy--to infer the meanings of unknown words. The article begins with a rationale for teaching word-learning strategies, particularly…

  16. Towards professionalism in music: self-assessed learning strategies of conservatory music students

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkula, Esa; Nissilä, Säde-Pirkko

    2017-01-01

    One of the current spearhead projects in Finnish education is learning to learn. Learning strategies have been examined from a variety of perspectives. They are policies that either promote or hinder learning. They are any behaviours or thoughts that facilitate encoding in such a way that knowledge integration and retrieval are enhanced. Strategies can be practiced and learnt. Direct and indirect learning strategies formed the model of defining music students’ self-assessed learning habits in...

  17. Online gaming for learning optimal team strategies in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudas, Gregory; Lewis, F. L.; Vamvoudakis, K. G.

    2010-04-01

    This paper first presents an overall view for dynamical decision-making in teams, both cooperative and competitive. Strategies for team decision problems, including optimal control, zero-sum 2-player games (H-infinity control) and so on are normally solved for off-line by solving associated matrix equations such as the Riccati equation. However, using that approach, players cannot change their objectives online in real time without calling for a completely new off-line solution for the new strategies. Therefore, in this paper we give a method for learning optimal team strategies online in real time as team dynamical play unfolds. In the linear quadratic regulator case, for instance, the method learns the Riccati equation solution online without ever solving the Riccati equation. This allows for truly dynamical team decisions where objective functions can change in real time and the system dynamics can be time-varying.

  18. Determine the Effectiveness of Learning of Coping Strategies with Irrational Beliefs Based on the Theory of Rational-Emotional Alice on Attitudes to Communicate Before Married Female High School Students in Yazd- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Forat Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research was done with the objective of "Determine the effectiveness of learning coping strategies with Irrational Beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice on students’ attitude toward premarital relations in Yazd city". Materials and Methods In this semi experimental research 60 female students of Yazd-Iran, selected by using of Cochran’s formula and divided in two groups of control (30 persons and experiment (30 persons randomly. Learning of coping strategies with Irrational beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice during the 8 sessions of 90 minutes was conducted on experiment group, and the control group did not training; then post-test was conducted in two groups. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used in order to data analysis in descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results The adjusted mean attitude scores of the relationship with the opposite sex in control group, on the pre-test and post-test was 51.27+12.16, 50.30+14.46 and in experimental group was 69.53+8.91, 43.63+10.96 respectively. The result Alice rational-emotional treatment method is effective on attitude to relationship before marriage of high school girls (P

  19. Financial Planning: Strategies and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Morgan, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    Financial planning is an increasingly critical function within higher education institutions. Its pivotal and multifaceted role is described in detail in this article. Based on many years of experience in higher education, the authors offer practical suggestions on how best to locate the function organizationally and perform it effectively. They…

  20. Energy Management Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Hu; Weimin Li; Kun Xu; Taimoor Zahid; Feiyan Qin; Chenming Li

    2018-01-01

    An energy management strategy (EMS) is important for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) since it plays a decisive role on the performance of the vehicle. However, the variation of future driving conditions deeply influences the effectiveness of the EMS. Most existing EMS methods simply follow predefined rules that are not adaptive to different driving conditions online. Therefore, it is useful that the EMS can learn from the environment or driving cycle. In this paper, a deep reinforcement learn...

  1. Resource-based learning strategies: implications for students and institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Ryan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In its strategic plan, the University of Greenwich envisages a significant shift to resource-based learning (RBL. Enterprise in Higher Education (EHE has funded five pilot RBL projects during the past year, including one in introductory economics. The project was managed by three lecturers in the School of Social Sciences, supported by an Academic Development Officer. Learning outcomes were completely revised, and a range of assessment strategies, including computer-based tests, was identified. A resources guide was produced which identified the materials and activities that would enable students to achieve the learning outcomes. A number of innovations were adopted, including: • computer-based curriculum delivery, assessment, and student evaluation of the course; • an open approach to assessment; • abolishing lectures in favour of a diverse range of teaching and learning activities.

  2. How Emotional Intelligence and Language Learning Strategies Interact in an EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakarami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Looking at learning procedure in general and language learning in particular, variations abound in learning processes and styles.  Along this journey, some learners travel/move ahead smoothly and some others are faced with challenges of different sorts.  Among the significant factors contributing to more effective and efficient language learning output, motivation, attitude, and personality traits play major roles. However, the role played by the intelligence seems to be critical in any language learning tasks and activities. Emotional Intelligence, which is believed to harmonize cognitive and emotional dispositions, seems to be indispensable to the interrelation between the learner’s Multiple Intelligence makeup and respective preferred learning strategies.   This can be used to develop materials and teaching tasks to become more or less compatible with the learners’ varying preferences and abilities, thereby promoting their achievements. The findings of the study pertaining to the interrelation of students’ Multiple Intelligence profile and their preferred Language Learning Strategies can be used to plan and categorize language learning and teaching tasks and materials in order to modify them more in accordance with the choice of the students. The educators might use the findings to choose from among various teaching materials to satisfy the needs of their learners with different illiteracies through conducting need analysis prior to choosing any learning and teaching content materials.

  3. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  4. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.

  6. An Hourly Streamflow Forecasting Model Coupled with an Enforced Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods, one of the most significant natural hazards, often result in loss of life and property. Accurate hourly streamflow forecasting is always a key issue in hydrology for flood hazard mitigation. To improve the performance of hourly streamflow forecasting, a methodology concerning the development of neural network (NN based models with an enforced learning strategy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, four different NNs, namely back propagation network (BPN, radial basis function network (RBFN, self-organizing map (SOM, and support vector machine (SVM, are used to construct streamflow forecasting models. Through the cross-validation test, NN-based models with superior performance in streamflow forecasting are detected. Then, an enforced learning strategy is developed to further improve the performance of the superior NN-based models, i.e., SOM and SVM in this study. Finally, the proposed flow forecasting model is obtained. Actual applications are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed model. Moreover, comparison between the NN-based models with and without the enforced learning strategy is performed to evaluate the effect of the enforced learning strategy on model performance. The results indicate that the NN-based models with the enforced learning strategy indeed improve the accuracy of hourly streamflow forecasting. Hence, the presented methodology is expected to be helpful for developing improved NN-based streamflow forecasting models.

  7. Barriers and Strategies on Adoption of E-Learning in Tanzanian Higher Learning Institutions: Lessons for Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Dalton; Ireson, Gren

    2015-01-01

    Tanzanian Higher learning institutions (HLIs) are faced with challenges of adopting e-learning in education. This study involved experts in e-learning to examine barriers of adopting e-learning and the best strategies to address them. Data were gathered from a series of semi-structured interviews with e-learning experts from two HLIs in Tanzania.…

  8. Experiments with Online Reinforcement Learning in Real-Time Strategy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard Andersen, Kresten; Zeng, Yifeng; Dahl Christensen, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Real-time strategy (RTS) games provide a challenging platform to implement online reinforcement learning (RL) techniques in a real application. Computer, as one game player, monitors opponents' (human or other computers) strategies and then updates its own policy using RL methods. In this article......, we first examine the suitability of applying the online RL in various computer games. Reinforcement learning application depends on both RL complexity and the game features. We then propose a multi-layer framework for implementing online RL in an RTS game. The framework significantly reduces RL...... the effectiveness of our proposed framework and shed light on relevant issues in using online RL in RTS games....

  9. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  10. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Instructional Strategies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    instructional strategies on students' problem solving abilities in secondary school chemistry ... individualistic instructional strategy and conventional teaching method. ..... solving abilities are best enhanced by cooperative learning environment.

  11. Influence of Learning Strategy of Cognitive Conflict on Student Misconception in Computational Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmam, A.; Anshari, R.; Amir, H.; Jalinus, N.; Amran, A.

    2018-04-01

    Misconception is one of the factors causing students are not suitable in to choose a method for problem solving. Computational Physics course is a major subject in the Department of Physics FMIPA UNP Padang. The problem in Computational Physics learning lately is that students have difficulties in constructing knowledge. The indication of this problem was the student learning outcomes do not achieve mastery learning. The root of the problem is the ability of students to think critically weak. Student critical thinking can be improved using cognitive by conflict learning strategies. The research aims to determine the effect of cognitive conflict learning strategy to student misconception on the subject of Computational Physics Course at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Padang. The experimental research design conducted after-before design cycles with a sample of 60 students by cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using repeated Anova measurements. The cognitive conflict learning strategy has a significant effect on student misconception in the subject of Computational Physics Course.

  12. Strategies Applied by Teachers as Classroom Managers to Strengthen Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Javier Jáuregui Contreras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was executed within the quantitative paradigm, under the feasible project modality, with the objective of designing strategies aimed at teachers to strengthen learning in the students of the Arnoldo Gabaldon educational unit, located in Delicias, Rafael Urdaneta municipality State Táchira. The methodology used responds to the characteristics of field descriptive research, not experimental. The study population consisted of 72 teachers. To obtain the information, a 20-item contentive instrument was applied, which measured the factors that influence the application of managerial strategies to strengthen student learning. This instrument was validated and a reliability index of 0.81 was obtained. In the analysis of results, the single and absolute frequencies of each reagent were determined. This resulted in a series of constantly occurring situations that led to the following conclusions: managerial strategies are employed by teachers on average, as well as in organization and planning, there is no commitment in relation to it, although there It was possible to detect that teachers comply with the planned activities on a regular basis. In addition, in the case of management and control, it is denoted how forcefully both processes are fulfilled, even in the majority, and both are assumed as managerial strategies. Therefore, the implementation of strategies is recommended.

  13. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  14. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies to Develop Students' Multicultural Counseling Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Waganesh A.; Karayigit, Cebrail; Myers-Brooks, Kaitlyn

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effect of self-regulated learning strategies on students' multicultural competency development. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 26 students who took a semester-long multicultural counseling course. Results show statistically significant improvement in students' multicultural awareness and knowledge and…

  15. Learner-Responsive Instructional Strategies for Adults in Accelerated Classroom Formats: Creating Inclusive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    This study was focused on investigating inclusive learning environments in accelerated classroom formats. Three 8-week sections of an undergraduate course at Regis University were examined. Results from observations and surveys were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and consistency of 13 inclusive strategies derived from Wlodkowski and…

  16. Assessing Collaborative Work in a Higher Education Blended Learning Context: Strategies and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Lucia; Loureiro, Maria Joao; Moreira, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This study examines students' views on a blended learning module developed and offered at the University of Aveiro. The paper presents the module and the strategies, tools, activities and assessment. In order to examine the effectiveness of the module, data were collected from reflections, postings and questionnaires. Findings document students'…

  17. Learning Environment, Attitudes and Conceptual Development Associated with Innovative Strategies in Middle-School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Philip I.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2007-01-01

    This study of middle-school students in California focused on the effectiveness of using innovative teaching strategies for enhancing the classroom environment, students' attitudes and conceptual development. A sample of 661 students from 22 classrooms in four inner city schools completed modified forms of the Constructivist Learning Environment…

  18. Qualitative Assessment of Learning Strategies among Medical Students Using Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder

    2017-12-01

    Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.

  19. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Ajideh; Mohammad Zohrabi; Kazem Pouralvar

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are ...

  20. Learning With E-books and Project-based Strategy in a Community Health Nursing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tien-Wen; Wu, Ting-Ting

    2018-03-01

    With advances in information technology, "information-assisted instruction" has been gradually introduced to nursing education curricula. Specifically, the integration of an e-book system can effectively enhance nursing students' attention and interest. Most studies on nursing education that incorporated e-books have focused on the advantages of convenience and assistance provided by e-books. Few studies have addressed community health nursing and off-campus practice activities in relation to suitable teaching strategies for learning activities. This study involved designing and planning a multimedia e-book learning system with a project-based learning activity that conforms to the curriculum and practical requirements of a community health nursing course. The purpose was to reduce the gap between theory and practice and realize an effective learning process. For learning evaluations, a final examination analysis with an independent sample t test; a scoring scheme with intrateam, interteam, and expert ratings; and Bloom's taxonomy-based analysis were conducted. The evaluation results indicated that the comprehension and learning abilities of the experimental group using the e-book system with a mobile device were effectively improved. In addition, the exploratory process involved in project-based learning can develop multiple cognitive skills and problem-solving ability, thereby realizing effective learning.

  1. A Unique Review Strategy that Motivates Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational games such as crossword puzzles, word search puzzles, modified television game shows, or commercial board and card games are attempts to make learning more fun and motivational regardless of the level of educational experience. This article explains how I have employed the melding of many of these games into one motivational and educational strategy. Students who faithfully availed themselves of the activities consistently improved their test scores and their overall grades within the course.

  2. A Unique Review Strategy that Motivates Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Williams, EdD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational games such as crossword puzzles, word search puzzles, modified television game shows, or commercial board and card games are attempts to make learning more fun and motivational regardless of the level of educational experience. This article explains how I have employed the melding of many of these games into one motivational and educational strategy. Students who faithfully availed themselves of the activities consistently improved their test scores and their overall grades within the course.

  3. Examining the benefits of combining two learning strategies on recall of functional information in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Yael; Basso, Michael; Wood, Hali; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2011-12-01

    Forgetfulness occurs commonly in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but few treatments alleviate this problem. This study examined the combined effect of two cognitive rehabilitation strategies to improve learning and memory in MS: self-generation and spaced learning. The hypothesis was that the combination of spaced learning and self-generation would yield better learning and memory recall performance than spaced learning alone. Using a within groups design, 20 participants with MS and 18 healthy controls (HC) were presented with three tasks (learning names, appointment, and object location), each in three learning conditions (Massed, Spaced Learning, and combination of spaced and generated information). Participants were required to recall the information they learned in each of these conditions immediately and 30 min following the initial presentation. The combination of spaced learning and self-generation yielded better recall than did spaced learning alone. In turn, spaced learning resulted in better recall than the massed rehearsal condition. These findings reveal that the combination of these two learning strategies may possess utility as a cognitive rehabilitation strategy.

  4. Case studies and role play: learning strategies in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Pai, Daiane Dal; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Hoefel, Heloísa Karnas; Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Busin, Lurdes; Unicovsky, Margarita Ana Rubin; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2016-01-01

    to report professors' experience in a public university of Southern region of Brazil using case studies and role play as learning strategies for nursing care of hospitalized adults. learning experience report from the Nursing Care of Adults I class of nursing undergraduate course. the development of case studies and role play considered health care needs from epidemiological profile of chronic noncommunicable diseases morbidity and mortality, nursing as an assisting method, and social aspects of hospitalized individuals. Role play planning was made by creating a stage in laboratory of practices and dialogues comprising students and professors interaction. case studies and role play encouraged students to active search for learning and brought theory closer to real health care situations.

  5. Gamification: An Innovative Teaching-Learning Strategy for the Digital Nursing Students in a Community Health Nursing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Black, Crystal; Merrill, Earline B; Konzelman, Lois; Williams, Tammie T; Hart, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Serious games have "re-emerged" as innovative teaching-learning strategies that researchers have shown to be effective in improving student learning outcomes. "Serious games" refer to games that are driven by educational goals, not entertainment. The use of serious games as part of the teaching-learning experience in nursing education fits into the philosophy and strategies of active learning. The "digital" nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, realism, and entertainment not more readings and Powerpoint supplements in the classroom to support learning. Nursing faculty at a mid-Atlantic Historical Black College and University introduced "serious gaming" technology into a Community Health Nursing course by using two web-based gamed simulations, Outbreak at WatersEdge: A Public Health Discovery Game, and EnviroRisk. This innovation proved to be effective in reinforcing learning and improving student learning outcomes.

  6. Adolescents' struggles with swallowing tablets: barriers, strategies and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Tulinius, Ditte; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    To explore adolescents' struggles with taking oral medications. Copenhagen, Denmark. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 89 adolescents (33 boys, 56 girls) between the ages of 11 and 20. Adolescents were recruited through four public schools. To identify struggles with taking oral medication, interview transcripts were systematically searched for statements including the terms swallow, chew, crush and eat. Thematic analysis of the identified statements was carried out to reveal dominant themes in the adolescents' accounts. Over one-third of the adolescents spontaneously provided accounts of the difficulties they experienced with taking oral medications, especially with swallowing tablets. Three themes were dominant in their narratives: barriers, strategies and learning. Barriers experienced by the adolescents involved the medications' properties, e.g. taste. Adolescents developed strategies to overcome these barriers, e.g. crushing tablets. Via a process of learning-by-doing and the acquisition of increased experience and autonomy, many adolescents mastered the skill of swallowing tablets. Many adolescents experienced barriers in their attempts to swallow tablets. They developed various strategies to overcome these barriers and gradually mastered taking medicines in a learning-by-doing process.

  7. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies.

  8. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  9. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by EAP Learners: The Case of the Students of Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj; Pasand, Parastou Gholami

    2013-01-01

    The significance of using language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies in particular is quite clear to both language learners and language specialists. Being familiar with and making use of a range of different vocabulary learning strategies is a great aid for EAP learners in dealing with unknown words. The present…

  11. A guided note taking strategy supports student learning in the large lecture classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamatayarat, J.; Sujarittham, T.; Wuttiprom, S.; Hefer, E.

    2017-09-01

    In higher education, lecturing has been found to be the most prevalent teaching format for large classes. Generally, this format tends not to result in effective learning outcomes. Therefore, to support student learning in these large lecture classes, we developed guided notes containing quotations, blank spaces, pictures, and problems. A guided note taking strategy was selected and has been used in our introductory physics course for many years. In this study, we investigated the results of implementing the guided note taking strategy to promote student learning on electrostatics. The samples were three groups of first-year students from two universities: 163 and 224 science students and 147 engineering students. All of the students were enrolled in the introductory physics course in the second semester. To assess the students’ understanding, we administered pre- and post-tests to the students by using the electrostatics test. The questions were selected from the conceptual survey of electricity and magnetism (CSEM) and some leading physics textbooks. The results of the students’ understanding were analyzed by the average normalized gains (). The value of each group was 0.61, 0.55, and 0.54, respectively. Furthermore, the students’ views on learning with the guided note taking strategy were explored by using the five-point rating scale survey. Most students perceived that the strategy helped support their active learning and engagement in the lectures.

  12. An active-learning strategies primer for achieving ability-based educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Brenda L; Peeters, Michael J; Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan; Denetclaw, Tina H

    2011-11-10

    Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences.

  13. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  14. Replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies: a resilience program for clinical placement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; Miller, K J; El-Ansary, D; Remedios, L; Hosseini, A; McLeod, S

    2015-12-01

    Clinical education is foundational to health professional training. However, it is also a time of increased stress for students. A student's perception of stressors and their capacity to effectively manage them is a legitimate concern for educators, because anxiety and decreased coping strategies can interfere with effective learning, clinical performance and capacity to care for patients. Resilience is emerging as a valuable construct to underpin positive coping strategies for learning and professional practice. We report the development and evaluation of a psycho-education resilience program designed to build practical skills-based resilience capacities in health science (physiotherapy) students. Six final year undergraduate physiotherapy students attended four action research sessions led by a clinical health psychologist. Resilience strategies drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy, and positive and performance psychology were introduced. Students identified personal learning stressors and their beliefs and responses. They chose specific resilience-based strategies to address them, and then reported their impact on learning performance and experiences. Thematic analysis of the audio-recorded and transcribed action research sessions, and students' de identified notes was conducted. Students' initial descriptions of stressors as 'problems' outside their control resulting in poor thinking and communication, low confidence and frustration, changed to a focus on how they managed and recognized learning challenges as normal or at least expected elements of the clinical learning environment. The research suggests that replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies offers a potentially powerful tool to build self-efficacy and cognitive control as well as greater self-awareness as a learner and future health practitioner.

  15. Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Steiner, Markus; Grimes, David A; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2013-04-30

    Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness is crucial to making an informed choice. The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness. To review all randomized controlled trials comparing strategies for communicating to consumers the effectiveness of contraceptives in preventing pregnancy. Through February 2013, we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. Previous searches also included EMBASE. We also examined references lists of relevant articles. For the initial review, we wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared methods for communicating contraceptive effectiveness to consumers. The comparison could be usual practice or an alternative to the experimental intervention.Outcome measures were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness, attitude about contraception or toward any particular contraceptive, and choice or use of contraceptive method. For the initial review, two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan, and a second author verified accuracy. For the update, an author and a research associate extracted, entered, and checked the data.For dichotomous variables, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous variables, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria and had a total of 4526 women. Five were multi-site studies. Four trials were conducted in the USA, while Nigeria and Zambia were represented by one study each, and one trial was done in both Jamaica and India.Two trials provided multiple sessions for participants. In one study that examined contraceptive choice, women in

  16. Analysis of Language Learning Strategies Used by Students of Traffic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategies play a vital role in the language acquisition process, and this includes the realm of ESP at the tertiary level of education. This contribution first defines the concept of language learning strategies and gives a historical background to language learning strategy research. The central section focuses on a comparative analysis of language learning strategies used by first year students of traffic technology at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož, University of Ljubljana. The analysis, based on Rebecca Oxford’s “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning”, aims to assess the students’ existing awareness of the process of language acquisition and the learning strategies that they use. Objectives of language teachers should include helping students to raise their awareness of language learning strategies and providing them with contexts for their development. Therefore, the concluding section contains sample ESP teaching materials and student instructions focusing on cognitive language learning strategies.

  17. Learning predictive statistics from temporal sequences: Dynamics and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-10-01

    Human behavior is guided by our expectations about the future. Often, we make predictions by monitoring how event sequences unfold, even though such sequences may appear incomprehensible. Event structures in the natural environment typically vary in complexity, from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. How do we learn these structures? Here we investigate the dynamics of structure learning by tracking human responses to temporal sequences that change in structure unbeknownst to the participants. Participants were asked to predict the upcoming item following a probabilistic sequence of symbols. Using a Markov process, we created a family of sequences, from simple frequency statistics (e.g., some symbols are more probable than others) to context-based statistics (e.g., symbol probability is contingent on preceding symbols). We demonstrate the dynamics with which individuals adapt to changes in the environment's statistics-that is, they extract the behaviorally relevant structures to make predictions about upcoming events. Further, we show that this structure learning relates to individual decision strategy; faster learning of complex structures relates to selection of the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) rather than matching of the exact sequence statistics. Our findings provide evidence for alternate routes to learning of behaviorally relevant statistics that facilitate our ability to predict future events in variable environments.

  18. Improving Student Learning Outcomes Marketing Strategy Lesson By Applying SFAE Learning Model

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    Winda Nur Rohmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives for improving student learning outcomes on the subjects of marketing strategy through the implementation of model learning SFAE. This type of research this is a class action research using a qualitative approach which consists of two cycles with the subject Marketing X grade SMK YPI Darussalam 2 Cerme Gresik Regency. This research consists of four stages: (1 the Planning Act, (2 the implementation of the action, (3 observations (observation, and (4 Reflection. The result of the research shows that cognitive and affective learning outcomes of students have increased significantly.

  19. The Library's role and challenges in implementing an e-learning strategy: a case study from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ann

    2011-03-01

      The Northern Territory Department of Health and Families' (DHF) Library supports education programs for all staff. DHF is implementing an e-learning strategy, which may be viewed as a vehicle for coordinating the education function throughout the organisation.   The objective of this study is to explore the concept of e-learning in relation to the Library's role in implementing an organisation-wide e-learning strategy.   The main findings of a literature search about the effectiveness of e-learning in health professionals' education, and the responsibility and roles of health librarians in e-learning are described. A case study approach is used to outline the current role and future opportunities and challenges for the Library.   The case study presents the organisation's strategic planning context. Four areas of operational activity which build on the Library's current educational activities are suggested: the integration of library resources 'learning objects' within a Learning Management System; developing online health information literacy training programs; establishing a physical and virtual 'e-Learning Library/Centre'; developing collaborative partnerships, taking on new responsibilities in e-learning development, and creating a new e-learning librarian role.   The study shows that the Library's role is fundamental to developing the organisation's e-learning capacity and implementing an organisation-wide e-learning strategy. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  20. A MODEL OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A QUALITY LEARNING IN ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION (IHE

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    Ara Hidayat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of Islamic education is generally influenced by several factors, among other things: leadership, organizational culture, lecturercompetence versus faculty student ratio, dynamic curriculum, library collections and learning facilities. The factors above are most likely to influence and impact the quality of education process in general. Developing a model of management strategy for quality learning is a minimal effort to improve quality graduates of a university. The model was developed on the basis of the following theories: (1 transformative leadership (Tichy and Devana (1997, (2 strategy of learning organization, (Peter (2002, and (3 a quality-based management (Griffin, 2004. Furthermore, the model shares the following characteristics: (1 a quality learning emerges from an effective and efficient management of academic service; (2 developing management of a quality learning is continuous lecture development; (3 lecture plays an important role in developing a quality learning; (4 a quality learning stipulates that a leader be loyal and committed to their job, wise and have a sense of democracy.

  1. Effects of Two Modes of Student Teams-Achievement Division Strategies on Senior Secondary School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Research results have shown that cooperative learning methods enhanced understanding of many difficult concepts. Different kinds of cooperative methods and their efficacy have been researched into but the results of such studies have been inconclusive. Chief examiners reports of external chemistry examinations in Nigeria secondary Schools had…

  2. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part I: Development, Application and Evaluation of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Reported is the development, use, and evaluation of an instructional technique based upon: (1) the assessment of students' prior knowledge; and (2) a theoretical perspective advocated by Ausubel and others which emphasizes the importance of existing knowledge in influencing subsequent concept learning. The experimental group of 46 South African…

  3. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  4. Mobile learning: a workforce development strategy for nurse supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Digital technology provides opportunities for using mobile learning strategies in healthcare environments. To realise the vision of the National Workforce Development Strategy there needs to be innovation of health professionals to further develop knowledge and skills of clinical supervisors to access and gain an understanding of the value of mobile learning at the workplace. The use of digital technology by clinical supervisors was explored in 2012 as part of a teaching development grant to evaluate the use of Web 2.0 technology to develop a community of practice about clinical supervision. Prior to developing the virtual network of clinical supervisors, feedback about the use of Web 2.0 technology by clinicians was sought via an online survey. Over 90% of respondents used social media, 85% understood what a blog and wiki were and approximately half of the respondents used smart phones. More than one-third indicated they would participate in a virtual community of practice and would like to receive information about clinical facilitation at least once per week. Findings indicate both inhibitors and opportunities for workforce development within healthcare environments that need to be addressed. Support of graduate-ready nurses can be achieved through an integrated outlook that enables health professionals within organisations to undertake mobile learning in situ. A flexible and collaborative approach to continuing professional development within organisations could enhance practice development and could positively impact on workforce development.

  5. Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen HARDIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning Karen HARDIN Cameron University Lawton, OK, USA PROBLEM One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage, now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side. The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students’ problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, “she’s not doing the teaching, I’m doing the learning.” Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. I’ve noticed this lack of problem solving, critical thinking and patience with young adults in the workplace. For example, I often visit Sam’s, a warehouse store owned by Wal-Mart. When I check out, I pay with a check. The computerized register will print the check for me, so I allow the cashier to do that. I often ask him or her to add $15 to the total to give me cash back. It’s amazing how long it takes these young adults to add $15 to the total because of their reliance on computers. In another situation, when I was in an outlet shoe store in Texas, I purchased a pair of sandals. After I checked out, I noticed a sign that promoted, “buy one, get a second for one cent.” Of course, I wanted to take advantage of this opportunity, so I told the cashier that I wanted to find another pair of shoes. She replied, “It’s too late, your transaction is complete. I wouldn’t know what to do.” I said, “It’s simple, I owe you one cent.” She said, “I don’t know how to make the computer fix it

  6. Peer Assisted Learning Strategy for Improving Students’ Physiologic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, S.

    2017-09-01

    Research about the implementation of the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) strategy in Plant Physiology lecture has carried out, in which it aims to improve students’ physiologic literacy. The PAL strategy began with a briefing by the lecturers to the students tutor about pretest questions, followed by the interaction between student tutors with their peers to discuss response problems, terminated by answering responsiveness questions individually. This study used a quasi-experimental method, one - group pre-test post-test design. This design includes a group of students observed in the pre-test phase (tests carried out before PAL treatment) which is then followed by treatment with PAL and ends with post-test. The other students group (control) was given the pre-test and post-test only. The results showed that the PAL strategy can increase student’s physiologic literacy significantly. One of the weaknesses of students’ physiologic literacy is that they have not been able to read the graph. The faculties are encouraged to begin introducing and teaching material using a variety of strategies with scientific literacy aspects, for example teaching research-based material. All students respond positively to the PAL strategy.

  7. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Innovative Science Teaching Strategies for Non-Formal Learning in a Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…

  8. Cooperative learning strategies to teach nutrition to geriatric nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Rocandio, Ana Ma; Ansotegui, Laura; Pascual, Estíbaliz; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cooperative learning strategies will help to increase nutrition knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants caring for the elderly in different institutional communities of the Basque Country, Spain. The target population was a sample of volunteers, 16 nurses and 28 nursing assistants. Training consisted of 12 nutrition education sessions using cooperative strategies conducted over a period of 3 consecutive weeks. The assessment instruments included two pretest and two posttest questionnaires with questions selected in multiple-choice format. The first questionnaire was about general knowledge of applied nutrition (0-88 point scale) and the second one on geriatric nutrition knowledge (0-18 point scale). Data were analyzed using SPSS vs. 11.0. The outcomes indicated a significant increase in general nutrition knowledge (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 14.5+/-10.1; Pcooperative learning strategies could improve the nutrition knowledge of nursing staff. Additionally, the results of this study provide direction to continuing nutrition education program planners regarding appropriate content and methodology for programs.

  9. An Imagination Effect in Learning from Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Claudia; Mayer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Asking students to imagine the spatial arrangement of the elements in a scientific text constitutes a learning strategy intended to foster deep processing of the instructional material. Two experiments investigated the effects of mental imagery prompts on learning from scientific text. Students read a computer-based text on the human respiratory…

  10. A Methodological Alternative to Media Comparison Studies: Linking Information Utilization Strategies and Instructional Approach in Hypermedia Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Catrambone, Richard; Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Vollmann, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Literature reviews on hypermedia learning have yet failed to show consistent positive effects of learner-controlled nonlinear information access. We argue that a possible reason for this lack of evidence in favor of hypermedia learning results from the fact that not sufficient attention is paid to the strategies of information utilization learners deploy. The few studies that do analyze these strategies fail to link them to an instructional approach, which hampers a deeper interpretation of s...

  11. Learning by strategies and learning by drill--evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delazer, M; Ischebeck, A; Domahs, F; Zamarian, L; Koppelstaetter, F; Siedentopf, C M; Kaufmann, L; Benke, T; Felber, S

    2005-04-15

    The present fMRI study investigates, first, whether learning new arithmetic operations is reflected by changing cerebral activation patterns, and second, whether different learning methods lead to differential modifications of brain activation. In a controlled design, subjects were trained over a week on two new complex arithmetic operations, one operation trained by the application of back-up strategies, i.e., a sequence of arithmetic operations, the other by drill, i.e., by learning the association between the operands and the result. In the following fMRI session, new untrained items, items trained by strategy and items trained by drill, were assessed using an event-related design. Untrained items as compared to trained showed large bilateral parietal activations, with the focus of activation along the right intraparietal sulcus. Further foci of activation were found in both inferior frontal gyri. The reverse contrast, trained vs. untrained, showed a more focused activation pattern with activation in both angular gyri. As suggested by the specific activation patterns, newly acquired expertise was implemented in previously existing networks of arithmetic processing and memory. Comparisons between drill and strategy conditions suggest that successful retrieval was associated with different brain activation patterns reflecting the underlying learning methods. While the drill condition more strongly activated medial parietal regions extending to the left angular gyrus, the strategy condition was associated to the activation of the precuneus which may be accounted for by visual imagery in memory retrieval.

  12. Applying an Experiential Learning Model to the Teaching of Gateway Strategy Board Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The board game hobby has rapidly grown and evolved in recent years, but most of the non-digital games lack tips and tutorials and remain difficult to learn and teach effectively. In this project, we integrated a popular hobbyist approach to teaching modern strategy games with classical experiential learning elements (i.e., demonstration, observation, reflection, discussion and repeated experiences. We tested our model by teaching two modern board games to Japanese high school and university students. Questionnaires, gameplay data, self-ratings and discussions showed improved understanding and enjoyment, more strategic play and more interest in modern board games over the course of the instructional sequence. The model's repetition (the participants played each game three times was rated the most useful in terms of learning the games. Overall, the integrated model was largely successful in teaching strategy board games to new players, and we offer several recommendations for teachers, designers and researchers of board games.

  13. Successful Transfer of a Motor Learning Strategy to a Novel Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; Judge, Phil

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated whether secondary school students who were taught a motor learning strategy could transfer their knowledge of the strategy to learning a novel task. Twenty adolescents were randomly allocated to a strategy or control group. The strategy group was taught Singer's five-step learning strategy, while the control group received information on the evolution and biomechanics of the basketball free throw. Both groups received three 1-hour practice sessions on a modified basketball shooting task. After one month, participants were introduced to the transfer task, golf putting. Performance accuracy was recorded for all tasks, and participants completed questionnaires regarding strategy use during practice. Participants taught the five-step learning strategy successfully recalled and applied it after a 1-month interval, and they demonstrated superior performance on both acquisition and transfer tasks, relative to the control group. Physical education teachers and coaches should consider using this learning strategy to enhance the learning of closed motor skills.

  14. Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams. Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling Tristan E. Johnson, Ph.D. Learning ...REPORT DATE AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies to Enhance Online Learning ...TeamsTeam Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams: Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  15. Boys' and girls' use of cognitive strategy when learning to play video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Fran C; Sokol, Lori M

    2004-04-01

    The authors examined gender differences in the cognitive strategies that children use when they learn how to play a video game. They interviewed 2nd- and 5th-grade boys and girls about how often they played video games and what they did "when learning how to play a video game." The children's responses to the latter question were categorized as either internally or externally oriented (i.e., reading a manual vs. asking for help, respectively). The results indicated that more frequent players and older children were more likely to cite internally based strategies. No main effects of gender were found for the proportions of the internally vs. externally based strategies that were cited.

  16. THE PUZZLE TECHNIQUE, COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª José Mayorga Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This  article  presents  an  innovative  experience  carried  out  in  the  subject Pedagogical Bases of Special Education, a 4.5 credit core subject taught at the second year of the Degree in Physical Education Teacher Training (to be extinguish, based on the use of a methodological strategic in accordance with the new demands of the EEES. With the experience we pursue a double purpose: firstly, to present the technique of jigsaw or puzzle as a useful methodological strategy for university learning and, on the other hand, to show whether this strategy improves students results. Comparing the results with students previous year results shows that the performance of students who participated in the innovative experience has improved considerably, increasing their motivation and involvement towards the task.

  17. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  18. Autonomy and career management skills in the context of lifelong learning : cognitive coping strategies of the teachers and effects in work burnout and work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, M.; Bermejo, L.; Hernández, V.; Cagigal, V.; García-Mina, A.; Gismero, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysing cognitive coping strategies used by a sample of 385 teachers from Madrid (Spain) to face three different stressful situations: role conflict and role ambiguity, students challenging behaviours and work overload. Moreover, it has been studied the relationships between those personal coping resources and two teachers´ well-being measures: work burnout and work engagement. The assessment was carried out through Brief COPE and another items designed ad hoc. The M...

  19. COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TYPE STAD IN TEACHING ISLAMIC EDUCATION SUBJECT (PAI AT SMPN 3 LENGAYANG

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    Zulvia Evi Trinova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available SMPN 3 Lengayang has applied STAD as a type of cooperative learning to improve students’ passiveness. The learning is initiated by forming study groups and assigning tasks to be discussed together. However, in fact the learning is not effective that the students still can not understand the materials properly. It is noticable that the tasks given have been done by one student only, meanwhile the others are less serious and rely on those who are willing to do the group work. This is a field reasearch which describes the implementation of STAD in teaching PAI qualitatively. Data collection techniques used are in the form of observation, interviews, and documentation. As the result; 1 the planning of STAD strategy in teaching PAI at SMPN 3 Lengayang does not yet fulfill the requirement such as in organizing teaching materials (systematic/systematic demands with unsuitable time allocation, and detail of learning scenario (strategy step / method at each stage not clearly illustrated. 2 the implementation of STAD type in teaching PAI at SMPN 3 Lengayang is not fully implemented from the six STAD type cooperative learning steps, namely on teamwork and quiz, and 3 the evaluation in STAD type co-operative learning at SMPN 3 Lengayang is a written test or in the form of quiz. In addition, a test through a special quiz for individual assessment while group assessment is taken from group work. Especially the group with the highest score is given an additional mark.

  20. Effects of team-based learning on self-regulated online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alice A

    2015-04-10

    Online learning requires higher levels of self-regulation in order to achieve optimal learning outcomes. As nursing education moves further into the blended and online learning venue, new teaching/learning strategies will be required to develop and enhance self-regulated learning skills in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) with traditional instructor-led (IL) learning, on self-regulated online learning outcomes, in a blended undergraduate research and evidence-based practice course. The nonrandomized sample consisted of 98 students enrolled in the IL control group and 86 students enrolled in the TBL intervention group. The percentage of total possible online viewing time was used as the measure of self-regulated online learning activity. The TBL group demonstrated a significantly higher percentage (p learning activities than the IL control group. The TBL group scored significantly higher on the course examinations (p = 0.003). The findings indicate that TBL is an effective instructional strategy that can be used to achieve the essential outcomes of baccalaureate nursing education by increasing self-regulated learning capabilities in nursing students.

  1. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  2. THE USE OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

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    Intan Permata Hapsari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In conveying the messages or the intentions in English, especially for English learners of Indonesia, is not easy, therefore they often get stuck in the middle of conversation because the lack of competencies. Through communication strategies, the learners are able to overcome the difficulties during the conversation. Communication strategies refer to the devices or means the learner uses to convey meaning in the target language when he lacks adequate linguistic competence. The study of communication strategies has been mainly approached in relation to language proficiency and with learners having various first language background. This study is concerned with the communication strategies used by a group of Indonesian speakers learning English as a second language based on classroom observation. The design of this study is descriptive qualitative. The data in the form of oral discussion were recorded and transcribed. Then the transcribed data were analyzed by classifying the utterances which reflect the use of each communication strategy. The result of the study shows that the second semester students of English Department as the subject of the study can apply message abandonment, literal translation, message replacement, topic avoidance, and appeal of assistance in constructing or conveying the messages. The strategy that is mostly used by the students is message abandonment. In message abandonment when the students begin to talk about a concept but are unable to continue due to lack of meaning structure and stop in mid structure, they convey their intensions/messages to the interlocutor by using filter/non-words vocalizations, repeating utterances, and laughing or stopping for a second as a sign that they get stuck with the utterance and need interlocutor’s help.

  3. Identification of animal behavioral strategies by inverse reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Yamaguchi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals are able to reach a desired state in an environment by controlling various behavioral patterns. Identification of the behavioral strategy used for this control is important for understanding animals' decision-making and is fundamental to dissect information processing done by the nervous system. However, methods for quantifying such behavioral strategies have not been fully established. In this study, we developed an inverse reinforcement-learning (IRL framework to identify an animal's behavioral strategy from behavioral time-series data. We applied this framework to C. elegans thermotactic behavior; after cultivation at a constant temperature with or without food, fed worms prefer, while starved worms avoid the cultivation temperature on a thermal gradient. Our IRL approach revealed that the fed worms used both the absolute temperature and its temporal derivative and that their behavior involved two strategies: directed migration (DM and isothermal migration (IM. With DM, worms efficiently reached specific temperatures, which explains their thermotactic behavior when fed. With IM, worms moved along a constant temperature, which reflects isothermal tracking, well-observed in previous studies. In contrast to fed animals, starved worms escaped the cultivation temperature using only the absolute, but not the temporal derivative of temperature. We also investigated the neural basis underlying these strategies, by applying our method to thermosensory neuron-deficient worms. Thus, our IRL-based approach is useful in identifying animal strategies from behavioral time-series data and could be applied to a wide range of behavioral studies, including decision-making, in other organisms.

  4. STRATEGI SELF-REGULATED LEARNING UNTUK MENURUNKAN TINGKAT PROKRASTINASI AKADEMIK SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbalul Ulum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is a behavior that should be avoided by students because it would give a bad influence, especially the academic achievement. One of the factors that lead to academic procrastination is lack of self-regulation in learning. Therefore, it is necessary for students to have self-regulated learning. This research aimed to test the self-regulated learning strategy to reduce the level of academic procrastination XI grade student of SMAN 1 Ngamprah of the academic year 2015/2016 West Bandung Regency. The method used is a quasi-experimental nonequivalent (pretest and posttest control group design. Sampling was done by using purposive sampling technique. Instrument used is The Academic Procrastination State Inventory (APSI developed by Henri C. Schouwenburg. The sample are 68 students whereas devided into experiment and control group. Data analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Result shows that self-regulated learning are effective for lowering the level of academic procrastination.

  5. Architecture Studio Learning: Strategy to Achieve Architects Competence

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    Saifudin Mutaqi Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    , among others: (1 apprenticeship of architects; (2 supervised studios; And (3 project simulation studio. From various models of Architecture learning model mentioned above, all aim to achieve 13 Architect Competence as formulated by IAI. Which model is effective in learning the Architectural Studio mentioned above? This exploratory study would like to compare the three forms of Architecture Studio learning model to see how much the achievement of the targeted competencies by measuring the success of Competency Test activities still use the standards implemented by LPJK by involving assessors from IAI. The results of the comparison will show the compatibility of the implementation of the Architecture Studio learningmodel what is considered effective. These findings will certainly benefit the development of future PPAr implementation, especially if the Architecture Studio model can be commensurate with the studios developed by the School of Architecture in various countries, at least in the region of 21 member countries ARCASIA.

  6. Learning Strategies of Physics Teacher Candidates: Relationships with Physics Achievement and Class Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Gamze S.; Çalişkan, Serap; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    Learning strategy concept was introduced in the education field from the development of cognitive psychology. Learning strategies are behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process. Literature on learning strategies in physics field is very scarce. Participants of the research consist of teacher candidates (n=137) from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th grade attending Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty of Buca, Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey. Data of this research was collected by ``Scale of Learning Strategies Usage in Physics'' (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93). Mean, Standard Deviation, Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the research data. This paper reports on teacher candidates' learning strategies used in physics education The paper investigates the relationships between learning strategies and physics achievement, class level. Some important outcomes of the research are presented, discussed and certain suggestions are made.

  7. CACNA1C gene regulates behavioral strategies in operant rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Georgia; Mallien, Anne Stephanie; Berger, Stefan; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1.2 channels and the CACNA1C gene have been associated with severe learning deficits and psychiatric disorders. Given this, we were interested in how specifically a selective functional ablation of the Cacna1c gene would modulate the learning process. Using a detailed, individual-level analysis of learning on an operant cue discrimination task in terms of behavioral strategies, combined with Bayesian selection among computational models estimated from the empirical data, we show that a Cacna1c knockout does not impair learning in general but has a much more specific effect: the majority of Cacna1c knockout mice still managed to increase reward feedback across trials but did so by adapting an outcome-based strategy, while the majority of matched controls adopted the experimentally intended cue-association rule. Our results thus point to a quite specific role of a single gene in learning and highlight that much more mechanistic insight could be gained by examining response patterns in terms of a larger repertoire of potential behavioral strategies. The results may also have clinical implications for treating psychiatric disorders.

  8. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  9. Building Bridges: Seeking Structure and Direction for Higher Education Motivated Learning Strategy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K.

    2017-01-01

    Many of our current higher education (HE) learning strategy models intersect at important points. At the same time, these theories also often demonstrate important unique perspectives on student learning within HE. Currently, research with one learning strategy model rarely leads to developments in others, as each group of researchers works in…

  10. Active-learning strategies: the use of a game to reinforce learning in nursing education. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boctor, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of Gasing Learning in ARCS Learning Strategy to Enhance Students’ Motivation in 9th Grade of Indonesian Junior High-School

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    Pri Ariadi Cahya Dinata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of motivation will affect to the students’ learning outcomes. The research was conducted to enhance the students’ motivation with the Gasing learning in the ARCS learning strategy on the static and dynamic electricity. The specific objectives of this research was to describe effect of the gasing learning on the students' learning motivation. The research consisted of 3 cycles of Hopkin’s Classroom Action Research  Model. Each cycle consists of the plan, the action/the observation, and the reflective. The data of students learning motivation obtained by questionnaires and be analyzed with method of successive interval (MSI. The findings of the research are: (1 the result of questionnaire of ARCS motivation in cycle I was 3.71, cycle II was 3,80, and cycle III was 3,99. These results indicate an increase in student learning motivation; (2 The completeness of students’ learning outcomes in cycle I was 68,18%, in cycle II was 90,90%, and in cycle III was 100%. It can be concluded that the Gasing learning in ARCS strategy can enhances students’motivation on static and dinamic electricity in 9th grade of Indonesian Junior High-School. The Gasing learning can be an alternative for the teachers to enhance students’ motivation in learning physics through the provision of comic media and calculations without formulas.

  12. Integration of strategy experiential learning in e-module of electronic records management

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    S. Sutirman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies to improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. This study is a research and development. Model research and development used is Web-Based Instructional Design (WBID developed by Davidson-Shivers and Rasmussen. The steps of research and development carried out by analysis, evaluation planning, concurrent design, implementation, and a summative evaluation. The approach used in this study consisted of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Collecting data used the Delphi technique, observation, documentation studies and tests. Research data analysis used qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Testing the effectiveness of the product used a quasi-experimental research design pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group. The results showed that the e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies can improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.

  13. Learning Strategies and Reading Literacy among Chinese and Finnish Adolescents: Evidence of Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuyang; Zhu, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    Many arguments have been advanced in the context of the predictive correlation between learning strategies and reading achievement. There is insufficient understanding, however, of the subtle ways in which different types of learning strategies (i.e. memorisation, elaboration and control strategies) function in facilitating students' reading…

  14. NEW! Re-Purposing TV Ads for Building Vocabulary-Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm-Lequeux, Antonie

    2004-01-01

    Learning strategies have received a lot of attention in recent years. Many books have been written for both teachers and students, outlining strategies of and for the successful language learner. The research in this area confirms that the conscious use of learning strategies enhances language achievement and proficiency. A well-developed strategy…

  15. What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

  16. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  17. A Development English Language Learning Management Strategies Model to Enhance Communicative Competence for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiya Ruennakarn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives for this research are to 1 build a development English language learning management strategies model to enhance communicative competence for high school students 2 study the results of using the model. A target group is seven English teachers in Pibulwittayalai School and the sample for studying the results of model to students are ten English club students in Pibulwittayalai School.The research tools are focus group discussion forms, communication plans, English skills evaluation forms, communicative competence test, communicative competence evaluation forms and 21st century skills evaluation forms. This model is examined by connoisseurship.The statistics for analyzing data are frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Wilcoxon test. The results of the research were as follows: 1. The development English language learning management strategies model to enhance communicative competence for high school students had4components ; 1 SWOT–Analysis, 2 strategy development, 3 strategy assessment and 4 strategy adjustment.This model had 6 strategies such as 1 genius academic strategy 2 English through AEC 3 English through World Class 4 enhancing for genius academic in communication with foreigners 5 enhancing English through world class standard and 6 enhancing for potential in English skills learning through world class standard. These were merged as only one strategy as “ Development of students’ potential for communication”. 2. The results of using the model comprised of 2.1 The results to teachers were teachers could analyze SWOT- analysis for determining strength, weakness,opportunity and threat about English language learning management, received guideline and could appropriately and efficiently construct strategies of English language learning management to enhance communicative competence. 2.2 The results to students: The students had 4 English skills, such as listening,speaking, reading and writing. It was

  18. Reading and Writing from Multiple Source Documents in History: Effects of Strategy Instruction with Low to Average High School Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of historical reasoning strategy instruction on 11th-grade students. Students learned historical inquiry strategies using 20th Century American history topics ranging from the Spanish-American war to the Gulf of Tonkin incident. In addition, students learned a pre-writing strategy for composing argumentative essays…

  19. In-operation learning of optimal wind farm operation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Gratacós, Joan

    2017-01-01

    In a wind farm, power losses due to wind turbine wake effects can be up to 30-40% under certain conditions. As the global installed wind power capacity increases, the mitigation of wake effects in wind farms is gaining more importance. Following a conventional control strategy, each individual turbine maximizes its own power production without taking into consideration its effects on the performance of downstream turbines. Therefore, this control scheme results in operation con...

  20. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…