WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning disabled adolescent

  1. Adolescents with specific learning disabilities - perceptions of specific learning disabilities in the environment of secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on adolescents with specific learning disabilities in the milieu of secondary schools. It is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The first part introduces a topic of specific learning disabilities in the developmental stage of adolescence. It first describes the most relevant aspects of adolescent development. The attention is then paid to typical manifestations of specific learning disabilities in adolescence, and also to secondary symptoms usually conne...

  2. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  3. Adolescent self-esteem, emotional learning disabilities, and significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, D G

    1981-01-01

    This paper will primarily examine four concepts: emotional learning disabilities, adolescence, self-esteem, and the social-psychological concept of "significant others." Problems of definition will be discussed, with a literature review, and an attempt will be made to integrate all four of the above-mentioned concepts. The emphasis will be in applying a sociological perspective to an educational and growing problem: how do we (sic) educate students with some type of learning disability? What, if any, extra-curricular factors potentially affect in school learning behavior(s) of adolescents?

  4. Crisis Intervention with Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, M. Lewis

    1995-01-01

    Reviews and synthesizes recent literature on social problems in the lives of adolescents, including depression, suicide, substance abuse, sexual activity, sexually transmitted diseases, rape, sexual preference, and school dropout. Explores key factors in effective intervention and prevention programs for students with and without learning…

  5. Mathematics and Metacognition in Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2009-01-01

    A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…

  6. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  7. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  8. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  9. Social Anxiety among Arab Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities in Various Educational Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine differences in social anxiety between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) students, taking into account educational placement. The present research is the first to consider the above relations among Christian Arab adolescents living in Israel as an Eastern collectivist minority. On…

  10. The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development, Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.

    1986-01-01

    Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…

  11. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  12. Learning capacity in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiekstra, Marlous; Hessels, Marco G P; Minnaert, Alexander E M G

    2009-01-01

    Scores on a learning potential test (the Hessels Analogical Reasoning Test) were examined to assess how to provide a better estimate of the learning capacity of students with mild intellectual disabilities compared to IQ scores. As a criterion, a dynamic test of chemistry learning was used. 46

  13. Virtual Friendships and Social Distress among Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: The Subtyping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Adi; Margalit, Malka

    2011-01-01

    Many adolescents spend time online, communicating with friends, family members and strangers, and these social activities have been often related with their loneliness experience. The goals of this study were to examine the social distress expressed by adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD) and to distinguish between unique…

  14. A Computer-Aided Writing Program for Learning Disabled Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Laurie; Wanderman, Richard

    The paper describes the application of a computer-assisted writing program in a special high school for learning disabled and dyslexic students and reports on a study of the program's effectiveness. Particular advantages of the Macintosh Computer for such a program are identified including use of the mouse pointing tool, graphic icons to identify…

  15. Disability Awareness Training with a Group of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…

  16. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  17. Mathematics and metacognition in adolescents and adults with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Desoete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n=101 and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n=130 solved tests on procedural calculation and number knowledge, numerical facility and visuospatial skills. Metacognitive skilfulness was assessed through calibration measures, a questionnaire, stimulated recall, and thematic analyses after a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings and to avoid imposing the researcher’s structures and assumptions. In our dataset the isolated group (MD did worse than the comorbid group (M+RD on mental representation, dealing with contextual information and number knowledge. However the comorbid group did worse on the number sense tasks. No significant differences were found between the MD and M+RD adults for fact retrieval, procedural calculation and visuo spatial tasks. In addition adults with MD overestimated their mathematics results, whereas individuals with M+RD underestimated their results in the calibration task. Moreover, adults with M+RD thought that they were worse on the evaluation of the own results, the evaluation of the own capacities and on monitoring when things went wrong compared with adults in the M+RD group. Thematic analyses revealed that many adults had problems with planning and keeping track of steps and that supporting surroundings were important protective factors towards the chances of success. Consequences for the assessment of metacognition in adults and for the support of adults with mathematical disabilities are discussed.

  18. Coping Styles and Strategies: A Comparison of Adolescent Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The "Adolescent Coping Scale" was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students…

  19. Teaching Learning Disabled Adolescents to Think Critically Using a Problem-Solving Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P.; Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of an instructional program designed to teach learning-disabled adolescents (N=70) to make better personal decisions. A pretest/posttest comparison design found that following instruction students showed better ability to both identify general schema for decision making and apply schema to novel problem…

  20. Digital Access: "Using Blogs to Support Adolescent Writers with Learning Disabilities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with learning disabilities need explicit supports to improve their written expression, but those structures and supports are best utilized in an environment that promotes authentic writing resembling the writing students will produce in adult life and work. Classroom blogs may offer special educators an authentic context for writing…

  1. Is risk-taking behaviour more prevalent among adolescents with learning disabilities?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palfiová, M.; Dankulinčová Veselská, Z.; Bobaková, D.; Holubčíková, J.; Čermák, Ivo; Madarasová Gecková, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2017), s. 501-506 ISSN 1101-1262 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adolescence * learning disabilities * risk taking behaviour Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.431, year: 2016

  2. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  3. Read-Aloud Accommodations, Expository Text, and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nancy K.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with learning disabilities in reading have difficulties with reading and understanding difficult gradelevel curricular material. One frequently used method of support is using read-aloud accommodations, which can be live read-alouds or text-to-speech (TTS) read-alouds. A single case alternating treatment design was used to examine the…

  4. Using Personal Construct Theory to Explore Self-Image with Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha; Butler, Richard; Hare, Dougal Julian; Green, David

    2011-01-01

    A young person's construct of self can be fundamental to their psychological well being (Glick 1999; Emler 2001). However limited research has been conducted in the United Kingdom to explore self-image with adolescents with learning disabilities. Previous studies have demonstrated the effective use of personal construct theory with children…

  5. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  6. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...

  7. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  8. Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…

  9. "It's Just a Disability" or Is It?: Stigma, Psychological Needs, and Educational Outcomes in African American Adolescents with Learning-Related Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizzie, Karmen Tamika

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation project was to examine the extent to which the special education context, riddled with labeling and teasing, affected the motivation, academic self-concept, grades, and academic achievement of African American adolescents with learning-related disabilities. This dissertation research is situated within two…

  10. Research on Interventions for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes Related to Higher-Order Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Details meta-analysis of 58 intervention studies related to higher-order processing (i.e., problem solving) for adolescents with learning disabilities. Discusses factors that increased effect sizes: (1) measures of metacognition and text understanding; (2) instruction including advanced organizers, new skills, and extended practice; and (3)…

  11. The efficacy of an e-learning prevention program for substance use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewik, M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. 'Prepared on time' is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed

  12. Individual Differences in the Self-Image of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: The Roles of Severity, Time of Diagnosis, and Parental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Dorit; Stone, C. Addison

    1991-01-01

    This study found that 49 adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) scored lower than 49 normally achieving peers on a self-image questionnaire. Later-diagnosed adolescents with LD scored higher than early diagnosed adolescents. LD severity was not related to self-image. Moderate relationships were found between parents' perceptions and…

  13. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  14. Dentists' training and willingness to treat adolescents with learning disabilities: the mediating role of social and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, C F; Humphris, G M; Freeman, R

    2013-12-01

    To test a theoretical model based on Cohen's dental profession factors (training; practitioner attitudes; geography) to investigate practitioners' willingness to treat adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) in primary dental care. A sample of all 537 primary care dentists working in a mainly urban area of Northern Ireland and a more rural area of Scotland. Willingness to treat adolescents with LD. Questionnaire survey of demographic profile, undergraduate education, current knowledge, attitudes towards individuals with LD and willingness to treat this patient group. A path analytical approach (multiple meditational model) was used. Three hundred dentists participated giving a valid response rate of 61%. Undergraduate education and current knowledge (training) strengthened a social model perspective promoting positive attitudes and willingness to treat adolescents with LD. Undergraduate education and current knowledge about disability did not significantly contribute to dentists whose attitudes were underpinned by the medical model of disability. Therefore geography (rural or urban location) was not an influential factor in willingness to treat adolescents with LD. This does not exclude the possibility that area of work may have an influence as a consequence of undergraduate university attended. This model identifies the importance of undergraduate and continuing dental education with regard to modifying professional attitudes (social and clinical factors) to assist practitioners treat adolescents with LD and provide them with inclusive dental services in primary dental care.

  15. Excessive online computer use and learning disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    Online gaming has become a very popular leisure activity among adolescents. Research suggests that a small minority of adolescents may display problematic gaming behaviour and that some of these individuals may be addicted to online games, including those who have learning disabilities. This article begins by examining a case study of a 15-year old adolescent with a learning disability who appeared to be addicted to various computer and internet applications. Despite the potential negative ef...

  16. Comprehension of idioms in adolescents with language-based learning disabilities compared to their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Constance Dean; Lantz, Jennifer M; Pietrzyk, Rose M; Blood, Gordon W; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents with language-based learning disabilities (LBLD) often interpret idioms literally. When idioms are provided in an enriched context, comprehension is compromised further because of the LBLD student's inability to assign multiple meanings to words, assemble and integrate information, and go beyond a local referent to derive a global, coherent meaning. This study tested the effects of context and familiarity on comprehension of 24 idioms in 22 adolescents with LBLD. The students completed the Idiom Comprehension Test (ICT) [Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 30 (1999) 141; LSHSS 34 (2003) 69] in one of two conditions: in a story or during a verification task. Within each condition were three familiarity levels: high, moderate, and low. The LBLD adolescents' data were then compared to previously collected data from 21 age-, gender-, and reading ability-matched typically developing (TD) peers. The relations between reading and language literacy and idiom comprehension were also examined in the LBLD adolescents. Results showed that: (a) the LBLD adolescents generally performed poorly relative to their TD counterparts; however, the groups performed comparably on the high and moderate familiarity idioms in the verification condition; (b) the LBLD adolescents performed significantly better in the verification condition than in the story condition; and (c) reading ability was associated with comprehension of the low familiarity idioms in the story condition only. Findings are discussed relative to implications for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and educators working with adolescents with LBLD. As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to (1) describe the importance of metalinguistic maturity for comprehension of idioms and other figures of speech; (2) understand the roles of context and familiarity when assessing idiom comprehension in adolescents with LBLD; and (3) critically evaluate assessments of idiom comprehension and

  17. Narrative Voices of Early Adolescents: Influences of Learning Disability and Cultural Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celinska, Dorota K.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed personal and fictional narratives of culturally/ethnically diverse students with and without learning disabilities. The participants were 82 fourth to seventh graders from urban and suburban schools located in a Midwest metropolitan area. Narratives were elicited in the context of naturalistic conversation and analyzed using…

  18. The efficacy of an e-learning prevention program for substance use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewik, Marion; VanDerNagel, Joanne E L; Engels, Rutger C M E; DeJong, Cor A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. 'Prepared on time' is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed for fifth and sixth grades of mainstream primary schools. The goals of this study were (1) to examine the lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol among this target group and (2) to gain a first impression of the efficacy of 'Prepared on time' among 12-16-year old students with moderate or mild ID (MMID). Students form three secondary special-needs schools were assigned to the experimental (e-learning) group (n=37) or the control group (n=36). Pre-intervention and follow-up data (3 weeks after completion) were gathered using semi-structured interviews inquiring about substance use among students with MMID and the behavioral determinants of attitude, subjective norm, modelling, intention, and knowledge. The lifetime tobacco use and alcohol consumption rates in our sample were 25% and 59%, respectively. The e-learning program had a positive effect on the influence of modelling of classmates and friends. No significant effects were found on other behavioral determinants and knowledge. A substantial proportion of adolescents with MMID in secondary special-needs schools use tobacco or alcohol. This study showed that an e-learning prevention program can be feasible for adolescents with MMID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. © 2014 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Role of Supporters in Facilitating the Use of Technologies by Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Place for Positive Risk-Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of supporters in facilitating access to and use of technology by people (adolescents and adults) with learning disabilities has not been the primary focus of much of the research that has been undertaken to date. The review of literature presented in this paper suggests, however, that issues of support, risk and safety are emerging as…

  1. Contribution of Personality to Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in Selecting a High School Major among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selecting a high school major among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Social cognitive career theory and the Big Five personality traits model served as the theoretical framework. Participants…

  2. Prevalence and impact of unhealthy weight in a national sample of US adolescents with autism and other learning and behavioral disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Keydra L; Schieve, Laura A; Visser, Susanna; Boulet, Sheree; Sharma, Andrea J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2014-10-01

    We estimated the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight among US adolescents with and without autism and other learning and behavioral developmental disabilities (DDs) and assessed the health consequences of obesity among adolescents with DDs. From the 2008 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we selected 9,619 adolescents ages 12-17 years. Parent respondents reported weight, height, presence of DDs and health conditions. We calculated body mass index (BMI) and defined obesity, overweight, and underweight as ≥95th, ≥85th to obesity and underweight prevalences were higher among adolescents with than without DDs [adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) 1.5 (1.25-1.75) and 1.5 (1.01-2.20), respectively]. Obesity was elevated among adolescents with all DD types, and was highest among the autism subgroup [aPR 2.1 (1.44-3.16)]. Adolescents with either a DD or obesity had higher prevalences of common respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological conditions/symptoms than nonobese adolescents without DDs. Adolescents with both DDs and obesity had the highest estimates for most conditions. Obesity is high among adolescents with autism and other DDs and poses added chronic health risks. Obesity prevention and management approaches for this vulnerable population subgroup need further consideration.

  3. Prevalence and Impact of Unhealthy Weight in a National Sample of US Adolescents with Autism and Other Learning and Behavioral Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Keydra L.; Visser, Susanna; Boulet, Sheree; Sharma, Andrea J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Boyle, Coleen A.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight among US adolescents with and without autism and other learning and behavioral developmental disabilities (DDs) and assessed the health consequences of obesity among adolescents with DDs. From the 2008 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we selected 9,619 adolescents ages 12–17 years. Parent respondents reported weight, height, presence of DDs and health conditions. We calculated body mass index (BMI) and defined obesity, overweight, and underweight as ≥95th, ≥85th to learning disorder/other developmental delay. We compared BMI outcomes among adolescents in each DD group versus adolescents without DDs using multivariable logistic regression. Socio-demographic factors and birthweight were included as confounders. Estimates were weighted to reflect the US population. Both obesity and underweight prevalences were higher among adolescents with than without DDs [adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) 1.5 (1.25–1.75) and 1.5 (1.01–2.20), respectively]. Obesity was elevated among adolescents with all DD types, and was highest among the autism subgroup [aPR 2.1 (1.44–3.16)]. Adolescents with either a DD or obesity had higher prevalences of common respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological conditions/symptoms than nonobese adolescents without DDs. Adolescents with both DDs and obesity had the highest estimates for most conditions. Obesity is high among adolescents with autism and other DDs and poses added chronic health risks. Obesity prevention and management approaches for this vulnerable population subgroup need further consideration. PMID:24553796

  4. Generalist genes and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2005-07-01

    The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Learning Disability and Depression in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…

  6. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  7. Adolescents with intellectual disability and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  8. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  9. Applied Explanatory Style, Self-Esteem, and Early-Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: An Informational Website for Helping Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 2.6 million students are diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) in the United States. There are many negative psychological and psychosocial consequences that can be attributed to having a LD, including a decrease in self- esteem. Low self-esteem has been shown to be liked to depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety. Early…

  10. Efficacy of working memory training in children and adolescents with learning disabilities : a review study and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenborgh, J.C.A.W.; Hurks, P.M.; Aldenkamp, Albert; Vles, Johan S H; Hendriksen, J.G.M.

    The effectiveness of working memory (WM) training programmes is still a subject of debate. Previous reviews were heterogeneous with regard to participant characteristics of the studies included. To examine whether these programmes are of added value for children with learning disabilities (LDs), a

  11. Enhancing Academic Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners with or at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haager, Diane; Osipova, Anna V.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children worldwide attend schools where the language of instruction does not match their native language, presenting significant challenges with learning the content and vocabulary of academic content areas (e.g., social studies, science). In the U.S., these students are designated as English language learners…

  12. A Comparative Study of the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Boys with and without Learning Disabilities in an Inclusive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntshangase, Sibusiso; Mdikana, Andile; Cronk, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Participants in this study were twenty-nine adolescent boys (n = 29) between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years, who were attending an inclusive private school in the affluent suburb of Johannesburg. Fourteen participants had never been diagnosed with learning difficulties and had attended mainstream schools throughout their school careers.…

  13. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve ... These services make LDA the leading resource for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing ... Processing Disorder ...

  14. Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #407. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)

  15. What do Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities Learn about Sexuality and Dating? A Potential Role for Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Krantz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the qualitative study was to describe the perspectives of high school educators regarding how adolescents with developmental disabilities are taught about sexuality and dating. In addition, the investigators sought to examine how occupational therapy practitioners could be better integrated into the educational team to address this need. Method: Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: Three major themes emerged: (a sexuality is unique to each student, (b teachers and parents do not know what to do, and (c a potential role for OT. Conclusions: Occupational therapy practitioners may be well suited to address the needs identified through this study given their unique expertise.

  16. The Storm and Stress of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Storm and Stress of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities: Implications for Teachers and Parents. ... adolescents with reading disabilities as a result of hormonal changes of adolescence and the increased ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. How Are Learning Disabilities Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Research Goals Activities and Advances Scientific Articles Find a Study Resources and Publications For Patients and Consumers For Researchers and Health Care Providers Home Health A to Z List Learning Disabilities Condition Information How is it diagnosed? Share ...

  18. Leadership and learning disability nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise

    Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.

  19. About Learning Disabilities and NF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complica- tions of NF1 include: • Learning disabilities: Although intelligence is usually within the normal range, 50-60% ... and the ability to access meaning from the printed word. 5 Recent findings suggest that a high ...

  20. Supporting Children with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    John k. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...

  1. Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Review of Research on Experiences of Service Users and Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Downie, Helen; Kidd, Gill; Fitzsimmons, Lorna; Gibbs, Susie; Melville, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children and young people with learning disabilities experience high rates of mental health problems. Methods: The present study reviewed the literature on mental health services for children with learning disabilities, to identify known models of service provision and what has been experienced as effective or challenging in providing…

  2. Teaching Self-Control Procedures to Learning Disabled Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carol; And Others

    The study involving two learning disabled (LD) seventh graders was designed to develop and evaluate a self instructional booklet that teaches adolescents to change their behaviors with minimal intervention from other individuals. The first part of the study examined whether LD Ss could learn the principles of self monitoring, goal establishment,…

  3. Tourette syndrome and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Marilyn G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.

  4. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, PWorkload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, Presearch findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning disabled/ADHD with severe behavioral disorders as opposed to normal subjects.

  5. The Effect of Programmable Tactile Displays on Spatial Learning Skills in Children and Adolescents of Different Visual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Fabrizio; Cocchi, Elena; Brayda, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Vision loss has severe impacts on physical, social and emotional well-being. The education of blind children poses issues as many scholar disciplines (e.g., geometry, mathematics) are normally taught by heavily relying on vision. Touch-based assistive technologies are potential tools to provide graphical contents to blind users, improving learning possibilities and social inclusion. Raised-lines drawings are still the golden standard, but stimuli cannot be reconfigured or adapted and the blind person constantly requires assistance. Although much research concerns technological development, little work concerned the assessment of programmable tactile graphics, in educative and rehabilitative contexts. Here we designed, on programmable tactile displays, tests aimed at assessing spatial memory skills and shapes recognition abilities. Tests involved a group of blind and a group of low vision children and adolescents in a four-week longitudinal schedule. After establishing subject-specific difficulty levels, we observed a significant enhancement of performance across sessions and for both groups. Learning effects were comparable to raised paper control tests: however, our setup required minimal external assistance. Overall, our results demonstrate that programmable maps are an effective way to display graphical contents in educative/rehabilitative contexts. They can be at least as effective as traditional paper tests yet providing superior flexibility and versatility.

  6. Efficacy of working memory training in children and adolescents with learning disabilities: A review study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peijnenborgh, Janneke C A W; Hurks, Petra M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Vles, Johan S H; Hendriksen, Jos G M

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of working memory (WM) training programmes is still a subject of debate. Previous reviews were heterogeneous with regard to participant characteristics of the studies included. To examine whether these programmes are of added value for children with learning disabilities (LDs), a systematic meta-analytic review was undertaken focusing specifically on LDs. Thirteen randomised controlled studies were included, with a total of 307 participants (age range = 5.5-17, Mean age across studies = 10.61, SD = 1.77). Potential moderator variables were examined, i.e., age, type of LD, training programme, training dose, design type, and type of control group. The meta-analysis indicated reliable short-term improvements in verbal WM, visuo-spatial WM, and word decoding in children with LDs after training (effect sizes ranged between 0.36 and 0.63), when compared to the untrained control group. These improvements sustained over time for up to eight months. Furthermore, children > 10 years seemed to benefit more in terms of verbal WM than younger children, both immediately after training as well as in the long-term. Other moderator variables did not have an effect on treatment efficacy.

  7. The Impact of Labelling and Segregation on Adolescent Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study, grounded in disability studies in education, explores the literacy development of an adolescent student, described by school officials as learning disabled and a non-reader. The researcher highlights how this student learned to connect to books based on an apprenticeship model. Additionally, the acknowledgement of the…

  8. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  9. A Fuzzy Approach to Classify Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Manghirmalani; Darshana More; Kavita Jain

    2012-01-01

    The endeavor of this work is to support the special education community in their quest to be with the mainstream. The initial segment of the paper gives an exhaustive study of the different mechanisms of diagnosing learning disability. After diagnosis of learning disability the further classification of learning disability that is dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are fuzzy. Hence the paper proposes a model based on Fuzzy Expert System which enables the classification of learning disability...

  10. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD, participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID.

  11. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  12. Identification of Learning Disabled Bilingual Hispanic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan

    1983-01-01

    The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)

  13. Evaluating groups in learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S H

    Groupwork can be effective in meeting a range of needs presented by students with profound learning disabilities. This article describes the process involved in setting up groups for these students, and includes examples of a group session and methods for evaluating groupwork.

  14. Controversial Issues in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Selma C.

    The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…

  15. Memory Deficits in Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.

    Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…

  16. Learning Disability: Experience of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…

  17. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)

  18. When Average Is Not Good Enough: Students with Learning Disabilities at Selective, Private Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Erickson, Celeste P.; Till, Christina H.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with learning disabilities disproportionately come from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, show normative deficits in academic skills, and attend 2-year, public colleges instead of 4-year institutions. However, students with learning disabilities are well represented at the United States' most expensive and selective postsecondary…

  19. Self-Esteem among Boys with and without Specific Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Grace

    1980-01-01

    The self-esteem of 120 males with and without specific learning disabilities, at each of two levels of development (preadolescent and adolescent) was measured using Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. (MP)

  20. Does IQ Matter in Adolescents' Reading Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortteinen, Hanna; Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We studied the connection of IQ, reading disability (RD) and their interaction with reading, spelling and other cognitive skills in adolescents with average IQ and RD (n = 22), average IQ, non-RD (n = 71), below average IQ and RD (n = 29), and below average IQ non-RD (n = 33). IQ was not connected to reading and spelling in subjects without RD,…

  1. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities

  2. Learning Disabilities and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Kasler, Jon

    2017-07-04

    The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD. Two samples (matched on gender, approximate age, and program of study; n = 100, and unmatched; n = 584) of college students took self-report and performance-based tests of EI (Ability-EI) as well as a measure of self-esteem and demographics associated with college performance (e.g.: SAT scores, gender, etc.). The results showed that while SAT scores and ability emotional intelligence (Ability-EI) were associated with college GPA, Ability-EI did not differ between the two groups, while self-report measures of EI and self-esteem did show differences, with the group with learning disabilities ranking lower. The effects remained stable when we controlled for demographics and potential intervening factors. The results suggest that EI may play a protective role in the association between background variables and college attainment in students with SLD. The results may provide a basis for interventions to empower students with SLD in academia.

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of Graphic Organizers and Science Instruction for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: Implications for the Intermediate and Secondary Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Douglas D.; Park, Youn J.; Hughes, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which intermediate and secondary students with learning disabilities were taught science content through the use of graphic organizers (GOs). Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified selection criteria, 23 standardized mean effect sizes were…

  4. Hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2011-05-01

    Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.

  5. What Are the Symptoms of Learning Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are common indicators? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the indicators of learning disabilities? Many children have difficulty with reading, writing, or other learning-related tasks at some point, ...

  6. Menstrual Management for Adolescents With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Elisabeth H; O'Brien, Rebecca F

    2016-07-01

    The onset of menses for adolescents with physical or intellectual disabilities can affect their independence and add additional concerns for families at home, in schools, and in other settings. The pediatrician is the primary health care provider to explore and assist with the pubertal transition and menstrual management. Menstrual management of both normal and abnormal cycles may be requested to minimize hygiene issues, premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea, heavy or irregular bleeding, contraception, and conditions exacerbated by the menstrual cycle. Several options are available for menstrual management, depending on the outcome that is desired, ranging from cycle regulation to complete amenorrhea. The use of medications or the request for surgeries to help with the menstrual cycles in teenagers with disabilities has medical, social, legal, and ethical implications. This clinical report is designed to help guide pediatricians in assisting adolescent females with intellectual and/or physical disabilities and their families in making decisions related to successfully navigating menarche and subsequent menstrual cycles. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated health-related fitness in adolescents with intellectual disabilities and analysed the various performances in physical fitness tests according to degrees of obesity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven French intellectual disabilities adolescents (14.24 [plus or minus] 1.48 years) performed the EUROFIT physical…

  8. Measurement of Mood in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Geoffrey R.; Terry, Peter C.; Bramston, Paul; Dinsdale, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    To date, there has been limited research into mood responses among adolescents with intellectual disability. One reason for this is the absence of a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of mood among this population. The present study evaluated such a measure among a sample of 135 adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Results…

  9. The Siblings Relationship of Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…

  10. ICTs and Montessori for Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the Montessori philosophy and examines how this learning theory currently gives credence to cognitive processes of the mind, as suitable intervention used to the training of children with learning disabilities. Furthermore, Montessori’s system and materials in combination with the support of new technologies as well as their implementation on various kinds of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have great successes regarding the support of disability and the enhancement of learning process.

  11. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them

  12. From "Learning Disability to Intellectual Disability"--Perceptions of the Increasing Use of the Term "Intellectual Disability" in Learning Disability Policy, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…

  13. Improving care for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sue

    2014-11-25

    People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.

  14. Learning disabilities in Darier's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodiuk-Gad, R; Lerner, M; Breznitz, Z; Cohen-Barak, E; Ziv, M; Shani-Adir, A; Amichai, B; Zlotogorski, A; Shalev, S; Rozenman, D

    2014-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric features and intellectual difficulties have been reported in studies of Darier's disease. Learning disabilities have never been reported or evaluated systematically in these patients. To assess the prevalence of learning disabilities in 76 patients with Darier's disease, and cognitive functioning in 19 of them. The data were collected by two methods: a questionnaire, as part of a larger study on the clinical characteristics of 76 patients; and neuropsychological measures for the assessment of learning disabilities in 19 of them. Thirty-one of the 76 patients reported learning disabilities (41%) and 56 (74%) reported a family history of learning disabilities. Significant differences were found between the 19 patients evaluated on cognitive tasks and a control group of 42 skilled learners on subtraction and multiplication tasks. Six (32%) of the 19 were identified as having reading difficulties and five (26%) exhibited low performance on the Concentration Performance Test. All patients had general cognitive ability in the average range. Findings suggest an association between Darier's disease and learning disabilities, a heretofore unreported association, pointing to the need to obtain personal and family history of such disabilities in order to refer cases of clinical concern for further study. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  16. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  17. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  18. Would Rethinking Learning Disabilities Benefit Kuwait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim

    2009-01-01

    Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…

  19. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  20. Neurogenetic and Neurodevelopmental Pathways to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…

  1. Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they continue to struggle. Read More "Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is Dyslexia? / Special Education and Research ...

  2. Conversational Interactions between Intellectually Disabled and Normal Progress Adolescents during a Problem-Solving Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrainec, J. Alexa; Hughes, M. Jeffry

    This study investigated the features of verbal disagreements arising among 25 adolescent students with mild intellectual disabilities and 25 of their typical peers. Transcripts of a learning task were coded using an adaptation of Eisenberg's (1992) scheme for analyzing verbal conflicts. Findings of the study indicate: (1) in verbal conflict…

  3. Implementation of Automata Theory to Improve the Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...

  4. Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, J. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…

  5. Learning Disabilities and the School Health Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephen W.

    1973-01-01

    This article offers three listings of signs and symptoms useful in detection of learning and perceptual deficiencies. The first list presents symptoms of the learning-disabled child; the second gives specific visual perceptual deficits (poor discrimination, figure-ground problems, reversals, etc.); and the third gives auditory perceptual deficits…

  6. Investigating alternative conceptions in learning disabled students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Terry Stokes

    Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.

  7. Increasing participation of people with learning disabilities in bowel screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jonathan

    2018-03-08

    Learning disability nurses have a key role in addressing the health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities. People with learning disabilities are less likely to participate in bowel screening than other sectors of the population, despite there being evidence of this population being at an increased risk of developing bowel cancer. There are a range of barriers at individual and systemic levels that impact on participation in bowel screening by people with learning disabilities. Actions to address these barriers have been identified in the literature and learning disability nurses are a key agent of change in enabling people with learning disabilities to participate in the national screening programmes.

  8. Children with Learning Disabilities. Facts for Families. Number 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…

  9. Learning disabilities: analysis of 69 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meister Eduardo Kaehler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available With this article we intend to demonstrate the importance of evaluation and follow up of children with learning disabilities, through a multidisciplinary team. As well as to establish the need of intervention. We evaluate 69 children, from Aline Picheth Public School, in Curitiba, attending first or second grade of elementary school, through general and evolutionary neurological examination, pediatric checklist symptoms, and social, linguistic and psychological (WISC-III, Bender Infantile and WPPSI-figures evaluation. The incidence was higher in boys (84,1%, familiar history of learning disabilities was found in 42%, and writing abnormalities in 56,5%. The most frequent diagnosis was attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, in 39,1%. With this program, we aimed to reduce the retention taxes and stress the importance of this evaluation, and, if necessary, multidisciplinar intervention in the cases of learning disabilities.

  10. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...

  11. Assessment and Documentation Considerations for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will

    2011-01-01

    In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…

  12. Learning and plasticity in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmann, Delia Ute Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of life between puberty and relative independence. It is a time during which the human brain undergoes protracted changes - particularly in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. These changes have been linked to improvements in cognitive performance; and are thought to render adolescence a period of relatively high levels of plasticity, during which the environment has a heightened impact on brain development and behaviour. This thesis investigates learning an...

  13. Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  14. Compounding the Challenge: Young Deaf Children and Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Gary W.; Mauk, Pamela P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a definition of deaf and hard of hearing children with learning disabilities; notes the incidence of children with both disabilities; outlines roadblocks to learning; describes screening, diagnosis, and assessment practices; and offers suggestions for educational programming. (JDD)

  15. School Counselors and Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)

  16. A Functional Genomic Analysis of NF1-Associated Learning Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Shao-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 patients. However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...

  17. A Functional Genomic Analysis of NF1-Associated Learning Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Shao-Jun

    2007-01-01

    Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 patients. However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...

  18. A Functional Genomic Analysis of NF1-Associated Learning Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Shao-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NFI patients. However, the pathogenic process for NFI-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...

  19. Older People with Learning Disabilities:Workforce issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, S; Manthorpe, J

    2005-01-01

    The life expectancy of people with learning disabilities has increased substantially. Services for older people with learning disabilities are provided by various sectors and practitioners (generic health and social care, or specialist learning disability or old age). The literature suggests that practitioners do not feel well-equipped to support people with learning disabilities as they grow older, and older people's services do not always have the opportunity to share experiences and skills...

  20. Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.

  1. Teaching Foreign Languages to Pupils with Specific Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    VOLDÁNOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...

  2. A Time to Define: Making the Specific Learning Disability Definition Prescribe Specific Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…

  3. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  4. Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon K. P., Seema

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to find out the awareness on learning disabilities among elementary school teachers. The sample for the present study consisted of 500 elementary school teachers of Kerala. In this study the investigator used an Awareness Test on Learning Disabilities to measure the Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School…

  5. 34 CFR 300.307 - Specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with § 300.309...

  6. Relationships of People with Learning Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…

  7. Inter-Judge Agreement in Classifying Students as Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Susan; And Others

    Eighteen judges with backgrounds in assessment, decision making, and learning disabilities were asked to use an array of information to differentiate learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled students. Each judge was provided with forms containing information on 42 test or subtest scores of 50 school-identified LD students and 49 non-LD…

  8. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  9. Career Guidance for Learning-Disabled Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…

  10. Motor Tics, Tourette Syndrome, and Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerer, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Complex motor tics associated with vocal tics indicate a high likelihood of Tourette syndrome; children with this syndrome may also have learning disabilities and attentional disorders. Individuals may be treated with stimulant drugs which may precipitate or exacerbate tics. Pharmacotherapy is available for management of tics and attentional…

  11. Behavioral Disorders, Learning Disabilities and Megavitamin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPerchia, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…

  12. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  13. Developmental Dyscalculia Is a Familial Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Ruth S.; Manor, Orly; Kerem, Batsheva; Ayali, Mady; Badichi, Navah; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2001-01-01

    Siblings and parents of 39 children with dyscalculia were assessed for arithmetic, reading, and attention disorders. Findings indicated a familial prevalence of dyscalculia almost tenfold higher than expected for the general population and suggest that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, has a significant familial aggregation,…

  14. Group Hypnotherapy With Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…

  15. Handbook of Learning Disabilities, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee, Ed.; Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Widely regarded as the standard reference in the field, this comprehensive handbook presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the nature and classification of learning disabilities (LD), their causes, and how individuals with these difficulties can be identified and helped to succeed. Best practices are described for supporting student performance…

  16. Greek Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities Seeking Learning Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…

  17. Obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability: Prevalence and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sharon; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael

    Studies from a number of countries have indicated an increased risk of obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability. Whether risk factors for adults with intellectual disability apply to adolescents however is uncertain. This study examines obesity in a community sample of adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia, and investigates risk factors associated with obesity and overweight. A cross-sectional survey and medical record review on 261 adolescents with intellectual disability attending special education facilities in South-East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and September 2010 was conducted. Information on age, gender, weight, height, syndrome specific diagnoses, problematic behaviours, mobility, taking psychotropic or epileptic medication, and perceived household financial difficulties was collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and participants categorised as normal/underweight, overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Overall 22.5% (95% CI: 17.8-28.0%) of adolescents were obese, and 23.8% (95% CI: 19.0-29.4%) were overweight, a marked increase compared to Australian norms. Adolescents with Down syndrome were more likely to be obese than other participants (odds ratio=3.21; 95% CI: 1.41-7.30). No association was found with other risk factors examined. Prevalence of obesity and overweight were increased compared to general Australian adolescents. The only significant risk factor was the presence of Down syndrome. These findings reinforce the need for a health policy and practice response to obesity that is inclusive of individuals with intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research with and by people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Shirley

    Many people with learning disabilities are frequently excluded from active involvement in research and, as a result, along with researchers, have questioned research processes. These discussions have influenced how research is undertaken by, and with, people who have learning disabilities. Learning disability research is now increasingly framed as inclusive. This article explores the development of inclusive learning disability research by tracing its background and influences, identifying key characteristics and highlighting some of the challenges in its application. It demonstrates how inclusive research can give people with learning disabilities a voice that will help to inform practice.

  19. Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents with Self-Reported Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tally

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability. Some disability sub-groups, including youth reporting autism spectrum disorder, hearing, and vision impairments reported surprisingly high rates of SA. While youth with disabilities reported disproportionate exposure to adversity in every life domain examined, similar to youth reporting SA, disability status added unique risk for suicidal behavior. This suggests that disability may be a 'fundamental cause' of suicidal behavior, a question that requires further investigation.

  20. Prosocial competencies among adolescent siblings of the physically disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Perenc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study examined possible prosocial benefits of having a disabled sibling. Until now research has mainly focused on the negative effects of having a sibling with a disability. We hypothesized that regular and frequent interactions with a disabled person should result in an increase of positive attitude and empathy toward other people who are in a disadvantageous situation. Participants and procedure A sample of 208 students from public secondary schools (middle and high schools completed the Polish version of the Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM in order to assess the tendencies to prosocial behaviors in different conditions. Participants were between 13 and 18 years old. Ninety-six adolescents had a disabled sibling (group T and 112 constituted the control group (group C. Results Results showed that group T generally scored higher than group C in the number of helping behaviors. Furthermore, girls scored higher than boys in anonymous prosocial behaviors. The older adolescents are more inclined to use helping behaviors both in anonymous and compliant situations than their younger colleagues. Conclusions Presence of disabled children in a family context may facilitate prosocial behavior in their non-disabled siblings. Older participants less frequently described themselves as prosocial in public situations. In contrast, younger adolescents reported weaker prosocial tendencies in anonymous and compliant situations. The effect of gender on prosocial tendencies was significant for public prosocial behavior, with a higher level achieved by males in this domain. Data analysis also showed significantly greater emotional and altruistic tendencies in females than in males.

  1. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Inte...

  2. Physical Activity Enjoyment, Perceived Barriers, and Beliefs Among Adolescents With and Without Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G

    2016-01-01

    Youths with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age, 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age, 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons. Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone with whom to do physical activity (64% vs 93%: P physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs 0%; P physical activity would be good for their health (92% vs 100%; P = .05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (P = .02). A large percentage of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance (95% of TD adolescents, P = .06). Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified.

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life for Children and Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment: A Cohort Study by a Learning Disabilities Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert-Dibon, Gaëlle; Bru, Marie; Gras Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Elise; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with specific language impairment (SLI). In a prospective sample at a Learning Disabilities Reference Center, proxy-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27) was assessed for children with SLI and unaffected children from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Quality of life predictors for children with SLI were evaluated by recording the length and number of speech therapy and psychotherapy sessions and the specific school organization that the children had participated in. The KIDSCREEN scores of the two groups were compared using nonparametric statistics. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 67 children with SLI and 67 unaffected children. For children with SLI, the mean HRQOL scores were significantly lower for physical and psychological well-being, autonomy and parent relation, social support, and school environment compared to the reference group, controlling for age and parental education (β = -6.7 (-12.7;-.7) P = 0.03, β = -4.9 (-9.5;-.3) P = 0.04, β = -8.4 (-14.2;-2.6) P = 0.005, β = -11.6 (-19.5;-3.7) P = 0.004, β = -7.1(-12.4;-1.7) P = 0.010, respectively). Multivariate analyses in the group of children with SLI found that children who had undergone psychotherapy sessions or who had been enrolled in specific schooling programs had reduced HRQOL scores in social support and school environment and that children who were in a special class had higher scores in physical well-being. Children with SLI had significantly lower HRQOL scores as compared to unaffected children. Measurement of HRQOL could serve as one of the strategies employed throughout the follow-up of these individuals to provide them with the most appropriate and comprehensive care possible.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life for Children and Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment: A Cohort Study by a Learning Disabilities Reference Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Hubert-Dibon

    Full Text Available To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of children with specific language impairment (SLI.In a prospective sample at a Learning Disabilities Reference Center, proxy-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 was assessed for children with SLI and unaffected children from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Quality of life predictors for children with SLI were evaluated by recording the length and number of speech therapy and psychotherapy sessions and the specific school organization that the children had participated in. The KIDSCREEN scores of the two groups were compared using nonparametric statistics.The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 67 children with SLI and 67 unaffected children. For children with SLI, the mean HRQOL scores were significantly lower for physical and psychological well-being, autonomy and parent relation, social support, and school environment compared to the reference group, controlling for age and parental education (β = -6.7 (-12.7;-.7 P = 0.03, β = -4.9 (-9.5;-.3 P = 0.04, β = -8.4 (-14.2;-2.6 P = 0.005, β = -11.6 (-19.5;-3.7 P = 0.004, β = -7.1(-12.4;-1.7 P = 0.010, respectively. Multivariate analyses in the group of children with SLI found that children who had undergone psychotherapy sessions or who had been enrolled in specific schooling programs had reduced HRQOL scores in social support and school environment and that children who were in a special class had higher scores in physical well-being.Children with SLI had significantly lower HRQOL scores as compared to unaffected children. Measurement of HRQOL could serve as one of the strategies employed throughout the follow-up of these individuals to provide them with the most appropriate and comprehensive care possible.

  5. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  6. Injury among adolescents with intellectual disability: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Neurophysiological correlates of learning disabilities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, M

    1999-05-01

    In the present study, we developed a new event-related potentials (ERPs) stimulator system applicable to simultaneous audio visual stimuli, and tested it clinically on healthy adults and patients with learning disabilities (LD), using Japanese language task stimuli: hiragana letters, kanji letters, and kanji letters with spoken words. (1) The origins of the P300 component were identified in these tasks. The sources in the former two tasks were located in different areas. In the simultaneous task stimuli, a combination of the two P300 sources was observed with dominance in the left posterior inferior temporal area. (2) In patients with learning disabilities, those with reading and writing disability showed low amplitudes in the left hemisphere in response to visual language task stimuli with kanji and hiragana letters, in contrast to healthy children and LD patients with arithmetic disability. (3) To evaluate the effect of methylphenidate (10 mg) on ADD, paired-associate ERPs were recorded. Methylphenidate increased the amplitude of P300.

  8. Students with Learning Disabilities in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…

  9. Review of Mathematics Interventions for Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marita, Samantha; Hord, Casey

    2017-01-01

    Recent educational policy has raised the standards that all students, including students with disabilities, must meet in mathematics. To examine the strategies currently used to support students with learning disabilities, the authors reviewed literature from 2006 to 2014 on mathematics interventions for students with learning disabilities. The 12…

  10. Academic Students' Attitudes toward Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Grinberg, Keren

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning disabilities (LD) are lifelong disabilities that affect all facets of a person's life. Aim: Identifying the relationship between academic students' attitudes toward learning disability, self-image, and selected factors. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 213 students from an academic center in Israel. Two different…

  11. Enabling Integration in Sports for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandisson, Marie; Tetreault, Sylvie; Freeman, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Promoting the health and social participation of adolescents with intellectual disability is important as they are particularly vulnerable to encountering difficulties in those areas. Integration of these individuals in integrated sports is one strategy to address this issue. Methods: The main objective of this study was to gain a…

  12. Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipemia among Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to assess the hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia prevalence of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, and to recognize the health disparities between the study participants and the general population. This study conducted a cross-sectional medical chart analysis of 856 students who participated in school…

  13. Personality patterns and vocational interests of learning disabled and nonlearning disabled high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    There is a lack of research based data in the field of learning disabilities, especially at the secondary level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate personality configuration patterns and vocational interests through the administration of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Abbreviated Version (AV) and the Self-Directed Search, Form E (EASY) for learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (NLD) students. The sample included 90 LD students and 100 Non-LD stud...

  14. Ecological Congruence and the Identification of Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Shayna

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the debate about how to evaluate students suspected of having a learning disability, the role of context in learning has been consistently minimized in the United States. Objective: This article explores the implications of the current, deficit-based approach to the definition and assessment of learning disabilities and offers a…

  15. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya

    2018-01-01

    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  16. Researches on Learning Disabilities--Where Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    This article focusses on the review of research studies done on the area of learning disabilities and the need to conduct more research studies in this area. School children are seen to have different types of learning difficulties with regard to academics. Children with learning disability, who occupy the largest number receiving special…

  17. The future of learning disabilities nursing in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Anthony

    2014-07-02

    This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.

  18. OVERPROTECTION AND ADOLESCENTS WITH PHYISICAL DISABILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    OZHEK Simona R.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the effects of overprotection on the care and development of children with physical disabilities. The focus is on the profes­sional work of carers caring for young people with physical disabilities. Children with physical dis­abilities are less mobile and need more protection. As long as this is objective protection against real dangers, which the child in a certain stage of de­velopment cannot overcome himself, the reaction is suitable, but in cases where the situation...

  19. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory As a Predictor of Feelings and Communication Satisfaction Toward Parents Among Learning Disabled, Emotionally Disturbed, and Normal Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory with adolescents relative to each of the criterion measures representing communication satisfaction toward each parent and feelings toward each parent, and the differential validity of the self-esteem, communication satisfaction, and feelings toward each parent…

  20. College Preparation for Students with Learning Disabilities: A Curriculum Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Keith W.

    1992-01-01

    A college preparation curriculum relevant to the needs of students with learning disabilities is presented, focusing on early planning, instructional modifications, strategy instruction, and support services. (JDD)

  1. OVERPROTECTION AND ADOLESCENTS WITH PHYISICAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona OZHEK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effects of overprotection on the care and development of children with physical disabilities. The focus is on the profes­sional work of carers caring for young people with physical disabilities. Children with physical dis­abilities are less mobile and need more protection. As long as this is objective protection against real dangers, which the child in a certain stage of de­velopment cannot overcome himself, the reaction is suitable, but in cases where the situation is un­real danger and the child is capable of dealing with it himself but parents or other protect the child by prohibiting a certain activity or perform it them­selves instead of him, the reaction is unsuitable. Such unsuitable reactions are called overprotec­tion. Overprotection is very important in the de­velopment process of separation and individuali­sation. Because of overprotection the separation and individualisation will be thwarted and with this the building of identity, independency and autonomy. It was found that young people with physical disabilities are more overprotected than healthy young people. In caring for young people with physical disabilities independence and auton­omy are made the central goals, so professional carers in care institutions must be protective but not overprotective, if they want to achieve these goals.

  2. Early Childhood Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. B.; Hauser-Cram, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of…

  3. Learning Disabilities: Use of Paraprofessionals. A Report from the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document offers a framework for use by education agencies in developing rules and guidelines for use of paraprofessionals within programs serving individuals with learning disabilities. Separate sections address principles, definitions, ethical responsibilities, education requirements for paraprofessionals, roles and responsibilities of…

  4. The Future of Personalized Learning for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Personalized learning models can give each student differentiated learning experiences based on their needs, interests, and strengths, including students with disabilities. Personalized learning can pinpoint specific gaps in student learning, identify where a student is on his or her learning pathway, and provide the appropriate interventions to…

  5. Sibling Relationship Quality and Social Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…

  6. Improving access to screening for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison

    2014-11-04

    People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.

  7. Unanticipated Effects of Children with Learning Disabilities on Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Lily

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…

  8. School Shock: A Psychodynamic View of Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitani, E. Alfredo

    Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…

  9. Self-Esteem and Facial Attractiveness among Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others

    Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…

  10. Learning Disabled College Writers Project, Evaluation Report, 1985-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Trudy

    This report describes the Learning Disabled College Writer's Project, implemented at the University of Minnesota during the 1985-86 school year and designed to aid learning disabled college students master composition skills through training in the use of microcomputer word processors. Following an executive summary, an introduction states the…

  11. ESL Instruction and Adults with Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…

  12. Visual Supports for the Learning Disabled: A Handbook for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Leighan

    2013-01-01

    A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…

  13. Estate Planning for Parents of a Learning Disabled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Robert

    Considerations in estate planning for learning disabled children are presented from the perspective of an individual who is both a lawyer and the parent of a learning disabled child. It is suggested that an important goal for parents is to train the child to be able to deal with his/her financial situation. Early training in the habit of saving…

  14. Tanis Bryan: A Pioneer in the Field of Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Mary G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Tanis Bryan graduated from Northwestern University during the beginning of the field of learning disabilities. From this beginning, Tanis has provided invaluable insight into the field through her desire to understand the social dimensions of learning disabilities. The author wishes to thank Tanis for her assistance with this interview.

  15. A Search for Meaning: Telling Your Life with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…

  16. Emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with intellectual disability with and without chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    Background Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of the Concomitance of Emotional Behavioural Difficulties and Learning Disabilities in Children Referred for Learning Disabilities in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…

  18. The Effect of a Reading Accommodation on Standardized Test Scores of Learning Disabled and Non Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, Linda L.; Deville, Craig; Frisbie, David

    The effect of the Read Aloud accommodation on the performances of learning disabled in reading (LD-R) and non-learning disabled (non LD) middle school students was studied using selected texts from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) achievement battery. Science, Usage and Expression, Math Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, and Reading…

  19. Similarities and differences between learning abilities, "pure" learning disabilities, "pure" ADHD and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen

    2009-08-01

    This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.

  20. The Role of Learning Disability Nurses in Promoting Cervical Screening Uptake in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…

  1. A comparison of central coherence skills between adolescents with an intellectual disability with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lang, Natasja D J; Bouma, Anke; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk W; Minderaa, Ruud B

    2006-01-01

    Central coherence theory hypothesizes individuals with autism process information in a detail-focused fashion. The present study examined whether adolescents with an intellectual disability and comorbid autism spectrum disorder showed a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. The central coherence skills of 43 adolescents from schools for students with severe learning problems were examined with two cognitive tasks. In these two tasks, detail-focused processing is beneficial to global processing to perform the tasks accurately and quickly. The group with autism spectrum disorder performed better than the control group. Adolescents with an intellectual disability and with comorbid autism spectrum disorder have a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. Partial support was also given for variability in weak central coherence within the autism spectrum.

  2. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  3. Are Adolescent Girls with a Physical Disability at Increased Risk for Sexual Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I.; Armour, Brian S.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether US female adolescents who self-reported having a physical disability or long-term health problem were more likely to report having been physically forced to have sexual intercourse than US female adolescents without a physical disability or long-term health problem. Methods: Using…

  4. Access to and use of Internet by adolescents who have a physical disability: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lathouwers, K.A.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations

  5. Access to and use of Internet by adolescents who have a physical disability: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lathouwers, K.A.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations

  6. Serum Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia and Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Chien, Wu-Chien; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the preset study were to describe the profile of serum uric acid, the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its risk factors among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 941 children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (aged 4-18 years) who participated in annual health…

  7. The Effects of a Summary Writing Strategy on the Literacy Skills of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Muir-Knox, Haley; Meredith, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Many adolescents, particularly adolescents with disabilities, have difficulty with literacy tasks such as reading and writing. Yet research has found that when students with disabilities receive appropriate instruction, they typically are able to improve their overall writing outcomes. This study explored the effectiveness of a summary writing…

  8. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  9. How older people with learning disabilities perceive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    2010-07-01

    This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.

  10. Relations among Metamemory, Rehearsal Activity and Word Recall of Learning Disabled and Non-Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In free recall of word lists involving different rehearsal strategies, more words were recalled by older (as against younger) children and by nondisabled (as against learning disabled) readers. Disabled readers tended to be nonstrategic recallers and less accurate estimators of their memory capacity. Recall differences were attributed to semantic…

  11. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G; Bavin, Edith L; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.

  12. High Self-Esteem as a Coping Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2009-01-01

    Children with learning disabilities are found in most schools. Learning disability is a widespread issue in today's society. A learning-disabled child is one whose achievement is less than his expected level of achievement despite having average or above average intelligence. Learning disability is nothing but a condition that affects the ability…

  13. A Preliminary Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment among Polish Adolescents with and without Motor Disability: Does Disability Constitute Diversity in Identity Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…

  14. The Learning Disabled, Hearing Impaired Students: Reality, Myth, or Overextension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughton, Joan

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on definitions, incidence, and characteristics of the multihandicapping condition known as "learning disabled, hearing impaired," in order to provide a means of identifying these children and determining whether or not they require different teaching strategies. (JDD)

  15. Causes of learning disability and epilepsy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Elizabeth; Ring, Howard

    2011-04-01

    Although the association between learning disability and epilepsy is well known, until relatively recently specific processes underlying this association were relatively poorly understood. However, scientific advances in molecular biology are starting to guide researchers towards descriptions of genetic and pathophysiological processes that may explain why syndromes of epilepsy and learning disability often co-exist. This article will focus largely on three areas of advancing knowledge: insights gained from wider use of genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), specific insights gained from detailed study of Rett syndrome and the role of abnormalities of astrocytic function in predisposing to both epilepsy and learning disability. The enormous complexity of the biological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of epilepsy and learning disability are becoming apparent. In the future it is likely that research into therapeutic approaches will include, amongst other approaches, investigations of gene structure and expression, the role of astrocytes and the stability of dendritic spines.

  16. Executive Functioning and Psychopathology in Psychotherapy for Adolescents with Specific Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman-Rubin, Daphne; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Al-Yagon, Michal; Mufson, Laura; Apter, Alan; Mikulincer, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive functioning (EF) to improvements in psychiatric symptomatology following I Can Succeed (ICS; Kopelman-Rubin, 2012) psychotherapy, a skill-enhancement intervention designed to target EF and socio-emotional aspects of specific learning disabilities (SLD). Forty adolescents with SLD underwent ICS in…

  17. A comparison of individual qualities of resiliency in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and typically developing adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a chronic adversity that increases the likelihood of negative developmental outcomes. The aim of this research is to examine differences between adolescents with mild ID and typically developing (TD adolescents in personal qualities which contribute to successful adaptation. The sample consisted of 92 adolescents with mild ID and 772 TD adolescents, 13-19 years of age, of both sexes. Resiliency was assessed using the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents. In comparison to TD adolescents, adolescents with mild ID have significantly lower levels of sense of mastery and sense of relatedness and a higher level of emotional reactivity. In the subsample of adolescents with mild ID there were no age or sex differences for resiliency. Adolescents with mild ID have a lower level of resiliency than TD adolescents, which highlights the need to develop programs focused on personal qualities associated with positive developmental outcomes.

  18. Leaving School: A Comparison of the Worries Held by Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaving school is an important time for adolescents, with increasing autonomy and developing adult identities. The present study sought to shed light on the content and emotional impact of worries amongst adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (IDs) at this time of change. Methods: Twenty-five adolescents with mild to…

  19. Everyday Memory and Working Memory in Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the adolescents with mild intellectual disability…

  20. Prevalence and Patterns of Learning Disabilities in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima

    2016-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.

  1. Learning disabilities: definitions, epidemiology, diagnosis, and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagae, Lieven

    2008-12-01

    Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  2. Care adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jim

    2011-12-01

    Health inequalities start early in life for people with learning disabilities. In the UK, they can arise from various barriers that people experience when trying to access care that should be appropriate, timely and effective. Inequalities in health care are likely to result in many NHS organisations breaching their legal responsibilities, as outlined in the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005, the Equality Act 2010 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (Emerson and Baines 2010). This article seeks to help nurses, healthcare professionals and hospital managers ensure that better services are delivered by encouraging them to explore how reasonable adjustments can improve outcomes for people with learning disabilities.

  3. Prosocial reward learning in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development – and influences reward learning – we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky-decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N=75, 8-16 yrs performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, (Kwak et al., 2014 and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model. Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data from a previously collected sample of adults (N=102 performing the identical task. We found that that children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards directed to the charity than self but also showed greater prosocial tendencies on independent measures of other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for self at the expense of rewards for others. These results support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for others when making decisions and learning about potential rewards.

  4. Specific learning disabilities in children: deficits and neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet

    2005-06-01

    The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.

  5. Learning Disabilities: Implications for Policy regarding Research and Practice--A Report by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…

  6. Gender, parental education, and experiences of bullying victimization by Australian adolescents with and without a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, A; Priest, N; Emerson, E; Milner, A; King, T

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to compare the prevalence of bullying victimization between adolescents with and without a disability and between adolescents with and without borderline intellectual functioning or intellectual disability (BIF/ID). We also sought to assess whether the relationships between either disability or BIF/ID and bullying victimization vary by gender and parental education. The sample included 3,956 12- to 13-year-old adolescents who participated in Wave 5 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Three indicators of bullying were used: physical bullying victimization, social bullying victimization, and "any bullying victimization." We used Poisson regression to obtain the prevalence risk ratios (PRR) of bullying by disability status adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted models, we found evidence that social bullying victimization was more prevalent among adolescents with a disability than those without a disability (PRR 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.42) and between adolescents with BIF/ID than those without (PRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.44). Adolescents with BIF/ID were also more likely to experience "any bullying victimization"(PRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00-1.22). Having a disability and living in a family with low parental education were associated with an elevated risk of social bullying victimization BIF/ID. Adolescents with disabilities and BIF/ID are at elevated risk of social bullying victimization. School-based antibullying initiatives should concentrate on enhancing the inclusion of adolescents with disabilities, with an emphasis on adolescents from disadvantaged backgrounds. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. CAPTCHA: Impact on User Experience of Users with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruti Gafni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CAPTCHA is one of the most common solutions to check if the user trying to enter a Website is a real person or an automated piece of software. This challenge-response test, implemented in many Internet Websites, emphasizes the gaps between accessibility and security on the Internet, as it poses an obstacle for the learning-impaired in the reading and comprehension of what is presented in the test. Various types of CAPTCHA tests have been developed in order to address accessibility and security issues. The objective of this study is to investigate how the differences between various CAPTCHA tests affect user experience among populations with and without learning disabilities. A questionnaire accompanied by experiencing five different tests was administered to 212 users, 60 of them with learning disabilities. Response rates for each test and levels of success were collected automatically. Findings suggest that users with learning disabilities have more difficulties in solving the tests, especially those with distorted texts, have more negative attitudes towards the CAPTCHA tests, but the response time has no statistical difference from users without learning disabilities. These insights can help to develop and implement solutions suitable for many users and especially for population with learning disabilities.

  8. Successful Strategies for College-Bound Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard; Robertson, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of support services for college students with learning disabilities presents the nine-step process used at Ball State University (Indiana) to encourage students to identify themselves, meet eligibility guidelines, learn about services and accommodations provided by the university, talk to professors about needed accommodations, use…

  9. Teaching Kids with Learning Disabilities to Take Public Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…

  10. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  11. Learning Disabilities and Conductive Hearing Loss Involving Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)

  12. Culturally Responsive Reading Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourea, Lefki; Gibson, Lenwood; Werunga, Robai

    2018-01-01

    As student populations are becoming more diverse in ability and ethnicity across American classrooms, teachers are faced with instructional challenges in meeting their students' learning needs. Challenges are heightened for general and special education teachers who teach students with learning disabilities (LD) and have a culturally and…

  13. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-02-15

    To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85(th) - obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities.

  14. Teaching adolescents with severe disabilities to use the public telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, D W; Spooner, F; Keul, P K; Grossi, T

    1990-04-01

    Two adolescents with severe disabilities served as participants in a study conducted to train in the use of the public telephone to call home. Participants were trained to complete a 17-step task analysis using a training package which consisted of total task presentation in conjunction with a four-level prompting procedure (i.e., independent, verbal, verbal + gesture, verbal + guidance). All instruction took place in a public setting (e.g., a shopping mall) with generalization probes taken in two alternative settings (e.g., a movie theater and a convenience store). A multiple probe across individuals design demonstrated the training package was successful in teaching participants to use the telephone to call home. In addition, newly acquired skills generalized to the two untrained settings. Implications for community-based training are discussed.

  15. Learning from Lectures: The Implications of Note-Taking for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities lack effective note-taking skills for a variety of reasons. Despite the important role that notes play in helping students to understand lecture content information and serving as documents for later review, many students with learning disabilities are simply not effective note-takers. Many of these students…

  16. Family-Peer Linkages for Children with Intellectual Disability and Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L

    2017-09-01

    Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.

  17. Visual memory and learning in extremely low-birth-weight/extremely preterm adolescents compared with controls: a geographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Vicki A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary data on visual memory and learning in survivors born extremely preterm (EP; Visual learning and memory data were available for 221 (74.2%) EP/ELBW subjects and 159 (60.7%) controls. EP/ELBW adolescents exhibited significantly poorer performance across visual memory and learning variables compared with controls. Visual learning and delayed visual memory were particularly problematic and remained so after controlling for visual-motor integration and visual perception and excluding adolescents with neurosensory disability, and/or IQ visual memory and learning outcomes compared with controls, which cannot be entirely explained by poor visual perceptual or visual constructional skills or intellectual impairment.

  18. People with learning disabilities who have cancer: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila

    2009-07-01

    Cancer incidence among people with learning disabilities is rising. There have been no published studies of the needs and experiences of people with learning disabilities and cancer, from their own perspective. To provide insight into the experiences and needs of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. Prospective qualitative study, using ethnographic methods. Participants' homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices in London and surrounding areas. The participants were 13 people with learning disabilities ranging from mild to severe, who had a cancer diagnosis. The main method of data collection was participant observation (over 250 hours). The median length of participation was 7 months. Participants' cancer experiences were shaped by their previous experience of life, which included deprivation, loneliness, and a lack of autonomy and power. They depended on others to negotiate contact with the outside world, including the healthcare system. This could lead to delayed cancer diagnosis and a lack of treatment options being offered. Most participants were not helped to understand their illness and its implications. Doctors did not make an assessment of capacity, but relied on carers' opinions. Urgent action is warranted by findings of late diagnosis, possible discrimination around treatment options, and lack of patient involvement and assessment of capacity in decision making. There are significant gaps in knowledge and training among most health professionals, leading to disengaged services that are unaware of the physical, emotional, and practical needs of people with learning disabilities, and their carers.

  19. Managing specific learning disability in schools in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2011-07-01

    Specific learning disability (dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia) afflicts 5-15% of school-going children. Over the last decade; awareness about this invisible handicap has grown in India. However, much needs to be done to ensure that each afflicted child gets an opportunity to achieve his or her full academic potential in regular mainstream schools. In order to achieve this ideal scenario, all regular classroom teachers should be sensitized to suspect, and trained to screen for this disability when the child is in primary school. School managements should become proactive to set up resource rooms and employ special educators to ensure that these children receive regular and affordable remedial education; and be diligent in ensuring that these children get the mandatory provisions both during school and board examinations. Once specific learning disability is recognized as a disability by the Government of India, these children with the backing of the Right to Education Act, would be able to benefit significantly.

  20. Effect of learning disabilities on academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and on their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers

  1. Reimagining Disability and Inclusive Education Through Universal Design for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Doolittle Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1975, Congress enacted a law eventually known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, which ensures that children with disabilities receive a free, appropriate, public education. Since then, scholarly and popular debates about the effectiveness of inclusive education have proliferated and typically focus on the ability or inability of students with disabilities to succeed in so-called regular classrooms. These debates reflect widespread assumptions that the regular classroom is rightly the province of nondisabled students and a neutral, value-free space that students with disabilities invade and disrupt via their very presence and their costly needs for adaptation. But as many scholars in the field of Disability Studies in Education (DSE have argued, these discussions often fail to recognize that the space of the regular classroom, far from neutral, is constructed for a nondisabled, neurotypical, white, male, middle-class "norm" that neither reflects nor accommodates the wide range of diverse learners within it, regardless of whether these learners have been diagnosed with a disability. A DSE perspective sees the educational environment, not students with disabilities, as the "problem" and calls for a Universal Design for Learning approach to education, or the design of instructional materials and activities that allows the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities and backgrounds. Agreeing with this DSE perspective, this article uses an autoethnographic approach to reexamine inclusive education and to consider how university classrooms, pedagogy, and curricular materials can be improved in order to accommodate all students, not just those with disabilities. Ultimately, the article argues that Universal Design for Learning has the potential to radically transform the meaning of inclusive education and the very concept of disability.

  2. Neighbourhood and Community Experience, and the Quality of Life of Rural Adolescents with and without an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Grace; Rapley, Mark; Bramston, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of 14 Australian adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities and 13 typical adolescents found no significant differences between the groups on community usage and lifestyle patterns. The discussion promotes the inclusion of community factors when investigating community integration of adolescents with a disability. (Contains…

  3. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with intellectual disability: Guidelines for teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marié Hall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID. To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data analysis of a multiple case study of resilient adolescents with ID attending special schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The visual and narrative data that inform this case study were generated by resilient adolescents with ID (n = 24, and their teachers (n = 18. Four school-related themes emerge from their accounts of resilience-supporting factors associated with their schools for the physically and severely intellectually disabled (SPSID. From these, we distill three uncomplicated actions mainstream school ecologies can execute in order to enable the resilience of included adolescents with ID. Their simplicity and ordinariness potentiate universally useful ways for mainstream teachers to champion the resilience of included adolescents with ID.

  4. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  5. A problem with inclusion in learning disability research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Allmark, Peter

    2011-09-01

    People with severe learning disability are particularly difficult to include in the research process. As a result, researchers may be tempted to focus on those with learning disability who can be included. The problem is exacerbated in this field as the political agenda of inclusion and involvement is driven by those people with learning disability who are the higher functioning. To overcome this we should first detach the notion of consent from ideas about autonomy and think instead of it as a way to avoid wronging others; this fits the original historical use of consent in research. This allows us to think in terms of including participants to the best of their abilities rather than in terms of a threshold of autonomy. Researchers could then use imaginative ways to include the least able and to ensure they are not wronged in research or by exclusion from it.

  6. LEARNING PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskinova Angelka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.

  7. Teacher response to learning disability: a test of attributional principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M D

    1997-01-01

    Attribution research has identified student ability and effort expended as causes of achievement outcomes that result in differing teacher affect, evaluative feedback, and expectation of future performance. Ninety-seven elementary-school general education teachers (84 women and 13 men) rated their responses to the test failures of hypothetical boys with and without learning disabilities. In most cases, greater reward and less punishment, less anger and more pity, and higher expectations of future failure followed the negative outcomes of the boys with learning disabilities, when compared with their nondisabled ability and effort matches, indicating that learning disability acts as a cause of achievement outcomes in the same way as ability and effort. This pattern of teacher affect and response can send negative messages that are often interpreted as low-ability cues, thus affecting students' self-esteem, sense of competence as learners, and motivation to achieve.

  8. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  9. Metacognitive reading strategies of children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2017-05-15

    to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.

  10. Disability and eLearning: Opportunities and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the current rising rates of online learning in higher education. It examines how disability is activated differently online and the impact of this on learning and teaching through the internet and the accessibility of two of the most popular learning management systems, Blackboard and Moodle, and the different approaches, benefits and problems associated with each system. It then explores the eLearning environment beyond the structure of a LMS to a broader digital campus that includes social networks, video hosting sites and micro blogging, where students and staff are increasingly expanding the learning and social environment in higher education. It also questions the legal and moral responsibilities of universities to make all their online activities accessible to all students, regardless of disability.

  11. Psychopathology of adolescents with an intellectual disability who present to general hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Oreste; McPherson, Lyn; Franklin, Catherine; Tonge, Bruce; Einfeld, Stewart; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disability have increased rates of psychopathology compared with their typically developing peers and present to hospital more frequently for ambulant conditions. The aim of this study is to describe the psychopathology and related characteristics of a sample of adolescents with intellectual disability who presented to general hospital services. We investigated a cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability in South East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and June 2010. Demographic and clinical data were obtained via mailed questionnaires and from general practice notes. Psychopathology was measured with the Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Of 98 individuals presenting to hospital, 71 (72.5%) had significant levels of psychopathology. Unknown aetiology for the intellectual disability was associated with presence of problem behaviours. Adolescents with more severe intellectual disability were more likely to have major problem behaviours. Co-morbid physical health issues were not associated with psychopathology. Only 12 (12.1%) adolescents had undergone specialized mental health intervention. The general hospital environment may offer opportunities for liaison psychiatry services to screen and provide management expertise for adolescent individuals with intellectual disability presenting for physical health issues.

  12. Learning Not to Drink: Adolescents and Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumphauzer, Jerome S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 100 nondrinking adolescents utilizing a behavior analysis questionnaire designed to assess influences on learning not to drink. Results suggest that parents who did not drink had a strong influence. Effective modes of self-control were also discovered; teenagers revealed assertiveness skills in saying "no" to peer pressures. (Author/JAC)

  13. Adolescent Egocentrism in a Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, G.

    2013-01-01

    Imaginary audience, personal fable, and over-estimation of responsibilities are typical characteristics of egocentric behaviour during adolescence. The aim of the research was to establish how these egocentric characteristics manifest themselves in a learning context. An empirical investigation was carried out involving 316 learners from Grade 8…

  14. Perceived support among Iranian mothers of children with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanshahi, Sima Mohammad Khan; Vanaki, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Azadfalah, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of perceived support by Iranian mothers who have children with learning disability. Twelve open interviews with six mothers of learning-disabled children (7-12 years of age) were audiotape-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were transcribed and data were analyzed using Van Manen methodology. Two major themes emerged from 138 thematic sentences. The mothers'experiences could be interpreted as a sense of being in the light or being in the shade of support, with variations for different participants. The results indicate a need for more specialized and individually adjusted support for mothers in Iran.

  15. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  16. Predictors of Obesity in a US Sample of High School Adolescents with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Trabulsi, Jillian C.; Axe, Michelle; Rimmer, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Children with disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity. Objective: We examined factors associated with obesity within a cross-sectional study of US adolescents with and without disabilities. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Logistic…

  17. Let's Talk about Sex: Recommendations for Educating Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to sexual abuse, and are often denied access to sexuality education. Public schools have vague curricula regarding sexuality education for general education students, curricula to which adolescents with developmental disabilities do not have access. The current study sought to determine…

  18. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  19. Social Relationships among Adolescents with Disabilities: Unique and Cumulative Associations with Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Yen K.; Murray, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated linkages between parent, peer, teacher, and mentor relationships and adjustment among adolescents with disabilities. The sample included 228 high school students with disabilities (65% male, 50% White) across four states. Overall findings indicate that students' social relationships were significantly associated…

  20. Fit for life: promoting healthy lifestyles for adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Phill; Hancox, Linda

    People with learning disabilities often experience health inequalities and poorer health than the general population. This article describes the development of an exercise group for people with learning disabilities in North Devon.

  1. The Learning Disabilities Unit at the State College of Optometry/SUNY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.

    1986-01-01

    The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)

  2. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Socioemotional Functioning: A Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Sara S.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)

  3. Everyday memory and working memory in adolescents with mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.; van Luit, J.E.H.; van der Molen, M.W.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the

  4. Effect of a Hippotherapy Intervention Program on Static Balance and Strength in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Arabatzi, Fotini; Dipla, Konstantina; Liga, Maria; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a hippotherapy program on static balance and strength in adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Nineteen adolescents with moderate ID were assigned either an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 9). The experimental group attended a 10-week hippotherapy program. To assess…

  5. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  6. Predictors of Risky Behavior and Offending for Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Melissa N.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) engage in risky behavior and offending. However, little is known on the impact school-related predictors have on engagement in risky behaviors for adolescents with ID. This study analyzed secondary data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to determine levels of engagement in risky…

  7. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Psychiatric Disorders among Adolescent Bedouin with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…

  8. Visual Processing of Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Catherine; Brodeur, Darlene A.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated whether 32 adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) were slower at processing visual information compared to children of comparable age and reading level, or whether their deficit was specific to the written word. Adolescents with RD demonstrated difficulties in processing rapidly presented verbal and nonverbal visual…

  9. Effectiveness of a Computerised Working Memory Training in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Klugkist, I.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special education. Method: A total of 95 adolescents with…

  10. Learning Disabilities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of specific leaning disabilities (SLD in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 was determined in a cohort of 81 patients (43 males, 38 females; mean age 11 years 6 months; age range 8-16 followed at Children's Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

  11. Involving users with learning difficulties in health improvement: lessons from inclusive learning disability research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Jan

    2004-03-01

    In this paper the author considers the lessons to be drawn from what is termed "inclusive" learning disability research for user involvement around health improvement. Inclusive learning disability research refers to research where people with learning difficulties (intellectual disability) are involved as active participants, as opposed to passive subjects. There is by now a considerable body of such research, developed over the past 25 years. From the review, the author draws attention to areas which can inform practice in involvement of users in a way that adds value.

  12. Discussion Paper Social and emotional learning for children with Learning Disability: Implications for inclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cavioni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role of social and emotional learning programmes for children with Learning Disability (LD. The first part of the paper discusses the difficulties students with learning disability may encounter in their education, such as issues related to peer group acceptance, friendship and social isolation, low self-efficacy and self-esteem, and externalized and internalized behavior problems. The relationship between social and emotional learning programmes and learning disability is then discussed, underlining the benefits of social and emotional learning for students with LD. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for universal social and emotional learning as a vehicle for the academic and social inclusion of students with LD.

  13. Big Society? Disabled people with the label of learning disabilities and the queer(y)ing of civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Goodley, Dan; Runswick-Cole, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the shifting landscape of civil society alongside the emergence of ‘Big Society’ in the UK. We do so as we begin a research project Big Society? Disabled people with learning disabilities and Civil Society [Economic and Social Research Council (ES/K004883/1)]; we consider what ‘Big Society’ might mean for the lives of disabled people labelled with learning disabilities (LDs). In the paper, we explore the ways in which the disabled body/mind might be thought of as a locus o...

  14. Adolescents with disabilities participate in the shopping mall: facilitators and barriers framed according to the ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

    2016-10-01

    Community participation is restricted for youth with disabilities. The mall is an important gathering place where adolescents often socialise and develop community living skills, yet participation may be restricted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the facilitators and barriers to participation in a shopping mall through the perspectives of adolescents with disabilities. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 12-19 years with a physical and/or sensory disability. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and coded following a template analysis using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Eleven youth (six females, mean age = 17.0 years) participated. Medical conditions included visual impairment, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital amputations. Six themes were identified by the adolescents: what the shopping mall means to me, physical environment, transportation, social factors, attitudes and the person. The majority of themes mapped to the ICF's 'environmental factors'. Facilitators and barriers identified were either generic or disability-specific, implying that some modifications to shopping malls may be beneficial across disability types. Changes made to the physical, social and attitudinal environment are required to enable full participation of youth with disabilities within a shopping mall and other built environments of high public access. Implications for Rehabilitation The meaning of the shopping mall according to youth with disabilities includes socialisation, shopping, getting out of the home and employment. The majority of themes mapped to 'environmental factors' indicating that most obstacles to participation are caused by environmental barriers. Facilitators and barriers identified were either generic or disability-specific implying that some modifications to shopping malls may be beneficial across disability types

  15. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  16. Working Alongside Older People with a Learning Disability: Informing and Shaping Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…

  17. The Application of a Communication Model to the Problems of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Forslund, Evelyn

    This paper examines the problems of learning disabled children and discusses possibilities for improving their self-concept and attitude toward school. It first notes the suspected link between juvenile delinquency and learning disabilities and suggests that initial efforts to help learning disabled children be directed at the lower-class urban…

  18. A Study of Perceived Admission and Achievement Barriers of Learning-Disabled Students in Postsecondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Catherine Denise

    2012-01-01

    Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…

  19. Systemic Family Therapy Using the Reflecting Team: The Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslow, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…

  20. Handwriting Development in Spanish Children with and without Learning Disabilities: A Graphonomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities.…

  1. Using Photovoice to Include People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…

  2. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  3. The Management'of a Child with a Learning Disability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Diagnostic facilities for children with learning disabilities are essential and can be ... peers and teachers, as well as his recreational opportunities ... Full diagnostic assessments of 57 pupils were .... viour patterns are removal from the stress situation with .... in relation to his peer group in the classroom.

  4. A Narrative Approach to Supporting Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…

  5. Learning Disabilities and the Auditory and Visual Matching Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…

  6. Influencing Memory Performance in Learning Disabled Students through Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen C.; Poteet, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty learning-disabled and 30 nonhandicapped intermediate grade children were assessed on memory performance for stimulus words, which were presented with congruent and noncongruent rhyming words and semantically congruent and noncongruent sentence frames. Both groups performed significantly better on words encoded using deep level congruent…

  7. Growth in Emotional Intelligence. Psychotherapy with a Learning Disabled Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrell, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…

  8. Employment Satisfaction of University Graduates with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Zhao, Jiarong; Ruban, Lilia

    2008-01-01

    Because of its significant impact on overall life satisfaction, employment satisfaction is one marker for determining successful adult outcomes. The present investigation reports the perceptions of employment satisfaction for 500 graduates with learning disabilities from three postsecondary institutions. The graduates reported high levels of…

  9. Anxiety and Self-Concept of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai

    1984-01-01

    One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)

  10. Graphic Organizers for Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Sabrina M.; Filce, Hollie Gabler

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests students with learning disabilities often have trouble connecting new and prior knowledge, distinguishing essential and nonessential information, and applying comprehension strategies (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Vaughn & Edmonds, 2006). Graphic organizers have been suggested as tools educators can use to facilitate critical…

  11. Self-Disclosure Decisions of University Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…

  12. Siblings' Understanding of Learning Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…

  13. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  14. Special Delivery Systems. Self-Esteem Exercises. Learning Disabilities Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Carol

    This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…

  15. Written Narratives of Normal and Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doris J.; Grant, James O.

    1989-01-01

    Writing samples of 295 primary school children improved in productivity, syntax, and level of abstraction from grade one through three. The writing of learning-disabled children who were matched with average reading ability primary-school children indicated no significant differences in productivity, but problems in syntax (especially morphology),…

  16. Academic Achievement and Memory Differences among Specific Learning Disabilities Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading, writing, and math are academic skills involving a number of different executive functions, particularly working memory. Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) may present myriad academic difficulties, depending on their specific area(s) of processing weakness. is study examined differences in academic achievement and working…

  17. Parenting a Child with a Learning Disability: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alcántara, Manuel; Correa-Delgado, Cayetana; Muñoz, Ángela; Salvatierra, María Teresa; Fuentes-Hélices, Tadeo; Laynez-Rubio, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes experiences associated with parenting children diagnosed with learning disabilities. Parents whose children were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, dyslexia/language problems, and Asperger syndrome, related to poor performance at school, took part in the study. A qualitative study design was…

  18. The Actuarial Turn in the Science of Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Scot

    2011-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, Donald Hammill and his colleagues authored three scathing critiques of the two most trusted scientific traditions of learning disability treatment--movement education and psycholinguistic training (Hammill, 1972; Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill, Goodman, & Wiederholt, 1974). These critical reviews of research rejected the older…

  19. Otitis Media and Learning Disabilities: More Than a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Carol; Mandell, Colleen

    The relationship between recurrent otitis media (middle ear infection characterized by the presence of middle ear fluid and possibly leading to a temporary conductive hearing loss) and learning disabilities (LD) is examined. Traditional treatment approaches (antibiotic medication and surgery) are reviewed. The definition of LD is presented and the…

  20. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  1. Implementing CRA with Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Bradley S.; Riccomini, Paul J.; Schneider, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities struggle to acquire essential mathematical concepts and skills, especially at the secondary level. One effective approach to improving secondary math performance supported by research is the concrete-to-representational-to-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction. Although CRA is an evidenced-based instructional…

  2. Ethical challenges in everyday work with adults with learning disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake...

  3. The Management of a Child with a Learning Disability | Machanick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic facilities for children with learning disabilities are essential and can be made available, even in smaller centres. Parents must be made aware of the child's needs, and details of treatment such as medication should be carefully explained to them. The remedial programme must be selected according to the ...

  4. Managing Resistance: An Essential Consulting Skill for Learning Disabilities Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne

    1988-01-01

    The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…

  5. An Exploration of Community Learning Disability Nurses' Therapeutic Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsham, Marian

    2012-01-01

    This literature review and primary qualitative research explores therapeutic role from the perspective of Community Learning Disability Nurses. Semi-structured interviews, based on Critical Incident Technique ("Psychol Bull", 51, 1954, 327), and descriptive phenomenological methodology were adopted to elicit data amenable to systematic…

  6. Verbal Analogical Reasoning in Children with Language-Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Julie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…

  7. University Teaching with a Disability: Student Learnings beyond the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…

  8. Variability of Performance: A "Signature" Characteristic of Learning Disabled Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Douglas; And Others

    Two studies were conducted to compare the performance instability of children (grades 3-9) labeled learning disabled/brain injured (LD/BI) to the performance instability of emotionally handicapped (EH) children. In the first study, 50 LD/BI and 37 EH students were measured on three third grade reading passages twice, once within one sitting and…

  9. Interaction of Neurological and Emotional Factors in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jules C.

    1984-01-01

    The article proposes a dynamic-developmental-interaction approach to individuals with learning disabilities (LD) which addresses the absence of certain fundamental ego skills. Emotional conomitants to LD (such as low frustration tolerance and overcompensation) are noted, and intervention techniques based on the dynamic-developmental interaction…

  10. The Uses of Hypnotherapy with Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…

  11. Designing Online Instruction for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…

  12. Defining Learning Disability: Does IQ Have Anything Significant to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for…

  13. Teachers' Educational Beliefs about Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Andrew James

    2017-01-01

    Past research indicates that teachers' beliefs are influential in their decisions and behaviors in the classroom. Teachers are also influenced by the socioeconomic status of their students. The present study on beliefs and evaluation of knowledge about working with students with learning disabilities included kindergarten through 12th grade…

  14. Ageing and People with Learning Disabilities: In Search of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…

  15. English Learners with Learning Disabilities: What Is the Current State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ashley; Rodríguez, Diane

    2017-01-01

    As the demographics across the United States continues to change, specifically with increases in school age English Learners who speak a home language other than English, it is imperative that schools meet the diverse needs of these children. This article summarizes studies about English Learners with learning disabilities. It reports on the…

  16. The Importance of Romantic Love to People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Claire; Terry, Louise; Popple, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Background: Love is important aspect of life, including to people with learning disabilities both historically and more recently. Participants value the companionship, support and social status associated with a partner. Relationships are considered mechanisms to meet certain needs including feeling loved, company, intimacy and enabling…

  17. Do Multimedia Applications Benefit Learning-Disabled Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2010-01-01

    This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…

  18. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  19. The Young Women's Program: A health and wellness model to empower adolescents with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenakis, Nancy; Goldberg, Judith

    2010-04-01

    This article introduces a comprehensive health and wellness program that serves young women, ages 14 to 21, with physical disabilities. The program is a component of the Initiative for Women with Disabilities (IWD), a hospital-based center serving women with physical disabilities/conditions that offers accessible gynecology, primary care, physical therapy, nutrition consultations, exercise and fitness classes, and wellness and social work services. Recent literature has shown that young women with physical disabilities often face physical and emotional barriers to their own health and wellness. This group of adolescents often has difficulty developing a healthy image of their bodies, especially compared with their able-bodied peers. Unhealthy attitudes regarding the body image and sexuality of those with physical differences are often perpetuated by the media, peers, and parents. People with disabilities have become increasingly able to live fulfilling lives in recent decades. This is due largely to studies that have confirmed that once barriers are addressed and minimized, young women with physical disabilities lead active and productive lives and have much to contribute to society. The goal of the Young Women's Program (YWP), established in 2006, is to help young women adopt healthy lifestyles by exposing them to a carefully planned curriculum. The program provides a variety of classes and workshops, expert instruction, and access to resources and a network of peers and mentors. The ultimate goal is for the participants to apply the concepts learned in the group sessions to identify and evaluate their personal goals and develop health and wellness plans for achieving these goals. Data were obtained from several sources: a self-administered program evaluation, program recruitment and retention statistics, and an assessment of whether individual health and wellness goals were achieved. All of these measures indicate a favorable response to the program structure and

  20. Triadic Moral Learning and Disability Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicester, Mal

    2011-01-01

    Since moral action often requires understanding the nature of justice and the development of empathy and compassion, moral education involves the learner's intellect, emotions and will. The lifelong learning involved is thus multifaceted and plausibly benefits from the integration of personal and political with professional learning. I explore…

  1. The relationship among self-determination, self-concept, and academic achievement for students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunmei; Gaumer Erickson, Amy; Kingston, Neal M; Noonan, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that self-determination skills are positively correlated with factors that have been shown to improve academic achievement, but the direct relationship among self-determination, self-concept, and academic achievement is not fully understood. This study offers an empirical explanation of how self-determination and self-concept affect academic achievement for adolescents with learning disabilities after taking into consideration the covariates of gender, income, and urbanicity. In a nationally representative sample (N = 560), the proposed model closely fit the data, with all proposed path coefficients being statistically significant. The results indicated that there were significant correlations among the three latent variables (i.e., self-determination, self-concept, and academic achievement), with self-determination being a potential predictor of academic achievement for students with learning disabilities. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  2. The ability to maintain postural balance in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and adolescents with typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Adamović Milosav; Stošljević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Falls are common among people with intellectual disabilities. In literature there is a limited number of studies which deal with this problem. The main objective of this research is to analyze the ability to maintain postural balance in adolescents with mild intellectual disability (ID) by comparing it to their peers who do not have ID. The sample included 64 male adolescents, aged 16 to 18, out of which 32 belonged to the experimental group (e-group) and had mild ID, while the control group ...

  3. ICTs and Music in Special Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Τhis study is a critical review of published scientific literature on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, Virtual Reality, multimedia, music and their applications in children with special learning difficulties.  Technology and music are two factors that are recognized as tools which ensure quality of life, success and access to knowledge and learning resources. In the following papers of the last decade (2006-2015 are proposed models of music therapy for students with special learning difficulties in a psycho educational setting. There are also defined future research perspectives concerning the applications of technology in this particular research field.

  4. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: The Past and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities. These changes are (1) the emergence of cognitive science, (2) the development of quantitative and molecular genetics, (3) the advent of noninvasive structural and functional neuroimaging, and (4) experimental trials of interventions focused on improving academic skills and addressing comorbid conditions. Implications for practice indicate a need to move neuropsychological assessment away from a primary focus on systematic, comprehensive assessment of cognitive skills toward more targeted performance-based assessments of academic achievement, comorbid conditions, and intervention response that lead directly to evidence-based treatment plans. Future research will continue to cross disciplinary boundaries to address questions regarding the interaction of neurobiological and contextual variables, the importance of individual differences in treatment response, and an expanded research base on (a) the most severe cases, (b) older people with LDs, and (c) domains of math problem solving, reading comprehension, and written expression. (JINS, 2017, 23, 930-940).

  5. Specific learning disability in mathematics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal; Evans, Teresa; Patel, Dilip R

    2018-01-01

    Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature. Newer directions in behavioral, educational and novel interventions are described.

  6. Neurobehavioral assessment of children and adolescents attending a developmental disabilities clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasić, James Robert; Barnett, Jacqueline Y; Kowalik, S; Tsaltas, Margaret Owen; Ahmad, Raheela

    2004-12-01

    Although the risk of the eventual development of tardive dyskinesia and other persistent adverse effects of neuroleptics is high, among adults with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities, neuroleptics may ameliorate dyskinesias, aggression, and inattention. The effects of traditional neuroleptics on a comparable population of children and adolescents with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities are unknown. The objective of this study was to develop an assessment battery to describe the effects of traditional neuroleptics on the behavior and movements of a small sample of children and adolescents with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities. 13 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years attending a developmental disabilities clinic were evaluated utilizing a Movement Assessment Battery to measure behavior and motions. Five subjects took traditional neuroleptic medications. Trained raters can reliably assess the movements and behaviors of children and adolescents with multiple handicaps. Children and adolescents with developmental disabilities may be vulnerable to experience functional impairment and akathisia, tics, and other dyskinesias when administered traditional neuroleptic medications.

  7. Multiple intelligences and underachievement: lessons from individuals with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, D; Stone, S

    1995-01-01

    The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.

  8. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  9. School Social Workers' Needs in Supporting Adolescents with Disabilities toward Dating and Sexual Health: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Rueda, Heidi; Linton, Kristen F.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2014-01-01

    School social workers approach their direct practice from ecological systems and justice-oriented perspectives. As such, they may hold a critical role in providing needed sexual health and dating education and services to adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen high school social workers who work closely with adolescents with disabilities were…

  10. Jordan-3: measuring visual reversals in children as symptoms of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brian T; Martin, Nancy; Austin, J Sue

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish new norms for the Jordan-3 for children ages 5 to 18 years. The research also investigated the frequency of visual reversals in children previously identified as having reading disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and broader learning disabilities. Participants were regular education students, ages 5 through 18 years, and special education students previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, or broader learning disability. Jordan-3 Accuracy and Error raw scores were compared to assess if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Mean Accuracy and Error scores were compared for males and females. Children with learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had higher reversals when compared to regular education children, which lends continued support to the Jordan-3 as a valid and reliable measure of visual reversals in children and adolescents. This study illustrates the utility of the Jordan-3 when assessing children who may require remediation to reach their academic potential.

  11. Prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability in Mexican adolescent women and their populational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Allen-Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report prevalence of functioning difficulties and disabilities among Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old and identify differences in characteristics of those with and without a functioning difficulty or disability Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used chi square tests for independence and logistic regression to explore associations between this condition and various characteristics. Results. Of Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old, 11.1% had a functioning difficulty or disability. The group of domains of functioning difficulty and disability with by far the highest prevalence was socio-emotional and behavioral functioning difficulties or disability with 8.6%. Being employed, rural residence and self-reported depression symptoms were associated with having functioning difficulties or disability. Conclusions. This survey constitutes an important initial step in collecting data on functioning difficulty and disability in Mexico although larger samples should be studied.

  12. Intraindividual differences in motivation and cognition in students with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintrich, P R; Anderman, E M; Klobucar, C

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that although the students with learning disabilities displayed lower levels of metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension, they did not differ from the students without learning disabilities on self-efficacy, intrinsic orientation, or anxiety. In addition, they did not show any signs of learned helplessness, although they did tend to attribute success and failure to external causes more often than the students without learning disabilities. Using a cluster analysis that grouped individuals, we found that differences in the motivational and cognitive variables cut across a priori categories of children with and without learning disabilities. Three clusters were formed: one with high comprehension, motivation, and metacognition (mostly children without learning disabilities); one with low levels of comprehension and metacognition but high intrinsic motivation (all children with learning disabilities); and one with low intrinsic motivation but average comprehension, metacognition, and attributional style (approximately equal numbers of children with and without learning disabilities). Implications for diagnosis and intervention for students with learning disabilities are discussed.

  13. Meeting the health needs of older people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    The increasing population of older people with learning disabilities may lead to higher demand for contact with registered nurses. To date, little research has been undertaken regarding the role of registered nurses in meeting the health and care needs of this client group. In this article, the author reports on the second stage of a three-stage research study that used six case studies to explore this issue. Implications for nursing were identified in areas such as health needs, record keeping, medication, advocacy, social aspects, ageing in place, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, spirituality and end-of-life care. The author concludes that registered nurses will need to continue to remain up to date to meet the complex needs of older individuals with learning disabilities.

  14. The Fragile X Syndrome: Behavioral Phenotype and Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia GRAU RUBIO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the behavioral phenotype of individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and its impact in the educational scope. This syndrome is characterized by difficulties in sensory integration, cognitive deficits (verbal reasoning, abstract/ visual and cuantitative skills, short term memory, sequential processing, attention and executive processes, language disorders (phonetic-phonologicals, semanticals, morphosyntacticals and pragmaticals and communication disorders, social anxiety, general hyperarousal, autism, non autistic social difficulties, attention deficit and hyperactivity, and learning disabilities. The behavioral phenotype is highly variable and depends on sex, age, and mutation status (full mutation or premutation. The behavioural phenotype has important repercussions in education, as it enables us to understand the learning disabilities and to develop specific intervention strategies.

  15. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  16. Universal Design for Learning: Critical Need Areas for People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Wendy; Arthanat, Sajay; Bauer, Stephen; Flagg, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The primary market research outlined in this paper was conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer to identify critical technology needs for people with learning disabilities. Based on the research conducted, the underlying context of these technology needs is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The paper…

  17. Students with Learning Disabilities in the Foreign Language Learning Environment and the Practice of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Mary Caitlin S.

    2015-01-01

    This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…

  18. Impact of Interactive Online Units on Learning Science among Students with Learning Disabilities and English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71…

  19. Computer-Mediated Intersensory Learning Model for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Kinsell, Carolyn; Poggio, John C.; Meyen, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a computer-mediated intersensory learning model as an alternative to traditional instructional approaches for students with learning disabilities (LDs) in the inclusive classroom. Predominant practices of classroom inclusion today reflect the six principles of zero reject, nondiscriminatory evaluation, appropriate education,…

  20. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning ...

  1. Evaluation of An Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606

  2. Risk Factors of Learning Disabilities in Chinese Children in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN YAO; HAN-RONG WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P<0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.

  3. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain and learning in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Evans, Karen

    2007-01-01

    neurons. For a long time it was assumed that such changes primarily happened in childhood because the brain is already 90 percent of the adult size by the age of six. Today this belief has clearly changed. It is now evident that the brain undergoes significant changes throughout life. In this writing we......, decision-making abilities and development of independence. The ultimate objective will be to consider what implications these developmental changes have for learning, teaching and education. Before we embark on this we will provide some background knowledge on brain development at both the microscopic...

  5. Transition of an adolescent with mild intellectual and developmental disabilities to labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important life decisions one takes as an adolescent is the choice of education and future career.This decision becomes even more difficult when the possibilities of further training are limited as they are in the case of the adolescents finishing school programmes which had been adapted to lower educational standards i.e. for persons with mild intellectual and developmental disabilities.We researched career counselling services in elementary and middle schools and found that...

  6. Prosocial competencies among adolescent siblings of the physically disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Perenc; Mieczysław Radochoński; Anna Radochońska

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study examined possible prosocial benefits of having a disabled sibling. Until now research has mainly focused on the negative effects of having a sibling with a disability. We hypothesized that regular and frequent interactions with a disabled person should result in an increase of positive attitude and empathy toward other people who are in a disadvantageous situation. Participants and procedure A sample of 208 students from public secondary school...

  7. Learning disabilities among extremely preterm children without neurosensory impairment: Comorbidity, neuropsychological profiles and scholastic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Strauss, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Jaekel, Julia; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palminteri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed. Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning. Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence.

  9. The implications of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in male adolescents with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Klein, Neomy; Sohn, Mordechai

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a correlation between social skills and ADHD among adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). The study concerns the specific cognitive and adaptive skills of adolescents dually diagnosed with mild intellectual disabilities and comorbid pathology as ADHD. Three age-and IQ-match groups (males, n = 12 in each group) were investigated. Group I--composed of adolescent diagnosed with mild ID, group II--adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, and group III--adolescents diagnosed with ID and ADHD. The instruments used in the study were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC, according to the chronological age of the subjects) and the short version of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). Results confirm that comorbidity is a factor differentiating. ADHD strongly increased the impairment of social skills, while behavioral disorders were less damaging in ID performance. The WISC and DBC instruments should be used with confidence in clinical and service settings, to allow a better assessment of co-occurrence morbidity in adolescents with ID. The interactions between intellectual disability and psychopathology behavior highlight the need to plan a more accurate diagnosis and appropriate rehabilitative intervention program, essential for improving the quality of life of the ID population.

  10. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Learning Strategies in the Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveja, Marsha E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between perceived parenting styles and urban adolescents' learning and studying strategies. Results revealed that those adolescents who perceived their parents as being authoritative tended to engage in more effective learning and study strategies. Discusses implications for counselors and teachers using this information…

  11. Guitars Have Disabilities: Exploring Guitar Adaptations for an Adolescent with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The guitar has a high value in cultural capital and we are immersed in a culture in which the guitar is the predominant vehicle of music-making. Given the guitar's mass popularity, it follows that the guitar-learning community is vast and diverse. Subscribing to the social model of disability, I problematise the guitar as being disabled and…

  12. Impact of Computer Aided Learning on Children with Specific Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    The Spastic Society Of Karnataka , Bangalore

    2004-01-01

    Study conducted by The Spastics Society of Karnataka on behalf of Azim Premji Foundation to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with specific learning disabilities. Azim Premji Foundation is not liable for any direct or indirect loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use or access of any information, interpretation and conclusions that may be printed in this report.; Study to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with...

  13. Learning Disabilities in Children: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Importance of Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with learning disabilities have significant impairment in reading, writing and mathematics, in spite of normal intelligence and sensory abilities. In reading disability, children will have difficulties in phonemic sensitivity, phonetic decoding, word recognition, word decoding skills and reading comprehension. The lifetime prevalence of learning disability is about 10%. Learning disabilities are more frequently seen in boys compared to girls. There are several risk factors for learning disabilities. Low birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal complications, language delay and epilepsy are important risk factors for learning disabilities in children. Students with learning disabilities have poor scholastic performance, anxiety and significant stress. They have more social, emotional and behavioural problems than those without learning problems. If not remedied at the earliest, learning disabilities will lead to failure in exams and these children may develop stress related disorders. Hence all children with learning problems should be evaluated scientifically at the earliest, for identification of learning disability. By providing scientific guidance and intensive one to one remedial training, learning problems of children can be managed successfully.

  14. Longitudinal models of reading achievement of students with learning disabilities and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L; Kohli, Nidhi; Farnsworth, Elyse M; Sadeh, Shanna; Jones, Leila

    2017-09-01

    Accurate estimation of developmental trajectories can inform instruction and intervention. We compared the fit of linear, quadratic, and piecewise mixed-effects models of reading development among students with learning disabilities relative to their typically developing peers. We drew an analytic sample of 1,990 students from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998, using reading achievement scores from kindergarten through eighth grade to estimate three models of students' reading growth. The piecewise mixed-effects models provided the best functional form of the students' reading trajectories as indicated by model fit indices. Results showed slightly different trajectories between students with learning disabilities and without disabilities, with varying but divergent rates of growth throughout elementary grades, as well as an increasing gap over time. These results highlight the need for additional research on appropriate methods for modeling reading trajectories and the implications for students' response to instruction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The role of learning disability nurses in promoting cervical screening uptake in women with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S

    2014-06-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Jongeneel, Ruud

    2009-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy. People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences. As such, behavioral problems can be seen as a reflection of these traumatic experiences. Among established trauma therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment that is effective in adults and also seems to be effective in children. This article is a case report of EMDR in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability, in whom the EMDR children's protocol was used. The aim was to assess whether clinical trauma status significantly diminished to nonclinical status posttreatment. Change in trauma symptoms was evaluated with the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Results showed a significant decrease in trauma symptoms toward nonclinical status from pretreatment to posttreatment. EMDR consequences for epilepsy and intellectual disability are discussed.

  17. Parental Role and Support for Online Learning of Students with Disabilities: A Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean J.; Burdette, Paula J.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Harvey, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    This study, conducted by researchers at the Center on Online Learning and Students With Disabilities, investigated parent perceptions and experiences regarding fully online learning for their children with disabilities. Results suggest that with the growth in K-12 fully online learning experiences, the parent (or adult member) in students'…

  18. Classification Framework for ICT-Based Learning Technologies for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Marion

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the first systematic approach to the classification of inclusive information and communication technologies (ICT)-based learning technologies and ICT-based learning technologies for disabled people which covers both assistive and general learning technologies, is valid for all disabled people and considers the full range of…

  19. The Effects of Being Diagnosed with a Learning Disability on Children's Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Keith; Donovan, Leslie A.; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2002-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effect of being diagnosed with a learning disability on elementary school children's self-esteem. Findings indicated that self-esteem increased significantly above prediagnosis of a learning disability while self-esteem levels in a control group of children without learning disabilities…

  20. Effects of an Intervention on Math Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…

  1. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  2. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability Have Reduced Postural Balance and Muscle Performance in Trunk and Lower Limbs Compared to Peers without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Sven; Olsson, Josefine; Wallin, Louise; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Borje

    2013-01-01

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched…

  3. Comorbidity of Intellectual Disability and Mental Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Ellis, Louise A.; Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mental disorder and intellectual disability each accounts for substantial burden of disease. However, the extent of this co-occurrence varies substantially between reports. We sought to determine whether studies in children and/or adolescents with acceptably rigorous methods can be distinguished from existing reports, and whether key…

  4. Identity Development of Literacy Teachers of Adolescents with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the theory of identity development and figured worlds to investigate how historical and current education context, preservice and inservice teacher preparation, and school and classroom context influence the development of the literacy teaching identity of teachers of adolescents with significant cognitive disabilities. A…

  5. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  6. Patterns of Obesity among Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Li, Chi-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Background: Obesity and the health problems associated with it have substantial economic consequences for health care systems. Little information is available concerning obesity-related problems among people with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this study were to analyse patterns of obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual…

  7. Provision of educationally related services for children and adolescents with chronic diseases and disabling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic diseases and disabling conditions often need educationally related services. As medical home providers, physicians and other health care professionals can assist children, adolescents, and their families with the complex federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and systems associated with these services. Expanded roles for physicians and other health care professionals in individualized family service plan, individualized education plan, and Section 504 plan development and implementation are recommended. Recent updates to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act will also affect these services. Funding for these services by private and nonprivate sources also continue to affect the availability of these educationally related services. The complex range of federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and systems for special education and related services for children and adolescents in public schools is beyond the scope of this statement. Readers are referred to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "The Pediatrician's Role in Development and Implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)" for additional background materials. The focus of this statement is the role that health care professionals have in determining and managing educationally related services in the school setting. This policy statement is a revision of a previous statement, "Provision of Educationally Related Services for Children and Adolescents With Chronic Diseases and Disabling Conditions," published in February 2000 by the Committee on Children With Disabilities (http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;105/2/448).

  8. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anemia in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…

  9. Effects of Integrated or Segregated Sport Participation on the Physical Self for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…

  10. Measurement properties of questionnaires assessing participation in children and adolescents with a disability: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainey, J.F.M.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; van der Zee, C.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To critically appraise the measurement properties of questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0–18 years) with a disability. Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched for studies evaluating the measurement properties of self-report or parent-report

  11. Universal Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was…

  12. Analysis of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake among Children and Adolescents with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the seasonal influenza vaccination rate and to examine its determinants for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the data on seasonal influenza vaccination rate among 1055 ID individuals between the ages…

  13. New Model of Mapping Difficulties in Solving Analogical Problems among Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Itzhak; Tzuriel, David; Tzemach, Moran

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to map the difficulties and cognitive processes among adolescents (aged 13-21, N = 30) and adults (aged 25-66, N = 30) with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID) when solving analogical problems. The participants were administered the "Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability" test. A…

  14. Effectiveness of a computerised working memory training in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.; van Luit, J.E.H.; van der Molen, M.W.; Klugkist, I.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special

  15. Sexuality and Sex Education of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…

  16. Caring for vulnerable ostomists: learning disabilities and stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michaela

    It is without doubt that people with learning difficulties are considered vulnerable and meeting the healthcare needs of this group in society is now recognised as a challenging task. This case study examines the implications of life with a stoma for one particular man with learning difficulties and reflects on the key issues that have influenced his care: stigma and isolation, general healthcare needs for people with learning disabilities and the association with stoma care, and the provision of care and whose role it is. Key findings include inconsistencies between primary, secondary and social care, resulting in lack of integration and flexibility in provision of care; lack of responsibility for care, with a 'pass the buck' response; lack of knowledge about stoma care in most care settings; and, as a stoma care nurse, the importance of personal instinct, along with persistence in advocating appropriate levels of care for vulnerable ostomists.

  17. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanistreet Debbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities, calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value X2: 24.236; p.value X2: 286.341; p.value Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities.

  18. Challenges faced by parents of children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Clever; Hall, Herna

    2017-01-01

    Parenting children with learning disabilities requires a high level of knowledge and access to resources, information and services. In developing countries, however, these resources and services are not always available. Parents in Namibia, a developing country, therefore face challenges addressing children's learning and other developmental disabilities, including challenges related to preventative and supportive interventions. This research focuses on challenges faced by parents as they parent children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight parents regarding the challenges they face in parenting their children with learning disabilities. Thematic analysis enabled the researchers to identify, analyse and report on themes that emerged from the qualitative interview data. Analysis of the interviews indicated that some participants had only a vague understanding of learning disabilities, as they did not have access to essential knowledge about this phenomenon. They also lacked an awareness of the availability of programmes, services and policies meant to benefit their children with learning disabilities. Participants voiced that they, their children with learning disabilities and community members have stereotypes and prejudices regarding learning disabilities. In this study, most of the children with learning disabilities were raised by single, unemployed parents who seemed to have access to less support from external sources than married couples parenting children with learning disabilities. These single parents are usually not married and because of lack of financial support from the other parent, the majority of them indicated that they struggle to meet the financial and material needs of their children. The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as

  19. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia

  20. Best practice in caring for adults with dementia and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, André; Al-Janabi, Tamara; Houston, Marie; Ridley, James

    2016-10-05

    People with learning disabilities, particularly Down's syndrome, are at increased risk of dementia. At present, services and care tailored to people with both dementia and a learning disability are unsatisfactory. This article reviews the literature specific to dementia in people with learning disabilities, including: comprehensive screening, diagnosis, management, environmental considerations, end of life care and training issues for nursing staff. Recommendations for best practice and service improvement are made to improve the quality of life for individuals with dementia and learning disabilities, pre and post-diagnosis.

  1. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  2. Ethical challenges in everyday work with adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2015-06-01

    Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake. What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? The study had a qualitative and investigative design. The study was conducted in a community institution for adults with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data Services and was approved by the regional ethics committee. Findings are presented in four themes: (a) feeling squeezed between conflicting actions, (b) being the client's spokesman, (c) searching shared responsibility, and (d) expecting immediate and fixed solutions. The healthcare providers wanted to be the clients' advocates. They felt obliged to speak up for the clients, however, seeking for someone with whom to share the heavily experienced responsibility. Data likewise revealed that the group discussions created expectations among the healthcare providers; they expected smart and final solutions to the problems they discussed. The discussion focuses on everyday ethical challenges, the meaning of being in-between and share responsibility, and the meaning of ethical sensitivity. Ethical challenges can be demanding for the staff; they might feel squeezed in-between contradictory attitudes or feel alone in decision-making. Frequent conversations about ethical challenges do not solve the ethical problems here-and-now, but they do visualize them. This also visualizes the staff's need for support. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The impact of menstruation in adolescents with disabilities related to cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret; Savasi, Ingrid; Grover, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    Information regarding menstrual difficulties for adolescents with developmental disabilities and their families is limited. To assess the impact of menstruation on adolescents with developmental disabilities and their families, and to compare this to previously reported experiences of age-matched normal girls. Families of girls aged 12-18 years with known disabilities, attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, were recruited into a questionnaire based study evaluating issues of menstruation and associated problems, together with the consequent psychological, social and emotional impact on their families and carers. Information was sought regarding menstrual management strategies, outcome satisfaction and specific areas of family concern. 103 questionnaires were completed. The average age of participating girls was 15.11 years, mean menarchal age 12.3 years. 79 girls were postmenarchal. The severity of menstrual problems was similar to a normal population. 59 (76%) were happy with the impact of menses on their social activities. More than 50% sought menstrual advice before menarche. Advice seeking strongly correlated with disability severity (p=0.01) and impact of menses on social activities (p=0.01), which in turn were highly predictive of seeking assistance (p=0.005). Carer satisfaction with current management inversely correlated with treatment seeking behaviour (p=0.034). Menstrual characteristics in this population are similar to those without disabilities. There is a high level of parental anxiety regarding the impact of menses, particularly when disability is severe. Medical therapies may be required but information for families is lacking. Clinicians should play a proactive and educational role with families and adolescents with disabilities.

  4. WA10 Working in partnership with people with learning disabilities: academics and people with learning disabilities working together to disseminate the findings of a confidential inquiry into deaths of people with learning disabilities through film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    In England, between 2010-2013, a Confidential Inquiry into premature Deaths of People with Learning Disabilities was commissioned by the Department of Health. This took place in SW England led by Norah Fry Research Centre at Bristol University. Findings from the investigations into 247 deaths included that men with learning disabilities die, on average 13 years sooner and women, on average 20 years sooner, than the general population. Over 1/3 (37%) were found to be avoidable, being amenable to good quality healthcare. A number of key recommendations were made which required understanding by a range of audiences including people with learning disabilities and their carers. This workshop will demonstrate how academics can work with actors with learning disabilities to disseminate research findings about a sensitive subject in a thought provoking and accessible way. Academics worked with the MISFITs theatre company to make a DVD about the findings and recommendations of the Confidential Inquiry. The DVD presents the findings of the Confidential Inquiry through the stories of John, Bill, Karen and Emily. It powerfully illustrates the importance of diagnosing and treating illness of people with learning disabilities in a timely and appropriate manner and highlights the measures that could be taken to reduce premature deaths in this population. The session provides an example of how the voices of people with learning disabilities can communicate research messages effectively to people with learning disabilities, health and social care practitioners and others who support the learning disability population. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. A Child With Learning Disability:A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Sedaie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This case can be placed in a neurologic classification. The patient is a child with learning disability in school activities. He was first referred to an audiological clinic because of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD. His mother has noticed several hearing problems and this led us to the evaluations for his central auditory processing disorder. He has problems in hearing speech in noise and speech processing and need his friends repeat words during communication. no vestibular disorder was noticed nor any localization problem. The child has a good progress in school and only suffered problems in reading tasks. Intelligence quotient(IQ was also normal.

  6. A focus on adolescence to reduce neurological, mental health and substance-use disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan

    2015-11-19

    Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability.

  7. Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities: Part 1--Diagnosing and Solving School Learning Disabilities in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a six part article intended to give parents the information and strategies they need to cope with their child with epilepsy who may have school learning problems. Epilepsy and seizures affect the classroom in unique ways that can make the learning experience especially challenging for some kids. Fortunately, much can be done to give the…

  8. Graduation Prospects of College Students with Specific Learning Disorder and Students with Mental Health Related Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…

  9. Juggling and struggling: a preliminary work-life study of mothers with adolescents who have developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L

    2006-12-01

    A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child reached adolescence. Service cuts were related to the fact that adolescents are expected to be able to care for themselves, despite the fact that for many adolescents with disabilities, this is not possible. The mothers also reported that the preponderance of the responsibility for arranging care for their children was theirs and was not shouldered by their partners. Policy implications are discussed.

  10. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  11. Teacher recommended academic and student engagement strategies for learning disabled students: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Bethel C.

    There has been a push towards the education of students with Learning Disabilities in inclusive educational settings with their non-disabled peers. Zigmond (2003) stated that it is not the placement of students with disabilities in general education setting alone that would guarantee their successes; instead, the strategies teachers use to ensure that these children are being engaged and learning will enable them become successful. Despite the fact that there are several bodies of research on effective teaching of students with learning disabilities, special education teachers continue to have difficulties concerning the appropriate strategies for promoting student engagement and improving learning for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings (Zigmond, 2003). This qualitative study interviewed and collected data from fifteen high performing special education teachers who were employed in a Southern state elementary school district to uncover the strategies they have found useful in their attempts to promote student engagement and attempts to improve student achievement for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings. The study uncovered strategies for promoting engagement and improving learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive classrooms. The findings showed that in order to actually reach the students with learning disabilities, special education teachers must go the extra miles by building rapport with the school communities, possess good classroom management skills, and become student advocates.

  12. Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.

  13. [Family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Bastos, Olga Maria

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with different categories of disabilities in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional observational study based on application of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale in a sample of 270 parents or guardians. Prevalence was 83.7% for psychological aggression and 84.4% for physical maltreatment, while 96.5% of the children and adolescents with disabilities that suffered physical punishment were also victims of psychological aggression (p < 0.01) and 100% of those who suffered severe physical maltreatment also suffered psychological aggression (p = 0.01). Children and adolescents with disabilities showed increased risk of suffering family violence compared to those without disabilities. In conclusion, there is a need for greater awareness-raising and training of health teams for detection and notification of child abuse, and efforts should be made to support these families.

  14. Frontostriatal development and probabilistic reinforcement learning during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Galván, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence has traditionally been viewed as a period of vulnerability to increased risk-taking and adverse outcomes, which have been linked to neurobiological maturation of the frontostriatal reward system. However, growing research on the role of developmental changes in the adolescent frontostriatal system in facilitating learning will provide a more nuanced view of adolescence. In this review, we discuss the implications of existing research on this topic for learning during adolescence, and suggest that the very neural changes that render adolescents vulnerable to social pressure and risky decision making may also stand to play a role in scaffolding the ability to learn from rewards and from performance-related feedback. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennox Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs. The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP, a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population

  16. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs). The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP), a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population include ensuring potential

  17. Disability, social functioning and school inclusion among older children and adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukuni, Ruramayi; McHugh, Grace; Majonga, Edith; Kranzer, Katharina; Mujuru, Hilda; Munyati, Shungu; Nathoo, Kusum; Gregson, Celia L; Kuper, Hannah; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of long-standing HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6- to 16-year-olds in Zimbabwe. HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public-sector HIV clinic and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, social functioning and disability data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between HIV status and disability and functioning. We recruited 202 HIV-infected and 285 HIV-uninfected children. There was no difference in age and gender between the two groups, but a higher proportion of HIV-infected children were orphaned. The prevalence of any disability was higher in HIV-infected than uninfected children (37.6% vs. 18.5%, P disability to those with HIV but no disabilities. Children with HIV commonly experience disabilities, and this is associated with social and educational exclusion. Rehabilitation and support services are needed to facilitate educational attainment and social participation in this group. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Disability, technology and e-learning: challenging conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them (Abascal et al., 2004; Chisholm & Brewer, 2005; Gunderson & May, 2005; Paolucci, 2004; Reed et al., 2004; Slatin, 2005. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not (Seale, 2006. The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working. In thinking about how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, practitioners will need to develop their own tools. These tools might be user case studies, evaluation methodologies or conceptualizations:

  19. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  20. Screening for learning disabilities in young adult career counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasler, Jon; Fawcett, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The Strengths and Weaknesses Academic Profile (SWAP) was constructed in Israel in response to the local need of career counselors for a valid, reliable, comprehensive, parsimonious, and computerized screening device for identifying those likely to be at risk of learning disabilities (LD). The method chosen was self-report. A set of cognitive items was written and divided into seven scales: reading, writing, attention and memory, computation, English as a foreign language (EFL), study skills, and self-image. The screening tool was validated on a research sample in Sheffield, UK, based on comparison of the results obtained from the screening with the results of standardized diagnosis of learning disabilities administered to the respondents. The questionnaire was administered to 39 students, half of them diagnosed for dyslexia and half tested and found to be free of dyslexia. Results indicate that SWAP is a reliable and valid questionnaire, with a classification power of approximately 90%. The questionnaire is now widely used in Israel, where an Internet site has been constructed to administer the questionnaire and provide immediate and direct results.

  1. University students with learning disabilities advocating for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roer-Strier, D

    2002-11-20

    In recent decades Western psychology has conceptualized learning disabilities (LD) in terms of deficits and such related 'social emotional issues' as insecurity, low self-esteem and social isolation that can be rehabilitated through combined remedial teaching and psychological intervention. With increasing advocacy and legislation on behalf of people with disabilities in the US, UK and Australia, more resources are being made available to students with LD in institutions of higher education. Due to this increase in the quantity of services, written programmes and accommodations made to their needs, increased numbers of students with LD have been graduating successfully from institutions of higher education. This paper describes an option for treating students with LD that is based on a theoretical perspective that understands these students as an excluded population and emphasizes the importance of their empowerment. A project involving social work students with LD at Hebrew University in Jerusalem is presented as a case study. Case-study investigation, one of the common methods of qualitative research, explores social and human problems in their natural context. A 6-year evaluation of this project was conducted based on questionnaires, focus groups, documentation of all activities related to the project, in-depth interviews and outcome measures. The results suggest that the project developed in three stages: raising awareness, building partnerships, and lobbying for rights and services. Outcome measures indicate that the project was successful in lowering dropout rates and improving students' academic achievement. Analysis of interviews with students suggests that the project positively affected the students' perceptions by helping them reframe the social and emotional connotations of their learning disability. Students reported marked social and emotional change, including reduced stress and anxiety levels and increased self-esteem. Empowerment practices that are

  2. Psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive community settings: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mpofu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study should enable inclusive communities’ policy-makers and researchers to better understand the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive communities.

  3. From Disabled Students to Disabled Brains: The Medicalizing Power of Rhetorical Images in the Israeli Learning Disabilities Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchergin, Ofer

    2017-09-01

    The neurocentric worldview that identifies the essence of the human being with the material brain has become a central paradigm in current academic discourse. Israeli researchers also seek to understand educational principles and processes via neuroscientific models. On this background, the article uncovers the central role that visual brain images play in the learning-disabilities field in Israel. It examines the place brain images have in the professional imagination of didactic-diagnosticians as well as their influence on the diagnosticians' clinical attitudes. It relies on two theoretical fields: sociology and anthropology of the body and sociology of neuromedical knowledge. The research consists of three methodologies: ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews, and rhetorical analysis of visual and verbal texts. It uncovers the various rhetorical and ideological functions of brain images in the field. It also charts the repertoire of rhetorical devices which are utilized to strengthen the neuroreducionist messages contained in the images.

  4. Spinal and Limb Abnormalities in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im; Leu, Yii-Rong; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    There are not many studies pertaining to the spinal or limb abnormalities in people with intellectual disabilities, without a clear profile of these deformities of them, efforts to understand its characters and improve their quality of life will be impossible. Therefore, this paper aims to describe the prevalence and related factors of spinal and…

  5. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  6. The Impact of Cognitive Assessment on the Identity of People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…

  7. Placement and Achievement of Urban Hispanic Middle Schoolers with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…

  8. "My Memory's Back!" Inclusive Learning Disability Research Using Ethics, Oral History and Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…

  9. Blind Evaluation of Body Reflexes and Motor Skills in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freides, David; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Twelve 6 to 10 year old boys with learning disability were blindly compared with paired controls on measures of postural and equilibrium reflexes as well as skills. Learning disabled children as a group showed significant deficits on all measures; a few, however, were totally without deficit. (Author/SBH)

  10. Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donna Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success. Donna Elizabeth Williams, 2011: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Abraham S. Fischler School of Education. ERIC Descriptors: Learning Disabilities, Community Based Instruction, Academic Advising, Career Counseling, Career Planning. This…

  11. Raising end of life care issues for patients with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-11-30

    This qualitative study explored the views of three learning disability nurses, and three district nurses, caring for people with learning disabilities at the end of their lives. Although they saw some good practice, the nurses identified several difficulties associated with end of life care.

  12. The "Double-Bind of Dependency": Early Relationships in Men with Learning Disabilities in Secure Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Kelly; Wood, Harry; Beail, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Although the development of secure attachments has been shown to be more problematic for people with learning disabilities, there is a shortage of research into the attachment experience of people with learning disabilities who have broken the law. The present study used thematic analysis to explore the attachment experiences of 10 men with…

  13. A New Approach for the Quantitative Evaluation of Drawings in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Stella, Giacomo; Caiazzo, Giorgia; Norveti, Federica; Onnis, Francesca; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    A new method for a quantitative and objective description of drawing and for the quantification of drawing ability in children with learning disabilities (LD) is hereby presented. Twenty-four normally developing children (N) (age 10.6 [plus or minus] 0.5) and 18 children with learning disabilities (LD) (age 10.3 [plus or minus] 2.4) took part to…

  14. Impact of Chess Training on Mathematics Performance and Concentration Ability of Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Markus; Niesch, Harald; Steffen, Olaf; Ernst, Baerbel; Loeffler, Markus; Witruk, Evelin; Schwarz, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of chess in mathematics lessons for children with learning disabilities based on lower intelligence (IQ 70-85). School classes of four German schools for children with learning disabilities were randomly assigned to receive one hour of chess lesson instead of one hour of regular mathematics lessons…

  15. Experiences of Two Multidisciplinary Team Members of Systemic Consultations in a Community Learning Disability Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clair; Viljoen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Systemic approaches can be useful in working with people with learning disabilities and their network. The evidence base for these approaches within the field of learning disabilities, however, is currently limited. Materials and Methods: This article presents part of a service evaluation of systemic consultations in a Community…

  16. Classroom Behavior and Family Climate in Students with Learning Disabilities and Hyperactive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka; Almougy, Katrina

    1991-01-01

    Questioning of teachers and mothers of 84 Israeli students (ages 7-10) classified as either hyperactive, learning disabled, both, or neither, found higher distractibility and hostility among hyperactive children whose families were also reported as less supportive. Learning-disabled students were characterized by dependent interpersonal relations…

  17. WISC-R Subtest Pattern Stability and Learning Disabilities: A Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealor, David J.; Abrams, Pamela F.

    Profile analysis was performed on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores of 29 learning disabled students (6-10 years old) in a Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) program, to determine whether subtest patterns for initial and re-evaluation WISC-R administrations would differ significantly. Profile analysis was applied…

  18. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  19. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  20. Using Contact Work in Interactions with Adults with Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sharon; Paterson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a project about using contact work with people with learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorder. People with learning disabilities and additional autistic spectrum disorder are at risk of becoming socially isolated because of their difficulties in interacting with others. Contact work is a form of Pre-Therapy, which…

  1. How Would Blackstone Teach Today's Law Students with Learning Disabilities?: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Suzanne J.

    2007-01-01

    Although Sir William Blackstone would not have known if he had been lecturing to students with learning disabilities, today's law professors are. Law schools are legally required to accommodate students with learning disabilities unless the requested accommodation would alter the fundamental nature of the program. Courts give great deference to…

  2. Barriers to Learning Online Experienced by Students with a Mental Health Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Dean; Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Online education is widely regarded as increasing accessibility to higher education to individuals with disadvantage and disability, including those with a mental health disability. However, the learning challenges these students experience within the online learning environment are not well understood. The purpose of this qualitative case study…

  3. The Effects of Stimulus Presentation Rate on the Short-Term Memory of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Sara G.; Ellsworth, Patricia S.

    To test the hypothesis that the developmental lag in verbal rehearsal which has been documented for the learning disabled is due to a naming speed deficit (i.e., slow retrieval of stimulus names), the serial recall performance of 64 learning disabled children at four grade levels (1, 3, 5, and 7) was compared under three stimulus presentation…

  4. Noncognitive characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities: An in-depth systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification

  5. Comparison of Visual-Spatial Performance Strategy Training in Children with Turner Syndrome and Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen females with Turner syndrome, 13 females with nonverbal learning disabilities, and 14 males with nonverbal learning disabilities, ages 7-14, were taught via a cognitive behavioral modification approach to verbally mediate a spatial matching task. All three groups showed significant task improvement after the training, with no significant…

  6. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  7. Effects of an Intervention on Math Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Vivian D.

    2012-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. Using the theoretical framework of behaviorism, the purpose of this quantitative one group pre post test design…

  8. A Resource Manual for Community College Faculty to Support Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Laura

    2013-01-01

    According to the 23rd Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, one out of every five people in the United States has a learning disability (LD). The dropout rate among these students is high, and students with learning disabilities are also less likely to attend 4-year colleges and universities. Although a majority of students with…

  9. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  10. Loaded Pistols: The Interplay of Social Intervention and Anti-Aesthetic Tradition in Learning Disabled Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the aesthetics of applied performance with people with learning disabilities. Focusing on the integrated punk band Heavy Load, it explores how the aesthetic structure reconstructs notions of learning disability and intervenes in its social experience. It argues that this is facilitated through the punk form which positions…

  11. Evaluation and Effectiveness of Pain Recognition and Management Training for Staff Working in Learning Disability Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ellen; Dodd, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Following Beacroft & Dodd's (2009) audit of pain recognition and management within learning disability services in Surrey, it was recommended that learning disability services should receive training in pain recognition and management. Two hundred and seventy-five services were invited to participate, of which 197 services in Surrey accepted…

  12. In Business: Developing the Self Employment Option for People with Learning Disabilities. Programme Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Keith

    2009-01-01

    People with learning disabilities have talents and skills, but rarely do they get the chance to start their own business. In Business was designed to challenge this and to make self employment a realistic option for some by setting out to support and capture the journey to business for people with a learning disability and those who support them.…

  13. Moving On: Transitions out of Care for Young People with Learning Disabilities in England and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Helen; Ingold, Anne; Liabo, Kristin; Manzotti, Grazia; Reeves, David; Bradby, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Background: Young people with learning disabilities are frequently underrepresented in research accounts. This study describes the experiences of young people moving from the care system. Methods: We scoped the English and Swedish literature for first-hand accounts and interviewed four young people with learning disabilities leaving the English…

  14. The use of observation on patients who self-harm: Lessons from a learning disability service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thomas Sandy

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Observation is a useful practice in in-patient learning disability services, which can be used to prevent or reduce the incidence of self-harm in these settings. This approach should therefore be an integral part of nurses' daily therapeutic activities in in-patient learning disability services.

  15. Exposure Therapy for Fear of Spiders in an Adult with Learning Disabilities: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A.; Walz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-base for exposure therapy in people with learning disabilities experiencing specific phobias is sparse. This case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of spider phobia in a woman with learning disabilities using an exposure-based intervention augmented with mindfulness practice and bereavement work. To evaluate…

  16. Looking Backward to Look Forward: Reflections of Past Presidents of the Council for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Apryl L.

    2018-01-01

    Anniversaries offer a time for reflection, celebration, validation, and sometimes, simply a candid conversation on the current state of a field. In the field of learning disabilities, anniversaries offer a time to consider how far the field has come and just how far is left to go to understand what a learning disability is. Definitional…

  17. Sharing Power with Parents: Improving Educational Decision Making for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J.; Cavendish, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    In this closing commentary to the special edition of "Learning Disability Quarterly" ("LDQ") on parent voice in educational decision making for students with learning disabilities, we briefly survey main topics from each article, illuminating important findings from the authors, along with several questions they raise, and…

  18. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  19. How Do People with Learning Disabilities Experience and Make Sense of the Ageing Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…

  20. Adults with Learning Disabilities Experiences of Using Community Dental Services: Service User and Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn; Poole, Helen; Brennan, Michelle; Irvine, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Background: The government alongside other health and social care organisation have identified the need to improve the care provided for people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: This service evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities and their carers who accessed community dental services…

  1. A Phenomenological Study of the Online Education Experiences of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murders, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    The body of research concerning college students with learning disabilities is sparse relative to the percentage of college students with learning disabilities who attend college. Further, the majority of existing research fails to capture the student voice and the lived experiences of the students themselves. The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Active Adult Lives for Persons with Learning Disabilities--The Perspectives of Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Kittelsaa, Anna M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Living active adult lives is both a value and a right, but the right to do so is associated with restrictions among adults with learning disabilities. This research aimed to capture professionals' understanding and perception of active adult living for people with learning disabilities living in clustered housing in a Norwegian…

  3. Non-cognitive characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities : An in-depth systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification

  4. Transforming Identities through Transforming Care: How People with Learning Disabilities Experience Moving out of Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Annabel; Ellis-Caird, Helen; Rhodes, Louisa; Parkinson, Kathie

    2018-01-01

    Background: People with learning disabilities are moving out of hospitals as part of the Transforming Care programme, although thus far their views on how they have experienced this have not been researched. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design was used to explore how people with learning disabilities experienced moving as part of…

  5. Punishing the Vulnerable: Exploring Suspension Rates for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobbey, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities are suspended at disproportionate rates in schools. Although research has shown the ineffectiveness of suspension as a disciplinary tool, school administrators continue to use it to combat behavior infractions. This column presents a review of the literature on suspension for students with learning disabilities,…

  6. Comparing Three Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Models for the Identification of Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.; Jones, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) models have been proposed as a method for identifying specific learning disabilities. Three PSW models were examined for their ability to predict expert identified specific learning disabilities cases. The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model (DD/C; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) as operationalized by…

  7. The Conundrum of Training and Capacity Building for People with Learning Disabilities Doing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Chapman, Rohhss; Seale, Jane; Tilley, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study explores the training involved when people with learning disabilities take their place in the community as researchers. This was a theme in a recent UK seminar series where a network of researchers explored pushing the boundaries of participatory research. Method: Academics, researchers with learning disabilities, supporters…

  8. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  9. Healthcare for Men and Women with Learning Disabilities: Understanding Inequalities in Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Marcus; Banks, Carys; Foody, Karen; Holland, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare for men and women with learning disabilities (known internationally as intellectual disabilities) has risen up the political agenda in the United Kingdom, propelled by a report from the charity Mencap. This report has resulted in renewed efforts, set out in "Valuing People Now", to ensure that people with learning disabilities…

  10. From diminished men to conditionally masculine: sexuality and Australian men and adolescent boys with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Parmenter, Trevor R; Stancliffe, Roger J; Shuttleworth, Russell P

    2013-01-01

    Men and boys with intellectual disability represent a unique group who have hitherto been overlooked by researchers and theorists exploring men and masculinities. Qualitative data from an Australian ethnographic study focused on the sexual health needs of men and adolescent boys with moderate to profound intellectual disability. Findings suggest that masculinity for this group of men is more a biopsychosocial phenomenon than a social construct organised around heteronormative ideals. The conditional masculinity of the men participating in the study was based instead on a number of intrinsic and external factors, which are described in detail.

  11. Adolescents' struggles with swallowing tablets: barriers, strategies and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Tulinius, Ditte; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    To explore adolescents' struggles with taking oral medications. Copenhagen, Denmark. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 89 adolescents (33 boys, 56 girls) between the ages of 11 and 20. Adolescents were recruited through four public schools. To identify struggles with taking oral medication, interview transcripts were systematically searched for statements including the terms swallow, chew, crush and eat. Thematic analysis of the identified statements was carried out to reveal dominant themes in the adolescents' accounts. Over one-third of the adolescents spontaneously provided accounts of the difficulties they experienced with taking oral medications, especially with swallowing tablets. Three themes were dominant in their narratives: barriers, strategies and learning. Barriers experienced by the adolescents involved the medications' properties, e.g. taste. Adolescents developed strategies to overcome these barriers, e.g. crushing tablets. Via a process of learning-by-doing and the acquisition of increased experience and autonomy, many adolescents mastered the skill of swallowing tablets. Many adolescents experienced barriers in their attempts to swallow tablets. They developed various strategies to overcome these barriers and gradually mastered taking medicines in a learning-by-doing process.

  12. Impact of interactive online units on learning science among students with learning disabilities and English learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71 teachers across 13 schools in two states indicated that online units effectively deepened science knowledge across all three student groups. Comparing all treatment and control students on pretest-to-posttest improvement on standards-based content-specific assessments, there were statistically significant mean differences (17% improvement treatment vs. 6% control; p English learner status, indicating that these two groups performed similarly to their peers; students with learning disabilities had significantly lower assessment scores overall. Teachers and students were moderately satisfied with the units.

  13. Special ways of knowing in science: expansive learning opportunities with bilingual children with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    The field of bilingual special education is currently plagued with contradictions resulting in a serious underrepresentation of emergent bilinguals with learning disabilities in professional science fields. This underrepresentation is due in large part to the fact that educational systems around the world are inadequately prepared to address the educational needs of these children; this inadequacy is rooted in a lack of understanding of the linguistic and cultural factors impacting learning. Accepting such a premise and assuming that children learn in unexpected ways when instructional practices attend to culture and language, this study documents a place-based learning experience integrating geoscience and literacy in a fourth-grade dual language classroom. Data sources include transcribed audio-taped conversations from learning experience sessions and interviews that took place as six focus children, who had been identified as having specific learning disabilities, read published science texts (i.e. texts unaltered linguistically or conceptually to meet the needs of the readers). My analysis revealed that participants generated responses that were often unexpected if solely analyzed from those Western scientific perspectives traditionally valued in school contexts. However, these responses were also full of purposeful and rich understandings that revealed opportunities for expansive learning. Adopting a cultural historical activity theory perspective, instructional tools such as texts, visuals, and questions were found to act as mediators impacting the learning in both activity systems: (a) teacher- researcher learning from children, and (b) children learning from teachers. I conclude by suggesting that there is a need to understand students' ways of knowing to their full complexity, and to deliberately recognize teachers as learners, researchers, and means to expansive learning patterns that span beyond traditional learning boundaries.

  14. Developing Programmes to Promote Participation in Sport among Adolescents with Disabilities: Perceptions Expressed by a Group of South African Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…

  15. Friendship Quality in Adolescents with and without an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Leigh A.; Christensen, Lisa; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: High friendship quality is often defined by high levels of intimacy, companionship, closeness and low levels of conflict. Quality friendships develop over time and may be influenced by both behaviour problems and social skills. Materials and methods: Participants were 103, 13-year-old adolescents with or without intellectual…

  16. Career and Technical Education, Inclusion, and Postsecondary Outcomes for Students With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Roddy J; Goldhaber, Dan D; Gratz, Trevor M; Holden, Kristian L

    2018-05-01

    We used longitudinal data from Washington State to investigate the relationships among career and technical education (CTE) enrollment, inclusion in general education, and high school and postsecondary outcomes for students with learning disabilities. We replicated earlier findings that students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a "concentration" of CTE courses had higher rates of employment after graduation than observably similar students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in fewer CTE courses. We also found that students with learning disabilities who spent more time in general education classrooms in high school had higher rates of on-time graduation, college attendance, and employment than observably similar students with learning disabilities who spent less time in general education classrooms in these grades.

  17. Developing a service improvement initiative for people with learning disabilities in hospice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springall, Fiona

    2018-03-21

    People with learning disabilities are often marginalised in healthcare, including in hospice settings, and as a result may not receive effective end of life care. Research in hospice settings has identified that many staff lack confidence, skills and knowledge in caring for people with learning disabilities, which can have a negative effect on the care these individuals receive. To address these issues, the author has proposed a service improvement initiative, which she developed as part of her learning disability nursing degree programme. This proposed initiative aimed to enhance end of life care for people with learning disabilities through the implementation of a community learning disability link nurse in the hospice setting. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  18. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  19. Weight-based nutritional diagnosis of Mexican children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Sanchez, Rodrigo; de la Luz Gomez-Aguilar, Maria; Haua, Karime; Rozada, Guadalupe

    2012-07-04

    Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Data from the first visit's clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the Teleton Center for Children Rehabilitation, between 1999 and 2008, were analyzed. Sex, age, weight and height, length or segmental length data were collected and used to obtain the nutritional diagnosis based on international growth charts, as well as disability-specific charts. Weight for height was considered the main indicator. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and Down's syndrome. Children with cerebral palsy showed a higher risk of presenting low weight/undernutrition (LW/UN) than children with other disabilities, which was three times higher in females. In contrast, children with spina bifida, particularly males, were more likely to be overweight/obese (OW/OB), especially after the age of 6 and even more after 11. Patients with muscular dystrophy showed a significantly lower risk of LW/UN than patients with other disabilities. In patients with Down's syndrome neither LW/UN nor OW/OB were different between age and sex. This is the first study that provides evidence of the nutritional situation of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities in Mexico, based on their weight status. Low weight and obesity affect a large number of these patients due to their disability, age and sex. Early nutritional diagnosis must be considered an essential component in the treatment of these patients to prevent obesity and malnutrition, and improve their quality of life.

  20. All black swans? : showcasing three U.S. postsecondary institution's disability support services for students with learning disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Travis A.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the disability support service (DSS) office designs at three varying U.S. postsecondary institutions and their relationship to the experiences of students with a learning disability. The three postsecondary institutions represent a community college, a medium sized university and a large research university all-residing in a single bellwether state. Selection of the cases and postsecondary institutions was carefully done in order to investig...

  1. Sexual learning, sexual experience, and healthy adolescent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The overall objective is to consider how adolescents become sexually functional and healthy and to provide a conceptual basis for expansion of sexual learning to better support healthy sexual functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Happiness of Male Adolescents With Disabled Physical Mobility: Benefits of Mental Rehabilitation Based on Positive Thinking Skills Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostami

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: Positive thinking skills training can increase the happiness scores of adolescents with disabled physical mobility. Thus, we can say that method used in this study can be appropriate for psycho-educational interventions and counseling of physical mobility disabled male students. 

  3. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from…

  4. Subjective health complaints and exposure to peer victimization among disabled and non-disabled adolescents: A population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridh, Maria; Köhler, Marie; Modén, Birgit; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2018-03-01

    To investigate subjective health complaints (SHCs) (psychological and somatic, respectively) among disabled and non-disabled adolescents, focusing on the impact of traditional bullying and cyber harassment, and furthermore to report psychological and somatic SHCs across different types of disability. Data from the public health survey of children and adolescents in Scania, Sweden, 2012 was used. A questionnaire was answered anonymously in school by 9791 students in the 9th grade (response rate 83%), and 7533 of these with valid answers on key questions were included in this study. Associations with daily SHCs were investigated by multi-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Any disability was reported by 24.1% of boys and 22.0% of girls. Disabled students were more exposed to cyber harassment (boys: 20.0%; girls: 28.2%) than non-disabled peers (boys: 11.8%; girls: 18.1%). Exposure to traditional bullying showed the same pattern but with a lower prevalence. Disabled students had around doubled odds of both daily psychological SHCs and daily somatic SHCs in the fully adjusted models. In general, the odds increased with exposure to cyber harassment or traditional bullying and the highest odds were seen among disabled students exposed to both cyber harassment and traditional bullying. Students with ADHD/ADD had the highest odds of daily psychological SHCs as well as exposure to traditional bullying across six disability types. Disabled adolescents report poorer health and are more exposed to both traditional bullying and cyber harassment. This public health issue needs more attention in schools and in society in general.

  5. The ability to maintain postural balance in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and adolescents with typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Milosav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are common among people with intellectual disabilities. In literature there is a limited number of studies which deal with this problem. The main objective of this research is to analyze the ability to maintain postural balance in adolescents with mild intellectual disability (ID by comparing it to their peers who do not have ID. The sample included 64 male adolescents, aged 16 to 18, out of which 32 belonged to the experimental group (e-group and had mild ID, while the control group (c-group consisted of 32 adolescents of typical population. The ability to maintain postural balance in both groups was tested by using three tests: Expanded Timed Up and Go Test (ETUGT, Modified Functional Reach Test (M-FRT and One-leg Stance (OLS. The research was conducted in the period from 2008 to 2010 in 'Petar Leković' Secondary School, Belgrade (Serbia, as well as in the Institution for people with special needs 'Caritas' in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results show that the use of ETUG test showed a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of time needed for the completion of the test, while on the M-FR test the participants from e-group achieved significantly lower results than the c-group. The OLS test showed that the participants of both groups completed the test equally well on both legs when not blindfolded, while the experimental group achieved significantly lower results on both legs when blindfolded. The results suggest that adolescents with ID achieve lower results on most of the applied postural balance tests when compared to typical adolescent population.

  6. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971

  7. Self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in connection with social factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dolar Borštnar, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis is to analyse common self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in mental development and social factors that influence its formation. We used questionnaire as an instrument with which we investigated the following fields: self -contentment, social and intellectual status, anxiety, popularity and physical appearance. We have also analysed the connection between recognized general and academic self-image and reached educational achievement at th...

  8. Thinking Ahead: Improving Support for People with Learning Disabilities and Their Families to Plan for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…

  9. The Role of Parenting for the Adjustment of Children with and without Learning Disabilities: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkauskiene, Rasa

    2009-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used to examine the role of parenting in the associations between single learning disabilities and multiple learning disabilities and the adjustment difficulties in 8-11-year-olds. The results revealed that multiple, but not single, learning disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in emotional and…

  10. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  11. Piracetam: Its Possible Mode of Action in Children with Learning Disabilities and Its Effect on "in vitro" Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, R.; Bester, M. J.; da Silva, A.; Motsoane, N. A.; Marx, J.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of pharmaceutical products such as Piracetam (Nootropil[R]) for the treatment of learning disabilities is becoming increasingly prevalent, and some studies have shown successful treatment of learning disabilities in children. This research article will discuss traditional uses of Piracetam, as well as uses in learning disabilities, with…

  12. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  13. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  14. Qualities in Friendship--Within an Outside Perspective--Definitions Expressed by Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined how adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities define qualities of friendship and discussed the extent to which these definitions adhere to established definitions of close friendship. Materials and Methods: The study was based on qualitative interviews with 11 adolescents in secondary school. The interviews…

  15. Examining the Experiences of a Short Break Scheme amongst Adolescents with Disabilities (Service Users) and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruin, Elizabeth; Abbott, Nicola; Holt, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Globally, families who care for a child or adolescent with disabilities have been found to experience high levels of maternal ill health, stress, depression and family breakdown. In extreme cases, children and adolescents may have to move away from their family to a permanent residential placement. A potentially more appropriate and cost-effective…

  16. Early Foundations for Mathematics Learning and Their Relations to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.

  17. Effectiveness of a computerised working memory training in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M J; Van Luit, J E H; Van der Molen, M W; Klugkist, I; Jongmans, M J

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special education. A total of 95 adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities were randomly assigned to either a training adaptive to each child's progress in WM, a non-adaptive WM training, or to a control group. Verbal short-term memory (STM) improved significantly from pre- to post-testing in the group who received the adaptive training compared with the control group. The beneficial effect on verbal STM was maintained at follow-up and other effects became clear at that time as well. Both the adaptive and non-adaptive WM training led to higher scores at follow-up than at post-intervention on visual STM, arithmetic and story recall compared with the control condition. In addition, the non-adaptive training group showed a significant increase in visuo-spatial WM capacity. The current study provides the first demonstration that WM can be effectively trained in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.

  18. Evaluation of motor development in children with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Medina-Papst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether children with learning disabilities present any impairment in the components of motor development. Thirty children (21 boys and 9 girls, aged 8 to 10 years, with learning difficulties in school were studied. The Motor Development Scale was used to evaluate the development of the children in terms of fine motor control, gross motor control, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, and temporal organization. A deficit in the development of the body scheme component was observed for all three age groups, as well as a delayed motor development in terms of balance and gross motor control. No significant differences in general motor age were observed between (age groups. In conclusion, the children studied, especially older ones, presented motor deficits in most of the components evaluated. The inclusion of tasks that assist in the development of motor components, in addition to regular school tasks, is recommended to improve the process of learning in these children..

  19. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys eOrraca-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  20. [Specific learning disabilities - from DSM-IV to DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-09-01

    The publication of the DSM-5 means changes in the classification and recommendations for diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia and dyscalculia have been reintroduced into the DSM. Three specific learning disorders - impairment in reading, impairment in the written expression, and impairment in mathematics, described by subskills - are now part of the DSM-5. Three subcomponents of the reading disorder are expressly differentiated: word reading accuracy, reading rate, and fluency and reading comprehension. Impaired subskills of the specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression are spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, and clarity and organization of written expression. Four subskills are found in the mathematics disorder: number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation, and accurate math reasoning. Each impaired academic domain and subskill should be recorded. A description of the severity degree was also included. The diagnosis is based on a variety of methods, including medical history, clinical interview, school report, teacher evaluation, rating scales, and psychometric tests. The IQ discrepancy criterion was abandoned, though that of age or class discrepancy criterion was retained. The application of a discrepancy is recommended by 1 to 2.5 SD. All three specific developmental disorders are common (prevalence 5 %-15 %), occur early during the first years of formal schooling, and persist into adulthood.

  1. The 4C framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Daniel; Giles, Rachel

    2017-01-18

    Background People with learning disabilities experience significant inequalities in accessing healthcare. Legal frameworks, such as the Equality Act 2010, are intended to reduce such disparities in care, and require organisations to make 'reasonable adjustments' for people with disabilities, including learning disabilities. However, reasonable adjustments are often not clearly defined or adequately implemented in clinical practice. Aim To examine and synthesise the challenges in caring for people with learning disabilities to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. This framework would assist ward staff in identifying and managing the challenges of delivering person-centred, safe and effective healthcare to people with learning disabilities in this setting. Method Fourth-generation evaluation, collaborative thematic analysis, reflection and a secondary analysis were used to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments in the hospital setting. The authors attended ward manager and matron group meetings to collect their claims, concerns and issues, then conducted a collaborative thematic analysis with the group members to identify the main themes. Findings Four main themes were identified from the ward manager and matron group meetings: communication, choice-making, collaboration and coordination. These were used to develop the 4C framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. Discussion The 4C framework has provided a basis for delivering person-centred care for people with learning disabilities. It has been used to inform training needs analyses, develop audit tools to review delivery of care that is adjusted appropriately to the individual patient; and to develop competencies for learning disability champions. The most significant benefit of the 4C framework has been in helping to evaluate and resolve practice-based scenarios. Conclusion Use of

  2. Learning of grammar-like visual sequences by adults with and without language-learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jessica M; Plante, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. In Study 1, adults with normal language (NL) or language-learning disability (LLD) were familiarized with the visual artificial grammar and then tested using items that conformed or deviated from the grammar. In Study 2, a 2nd sample of adults with NL and LLD were presented auditory word pairs with weak semantic associations (e.g., groom + clean) along with the visual learning task. Participants were instructed to attend to visual sequences and to ignore the auditory stimuli. Incidental encoding of these words would indicate reduced attention to the primary task. In Studies 1 and 2, both groups demonstrated learning and generalization of the artificial grammar. In Study 2, neither the NL nor the LLD group appeared to encode the words presented during the learning phase. The results argue against a general deficit in statistical learning for individuals with LLD and demonstrate that both NL and LLD learners can ignore extraneous auditory stimuli during visual learning.

  3. Learning disabilities in neuromuscular disorders: a springboard for adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrea, Guja; Battini, Roberta; Lenzi, Sara; Frosini, Silvia; Bonetti, Silvia; Moretti, Elena; Perazza, Silvia; Santorelli, Filippo M; Pecini, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Although the presence of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy or myotonic dystrophy DM1 is well established in view of brain-specific expression of affected muscle proteins, in other neuromuscular disorders, such as congenital myopathies and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, cognitive profiles are poorly defined. Also, there are limited characterization of the cognitive profile of children with congenital muscular dystrophies, notwithstanding the presence of cerebral abnormality in some forms, and in spinal muscular atrophies, with the exception of distal spinal muscular atrophy (such as the DYN1CH1- associated form). Starting from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which may be considered a kind of paradigm for the co-occurrence of learning disabilities in the contest of a progressive muscular involvement, the findings of neuropsychological (or cognitive) dysfunctions in several forms of neuromuscular diseases will be examined and reviewed.

  4. Adaptations and accommodations: The use of the WAIS III with people with a Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, George; Wright, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Evidence of significant impairment in cognitive functioning has always been one of the main criteria of a learning disability (Pulsifer, 1996) and intellectual assessment is, therefore, one of the tasks of clinical psychologists working within learning disability services. Such assessments are commonly used to help establish of an individual’s cognitive strengths and weaknesses, support needs and more specifically, to help determine if an individual falls within the remit of learning disabili...

  5. Social Skills Training for Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities: A School-Based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D; Ford, W Blake; Radley, Keith C; Helbig, Kate A; Wimberly, Joy K

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often demonstrate impairments in social functioning, with deficits becoming more apparent during adolescence. This study evaluated the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a program that combines behavioral skills training and video modeling to teach target social skills, on accurate demonstration of three target social skills in adolescents with ID. Skills taught in the present study include Expressing Wants and Needs, Conversation, and Turn Taking. Four adolescents with ID participated in a 3-week social skills intervention, with the intervention occurring twice per week. A multiple baseline across skills design was used to determine the effect of the intervention on social skill accuracy in both a training and generalization setting. All participants demonstrated substantial improvements in skill accuracy in both settings, with teacher ratings of social functioning further suggesting generalization of social skills to nontraining settings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. How to Support Children with Mathematical Learning Disabilities Learning to Play an Instrument?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Desoete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, children with a mathematical learning disability (=14 and age-matched peers without learning disabilities (=14 as well as their parents and teachers were interviewed on how they experienced playing an instrument (guitar, drum, flute, violin, trombone, horn, and piano and on what helped them using a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings. Thematic analyses mentioned intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as important. Some children with MLD were found to have a real musical talent and a very good musical ear and memory for sounds. However, all children with MLD seemed more dependent on the aid of parents, sibling, peers, and teachers. They had to study harder and needed more time to study, more practice, and a more structured approach.

  7. 'It's got so politically correct now': parents' talk about empowering individuals with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Co-researching with people with learning disabilities: an experience of involvement in qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Butler, Gary

    2010-06-01

    People with learning disabilities have been included in research as co-researchers since the 1990s. However, there is limited literature about the processes of involving people with learning disabilities in the more intellectual and analytical stages of the research process. To examine the potential contribution of people with learning disabilities to data analysis in qualitative research. This article is a reflection on one research experience. The two authors include one researcher with and one without learning disabilities. They each describe their experience and understanding of user involvement in analysing the data of an ethnographic study of people with learning disabilities who had cancer. The researcher with learning disabilities was given extensive vignettes and extracts from the research field notes, and was supported to extract themes, which were cross-compared with the analysis of other members of the research team. The researcher with learning disabilities coped well with the emotive content of the data and with the additional support provided, he was able to extract themes that added validity to the overall analysis. His contribution complemented those of the other members of the research team. There were unexpected benefits, in particular, in terms of a more reciprocal and supportive relationship between the two researchers. It is possible and valuable to extend involvement to data analysis, but to avoid tokenism and maintain academic rigour, there must be a clear rationale for such involvement. Extra support, time and costs must be planned for.

  9. Effect of coping with stress training on the social adjustment of students with learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifolah Khodadadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning disability includes wide range of educational problems which treating these problems need child's social, emotional and behavior treatment. As prevalence of learning disabilities among children and their difficulties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coping with stress training on social adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The statistical population consists of all boy student with learning disabilities in learning disabilities center, in which 34 students were selected by convenience sampling. The social adjustment questionnaire was used. The experimental group had coping strategies training in 9 sessions for 90 minutes every week. Covariance analysis was used to compare the scores. The results showed that there was significant difference in pretest and posttest of experimental group. The findings also indicated that coping strategies training increased social adjustment, affective and educational adjustments of experimental group in comparison of control group. Appropriate strategies can be used for dealing with stress in students with learning disabilities. Coping training can be used as supplemental program in schools and centers of learning disabilities to improve the adjustment problems of these students.

  10. Perceptions of Social Support among Male and Female Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer Short

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has recognized the significant relationship between perceived social support and resiliency in children and adolescents without disabilities, but less is known about the perceptions of social support among youth with disabilities. Available research suggests that students with disabilities report lower levels of social support…

  11. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Access to oral health care services among adults with learning disabilities: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Mustafa; Shah, Altaf H; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Gulzar, Shabnam; AlJameel, AlBandary H; Khalil, Hesham S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Using the Arksey O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justified the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. The concept of access for people with disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet.

  13. A Demonstration of Helping Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability Climb Ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Hoe Anthony; Varahan, Jayashree Lakshmi; Loh, Peng Loong Daniel; Tan, Sey Ing

    2011-01-01

    A research team at a vocational school in Singapore, catering mainly to students between the ages of 17-21 with mild intellectual disability, studied how to best address the challenge of enabling students to learn how to climb ladders (a skill necessary at many job placements). They documented the approach used and suggested extrapolations and…

  14. Making reasonable and achievable adjustments: the contributions of learning disability liaison nurses in 'Getting it right' for people with learning disabilities receiving general hospitals care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Juliet; Brown, Michael; McKechanie, Andrew; Mack, Siobhan; Hayes, Matthew; Fletcher, Joan

    2015-07-01

    To examine the role of learning disability liaison nurses in facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments to support access to general hospital services for people with learning disabilities. Mixed methods study involving four health boards in Scotland with established Learning Disability Liaison Nurses (LDLN) Services. Quantitative data of all liaison nursing referrals over 18 months and qualitative data collected from stakeholders with experience of using the liaison services within the previous 3-6 months. Six liaison nurses collected quantitative data of 323 referrals and activity between September 2008-March 2010. Interviews and focus groups were held with 85 participants included adults with learning disabilities (n = 5), carers (n = 16), primary care (n = 39), general hospital (n = 19) and liaison nurses (n = 6). Facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments was an important element of the LDLNs' role and focussed on access to information; adjustments to care; appropriate environment of care; ensuring equitable care; identifying patient need; meeting patient needs; and specialist tools/resources. Ensuring that reasonable adjustments are made in the general hospital setting promotes person-centred care and equal health outcomes for people with a learning disability. This view accords with 'Getting it right' charter produced by the UK Charity Mencap which argues that healthcare professionals need support, encouragement and guidance to make reasonable adjustments for this group. LDLNs have an important and increasing role to play in advising on and establishing adjustments that are both reasonable and achievable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Technology and Communications Coursework: Facilitating the Progression of Students with Learning Disabilities through High School Science and Math Coursework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara; Callahan, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Students identified with learning disabilities experience markedly lower levels of science and mathematics achievement than students who are not identified with a learning disability. Seemingly compounding their disadvantage, students with learning disabilities also complete more credits in non-core coursework-traditionally considered non-academic coursework-than students who are not identified with a learning disability. The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a large national dataset with both regular and special education high school students, is utilized to determine whether credit accumulation in certain types of non-core coursework, such as Technology and Communications courses, is associated with improved science and math course-taking outcomes for students with learning disabilities. Results show that credit accumulation in Technology and Communications coursework uniquely benefits the science course-taking, and comparably benefits the math course-taking, of students identified with learning disabilities in contrast to students who are not identified with a learning disability.

  16. Cognitive and affective empathy among adolescent siblings of children with a physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Pęczkowski, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    This study is a continuation of research on possible psychosocial benefits resulting from exposure to sibling with disability present in the family system. The issue seems to be especially important in Poland because of growing number of children with a disability and inconsistent results of previously performed studies. The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in the intensity of cognitive and affective empathy in adolescents who either have or do not have siblings with physical disability. The authors hypothesized that the increased exposure to individual with disability should result in positive attitude towards such people and this tendency should be manifested in elevated empathy and compassion. The study was carried out between September and November 2016. To meet the goals set to the study, a sample of 292 students from public middle and high schools were assessed using self-report demographic questionnaire and measure of empathy (IRI). The participants were between 13 and 19 years old. Among them 128 had a disabled sibling (Group T) and 164 constituted a comparative group (Group C). Interpretation of results is based on descriptive statistics. Participants having a disabled sibling showed significantly higher scores related both to cognitive and affective empathy. Some significant differences were also noted in relation to participants' gender and age. Exposure to individuals with physical disability in family context may facilitate development of positive psychosocial traits including elevated empathy and compassion in nondisabled siblings. Data analysis also showed significantly greater empathic and altruistic tendencies in females that in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability

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    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping with their child′s condition. Aim : To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Settings and Design : Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test or unpaired student′s t-test was applied wherever applicable. Results : The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (±SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0, 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (±SD 4.75, range 0-21, mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (±SD 3.11, range 0-13, and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (±SD 2.05, range 0-10. Their common worries were related to child′s poor school performance (95%, child′s future (90%, child′s behavior (51%, and visits to our clinic (31%. Conclusion : Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  18. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, S; Kumbhare, N; Kulkarni, M; Shah, N

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD) undergo stress in coping with their child's condition. To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls) with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A) and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Chi-square test or unpaired student's t-test was applied wherever applicable. The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (+/-SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0), 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (+/-SD 4.75, range 0-21), mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (+/-SD 3.11, range 0-13), and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (+/-SD 2.05, range 0-10). Their common worries were related to child's poor school performance (95%), child's future (90%), child's behavior (51%), and visits to our clinic (31%). Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  19. Note-Taking Skills of Middle School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…

  20. Learning and Skills: Opportunities or Threats for Disabled Learners? FEDA Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    Challenges will be created by proposed changes to post-school education and training for people with learning difficulties and disabilities. Two important bills have been proposed. The Learning and Skills Bill (LSB) changes the whole architecture of the post-school education and training sector. LSB sets up the Learning and Skills Council (LSC)…

  1. Note-Taking and Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    As more secondary students with learning disabilities (LD) enroll in advanced content-area classes and are expected to pass state exams, they are faced with the challenge of mastering difficult concepts and abstract vocabulary while learning content. Once in these classes, students must learn from lectures that move at a quick pace, record…

  2. Examining Teaching Based on Errors in Mathematics Amongst Pupils with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    Teaching mathematics while learning from students' mistakes, errors and misconceptions, is most important for meaningful learning. This study was based on intervention programs prepared by preservice teachers. It aimed to examine their knowledge of assessment of errors in mathematics amongst pupils with learning disabilities, and their use as a…

  3. Flashcards and Guided Visual Vocabulary Practice: Experiences of Students with Learning Disabilities When Introduced to Concrete Spanish Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Joshua B. L.; Lazarus, Belinda Davis; Killu, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Successful inclusion of students with learning disabilities in foreign language courses has been problematic, likely due to factors such as heightened anxiety and individualized learning challenges which are characteristic of those with learning disabilities. These learning characteristics often necessitate that multisensory strategies be employed…

  4. Augmentative and alternative communication in adolescents with severe intellectual disability: a clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliano, D; Falciglia, G; Del Viscio, C; Picelli, A; Gandolfi, M; Passarella, A

    2010-06-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication devices proved to be effective in patients with severe intellectual disability to overcome their communication impairments. In order to give a contribution for design of augmentative and alternative communication systems that better meet the needs of beginning communicators we decided to report our clinical experience about using augmentative and alternative communication in adolescents with severe intellectual disability. Five patients who underwent a long time traditional speech rehabilitation program (at least 5 years) with scant improvements in linguistic function were recruited and evaluated by means of the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale before and after a three years augmentative and alternative communication intervention carried out by a multidisciplinary team. After the rehabilitative intervention patients showed an improvement in communication, daily living skills and socialization as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. Augmentative and alternative communication is an effective rehabilitation approach to people with severe intellectual disability and impairments in linguistic expression. Moreover augmentative and alternative communication is a useful tool allowing these patients to increase their social participation also enhancing their self-esteem. Our clinical experience confirmed these topics also in adolescents who underwent a long time traditional speech rehabilitation program with scant improvements, providing practical information to clinicians.

  5. Extracurricular Activities and the Development of Social Skills in Children with Intellectual and Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…

  6. WISC-R Scatter and Patterns in Three Types of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Turbey, Carolyn B.

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest scatter and Bannatyne recategorization scores were investigated with three types of learning disabilities in children 6 to 16 years old: visual-motor and visual-perceptual disability (N=66); auditory-perceptual and receptive language deficit (N=18); and memory deficit (N=12). Three…

  7. The Legal Meaning of Specific Learning Disability for IDEA Eligibility: The Latest Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    Specific learning disability (SLD), although moderately declining in recent years, continues to be the largest of the eligibility classifications under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; NCES, 2012). The recognition of response to intervention (RTI) in the 2004 amendments of the IDEA as an approach for identifying students with…

  8. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Environment and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…

  9. Accountability: The Ethics of Devising a Practice-as-Research Performance with Learning-Disabled Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Fran

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the dilemmas encountered by non-disabled performance researchers and practitioners working with learning-disabled people. I demonstrate how the "accounts" of empirical social scientists informed my PARIP [practice-as-research-in-performance] project, "BluYesBlu," and how Judith Butler's reformulation of the concept of…

  10. Training School Psychologists to Identify Specific Learning Disabilities: A Content Analysis of Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Courtenay A.; Cottrell, Joseph M.; Newman, Daniel S.; Pierce, Benjamin G.; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 2.4 million children receive special education services for specific learning disabilities (SLDs), and school psychologists are key contributors to the SLD eligibility decision-making process. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) enabled local education agencies to use response to intervention (RTI) instead of the…

  11. Using Video Modeling and Video Prompting to Teach Core Academic Content to Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Edwards, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners are constantly searching for evidence-based practices that are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). Video modeling (VM) and video prompting have become popular instructional interventions for many students across a wide range of different disability classifications, including those with…

  12. How Can I Help My Students with Learning Disabilities in Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia

    2016-01-01

    Learning Disabilities in Mathematics (LDM) or dyscalculia are a frequent and disruptive problem within schools. Nevertheless, this problem has received little attention from researchers and practitioners, if compared with the number of studies published on disabilities in reading. Therefore, teachers do not have enough guidance to help children…

  13. Understanding the Social Exclusion and Stalled Welfare of Citizens with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the UK's recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non-disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental…

  14. Taking Action toward Inclusion: Organizational Change and the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Museum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…

  15. A Review of Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence rate of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) among children with fragile X syndrome who do not meet criteria for intellectual and developmental disabilities ([approximately equal to] 50% of female children) exceeds the rate reported in the general population. The purpose of this article is two-fold: (1) to review the findings on…

  16. Measurement properties of questionnaires assessing participation in children and adolescents with a disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Linda; van Nispen, Ruth; van der Zee, Carlijn; van Rens, Ger

    2014-12-01

    To critically appraise the measurement properties of questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies evaluating the measurement properties of self-report or parent-report questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. The methodological quality of the included studies and the results of the measurement properties were evaluated using a checklist developed on consensus-based standards. The search strategy identified 3,977 unique publications, of which 22 were selected; these articles evaluated the development and measurement properties of eight different questionnaires. The Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation was evaluated most extensively, generally showing moderate positive results on content validity, internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. The remaining questionnaires also demonstrated positive results. However, at least 50 % of the measurement properties per questionnaire were not (or only poorly) assessed. Studies of high methodological quality, using modern statistical methods, are needed to accurately assess the measurement properties of currently available questionnaires. Moreover, consensus is required on the definition of the construct 'participation' to determine content validity and to enable meaningful interpretation of outcomes.

  17. Increasing positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities through community service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A

    2017-10-01

    Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What Should Dental Services for People with Disabilities in Ireland Be Like? Agreed Priorities from a Focus Group of People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Dougall, Alison; Stapleton, Siobhan; McGeown, Danielle; Nunn, June; Guerin, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ireland, people with learning disabilities have poor oral health. This is in part due to inappropriate oral health services. Recognising the value of inclusive approaches to research and healthcare planning, this study sought to include a group of people with learning disabilities in priority setting for oral health services in…

  19. Exploring the lived experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila

    Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are living longer and dying of age related illnesses such as cancer. To explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. The study used participant observation with 13 people with learning disabilities. All had a cancer diagnosis and 10 were terminally ill. Participants were visited regularly at home and in other settings, including hospitals. The main themes were: dependent lives; deprived lives; truth telling and understanding; the importance of families; inexperienced carers and unprepared services; and resilience. To understand the experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer, it is important to understand their previous life experiences and key relationships. Healthcare professionals who treat people with respect, dignity and openness can make a positive difference to their care.

  20. End-of-life training for paid carers working with people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann

    2014-04-01

    People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.