Toosi, Tahereh; K Tousi, Ehsan; Esteky, Hossein
Time is an inseparable component of every physical event that we perceive, yet it is not clear how the brain processes time or how the neuronal representation of time affects our perception of events. Here we asked subjects to perform a visual discrimination task while we changed the temporal context in which the stimuli were presented. We collected electroencephalography (EEG) signals in two temporal contexts. In predictable blocks stimuli were presented after a constant delay relative to a visual cue, and in unpredictable blocks stimuli were presented after variable delays relative to the visual cue. Four subsecond delays of 83, 150, 400, and 800 ms were used in the predictable and unpredictable blocks. We observed that predictability modulated the power of prestimulus alpha oscillations in the parieto-occipital sites: alpha power increased in the 300-ms window before stimulus onset in the predictable blocks compared with the unpredictable blocks. This modulation only occurred in the longest delay period, 800 ms, in which predictability also improved the behavioral performance of the subjects. Moreover, learning the temporal context shaped the prestimulus alpha power: modulation of prestimulus alpha power grew during the predictable block and correlated with performance enhancement. These results suggest that the brain is able to learn the subsecond temporal context of stimuli and use this to enhance sensory processing. Furthermore, the neural correlate of this temporal prediction is reflected in the alpha oscillations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is not well understood how the uncertainty in the timing of an external event affects its processing, particularly at subsecond scales. Here we demonstrate how a predictable timing scheme improves visual processing. We found that learning the predictable scheme gradually shaped the prestimulus alpha power. These findings indicate that the human brain is able to extract implicit subsecond patterns in the temporal context of
Keiding, Tina Bering
This article offers a re-description of the concept of learning context. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann and Gregory Bateson it suggests an alternative to situated, social learning and activity theory. The conclusion is that learning context designates an individual's reconstruction of the environment...... through contingent handling of differences and that the individual emerge as learning through the actual construction. Selection of differences is influenced by the learner's actual knowledge, the nature of the environment and the current horizon of meaning in which the current adaptive perspective...... becomes a significant factor. The re-description contributes to didaktik through renewed understandings of participants' background in teaching and learning....
Lemon, Adrienne; Pinet, Mélanie
Capturing unintended impacts has been a persistent struggle in all fields of international development, and the field of peacebuilding is no exception. However, because peacebuilding focuses on relationships in complex contexts, the field of peacebuilding has, by necessity, made efforts towards finding practical ways to reflect upon both the intended and unintended effects of this work. To explore what lessons can be learned from the peacebuilding field, this study examines the evaluations of Search for Common Ground, a peacebuilding organisation working in over 35 countries across the world. Analysis focuses on 96 evaluations completed between 2013 and 2016 in 24 countries across Africa, Asia, and the MENA regions that found unintended effects. Programmes focusing on women, youth, and radio were most effective at identifying and explaining unintended effects, likely because the project design guided broader lines of questioning from the beginning. The paper argues that OECD-DAC guidelines are not enough on their own to guide evaluators into exploration of unintended effects, and teams instead need to work together to decide where, when and how they will look for them. Different approaches were also used to capture positive and negative outcomes, suggesting that evaluators need to decide at what level they are evaluating and how to tie effects back to the project's contribution. This study explores evaluation techniques and approaches used to understand impact in complex contexts in the peacebuilding field, and draws on lessons learned for the benefit of other fields dealing with similar complexities in international development and cooperation among actors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Middleton, Michael; Dupuis, Juliann; Tang, Judy
Many rural indigenous communities rely on science knowledge and innovation for survival and economic advancement, which requires community members to be motivated for learning science. Children in these communities have been viewed by some as unmotivated due to their low science achievement as they progress in school, particularly into majority…
of lifelong learning policy. Early development of public primary education and popular adult education has provided a strong foundation for lifelong learning policy in Denmark while in Portugal not only institutional provision but also popular demand for lifelong learning has had to be built up relatively......This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies...... have significant common elements. As a basis for the discussion an inventory of policy elements is presented. Denmark and Portugal have been chosen as examples of smaller EU member states with different historical, social and cultural characteristics. Developments and policies in the two countries...
Full Text Available A key challenge in many reinforcement learning problems is delayed rewards, which can significantly slow down learning. Although reward shaping has previously been introduced to accelerate learning by bootstrapping an agent with additional...
Carlucci, Lorenzo; Case, John
A U-shaped curve in a cognitive-developmental trajectory refers to a three-step process: good performance followed by bad performance followed by good performance once again. U-shaped curves have been observed in a wide variety of cognitive-developmental and learning contexts. U-shaped learning seems to contradict the idea that learning is a monotonic, cumulative process and thus constitutes a challenge for competing theories of cognitive development and learning. U-shaped behavior in language learning (in particular in learning English past tense) has become a central topic in the Cognitive Science debate about learning models. Antagonist models (e.g., connectionism versus nativism) are often judged on their ability of modeling or accounting for U-shaped behavior. The prior literature is mostly occupied with explaining how U-shaped behavior occurs. Instead, we are interested in the necessity of this kind of apparently inefficient strategy. We present and discuss a body of results in the abstract mathematical setting of (extensions of) Gold-style computational learning theory addressing a mathematically precise version of the following question: Are there learning tasks that require U-shaped behavior? All notions considered are learning in the limit from positive data. We present results about the necessity of U-shaped learning in classical models of learning as well as in models with bounds on the memory of the learner. The pattern emerges that, for parameterized, cognitively relevant learning criteria, beyond very few initial parameter values, U-shapes are necessary for full learning power! We discuss the possible relevance of the above results for the Cognitive Science debate about learning models as well as directions for future research. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio
Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.
Specht, Marcus; Kravcik, Milos
Learning objects and content interchange standards provide new possibilities for e-learning. Nevertheless the content often lacks context data to find appropriate use for adaptive learning on demand and personalized learning experiences. In the Remotely Accessible Field Trips (RAFT) project mobile authoring of learning content in context has shown…
Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip
As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…
Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo
Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…
Learning techniques can be applied to help information retrieval systems adapt to users' specific needs. They can be used to learn from user searches to improve subsequent searches. This paper describes the approach taken to learn about particular users' contexts in order to improve document ranking produced by a probabilistic information retrieval system. The approach is based on the argument that there is a pattern in user queries in that they tend to remain within a particular context over...
in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....
Gleerup, Janne; Heilesen, Simon; Helms, Niels Henrik
-service training, relate to one another. This chapter is an account of an experiment in designing for net-based vocational learning with the aim of providing a coupling between widely different learning contexts. The actual design process used is based on a recently developed method for user-driven innovation...
Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Ryberg, Thomas
This paper further develops the notion of distinguishing between Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Design, and considering Persuasive Design a meta-perspective which may be applied to more established design traditions as an ethics and context-oriented perspective. The paper addresses a challe...
Boyle, Tom; Ravenscroft, Andrew
Conceptual clarification is essential if we are to establish a stable and deep discipline of technology enhanced learning. The technology is alluring; this can distract from deep design in a surface rush to exploit the affordances of the new technology. We need a basis for design, and a conceptual unit of organization, that are applicable across…
Monroy, Claire; Meyer, Marlene; Gerson, Sarah; Hunnius, Sabine
Sensitivity to the regularities and structure contained within sequential, goal-directed actions is an important building block for generating expectations about the actions we observe. Until now, research on statistical learning for actions has solely focused on individual action sequences, but many actions in daily life involve multiple actors in various interaction contexts. The current study is the first to investigate the role of statistical learning in tracking regularities between actions performed by different actors, and whether the social context characterizing their interaction influences learning. That is, are observers more likely to track regularities across actors if they are perceived as acting jointly as opposed to in parallel? We tested adults and toddlers to explore whether social context guides statistical learning and-if so-whether it does so from early in development. In a between-subjects eye-tracking experiment, participants were primed with a social context cue between two actors who either shared a goal of playing together ('Joint' condition) or stated the intention to act alone ('Parallel' condition). In subsequent videos, the actors performed sequential actions in which, for certain action pairs, the first actor's action reliably predicted the second actor's action. We analyzed predictive eye movements to upcoming actions as a measure of learning, and found that both adults and toddlers learned the statistical regularities across actors when their actions caused an effect. Further, adults with high statistical learning performance were sensitive to social context: those who observed actors with a shared goal were more likely to correctly predict upcoming actions. In contrast, there was no effect of social context in the toddler group, regardless of learning performance. These findings shed light on how adults and toddlers perceive statistical regularities across actors depending on the nature of the observed social situation and the
Explanations play an important role in learning and inference. People often learn by seeking explanations, and they assess the viability of hypotheses by considering how well they explain the data. An emerging body of work reveals that both children and adults have strong and systematic intuitions about what constitutes a good explanation, and that these explanatory preferences have a systematic impact on explanation-based processes. In particular, people favor explanations that are simple and broad, with the consequence that engaging in explanation can shape learning and inference by leading people to seek patterns and favor hypotheses that support broad and simple explanations. Given the prevalence of explanation in everyday cognition, understanding explanation is therefore crucial to understanding learning and inference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gleerup, Janne; Heilesen, Simon; Helms, Niels Henrik
In the case discussed in this chapter, involving the training of electrician apprentices at a Danish vocational college, many of the apprentices have difficulties understanding how the two modes of learning, i.e. formal learning at the college and the more informal learning through the in......-service training, relate to one another. This chapter is an account of an experiment in designing for net-based vocational learning with the aim of providing a coupling between widely different learning contexts. The actual design process used is based on a recently developed method for user-driven innovation......, the “quadrant model”, involving apprentices, teachers and masters and journeymen from companies as active and equal cocreators of new pedagogical designs. The final outcome has been three designs for networked learning. They facilitate communication between apprentice and apprentice, college and apprentice...
Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard
This paper addresses the challenge of teaching and learning in a blended, collaborative Digital Context. It reports on a case study in which the promotion of learners empowerment and meta-learning are key objectives. The findings of the case study suggest the presence of a promising potential...... in a marriage between theory-led designs, digital technology, and dialogic collaborative knowledge building for cultivating and enhancing student empowerment....
Singh, D.; Sardina, S.; Padgham, L.; Airiau, S.; van der Hoek, W.; Kaminka, G.A.; Lespérance, Y.; Luck, M.; Sen, S.
An important drawback to the popular Belief, Desire, and Intentions (BDI) paradigm is that such systems include no element of learning from experience. In particular, the so-called context conditions of plans, on which the whole model relies for plan selection, are restricted to be boolean formulas
Imaginary audience, personal fable, and over-estimation of responsibilities are typical characteristics of egocentric behaviour during adolescence. The aim of the research was to establish how these egocentric characteristics manifest themselves in a learning context. An empirical investigation was carried out involving 316 learners from Grade 8…
Our purpose in the research was to explore the experiences of educators in ordinary schools regarding the challenges experienced in inclusive learning contexts and to identify the competencies they used to deal with some of these challenges. A qualitative research design was chosen, using a case study. The study was ...
In this workshop you’ll become familiar with two examples of how technology can support learning experiences that go beyond, but still connect to, the school context. The first example, called Elena, is for primary schools. The second example, called weSPOT, is for secondary schools. The Elena
Fergusson, J. A.; Oliver, C. A.
A Virtual Field Trip project has been developed in collaboration with NASA Learning Technologies to allow students, internationally, to accompany scientists on a field trip to the Pilbara region of Western Australia to debate the relevance of ancient structures called stromatolites, to the origins of life on Earth and the search for life on Mars. The project was planned with the aim of exposing high school students to `science in the making', including exposure to the ongoing debate and uncertainties involved in scientific research. The development of the project stemmed from both research-based and anecdotal evidence that current science education programs are not providing secondary students with a good understanding of the processes of science. This study seeks to examine the effectiveness of student use of the tools to increase awareness of the processes of science and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tools in terms of student learning. The literature reports that there is a need for learning activities to be conducted within meaningful contexts. The virtual field trip tools create an environment that simulates key elements in the scientific process. Such an approach allows students to learn by doing, to work like scientists and apply their learning in an authentic context.
Tortorella, Richard A. W.; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing
Today people learn in many diverse locations and contexts, beyond the confines of classical brick and mortar classrooms. This trend is ever increasing, progressing hand-in-hand with the progress of technology. Context-aware learning systems are systems which adapt to the learner's context, providing tailored learning for a particular learning…
Marques, Maria A.; Viegas, Maria C.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Janssen, José; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; Conde, Miguel Á.; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.
Marques, M. A., Viegas, M. C., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Janssen, J., Waszkiewicz, E., Conde González, M. Á., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2013). Managing Informal Learning in professional contexts: the learner's perspective. In F. J. García-Peñalvo, M. Á. Conde, & D. Griffiths (Eds.).
Loes C J van Dam
Full Text Available Humans can learn and store multiple visuomotor mappings (dual-adaptation when feedback for each is provided alternately. Moreover, learned context cues associated with each mapping can be used to switch between the stored mappings. However, little is known about the associative learning between cue and required visuomotor mapping, and how learning generalises to novel but similar conditions. To investigate these questions, participants performed a rapid target-pointing task while we manipulated the offset between visual feedback and movement end-points. The visual feedback was presented with horizontal offsets of different amounts, dependent on the targets shape. Participants thus needed to use different visuomotor mappings between target location and required motor response depending on the target shape in order to "hit" it. The target shapes were taken from a continuous set of shapes, morphed between spiky and circular shapes. After training we tested participants performance, without feedback, on different target shapes that had not been learned previously. We compared two hypotheses. First, we hypothesised that participants could (explicitly extract the linear relationship between target shape and visuomotor mapping and generalise accordingly. Second, using previous findings of visuomotor learning, we developed a (implicit Bayesian learning model that predicts generalisation that is more consistent with categorisation (i.e. use one mapping or the other. The experimental results show that, although learning the associations requires explicit awareness of the cues' role, participants apply the mapping corresponding to the trained shape that is most similar to the current one, consistent with the Bayesian learning model. Furthermore, the Bayesian learning model predicts that learning should slow down with increased numbers of training pairs, which was confirmed by the present results. In short, we found a good correspondence between the
Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Casey, James P
It is generally considered socially undesirable to suppress the expression of positive emotion. However, previous research has not considered the role that social context plays in governing appropriate emotion regulation. We investigated a context in which it may be more appropriate to suppress than express positive emotion, hypothesizing that positive emotion expressions would be considered inappropriate when the valence of the expressed emotion (i.e., positive) did not match the valence of the context (i.e., negative). Six experiments (N = 1,621) supported this hypothesis: when there was a positive emotion-context mismatch, participants rated targets who suppressed positive emotion as more appropriate, and evaluated them more positively than targets who expressed positive emotion. This effect occurred even when participants were explicitly made aware that suppressing targets were experiencing mismatched emotion for the context (e.g., feeling positive in a negative context), suggesting that appropriate emotional expression is key to these effects. These studies are among the first to provide empirical evidence that social costs to suppression are not inevitable, but instead are dependent on context. Expressive suppression can be a socially useful emotion regulation strategy in situations that call for it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Alexander, Tim; Wilson, Stuart P.; Wilson, Paul N.
Using desktop, computer-simulated virtual environments (VEs), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate blocking of learning about a goal location based on Shape B as a consequence of preliminary training to locate that goal using Shape A. The shapes were large 2-dimensional horizontal figures on the ground. Blocking of spatial learning…
Westbrook, Timothy Paul
Current research on culture and distance education suggests that cultural variables influence student success online. When online courses are writing-based, they may provide easy information dissemination; however, the low-context medium may restrict the learning experience and class dynamic due to the lack of nonverbal communication. Students who…
text production, but discusses an individual dictionary for a particular function. It is shown that in a general context of learning accounting and its relevant LSP with a view to writing or translating financial reporting texts, the modern theory of dictionary functions provides a good theoretical...... and usage of a subject-field, particularly when they have to read, write or translate domain-specific texts. The modern theory of dictionary functions presented in Bergenholtz and Tarp (2002) opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography and encourages lexicographers......-lexicographic environment, i.e. what happens outside the dictionary when users write or translate texts, and relate these findings to the lexicographic environment represented by the theoretical basis and the dictionary itself. Nielsen (2006) gives a preliminary discussion of monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL...
María de los Ángeles MARTÍNEZ RUIZ
Full Text Available Effective strategies in teacher education can be based on conceptual change and social constructivism models. From this framework theory, we assume that, in order to improve the succession of the different progressive stages of teachers'conceptual development, social and collaborative strategies are more adequate than individual methodologies. The main aim of this research is to analyze the use of particular and appropiate strategies in a constructivist and collaborative teacher education context. The case-study carried out proves that conceptual change is more effective when it is implemented synergistically with strategies directed towards group autonomy and group-regulation of learning rhythms and goals. The results demostrate the benefits derived from the use of strategies that propitiate the sharing and comparing practice among prospective teachers, especially, if they are, as usual, at heterogenous levels of teaching expertise.
Mansoor, Awais; Cerrolaza, Juan J; Perez, Geovanny; Biggs, Elijah; Nino, Gustavo; Linguraru, Marius George
Representation learning through deep learning (DL) architecture has shown tremendous potential for identification, localization, and texture classification in various medical imaging modalities. However, DL applications to segmentation of objects especially to deformable objects are rather limited and mostly restricted to pixel classification. In this work, we propose marginal shape deep learning (MaShDL), a framework that extends the application of DL to deformable shape segmentation by using deep classifiers to estimate the shape parameters. MaShDL combines the strength of statistical shape models with the automated feature learning architecture of DL. Unlike the iterative shape parameters estimation approach of classical shape models that often leads to a local minima, the proposed framework is robust to local minima optimization and illumination changes. Furthermore, since the direct application of DL framework to a multi-parameter estimation problem results in a very high complexity, our framework provides an excellent run-time performance solution by independently learning shape parameter classifiers in marginal eigenspaces in the decreasing order of variation. We evaluated MaShDL for segmenting the lung field from 314 normal and abnormal pediatric chest radiographs and obtained a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.927 using only the four highest modes of variation (compared to 0.888 with classical ASM 1 (p-value=0.01) using same configuration). To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of using DL framework for parametrized shape learning for the delineation of deformable objects.
Mudhsh, Mohammed; Almodfer, Rolla; Duan, Pengfei; Xiong, Shengwu
In the handwriting recognition field, designing good descriptors are substantial to obtain rich information of the data. However, the handwriting recognition research of a good descriptor is still an open issue due to unlimited variation in human handwriting. We introduce a "character context descriptor" that efficiently dealt with the structural characteristics of Arabic handwritten characters. First, the character image is smoothed and normalized, then the character context descriptor of 32 feature bins is built based on the proposed "distance function." Finally, a multilayer perceptron with regularization is used as a classifier. On experimentation with a handwritten Arabic characters database, the proposed method achieved a state-of-the-art performance with recognition rate equal to 98.93% and 99.06% for the 66 and 24 classes, respectively.
Zohar Ziv Bronfman
Full Text Available A key characteristic of learning and neural plasticity is state-dependent acquisition dynamics reflected by the non-linear learning curve that links increase in learning with practice. Here we propose that the manner by which epigenetic states of individual cells change during learning contributes to the shape of the neural and behavioral learning curve. We base our suggestion on recent studies showing that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and RNA-mediated gene regulation are intimately involved in the establishment and maintenance of long-term neural plasticity, reflecting specific learning-histories and influencing future learning. Our model, which is the first to suggest a dynamic molecular account of the shape of the learning curve, leads to several testable predictions regarding the link between epigenetic dynamics at the promoter, gene-network and neural-network levels. This perspective opens up new avenues for therapeutic interventions in neurological pathologies.
Puranam, Phanish; Swamy, M.
Coupled learning processes, in which specialists from different domains learn how to make interdependent choices among alternatives, are common in organizations. We explore the role played by initial representations held by the learners in coupled learning processes using a formal agent-based model....... We find that initial representations have important consequences for the success of the coupled learning process, particularly when communication is constrained and individual rates of learning are high. Under these conditions, initial representations that generate incorrect beliefs can outperform...... one that does not discriminate among alternatives, or even a mix of correct and incorrect representations among the learners. We draw implications for the design of coupled learning processes in organizations. © 2016 INFORMS....
Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen
.... In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of shape learning techniques such as linear PCA, kernel PCA, locally linear embedding and propose a new method, kernelized locally linear embedding...
Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van der Vleuten, Cees
Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijsmans, D., & Van der Vleuten, C. (2012, 28 November). Which assessment features shape students’ learning? A review study. Presentation at the Eapril conference, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Eskenazi, Michael A; Swischuk, Natascha K; Folk, Jocelyn R; Abraham, Ashley N
The current study investigated how high-skill spellers and low-skill spellers incidentally learn words during reading. The purpose of the study was to determine whether readers can use uninformative contexts to support word learning after forming a lexical representation for a novel word, consistent with instance-based resonance processes. Previous research has found that uninformative contexts damage word learning; however, there may have been insufficient exposure to informative contexts (only one) prior to exposure to uninformative contexts (Webb, 2007; Webb, 2008). In Experiment 1, participants read sentences with one novel word (i.e., blaph, clurge) embedded in them in three different conditions: Informative (six informative contexts to support word learning), Mixed (three informative contexts followed by three uninformative contexts), and Uninformative (six uninformative contexts). Experiment 2 added a new condition with only three informative contexts to further clarify the conclusions of Experiment 1. Results indicated that uninformative contexts can support word learning, but only for high-skill spellers. Further, when participants learned the spelling of the novel word, they were more likely to learn the meaning of that word. This effect was much larger for high-skill spellers than for low-skill spellers. Results are consistent with the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (LQH) in that high-skill spellers form stronger orthographic representations which support word learning (Perfetti, 2007). Results also support an instance-based resonance process of word learning in that prior informative contexts can be reactivated to support word learning in future contexts (Bolger, Balass, Landen, & Perfetti, 2008; Balass, Nelson, & Perfetti, 2010; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Uzunbas, Mustafa; Metaxas, Dimitris N
The recently proposed sparse shape composition (SSC) opens a new avenue for shape prior modeling. Instead of assuming any parametric model of shape statistics, SSC incorporates shape priors on-the-fly by approximating a shape instance (usually derived from appearance cues) by a sparse combination of shapes in a training repository. Theoretically, one can increase the modeling capability of SSC by including as many training shapes in the repository. However, this strategy confronts two limitations in practice. First, since SSC involves an iterative sparse optimization at run-time, the more shape instances contained in the repository, the less run-time efficiency SSC has. Therefore, a compact and informative shape dictionary is preferred to a large shape repository. Second, in medical imaging applications, training shapes seldom come in one batch. It is very time consuming and sometimes infeasible to reconstruct the shape dictionary every time new training shapes appear. In this paper, we propose an online learning method to address these two limitations. Our method starts from constructing an initial shape dictionary using the K-SVD algorithm. When new training shapes come, instead of re-constructing the dictionary from the ground up, we update the existing one using a block-coordinates descent approach. Using the dynamically updated dictionary, sparse shape composition can be gracefully scaled up to model shape priors from a large number of training shapes without sacrificing run-time efficiency. Our method is validated on lung localization in X-Ray and cardiac segmentation in MRI time series. Compared to the original SSC, it shows comparable performance while being significantly more efficient.
Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal…
Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul
Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…
Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P
The purpose of this article is to review recent research that has investigated the effects of context change on instrumental (operant) learning. The first part of the article discusses instrumental extinction, in which the strength of a reinforced instrumental behavior declines when reinforcers are withdrawn. The results suggest that extinction of either simple or discriminated operant behavior is relatively specific to the context in which it is learned: As in prior studies of Pavlovian extinction, ABA, ABC, and AAB renewal effects can all be observed. Further analysis supports the idea that the organism learns to refrain from making a specific response in a specific context, or in more formal terms, an inhibitory context-response association. The second part of the article then discusses research suggesting that the context also controls instrumental behavior before it is extinguished. Several experiments demonstrate that a context switch after either simple or discriminated operant training causes a decrement in the strength of the response. Over a range of conditions, the animal appears to learn a direct association between the context and the response. Under some conditions, it can also learn a hierarchical representation of context and the response-reinforcer relation. Extinction is still more context-specific than conditioning, as indicated by ABC and AAB renewal. Overall, the results establish that the context can play a significant role in both the acquisition and extinction of operant behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This research starts by analysing the current state of artistic heritage in Italy and studying some examples in Europe: we try to investigate the scope of non-formal learning in artistic context, mediated by advanced technology. The framework within which we have placed our investigation is that of lifelong learning and lifedeep learning. The…
Rusman, E. (2018, 8th of June). Seamless learning: Technology-enhanced learning from practical experiences across contexts. Keynote presentation at the Seamless learning conference, Maastricht, The Netherlands. http://www.ou.nl/slc
Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin
The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.
Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Shumei; Cao, Shixiang
Multitemporal remote sensing images generally suffer from background variations, which significantly disrupt traditional region feature and descriptor abstracts, especially between pre and postdisasters, making registration by local features unreliable. Because shapes hold relatively stable information, a rotation and scale invariant shape context based on multiscale edge features is proposed. A multiscale morphological operator is adapted to detect edges of shapes, and an equivalent difference of Gaussian scale space is built to detect local scale invariant feature points along the detected edges. Then, a rotation invariant shape context with improved distance discrimination serves as a feature descriptor. For a distance shape context, a self-adaptive threshold (SAT) distance division coordinate system is proposed, which improves the discriminative property of the feature descriptor in mid-long pixel distances from the central point while maintaining it in shorter ones. To achieve rotation invariance, the magnitude of Fourier transform in one-dimension is applied to calculate angle shape context. Finally, the residual error is evaluated after obtaining thin-plate spline transformation between reference and sensed images. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and accuracy of this automatic algorithm.
Scott E Nielsen
Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.
Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen
Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.
Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika
Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…
Kizito, Rita Ndagire
This paper examines the possible characteristics and the value of designing learning activities grounded in connectivism--an emerging learning theory. It is an exploratory attempt to connect the theory to the prevailing technology adoption archetypes used in African contexts with the aim of extracting influences that could shape pedagogical…
Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ
A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)
Heilesen, Simon; Mogensen, Kevin; Gleerup, Janne
Vocational training curricula are often designed as a progression of alternating periods of attending school and working as an apprentice in a company. In the case discussed in this paper, involving the training of electrician apprentices at a Danish vocational school, many of the apprentices...... (pupils) have difficulties understanding how the two modes of learning, i.e. formal learning by means of instruction and informal learning through apprenticeship, relate to one another and add up to a meaningful whole. This paper is an account of an experiment in designing for net-based vocational...
Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras
Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities
Bouton, Mark E.; Todd, Travis P.
The purpose of this article is to review recent research that has investigated the effects of context change on instrumental (operant) learning. The first part of the article discusses instrumental extinction, in which the strength of a reinforced instrumental behavior declines when reinforcers are withdrawn. The results suggest that extinction of either simple or discriminated operant behavior is relatively specific to the context in which it is learned: As in prior studies of Pavlovian exti...
Cardoza, David; Langhojer, Florian; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos; Weinacht, Thomas; Monti, Oliver L.A.
We interpret the results of a molecular fragmentation learning control experiment. We show that in the case of a system where control can be related to the structure of the optimal pulse matching the vibrational dynamics of the molecule, a simple change of pulse-shape basis in which the learning algorithm performs the search can reduce the dimensionality of the search space to one or two degrees of freedom
Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren
A new lossless compression scheme for bilevel images targeted at binary shapes of image and video objects is presented. The scheme is based on a local analysis of the digital straightness of the causal part of the object boundary, which is used in the context definition for arithmetic encoding....... Tested on individual images of binary shapes and binary layers of digital maps the algorithm outperforms PWC, JBIG and MPEG-4 CAE. On the binary shapes the code lengths are reduced by 21%, 25%, and 42%, respectively. On the maps the reductions are 34%, 32%, and 59%, respectively. The algorithm is also...
Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung
Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…
Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.
In this study, 2.5-, 3-, and 4-year-olds (N=108) participated in a novel noun generalization task in which background context was manipulated. During the learning phase of each trial, children were presented with exemplars in one or multiple background contexts. At the test, children were asked to generalize to a novel exemplar in either the same…
Margaryan, A.; Collis, Betty; Hansson, T.
This paper focuses on tools and strategies to integrate the strengths of formal and informal learning in the corporate context via the use of work-based activities within courses. The following proposition is argued: An effective course in the corporate context becomes a blend of formal and informal
Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan
Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.
Fatahipour, Majid; Ghaseminajm, Mahnaz
Despite obvious benefits, some challenges exist in the way of sustainable utilization of mobile phone technology for language learning tasks. This paper shows how these challenges can be better addressed in the light of recent advancements in mobile phone technology, like context aware mobile learning, informed with a sound pedagogical basis for…
Volet, Simone; Vauras, Marja; Salonen, Pekka
This article outlines the rationale for an integrative perspective of self- and social regulation in learning contexts. The role of regulatory mechanisms in self- and social regulation models is examined, leading to the view that in real time collaborative learning, individuals and social entities should be conceptualized as self-regulating and…
Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan
Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021
Meirink, Jacobiene Albertina
In this study we aimed to examine teacher learning within a context of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Five interdisciplinary teams were studied for a period of one year. Data was collected on what and how the teachers learned, by means of examining changes in beliefs and by asking
Full Text Available Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.
Chang, Charles B; Bowles, Anita R
Studies of lexical tone learning generally focus on monosyllabic contexts, while reports of phonetic learning benefits associated with input variability are based largely on experienced learners. This study trained inexperienced learners on Mandarin tonal contrasts to test two hypotheses regarding the influence of context and variability on tone learning. The first hypothesis was that increased phonetic variability of tones in disyllabic contexts makes initial tone learning more challenging in disyllabic than monosyllabic words. The second hypothesis was that the learnability of a given tone varies across contexts due to differences in tonal variability. Results of a word learning experiment supported both hypotheses: tones were acquired less successfully in disyllables than in monosyllables, and the relative difficulty of disyllables was closely related to contextual tonal variability. These results indicate limited relevance of monosyllable-based data on Mandarin learning for the disyllabic majority of the Mandarin lexicon. Furthermore, in the short term, variability can diminish learning; its effects are not necessarily beneficial but dependent on acquisition stage and other learner characteristics. These findings thus highlight the importance of considering contextual variability and the interaction between variability and type of learner in the design, interpretation, and application of research on phonetic learning.
Hertzog, Nancy B.
This article explores the learning context for talent development in public schools. Total aspects of the environment from physical space, affective elements, and pedagogical approaches affect learning. How teachers believe and perceive their roles as teachers influence instructional design and decision making. In this article, the optimal…
Marques, Maria A.; Viegas, Maria C.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Brouns, Francis; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.
Marques, M. A., Viegas, M. C., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Waszkiewicz, E., & Garcia-Peñalvo, F. (2013). Managing Informal Learning in Higher Education Contexts: the learners’ perspective. ICBL2013 International Conference on Interactive Computer-Aided Blended Learning.
Molodchik, Mariia; Jardon, Carlos
Purpose: The paper aims to identify particular traits of the Russian context which condition two key enablers of organizational learning--organizational culture and transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a literature review, the study determines management challenges by implementation of organizational learning in the…
This paper will explore types of learning, which takes place when musicians work in situations where they have to connect to community contexts. It will first address musicians’ changing professional roles in the changing sociocultural landscape and the need for lifelong learning and emergence of
Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, A.; Nagamatsu, S.; Kyutoku, Y.; Dan, I.; Wada, T.; Oku, K.; Saeki, Y.; Uto, T.; Tanabata, T.; Isobe, S.; Kochi, N.
Shape is one of the most important traits of agricultural products due to its relationships with the quality, quantity, and value of the products. For strawberries, the nine types of fruit shape were defined and classified by humans based on the sampler patterns of the nine types. In this study, we tested the classification of strawberry shapes by machine learning in order to increase the accuracy of the classification, and we introduce the concept of computerization into this field. Four types of descriptors were extracted from the digital images of strawberries: (1) the Measured Values (MVs) including the length of the contour line, the area, the fruit length and width, and the fruit width/length ratio; (2) the Ellipse Similarity Index (ESI); (3) Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (EFDs), and (4) Chain Code Subtraction (CCS). We used these descriptors for the classification test along with the random forest approach, and eight of the nine shape types were classified with combinations of MVs + CCS + EFDs. CCS is a descriptor that adds human knowledge to the chain codes, and it showed higher robustness in classification than the other descriptors. Our results suggest machine learning's high ability to classify fruit shapes accurately. We will attempt to increase the classification accuracy and apply the machine learning methods to other plant species.
Full Text Available This work presents a proposal for the automatic generation of architectural design. This scheme is based on the training of simple shape grammars through reinforcement learning technics. Finally, the results of the implemented system by this technic for the generation of dwelling design with certain restrictions are presented and analyzed.
No matter the college, a class in the principles of microeconomics is likely to cover the discipline's greatest hits. The author attends three economics courses at three colleges, and finds three very different approaches. In this article, the author discusses three colleges' different approaches that shape learning in Econ 101.
Bertels, Julie; San Anton, Estibaliz; Gebuis, Titia; Destrebecqz, Arnaud
Extracting the statistical regularities present in the environment is a central learning mechanism in infancy. For instance, infants are able to learn the associations between simultaneously or successively presented visual objects (Fiser & Aslin, ; Kirkham, Slemmer & Johnson, ). The present study extends these results by investigating whether infants can learn the association between a target location and the context in which it is presented. With this aim, we used a visual associative learning procedure inspired by the contextual cuing paradigm, with infants from 8 to 12 months of age. In two experiments, in which we varied the complexity of the stimuli, we first habituated infants to several scenes where the location of a target (a cartoon character) was consistently associated with a context, namely a specific configuration of geometrical shapes. Second, we examined whether infants learned the covariation between the target location and the context by measuring looking times at scenes that either respected or violated the association. In both experiments, results showed that infants learned the target-context associations, as they looked longer at the familiar scenes than at the novel ones. In particular, infants selected clusters of co-occurring contextual shapes and learned the covariation between the target location and this subset. These results support the existence of a powerful and versatile statistical learning mechanism that may influence the orientation of infants' visual attention toward areas of interest in their environment during early developmental stages. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Hm1unyLBn0. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Public participation is increasingly advocated in natural resource management to meet a spectrum of instrumental to normative goals. However, the success of participation in achieving these goals is highly variable, depending on both societal and institutional contexts. Whether participation realises its benefits or succumbs to its pitfalls is shaped by dynamic interactions operating among three contextual dimensions: participatory rationales (instrumental to normative, institutional fit of different levels (types of participation (information delivery to partnership to delegation, and social structures (such as cultural context, social capital, and power distribution. Some levels of participation may support the existing power hierarchy, others benefit organized stakeholder groups and special interests, and still others foster deliberative democratic outcomes. We argue that wise choice of levels of participation in particular contexts shapes the balance of participation's benefits and pitfalls.
Glautier, Steven; Elgueta, Tito; Nelson, James Byron
Two experiments with human participants were used to investigate recovery of an extinguished learned response after a context change using ABC designs. In an ABC design, the context changes over the three successive stages of acquisition (context A), extinction (context B), and test (context C). In both experiments, we found reduced recovery in groups that had extinction in multiple contexts, and that the extinction contexts acquired inhibitory strength. These results confirm those of previous investigations, that multiple-context extinction can produce less response recovery than single-context extinction, and they also provide new evidence for the involvement of contextual inhibitory processes in extinction in humans. The foregoing results are broadly in line with a protection-from-extinction account of response recovery. Yet, despite the fact that we detected contextual inhibition, predictions based on protection-from-extinction were not fully reliable for the single- and multiple-context group differences that we observed in (1) rates of extinction and (2) the strength of context inhibition. Thus, although evidence was obtained for a protection-from-extinction account of response recovery, this account can not explain all of the data.
Mausz, Justin; Tavares, Walter
The changing nature of healthcare education and delivery is such that clinicians will increasingly find themselves practicing in contexts that are physically and/or conceptually different from the settings in which they were trained, a practice that conflicts on some level with socio-cultural theories of learning that emphasize learning in context. Our objective was therefore to explore learning in 'professionally distant' contexts. Using paramedic education, where portions of training occur in hospital settings despite preparing students for out-of-hospital work, fifty-three informants (11 current students, 13 recent graduates, 16 paramedic program faculty and 13 program coordinators/directors) took part in five semi-structured focus groups. Participants reflected on the value and role of hospital placements in paramedic student development. All sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. In this context six educational advantages and two challenges were identified when using professionally distant learning environments. Learning could still be associated with features such as (a) engagement through "authenticity", (b) technical skill development, (c) interpersonal skill development, (d) psychological resilience, (e) healthcare system knowledge and (f) scaffolding. Variability in learning and misalignment with learning goals were identified as potential threats. Learning environments that are professionally distant from eventual practice settings may prove meaningful by providing learners with foundational and preparatory learning experiences for competencies that may be transferrable. This suggests that where learning occurs may be less important than how the experience contributes to the learner's development and the meaning or value he/she derives from it.
Gökçe DİŞLEN DAĞGÖL
Full Text Available Language learning has become an essential need in today’s world. From academic to social settings, humans need to communicate in a different language to survive in their community. However, despite this increasing importance of language, it is difficult to say we have attained successful language learning on a large scale since there are a lot of factors in language learning process. Language attitudes, one of these factors, influence this process both positively and negatively, depending on how we view learning a foreign language. Therefore, this study deals with the issue of language attitudes to uncover learners’ language conceptions and probable effects on their learning. Moreover, this study aims to reveal the potential role of past learning experiences on the development of language beliefs positively or negatively. Thus, 35 university students in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years constitute the participants of the study. Based on mixed research design, the study is comprised of both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were gathered through Attitude Scale towards English Course, and the analyses were performed with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 version for Windows. The qualitative data were collected from students’ reports of their own autobiographies regarding their previous language learning experiences in elementary, secondary, high school and university years, and were subjected to the content analysis. The study showed language attitudes from behavioural, cognitive and affective perspectives and found out different factors in shaping their learning conceptions.
Full Text Available Learning objects originally developed for use in online learning environments can also be used to enhance face-to-face instruction. This study examined the learning impacts of online learning objects packaged into modules and used in different contexts for undergraduate education offered on campus at three institutions. A multi-case study approach was used, examining learning impacts across a variety of course subjects, course levels (introductory and advanced undergraduate, student levels (undergraduate and graduate, and instructional goals (i.e., replacement for lecture, remediation. A repeated measures design was used, with learning data collected prior to viewing the online module, after completion of the module, and at the end of the semester. The study provided a broad examination of ways that online modules are typically used in a college classroom, as well as measured learning effectiveness based on different instructional purpose and usage contexts. Results showed the effectiveness of the modules in serving as a substitute for classroom lecture, remediation of course prerequisite material, introduction to content with follow-up lab practice, and review for final exams. In each of these cases, the use of the modules resulted in significant learning increases, as well as retention of the learning until the end of the semester.
Eyharabide, Victoria; Gasparini, Isabela; Schiaffino, Silvia; Pimenta, Marcelo; Amandi, Analía
Personalization in e-learning systems is vital since they are used by a wide variety of students with different characteristics. There are several approaches that aim at personalizing e-learning environments. However, they focus mainly on technological and/or networking aspects without caring of contextual aspects. They consider only a limited version of context while providing personalization. In our work, the objective is to improve e-learning environment personalization making use of a better understanding and modeling of the user’s educational and technological context using ontologies. We show an example of the use of our proposal in the AdaptWeb system, in which content and navigation recommendations are provided depending on the student’s context.
experience in the context of work. The educational design is called Proactive Review (PR) and includes two opposite directions simultaneously, proactive, which entails looking ahead and review, which entails reflecting on the past. The subjects for learning in a PR may be any group of employees that have...... in the field, more specifically an educational design of seven questions called PR, four roles involved in PR and suggestions for organizational requirements and codes of conduct that support learning from experience in the context of work...
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify multimodal designs for learning in diverse and developing contexts, where access to resources remains vastly unequal. Using case studies from South African education, the paper explores ways of surfacing the range of students’ resources which are often not noticed or valued in formal educational settings. The studies showcased here demonstrate how ethnographic and textually-based approaches can be combined. Opening up the semiotic space of the classroom through multimodal designs for learning is important for finding innovative ways of addressing access, diversity, and past inequalities. This is of relevance not only to South Africa, but a range of global contexts. The paper argues that multimodal designs for learning can involve interrogating the relation between ‘tradition’ and ‘modernity’; harnessing students’ creative practices as resources for pedagogy; developing metalanguages for critical reflection; creating less regulated pedagogical spaces in order to enable useful teaching and learning practices.
Full Text Available Today, not only diverse design-related disciplines are required to actively deal with the digitization of information and its potentials and side effects for education processes. In Germany, technology didactics developed in vocational education and computer science education in general education, both separated from media pedagogy as an after-school program. Media education is not a subject in German schools yet. However, in the paper we argue for an interdisciplinary approach to learn about computational modeling in creative processes and aesthetic contexts. It crosses the borders of programming technology, arts and design processes in meaningful contexts. Educational scenarios using smart textile environments are introduced and reflected for project based learning.
Božinović, Nikolina; Sindik, Joško
Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning). The research was conducted at the Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia on a sample of 201 participants who learned German, Spanish, French and Italian as a foreign language. The results have shown that one-component latent dimensions which describe the space of foreign language learning strategies according to Oxford’s classification, have metric characteristics which are low, but still satisfactory (reliability and validity). All dimensions of learning strategies appeared not to be adequately defined. Therefore, we excluded compensation strategies and merged social and affective strategies into social-affective strategies into the unique dimension. Overall, this version of Oxford’s original questionnaire, based on Oxford’s theoretical construct, applied on Croatian students, clearly shows that current version of the questionnaire has poor metric characteristics. One of the explanations of the results obtained could be positioned in multicultural context and intercultural dialogue. Namely, particular social, political and economic context in Croatia could shape even foreign language learning strategies.
Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure. This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics. Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. Using a simple hebbian-type learning, the model is able to memorize a large number of input/output mappings. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns. These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in
Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie
d-Cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction processes in animals. Although classical conditioning is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of appetitive motivation problems, no research has been conducted on the effect of DCS on the reduction of context specificity of extinction in human appetitive learning, while facilitation hereof is relevant in the context of treatment of problematic reward-seeking behaviors. Female participants were presented with two conditioned stimuli (CSs) that either predicted (CS+) or did not predict (CS-) a potential sexual reward (unconditioned stimulus (US); genital vibrostimulation). Conditioning took place in context A and extinction in context B. Subjects received DCS (125mg) or placebo directly after the experiment on day 1 in a randomized, double-blind, between-subject fashion (Placebo n=31; DCS n=31). Subsequent testing for CS-evoked conditioned responses (CRs) in both the conditioning (A) and the extinction context (B) took place 24h later on day 2. Drug effects on consolidation were then assessed by comparing the recall of sexual extinction memories between the DCS and the placebo groups. Post learning administration of DCS facilitates sexual extinction memory consolidation and affects extinction's fundamental context specificity, evidenced by reduced conditioned genital and subjective sexual responses, relative to placebo, for presentations of the reward predicting cue 24h later outside the extinction context. DCS makes appetitive extinction memories context-independent and prevents the return of conditioned response. NMDA receptor glycine site agonists may be potential pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse of appetitive motivation disorders with a learned component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad
Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…
Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan
This study aims to contribute to recent developments in empirical studies on students’ learning strategies, whereby the use of trace data is combined with self-report data to distinguish profiles of learning strategy use [3–5]. We do so in the context of an application of dispositional learning
Magare, Ishmael; Kitching, Ansie Elizabeth; Roos, Vera
The successful implementation of inclusive education relies heavily on educators. Inclusive education is based on values such as human dignity, equality, human rights and freedom. The complexity of the interactive relationships between different systems, such as learners, educators, families, schools and the learning context, was recognised in…
Jong, Morris Siu-Yung; Chan, Tom; Tam, Vincent; Hue, Ming-Tak
Gamification is a strategy of using game mechanics and experience design to digitally engage people to achieve intended goals in non-game contexts. There has been increasing discussion among educators and researchers about harnessing the idea of gamification to enhance current learning and teaching practices in school education. This paper…
Investigated the independent and interactive effects of contextual and definitional information on vocabulary learning. German students of English received either a text with unfamiliar English words or their monolingual English dictionary entries. A third group received both. Information about word context is crucial to understanding meaning. (44…
Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…
In recent years, professional practice has been an issue of concern in higher education. The purpose of this study is to design students' projects to facilitate collaborative learning in authentic contexts. Ten students majoring in Management Information Systems conducted fieldwork with spatial technologies to collect data and provided information…
Prøitz, Tine S.; Havnes, Anton; Briggs, Mary; Scott, Ian
With the policy of developing a transparent and competitive European higher education sector, learning outcomes (LOs) are attributed a foundation stone role in policy and curriculum development. A premise for their implementation is that they bear fundamental similarities across national, institutional or professional/disciplinary contexts. In…
Bierema, Laura L.
Outlines demographic dimensions of the work force: aging, gender, race, sexual orientation, immigration, language, religion. Suggests a workplace pedagogy that is sensitive to sociocultural context and includes the concept of workplace learning as a lifelong process, socioculturally sensitive policies, equal opportunity development, and diversity…
Full Text Available "New Contexts in Teaching and Learning:International Perspectives" četvrta je međunarodna godišnja konferencija koju organizuje Centar za sociologiju, antropologiju i politiku (C-SAP u okviru Akademije za visoko obrazovanje Univerziteta u Birmingemu.
Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik
of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in a primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between....... This paper therefore aims at illustrating how and why the “Octopus” works and functions in a learning community (school) and discus the relations between distinctions, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper introduces a new reading of pervasive learning environments as the “Octopus......” through M.M. Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning. We have adapted this theory that originally is about literature in order to find new ways of understanding the time and place relation in learning....
Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian
Practice-based studies have progressed thinking in the knowledge, learning and innovation fields by emphasizing the continual negotiation of social structures and meaning through participation. Yet, only a few contributions discuss how participation and learning are affected by broader structures....... This is an inconsistency in the understanding of ‘situated’ learning where learning through participation is restricted to the immediate community involved in a social activity. We aim to address this inconsistency by investigating the effects of the interplay between institutional and organizational structures...... institutional systems.In contrast to older views, our case findings suggest that while the interplay between institutional context and organizational structure indeed matters, it does not determine collective participation and situated learning as actors can actively create solutions when structural conditions...
Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E
The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.
Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik
of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This short paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work with new kinds......, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper does this through Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning....
Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L; Carson, Maggie N
Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses. This research identified six factors that influence nursing students' clinical education: interpersonal, socio-cultural, instructional, environmental, emotional and physical factors. The research has developed a dynamic model of learning in clinical contexts, which offers opportunities to understand how students' learning is influenced multifactorially during clinical placements. The understanding and application of the model can improve nursing instructional design, and subsequently, nursing students' learning in clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
. Learners in today’s global business (school) world are more culturally diverse, and the potential of the increasing number of bi-cultural and bi-lingual students and managers as boundary-spanners must be considered. Recent empirical studies of face-to-face and virtual global collaboration show that cross...... divides. This chapter discusses a number of issues in relation to cultural learning processes in global business contexts: various concepts of learning, different approaches to cross-cultural competence training of future global leaders, and various learning contexts in management education and training......Globalization with increased mobility of the workforce and more frequent use of information and communication technologies means still more people must develop a deeper understanding of Cultural Others, a higher degree of cultural self-awareness and an ability to bridge across multiple cultural...
Münchow, Hannes; Mengelkamp, Christoph; Bannert, Maria
The aim of the present study was to examine whether fostering positive activating affect during multimedia learning enhances learning outcome. University students were randomly assigned to either a multimedia learning environment designed to induce positive activating affect through the use of “warm” colours and rounded shapes (n=61) or an affectively neutral environment that used achromatic colours and sharp edges (n=50). Participants learned about the topic of functional neuroanatomy for 20...
Shcherbachenko, Larysa; Nowakowski, Samuel
One of the rapidly developing tools for online learning is learning through a mobile environment. Therefore, developing and improving mobile learning environments is an active topic now. One of the ways to adapt the learning environment to the user's needs is to use his context. Context of the user consists of the current context in online…
Hammershøy, Anna; Simonsen, Berit Elsebeth; Miller, Tanja
The paper focuses on Service, Hospitality and Tourism management education programme at the University College of Northern Denmark. The English-taught international stream is developed in a local context, following a Danish curriculum and employing Danish instructors. The students originate...... primarily from Eastern and Central Europe and are not socialised in the North European educational culture. It takes these students more attempts to pass examinations compared to the Danish students, and their GPA is lower compared to the Danish students. The paper addresses the immediate learning context...
Full Text Available Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.
The paper discusses the importance of cultural learning during English study. It is not only aim at some ways to en-hance cultural knowledge and also how the cultural context response influences the effective of communication.
Gilbert, C; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G
Attention in early visual processing engages the higher order, context dependent properties of neurons. Even at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing neurons play a role in intermediate level vision - contour integration and surface segmentation. The contextual influences mediating this process may be derived from long range connections within primary visual cortex (V1). These influences are subject to perceptual learning, and are strongly modulated by visuospatial attention, which is itself a learning dependent process. The attentional influences may involve interactions between feedback and horizontal connections in V1. V1 is therefore a dynamic and active processor, subject to top-down influences.
de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin
The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
functions in quantitative reasoning. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991...conceptual replication by Hendrickson and Schroeder (1941) used two levels of abstract explanation as well as a control group and found more transfer with more...learning. Annual review of psychology, 12: 243-280. Bjork, R. A. & Richardson-Klavehn, A., (1989). On the Puzzling Relationship Between Environment Context
Kristensen, Bettina Tjagvad; Netterstrom, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars
This qualitative study shows dental students' motives for choosing the dental education and how the motives influence their motivation at the first semester of study. Further the study demonstrates the relevance of the context of learning. This issue is of importance when planning a curriculum for the dental education. The material consists of interviews with eight dental students. The results show that dental students were focused on their future professional role, its practical dimensions and their future working conditions. Their motivation for choosing the dental education was found to influence their motivation for studying and their experience of the relevance of the first semester. The dental students who had co-education with the medical students at the first year of study missed a dental context and courses with clinically relevant contents. In conclusion, our data signify the importance of the context of learning. It is recommended that a future curriculum for the dental school should be designed in a way where basic science subjects are taught with both theoretically as well as practically oriented subjects and in a context which is meaningful for the students.
Dubois, Frédérique; Morand-Ferron, Julie; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain
Behavioural decisions in a social context commonly have frequency-dependent outcomes and so require analysis using evolutionary game theory. Learning provides a mechanism for tracking changing conditions and it has frequently been predicted to supplant fixed behaviour in shifting environments; yet few studies have examined the evolution of learning specifically in a game-theoretic context. We present a model that examines the evolution of learning in a frequency-dependent context created by a producer-scrounger game, where producers search for their own resources and scroungers usurp the discoveries of producers. We ask whether a learning mutant that can optimize its use of producer and scrounger to local conditions can invade a population of non-learning individuals that play producer and scrounger with fixed probabilities. We find that learning provides an initial advantage but never evolves to fixation. Once a stable equilibrium is attained, the population is always made up of a majority of fixed players and a minority of learning individuals. This result is robust to variation in the initial proportion of fixed individuals, the rate of within- and between-generation environmental change, and population size. Such learning polymorphisms will manifest themselves in a wide range of contexts, providing an important element leading to behavioural syndromes.
This article examines how individual differences (giftedness) interact with learning contexts (favorite versus least favorite courses) to influence learning processes and outcomes. The findings show that gifted and typically developing students differ solely in their expectancies for success and grades among a large variety of measures, including…
Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; Nygaard, Lynne C
Listeners infer which object in a visual scene a speaker refers to from the systematic variation of the speaker's tone of voice (ToV). We examined whether ToV also guides word learning. During exposure, participants heard novel adjectives (e.g., "daxen") spoken with a ToV representing hot, cold, strong, weak, big, or small while viewing picture pairs representing the meaning of the adjective and its antonym (e.g., elephant-ant for big-small). Eye fixations were recorded to monitor referent detection and learning. During test, participants heard the adjectives spoken with a neutral ToV, while selecting referents from familiar and unfamiliar picture pairs. Participants were able to learn the adjectives' meanings, and, even in the absence of informative ToV, generalize them to new referents. A second experiment addressed whether ToV provides sufficient information to infer the adjectival meaning or needs to operate within a referential context providing information about the relevant semantic dimension. Participants who saw printed versions of the novel words during exposure performed at chance during test. ToV, in conjunction with the referential context, thus serves as a cue to word meaning. ToV establishes relations between labels and referents for listeners to exploit in word learning.
Lowe, Matthew X; Gallivan, Jason P; Ferber, Susanne; Cant, Jonathan S
Scenes are constructed from multiple visual features, yet previous research investigating scene processing has often focused on the contributions of single features in isolation. In the real world, features rarely exist independently of one another and likely converge to inform scene identity in unique ways. Here, we utilize fMRI and pattern classification techniques to examine the interactions between task context (i.e., attend to diagnostic global scene features; texture or layout) and high-level scene attributes (content and spatial boundary) to test the novel hypothesis that scene-selective cortex represents multiple visual features, the importance of which varies according to their diagnostic relevance across scene categories and task demands. Our results show for the first time that scene representations are driven by interactions between multiple visual features and high-level scene attributes. Specifically, univariate analysis of scene-selective cortex revealed that task context and feature diagnosticity shape activity differentially across scene categories. Examination using multivariate decoding methods revealed results consistent with univariate findings, but also evidence for an interaction between high-level scene attributes and diagnostic visual features within scene categories. Critically, these findings suggest visual feature representations are not distributed uniformly across scene categories but are shaped by task context and feature diagnosticity. Thus, we propose that scene-selective cortex constructs a flexible representation of the environment by integrating multiple diagnostically relevant visual features, the nature of which varies according to the particular scene being perceived and the goals of the observer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maier, Christopher A; Zhang, Kang; Manhein, Mary H; Li, Xin
In the past, assessing ancestry relied on the naked eye and observer experience; however, replicability has become an important aspect of such analysis through the application of metric techniques. This study examines palate shape and assesses ancestry quantitatively using a 3D digitizer and shape-matching and machine learning methods. Palate curves and depths were recorded, processed, and tested for 376 individuals. Palate shape was an accurate indicator of ancestry in 58% of cases. Cluster analysis revealed that the parabolic, hyperbolic, and elliptical shapes are discrete from one another. Preliminary results indicate that palate depth in Hispanic individuals is greatest. Palate shape appears to be a useful indicator of ancestry, particularly when assessed by a computer. However, these data suggest that palate shape is not useful for assessing ancestry in Hispanic individuals. Although ancestry may be determined from palate shape, the use of multiple features is recommended and more reliable. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen
This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ∼ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement ‘I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional’. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933
Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen
This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. © 2013 Anatomical Society.
McTeague, Lisa M; Gruss, L Forest; Keil, Andreas
The responses of sensory cortical neurons are shaped by experience. As a result perceptual biases evolve, selectively facilitating the detection and identification of sensory events that are relevant for adaptive behaviour. Here we examine the involvement of human visual cortex in the formation of learned perceptual biases. We use classical aversive conditioning to associate one out of a series of oriented gratings with a noxious sound stimulus. After as few as two grating-sound pairings, visual cortical responses to the sound-paired grating show selective amplification. Furthermore, as learning progresses, responses to the orientations with greatest similarity to the sound-paired grating are increasingly suppressed, suggesting inhibitory interactions between orientation-selective neuronal populations. Changes in cortical connectivity between occipital and fronto-temporal regions mirror the changes in visuo-cortical response amplitudes. These findings suggest that short-term behaviourally driven retuning of human visual cortical neurons involves distal top-down projections as well as local inhibitory interactions.
Demoulin, Catherine; Kolinsky, Régine
Many experimental studies have investigated the relationship between the acquisition of reading and working memory in a unidirectional way, attempting to determine to what extent individual differences in working memory can predict reading achievement. In contrast, very little attention has been dedicated to the converse possibility that learning to read shapes the development of verbal memory processes. In this paper, we present available evidence that advocates a more prominent role for reading acquisition on verbal working memory and then discuss the potential mechanisms of such literacy effects. First, the early decoding activities might bolster the development of subvocal rehearsal, which, in turn, would enhance serial order performance in immediate memory tasks. In addition, learning to read and write in an alphabetical system allows the emergence of phonemic awareness and finely tuned phonological representations, as well as of orthographic representations. This could improve the quality, strength, and precision of lexical representations, and hence offer better support for the temporary encoding of memory items and/or for their retrieval.
Kristensen, Bettina Tjagvad; Netterstrom, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars
This qualitative study shows dental students' motives for choosing the dental education and how the motives influence their motivation at the first semester of study. Further the study demonstrates the relevance of the context of learning. This issue is of importance when planning a curriculum...... for the dental education. The material consists of interviews with eight dental students. The results show that dental students were focused on their future professional role, its practical dimensions and their future working conditions. Their motivation for choosing the dental education was found to influence...... their motivation for studying and their experience of the relevance of the first semester. The dental students who had co-education with the medical students at the first year of study missed a dental context and courses with clinically relevant contents. In conclusion, our data signify the importance...
Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Leknes, Siri; Løseth, Guro; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan
Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile “bottom–up” stimuli and “top–down” information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the μ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual. PMID:26779092
Despite being the focus of decades of research as well as interventions, gender inequality in representation in many STEM fields, including physics, engineering, and computer science remains. Recent research indicates that high school is a particularly important time point to investigate regarding the roots of inequality, as this is when many young women decide that they are not interested in pursuing degrees in these STEM fields. This presentation will focus on the role of local contexts, including communities, classrooms, and peers, in contributing to such decisions. Specifically, sociological theories suggest that role models and peers within young people's immediate environment can send both implicit and explicit messages that contradict larger social stereotypes, and promote perceptions and experiences of inclusion. Alternatively, adults and peers can endorse and behave in a manner consistent with stereotypes, leading to overtly exclusionary messages and actions. Utilizing data from a large urban district in the Southwest, as well as a national sample of high school students, this presentation will examine how such factors within local contexts can work in both positive and negative ways to shape girls' interests and expectations in STEM fields.
Full Text Available Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile bottom-up stimuli and top-down information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the µ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual.
Dr. Issy Yuliasri
Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of pre-test post-test, feedback questionnaire and observation during a community service program entitled ―Training on English Teaching using Cooperative Learning Techniques for Elementary and Junior High School Teachers of Sekolah Alam Arridho Semarang‖. It was an English teaching training program intended to equip the teachers with the knowledge and skills of using the different cooperative learning techniques such as jigsaw, think-pair-share, three-step interview, roundrobin braistorming, three-minute review, numbered heads together, team-pair-solo, circle the sage, dan partners. This program was participated by 8 teachers of different subjects (not only English, but most of them had good mastery of English. The objectives of this program was to improve teachers‘ skills in using the different cooperative learning techniques to vary their teaching, so that students would be more motivated to learn and improve their English skill. Besides, the training also gave the teachers the knowledge and skills to adjust their techniques with the basic competence and learning objectives to be achieved as well as with the teaching materials to be used. This was also done through workshops using cooperative learning techniques, so that the participants had real experiences of using cooperative learning techniques (learning by doing. The participants were also encouraged to explore the applicability of the techniques in their classroom contexts, in different areas of their teaching. This community service program showed very positive results. The pre-test and post-test results showed that before the training program all the participants did not know the nine cooperative techniques to be trained, but after the program they mastered the techniques as shown from the teaching-learning scenarios they developed following the test instructions. In addition, the anonymous questionnaires showed that all the participants
Dara G. Stockton
Full Text Available In the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, stimulatory cuticular hydrocarbons act as sex pheromone attractants. Male psyllids locate aggregations of females using those olfactory cues, as well as vibrational communication on the plant surface. Although previous research has indicated that learning plays a role in modulating female reproductive behaviors in psyllids, it is unknown whether males similarly use learning to increase the likelihood of copulatory success. We used an olfactometer-based bio-assay to study the effects of experience on male response to female odor. First, we compared male attraction to female odor in virgin and previously mated males. Second, we tested the effect of several modes of experience with a novel odor, vanillin, to determine whether mating, feeding, or general environmental exposure elicited a learned response. We found that male attraction to female odor significantly increased after mating experience. In addition, we found that males learn about odor specifically in the context of mating, rather than feeding or general exposure. Electrophysiological measurements of antennal response to odorants confirmed that mating status did not affect the sensitivity of the peripheral nervous system to volatile stimuli implicating learning at the level of the central nervous system. These results suggest that male response to female odor is not an entirely innate behavior. Males may require mating experience with female conspecifics to develop attraction to those olfactory cues produced by the female and in association with the female’s habitat. This adaptive plasticity may allow males to detect females in an ever-changing environment and promote diversification and further specialization on different host genotypes.
Full Text Available Undergraduate teacher education program students have the opportunity to work with diverse student populations in a local school district in the Four Corners Area in the Northwest part of New Mexico. The family oral history practicum is a way to connect theory and practice while recognizing the issue that language is not a neutral landscape. What better way to demonstrate this complementarity than through stories. The goal is to bring an awareness of respect for oral language in relationship to literate language and explore how to balance both perspectives in school culture as prospective teachers. Preservice teacher candidates become storytelling coaches and team up with third graders in semester long storytelling projects, collaborating with local elementary school teachers. Students' family stories become the content and context for teaching and learning. With a diverse classroom population of Navajo, Hispanic, Mexican, and White students, family stories are the heart and central theme of the project. Storytelling coaches learn the nuances of diversity when theory is massaged with authentic experience of students as they share what they have learned beside their young storytellers and authors.
This dissertation specifically addresses teacher learning within the context of reciprocal peer coaching and contributes to the discussion of how cognition and behaviour can change as a result of reciprocal peer coaching. The emotional aspects of teacher learning are also addressed. The
Dong, Zhen; Yang, Bisheng; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Fuxun; Li, Bijun; Zang, Yufu
3D local surface description is now at the core of many computer vision technologies, such as 3D object recognition, intelligent driving, and 3D model reconstruction. However, most of the existing 3D feature descriptors still suffer from low descriptiveness, weak robustness, and inefficiency in both time and memory. To overcome these challenges, this paper presents a robust and descriptive 3D Binary Shape Context (BSC) descriptor with high efficiency in both time and memory. First, a novel BSC descriptor is generated for 3D local surface description, and the performance of the BSC descriptor under different settings of its parameters is analyzed. Next, the descriptiveness, robustness, and efficiency in both time and memory of the BSC descriptor are evaluated and compared to those of several state-of-the-art 3D feature descriptors. Finally, the performance of the BSC descriptor for 3D object recognition is also evaluated on a number of popular benchmark datasets, and an urban-scene dataset is collected by a terrestrial laser scanner system. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed BSC descriptor obtained high descriptiveness, strong robustness, and high efficiency in both time and memory and achieved high recognition rates of 94.8%, 94.1% and 82.1% on the considered UWA, Queen, and WHU datasets, respectively.
Berkhout, Joris J; Helmich, Esther; Teunissen, Pim W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
WHERE DO WE STAND NOW?: In the 30 years that have passed since The Edinburgh Declaration on Medical Education, we have made tremendous progress in research on fostering 'self-directed and independent study' as propagated in this declaration, of which one prime example is research carried out on problem-based learning. However, a large portion of medical education happens outside of classrooms, in authentic clinical contexts. Therefore, this article discusses recent developments in research regarding fostering active learning in clinical contexts. Clinical contexts are much more complex and flexible than classrooms, and therefore require a modified approach when fostering active learning. Recent efforts have been increasingly focused on understanding the more complex subject of supporting active learning in clinical contexts. One way of doing this is by using theory regarding self-regulated learning (SRL), as well as situated learning, workplace affordances, self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. Combining these different perspectives provides a holistic view of active learning in clinical contexts. ENTRY TO PRACTICE, VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Research on SRL in clinical contexts has mostly focused on the undergraduate setting, showing that active learning in clinical contexts requires not only proficiency in metacognition and SRL, but also in reactive, opportunistic learning. These studies have also made us aware of the large influence one's social environment has on SRL, the importance of professional relationships for learners, and the role of identity development in learning in clinical contexts. Additionally, research regarding postgraduate lifelong learning also highlights the importance of learners interacting about learning in clinical contexts, as well as the difficulties that clinical contexts may pose for lifelong learning. However, stimulating self-regulated learning in undergraduate medical education
There is a need to connect workplace learning and essential skills to a larger domain of workplace learning in general. To do this, the contexts in which learning takes place, and the cultures of the actors and environments involved, should be taken into consideration. Although research on the direct effects of contexts and cultures on workplace…
Learning always takes place in a particular context and culture, yet educators have tended to focus their attention mainly on the form of learning, its methodology, content and teaching approach. While these can and do affect learning and its results, this paper looks beyond the particulars of the program to explore how the context and culture of…
Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi
Full Text Available The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers' perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers' perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into their own and their students' difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. The main findings are reported with implications.
Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Theatre is often introduced into science museums to enhance visitor experience. While learning in museums exhibitions received considerable research attention, learning from museum theatre has not. The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate the potential educational role of a science museum theatre play. The study aimed to investigate (1) cognitive learning outcomes of the play, (2) how these outcomes interact with different viewing contexts and (3) experiential learning outcomes through the theatrical experience. The play `Robot and I', addressing principles in robotics, was commissioned by a science museum. Data consisted of 391 questionnaires and interviews with 47 children and 20 parents. Findings indicate that explicit but not implicit learning goals were decoded successfully. There was little synergy between learning outcomes of the play and an exhibition on robotics, demonstrating the effect of two different physical contexts. Interview data revealed that prior knowledge, experience and interest played a major role in children's understanding of the play. Analysis of the theatrical experience showed that despite strong identification with the child protagonist, children often doubted the protagonist's knowledge jeopardizing integration of scientific content. The study extends the empirical knowledge and theoretical thinking on museum theatre to better support claims of its virtues and respond to their criticism.
Becker, B. J.
Recent research has shown that children, like scientists, can tolerate a wide range of observations that do not match their expectations, or that even directly conflict with them, without abandoning their personally constructed system of beliefs about the natural world. Traditional approaches -- even laboratory experiences that support textbook presentations of theories -- do not guarantee students will alter their convictions concerning how things "ought" to work. In contrast, a history-grounded approach to presenting scientific concepts has the potential for doing precisely that. In this paper, the author argues that embedding science learning in a historical context engages students in thinking about science in a way that complements and enriches a "hands-on" approach to inquiry learning. It conveys the creative and very human character of scientific explanation -- its tentative, probabilistic, and serendipitous nature. By integrating well-chosen historical images and ideas into traditional content-centered science units, educators can stimulate productive classroom discussion and establish a classroom atmosphere that nurtures students to think critically about the meaning of scientific activity in different cultures and times More importantly, the use of historic episodes in teaching science opens up opportunities for students to identify their own untutored beliefs about the workings of the natural world, to examine them critically in the light of considered historical debate, and to confront these beliefs in a way that results in positive, long-lasting conceptual change.
Full Text Available Due to the increasing growth in available data in recent years, all areas of research and the managements of institutions and organisations, specifically schools and universities, feel the need to give meaning to this availability of data. This article, after a brief reference to the definition of big data, intends to focus attention and reflection on their type to proceed to an extension of their characterisation. One of the hubs to make feasible the use of Big Data in operational contexts is to give a theoretical basis to which to refer. The Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom (DIKW model correlates these four aspects, concluding in Data Science, which in many ways could revolutionise the established pattern of scientific investigation. The Learning Analytics applications on online learning platforms can be tools for evaluating the quality of teaching. And that is where some problems arise. It becomes necessary to handle with care the available data. Finally, a criterion for deciding whether it makes sense to think of an analysis based on Big Data can be to think about the interpretability and relevance in relation to both institutional and personal processes.
Yi, Do-Joon; Olson, Ingrid R; Chun, Marvin M
What does perceptual experience contribute to figure-ground segregation? To study this question, we trained observers to search for symmetric dot patterns embedded in random dot backgrounds. Training improved shape segmentation, but learning did not completely transfer either to untrained locations or to untrained shapes. Such partial specificity persisted for a month after training. Interestingly, training on shapes in empty backgrounds did not help segmentation of the trained shapes in noisy backgrounds. Our results suggest that perceptual training increases the involvement of early sensory neurons in the segmentation of trained shapes, and that successful segmentation requires perceptual skills beyond shape recognition alone.
Hohman, Frederick M.; Hodas, Nathan O.; Chau, Duen Horng
Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as “black-boxes” due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user’s data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.
Hohman, Fred; Hodas, Nathan; Chau, Duen Horng
Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as "black-boxes" due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user's data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.
Yi, Boo Jia; Eu, Leong Kwan
The integration of technology in mathematics instruction is an important step in the 21st century learning style. At the primary level, some studies have explored how technology could help in mathematics learning. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of using Logo on pupils' learning of the properties of two-dimensional shapes. A…
Laura Patricia Mancera Valetts
Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This paper presents a user model for students performing virtual learning processes. This model is used to infer the presence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD indicators in a student. The user model is built considering three user characteristics, which can be also used as variables in different contexts. These variables are: behavioral conduct (BC, executive functions performance (EFP, and emotional state (ES. For inferring the ADHD symptomatic profile of a student and his/her emotional alterations, these features are used as input in a set of classification rules. Based on the testing of the proposed model, training examples are obtained. These examples are used to prepare a classification machine learning algorithm for performing, and improving, the task of profiling a student. The proposed user model can provide the first step to adapt learning resources in e-learning platforms to people with attention problems, specifically, young-adult students with ADHD.
Verbert, Katrien; Manouselis, Nikos; Xavier, Ochoa; Wolpers, Martin; Drachsler, Hendrik; Ivana, Bosnic; Erik, Duval
Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Xavier, O., Wolpers, M., Drachsler, H., Bosnic, I., & Duval, E. (accepted). Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning: a Survey and Future Challenges. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies (TLT).
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…
Endedijk, Maaike Dorine; Bronkhorst, Larike H.
Many professional educational programs combine learning at an educational institute with learning in the workplace. The differences between these contexts, and the resulting challenges for learning, have been well-documented. However, there are few studies that explore the same students’ learning in
Lan, Yu-Ju; Fang, Shin-Yi; Legault, Jennifer; Li, Ping
In an increasingly multilingual world, it is important to examine methods that may lead to more efficient second language learning, as well as to analyze the mechanisms by which successful learning occurs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how different learning contexts can impact the learning of Mandarin Chinese as a second…
Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio; Domingue, John
IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a promising technology aimed at supporting learning processes. IMS-LD packages contain the learning process metadata as well as the learning resources. However, the allocation of resources--whether data or services--within the learning design is done manually at design-time on the basis of the subjective appraisals…
Chen, Feng; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Siewe, Francois
Virtual learning means to learn from social interactions in a virtual platform that enables people to study anywhere and at any time. Current Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are a range of integrated web based applications to support and enhance the education. Normally, VLEs are institution centric; are owned by the institutions and are designed to support formal learning, which do not support lifelong learning. These limitations led to the research of Personal Learning Environments (PLE...
Aristizabal, José A; Ramos-Álvarez, Manuel M; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Rosas, Juan M
One experiment in human predictive learning explored the impact of a context change on attention to contexts and predictive ratings controlled by the cue. In Context A: cue X was paired with an outcome four times, while cue Y was presented without an outcome four times in Context B:. In both contexts filler cues were presented without the outcome. During the test, target cues X and Y were presented either in the context where they were trained, or in the alternative context. With the context change expectation of the outcome X, expressed as predictive ratings, decreased in the presence of X and increased in the presence of Y. Looking at the contexts, expressed as a percentage of the overall gaze dwell time on a trial, was high across the four training trials, and increased with the context change. Results suggest that the presentation of unexpected information leads to increases in attention to contextual cues. Implications for contextual control of behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kulvicius, Tomas; Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin
are very simple and consist of single learning unit. The current study is trying to solve this problem focusing on chained learning architectures in a simple closed-loop behavioural context. METHODS: We applied temporal sequence learning (Porr B and Wörgötter F 2006) in a closed-loop behavioural system...... where a driving robot learns to follow a line. Here for the first time we introduced two types of chained learning architectures named linear chain and honeycomb chain. We analyzed such architectures in an open and closed-loop context and compared them to the simple learning unit. CONCLUSIONS...
Bell, Les; Stevenson, Howard
The environment in which school leaders and teachers work is shaped by educational policy. Policy is, in turn, derived from the dominant political ideologies at any particular time. The interrelationship between ideology and policy shapes both the overall organization of education and the operational practices and procedures of staff in schools…
Khan, Intakhab A.
Learning and teaching are quite interrelated. Teaching can't take place unless the target students learn. Thus, teaching is a bi-polar activity. Learning barriers or causes of learning difficulties are quite common in an educational setting. But, when it comes to a very adverse effect it becomes crucial and unavoidable. There are different kinds…
Drachsler, Hendrik; Manouselis, Nikos
Drachsler, H., & Manouselis, N. (2009). How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context. Presentation given at the 1st workshop on Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30 - December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Patenkirchen,
Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine whether fostering positive activating affect during multimedia learning enhances learning outcome. University students were randomly assigned to either a multimedia learning environment designed to induce positive activating affect through the use of “warm” colours and rounded shapes (n=61 or an affectively neutral environment that used achromatic colours and sharp edges (n=50. Participants learned about the topic of functional neuroanatomy for 20 minutes and had to answer several questions for comprehension and transfer afterwards. Affective states as well as achievement goal orientations were investigated before and after the learning phase using questionnaires. The results show that participants in the affectively positive environment were superior in comprehension as well as transfer when initial affect was strong. Preexperimental positive affect was therefore a predictor of comprehension and a moderator for transfer. Goal orientations did not influence these effects. The findings support the idea that positive affect, induced through the design of the particular multimedia learning environment, can facilitate performance if initial affective states are taken into account.
Rusch, Claire; Roth, Eatai; Vinauger, Clément; Riffell, Jeffrey A
Honeybees are well-known models for the study of visual learning and memory. Whereas most of our knowledge of learned responses comes from experiments using free-flying bees, a tethered preparation would allow fine-scale control of the visual stimuli as well as accurate characterization of the learned responses. Unfortunately, conditioning procedures using visual stimuli in tethered bees have been limited in their efficacy. In this study, using a novel virtual reality environment and a differential training protocol in tethered walking bees, we show that the majority of honeybees learn visual stimuli, and need only six paired training trials to learn the stimulus. We found that bees readily learn visual stimuli that differ in both shape and colour. However, bees learn certain components over others (colour versus shape), and visual stimuli are learned in a non-additive manner with the interaction of specific colour and shape combinations being crucial for learned responses. To better understand which components of the visual stimuli the bees learned, the shape-colour association of the stimuli was reversed either during or after training. Results showed that maintaining the visual stimuli in training and testing phases was necessary to elicit visual learning, suggesting that bees learn multiple components of the visual stimuli. Together, our results demonstrate a protocol for visual learning in restrained bees that provides a powerful tool for understanding how components of a visual stimulus elicit learned responses as well as elucidating how visual information is processed in the honeybee brain. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo
There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…
Shepherd, Tony; Prince, Simon J D; Alexander, Daniel C
In medical image segmentation, tumors and other lesions demand the highest levels of accuracy but still call for the highest levels of manual delineation. One factor holding back automatic segmentation is the exemption of pathological regions from shape modelling techniques that rely on high-level shape information not offered by lesions. This paper introduces two new statistical shape models (SSMs) that combine radial shape parameterization with machine learning techniques from the field of nonlinear time series analysis. We then develop two dynamic contour models (DCMs) using the new SSMs as shape priors for tumor and lesion segmentation. From training data, the SSMs learn the lower level shape information of boundary fluctuations, which we prove to be nevertheless highly discriminant. One of the new DCMs also uses online learning to refine the shape prior for the lesion of interest based on user interactions. Classification experiments reveal superior sensitivity and specificity of the new shape priors over those previously used to constrain DCMs. User trials with the new interactive algorithms show that the shape priors are directly responsible for improvements in accuracy and reductions in user demand.
Calha, António Geraldo Manso
In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.
António Geraldo Manso Calha
Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii learning processes that result from problem solving; iii learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.
Coveney, Andrew P; Switzer, Timothy; Corrigan, Mark A; Redmond, Henry P
Background Psychologists have previously demonstrated that information recall is context dependent. However, how this influences the way we deliver medical education is unclear. This study aimed to determine if changing the recall context from the learning context affects the ability of medical students to recall information. Methods Using a free recall experimental model, fourteen medical student participants were administered audio lists of 30 words in two separate learning environments, a ...
van den Broek, Gesa S. E.; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
Learning new vocabulary from context typically requires multiple encounters during which word meaning can be retrieved from memory or inferred from context. We compared the effect of memory retrieval and context inferences on short- and long-term retention in three experiments. Participants studied novel words and then practiced the words either…
Willis, Katharine S.; Corino, Gianni
In design teaching ubiquitous technologies can offer new ways of situating learning within real world experiences. Yet they require new types of knowledge; both an understanding of how to work with the technology and also an understanding of how to use the technologies to respond to changing contexts such as the place and the people. We sought to…
Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan; Exner, Cornelia
The present study examines the interplay between cognitive deficits and emotional context in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP). Specifically, this study examines whether the inflexible use of efficient learning strategies in an emotional context underlies impairments in probabilistic classification learning (PCL) in OCD, and whether PCL impairments are specific to OCD. Twenty-three participants with OCD, 30 participants with SP and 30 healthy controls completed a neutral and an OCD-specific PCL task. OCD participants failed to adopt efficient learning strategies and showed fewer beneficial strategy switches than controls only in an OCD-specific context, but not in a neutral context. Additionally, OCD participants did not show any explicit memory impairments. Number of beneficial strategy switches in the OCD-specific task mediated the difference in PCL performance between OCD and control participants. Individuals with SP were impaired in both PCL tasks. In contrast to neuropsychological models postulating general cognitive impairments in OCD, the present findings suggest that it is the interaction between cognition and emotion that is impaired in OCD. Specifically, activated disorder-specific fears may impair the flexible adoption of efficient learning strategies and compromise otherwise unimpaired PCL. Impairments in PCL are not specific to OCD.
towards a pervasive university. Keywords-context-aware computing, service-oriented archi- tecture, mobile computing, elearning , learn management sys- tem I...usage of device- specific features provide support for various ubiquitous and pervasive eLearning scenarios . By knowing where the user currently...data from the mobile device towards a context-aware mobile LMS. II. BASIC CONCEPTS For a better understanding of the presented eLearning sce- narios
This contribution investigates a recent research project involving in-service teacher learning as experienced through an online/offline art studio in which common experiences of relationships to particular local landforms generate imaginative and collaborative processes and practices of teaching and learning. EarthShapes Studio is both a…
de Bruin, Leon Rene
Music institutions predominantly utilize the one-to-one lesson in developing and supporting music students' learning of skill and knowledge. This article explores the effect that interpersonal interaction plays in shaping pedagogical applications between teacher and student. Observing the learning of improvisation within this individualized social…
Abel, Alyson D.; Schneider, Julie; Maguire, Mandy J
Word learning from linguistic context is essential for vocabulary growth from grade school onward; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying successful word learning in children. Current methods for studying word learning development require children to identify the meaning of the word after each exposure, a method that interacts…
Franken, Margaret; Branson, Christopher; Penney, Dawn
Higher education institutions are increasingly recognizing the importance of organizational change as they face complex challenges. Leadership learning has been identified as an important way of supporting change management. We describe a leadership learning arrangement that arose in the context of two of the authors needing to learn how to become…
Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang; Sukirlan, Muhammad; Mahpul
Numerous studies have been conducted to correlate the use of language learning strategies and language performance and the studies have contributed to different perspectives of teaching and learning a foreign language. Some studies have also revealed that the students learning a foreign language in Asian contexts have been proved to use different…
Andrey, Jean; Joakim, Erin; Schoner, Vivian; Hambly, Derrick; Silver, Amber; Jayasundera, Rohan; Nelson, Allen
This study explores the linkages between students' sense of entitlement and their approaches to learning, based on survey research at a large public university in Canada. Through literature review and pilot testing, a questionnaire instrument was developed that measures four constructs: academic entitlement, deep learning, surface learning and…
Swanborn, MSL; de Glopper, Kees
Children read texts for various reasons. We examined how reading texts for different purposes affected amounts of incidental word learning. Grade 6 students were asked to read texts for fun, to learn about the topic of the text, and for text comprehension. Proportions of words learned incidentally
Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…
Full Text Available Public participation is increasingly viewed as a means to initiate social learning among stakeholders, resource managers, and policy makers rather than to ensure democratic representation. This growing understanding of participatory activities as learning platforms can be seen as a direct response to shifts in how natural resources management is framed, namely as uncertain, non-linear, and interlinked with the human dimensions. Social learning as it is discussed within the natural resources management (NRM context features a process of collective and communicative learning that is thought to enable stakeholders to arrive at a shared understanding of a specific environmental situation and to develop new solutions as well as ways of acting together in pursuit of a shared ambition. Yet, although case-study research on social-learning processes provides multiple accounts of positive experiences, there are also reports of mistaken learning, the intensification of tensions or conflict, and failure to reach agreement or verifiable consensus. Based on results of a postal survey of stakeholder experiences in two involvement initiatives, we can draw two main conclusions: First, social learning is a multidimensional and dynamic process and, as such, evolves in stages and to various degrees. Second, stakeholder processes are shaped and affected by a multitude of factors that constrain the occurrence of learning processes and eventually limit the extent to which these can contribute to sustainable NRM. Foremost, the fact that the intensity of stakeholder learning differed in the two investigated initiatives reinforces the role organizational arrangements play in encouraging the type of communicative process necessary for stakeholder learning.
Morawetz, Linde; Svoboda, Alexander; Spaethe, Johannes; Dyer, Adrian G
Spatial vision is an important cue for how honeybees (Apis mellifera) find flowers, and previous work has suggested that spatial learning in free-flying bees is exclusively mediated by achromatic input to the green photoreceptor channel. However, some data suggested that bees may be able to use alternative channels for shape processing, and recent work shows conditioning type and training length can significantly influence bee learning and cue use. We thus tested the honeybees' ability to discriminate between two closed shapes considering either absolute or differential conditioning, and using eight stimuli differing in their spectral characteristics. Consistent with previous work, green contrast enabled reliable shape learning for both types of conditioning, but surprisingly, we found that bees trained with appetitive-aversive differential conditioning could additionally use colour and/or UV contrast to enable shape discrimination. Interestingly, we found that a high blue contrast initially interferes with bee shape learning, probably due to the bees innate preference for blue colours, but with increasing experience bees can learn a variety of spectral and/or colour cues to facilitate spatial learning. Thus, the relationship between bee pollinators and the spatial and spectral cues that they use to find rewarding flowers appears to be a more rich visual environment than previously thought.
Full Text Available By Karen BorgnakkeIn this issue we have collected papers related to the conference called Rethinking Educational Ethnography: Researching on-line communities and interactions. The articles address issues based on ethnographic approaches and case studies on the implementation of digital technology in different learning context.The articles reflect on the multi-sited research coping with ICT and learning in shifting online offline settings. In many respects, the shift and the tendencies to blend strategies are a challenging part of the educational development combined with the need for research-based evaluation of the blended practice. This involvement raises basic questions to ethnographers: How to explore the learning context and the shift between online and offline in the fields of practice? How to observe and collect data about formal/non-formal learning? How to analyze the learning space and processes?The papers mirror these research issues and mirror the challenges to enhance the qualitative and empirical research in secondary, upper secondary schools and in higher education. The authors represent the new mode of ethnography having the digital circuit integrated in the field of practice as well as in the methodological framework.The articles relate to the fourth conference in Rethinking Educational Ethnography: Researching on-line communities and interactions organized by the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication, the section of education at the university of Copenhagen, in collaboration with the research group Innovative Learning Context and with ECER Network 19.The conference forms part of a long-term discussion that began in Helsinki at ECER 2010 and gave rise to the first annual Rethinking Educational Ethnography conference, held at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Porto. The second and the third annual Conference was held at the University of Barcelona and at the University of Napoli
Full Text Available This study reviewed the distance education and self-regulation literatures to identify learner self-regulation skills predictive of academic success in a blended education context. Five self-regulatory attributes were judged likely to be predictive of academic performance: intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, time and study environment management, help seeking, and Internet self-efficacy. Verbal ability was used as a control measure. Performance was operationalized as final course grades. Data were collected from 94 students in a blended undergraduate marketing course at a west coast American research university (tier one. Regression analysis revealed that verbal ability and self-efficacy related significantly to performance, together explaining 12 percent of the variance in course grades. Self-efficacy for learning and performance alone accounted for 7 percent of the variance.
Jing, Wei; Fang, Junming
Typically developing (TD) infants could capitalize on social eye gaze and social contexts to aid word learning. Although children with autism disorder (AD) are known to exhibit atypicality in word learning via social eye gaze, their ability to utilize social contexts for word learning is not well understood. We investigated whether verbal AD children exhibit word learning ability via social contextual cues by late childhood. We found that AD children, unlike TD controls, failed to infer the speaker’s referential intention through information gathered from the social context. This suggests that TD children can learn words in diverse social pragmatic contexts in as early as toddlerhood whereas AD children are still unable to do so by late childhood.
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Heijmerikx, Johan; de Poel, Harjo J.
A prerequisite for accurate passing in association football is that a player perceives the affordances, that is, the opportunities for action, of a given situation. The present study examined how affordances shape passing in association football by comparing the performance of pass-kicks in two task
Legare, Cristine H; Sobel, David M; Callanan, Maureen
Causal learning in childhood is a dynamic and collaborative process of explanation and exploration within complex physical and social environments. Understanding how children learn causal knowledge requires examining how they update beliefs about the world given novel information and studying the processes by which children learn in collaboration with caregivers, educators, and peers. The objective of this article is to review evidence for how children learn causal knowledge by explaining and exploring in collaboration with others. We review three examples of causal learning in social contexts, which elucidate how interaction with others influences causal learning. First, we consider children's explanation-seeking behaviors in the form of "why" questions. Second, we examine parents' elaboration of meaning about causal relations. Finally, we consider parents' interactive styles with children during free play, which constrains how children explore. We propose that the best way to understand children's causal learning in social context is to combine results from laboratory and natural interactive informal learning environments.
Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto
We studied the capability of the cricket "Gryllus bimaculatus" to select one of a pair of odors and to avoid the other in one context and to do the opposite in another context. One group of crickets was trained to associate one of a pair of odors (conditioned stimulus, CS1) with water reward (appetitive unconditioned stimulus, US+) and another…
Howarth, Lisa M.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Six language-impaired children, aged 4-7, were studied in two routinized contexts (a lesson without music and a singing session) and child-teacher talk was analyzed. Results showed that the addition of music to a routinized context has the potential to increase the language-impaired child's ability to interact non-verbally. (Author/JDD)
Frings, Christian; Koch, Iring; Moeller, Birte
Involuntary retrieval of previous stimulus-response episodes is a centerpiece of many theories of priming, episodic binding, and action control. Typically it is assumed that by repeating a stimulus from trial n-1 to trial n, involuntary retrieval is triggered in a nearly automatic fashion, facilitating (or interfering with) the to-be-executed action. Here we argue that changes in the offline context weaken the involuntary retrieval of previous episodes (the offline context is defined to be the information presented before or after the focal stimulus). In four conditions differing in cue modality and target modality, retrieval was diminished if participants changed the target selection criterion (as indicated by a cue presented before the selection took place) while they still performed the same task. Thus, solely through changes in the offline context (cue or selection criterion), involuntary retrieval can be weakened in an effective way.
Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Phillips, L Taylor
America's unprecedented levels of inequality have far-reaching negative consequences for society as a whole. Although differential access to resources contributes to inequality, the current review illuminates how ongoing participation in different social class contexts also gives rise to culture-specific selves and patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. We integrate a growing body of interdisciplinary research to reveal how social class culture cycles operate over the course of the lifespan and through critical gateway contexts, including homes, schools, and workplaces. We first document how each of these contexts socializes social class cultural differences. Then, we demonstrate how these gateway institutions, which could provide access to upward social mobility, are structured according to middle-class ways of being a self and thus can fuel and perpetuate inequality. We conclude with a discussion of intervention opportunities that can reduce inequality by taking into account the contextual responsiveness of the self.
Full Text Available The government 'spin' on lifelong learning, as expressed in the Green Paper, The Learning Age (DfEE, 1998, and taken forward in the White Paper, Learning to Succeed (DfEE, 1999, emphasizes knowledge acquisition, skills development and student-centred flexible education and training. The aim of the government, as expressed in the summary document, Education and Training Development Agenda 2000-2001, is to 'help develop a "learning society" in which everyone, in whatever circumstances, routinely expects to learn and upgrade skills throughout life' (DfEE, 1998. Central to this idealistic notion is the view that continuous updating in ICT skills will play a vital part in the self-empowerment of individual learners. In support of this vision the government is funding ventures such as the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT Learning Centres initiative - 'a new programme designed to help bridge the gap between those in society who have access to ICT and those who do not' (DfEE, 1999. Community Access to Lifelong Learning is a parallel New Opportunities Fund programme which is designed to encourage adult learning. It focuses on improving access to learning opportunities through the use of ICT.
Hansen, Frank Allan; Bouvin, Niels Olof
Modern project-based education requires students to be able to work with digital materials both in and out of the classroom. Field trips are often an integral part of such projects and greatly benefit students' learning by allowing them to engage with real-world environments first-hand. However......, the infrastructure for accessing context sensitive information and supporting in-situ authoring by students while in the field is often lacking. In this paper we present the HyCon framework for mobile, context-aware, and multi-platform hypermedia that aims at supporting several aspects of fieldtrips and project...
This paper theorises how politics, economy and migrant population policies influence educational policy, utilising Bourdieusian theoretical resources to analyse the Chinese context. It develops the work of Lingard and Rawolle on cross-field effects and produces an updated three-step analytical framework. Taking the policy issue of the schooling of…
Lore, Kin Gwn; Stoecklein, Daniel; Davies, Michael; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Sarkar, Soumik
Recurrent neural network (RNN) and Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) networks are the common go-to architecture for exploiting sequential information where the output is dependent on a sequence of inputs. However, in most considered problems, the dependencies typically lie in the latent domain which may not be suitable for applications involving the prediction of a step-wise transformation sequence that is dependent on the previous states only in the visible domain with a known terminal state. We propose a hybrid architecture of convolution neural networks (CNN) and stacked autoencoders (SAE) to learn a sequence of causal actions that nonlinearly transform an input visual pattern or distribution into a target visual pattern or distribution with the same support and demonstrated its practicality in a real-world engineering problem involving the physics of fluids. We solved a high-dimensional one-to-many inverse mapping problem concerning microfluidic flow sculpting, where the use of deep learning methods as an inverse map is very seldom explored. This work serves as a fruitful use-case to applied scientists and engineers in how deep learning can be beneficial as a solution for high-dimensional physical problems, and potentially opening doors to impactful advance in fields such as material sciences and medical biology where multistep topological transformations is a key element. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doctors are expected to be lifelong learners. This means that they should be able to identify their own weaknesses, have effective strategies to improve, and to reflect on this process. The competencies necessary for lifelong learning, are refined through engaging in self-regulated learning.
Development of mobile phones provides the students a different learning choice compared to studying in a traditional classroom. This study investigated undergraduate students' experiences with using their smartphones to receive learning contents for the improvement of their computer literacy. Through a survey and a pretest and posttest, the…
This action research was conducted to investigate the efficacy of networking, an adjusted cooperative learning method employed in an English literature class for non-English majors in China. Questionnaire was administered online anonymously to college students after a 14-week cooperative learning in literature class in a Chinese university, aiming…
Kouri, Theresa A.; Winn, Jennifer
Although most children seem to love music, our understanding of the role it plays in facilitating speech and language learning is limited, as is research validating its efficacy in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to examine how singing affects children's quick incidental learning (QUIL) of novel vocabulary terms. Sixteen…
Raoofi, Saeid; Tan, Bee Hoon; Chan, Swee Heng
This study reviews the empirical literature of self-efficacy, a central component of social cognitive theory, in the area of second language learning by focusing on two research questions: first, to what extent, has self-efficacy, as a predicting variable, been explored in the field of second language learning? Second, what factors affect…
Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta
Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.
ilhan, Nail; Yildirim, Ali; Yilmaz, Sibel Sadi
In recent years, many countries have adopted a context-based approach for designing science curricula for education at all levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Context-Based Chemistry Course (CBCC) as compared with traditional/existing instruction, on 11th grade students' learning about chemical equilibrium,…
Vuorikari, Riina Hannuli
Vuorikari, R. (2009). Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context. Doctoral thesis. November, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC.
Vuorikari, R. (2009). Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context. Doctoral thesis. November, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC.
Yarali, Ayse; Mayerle, Moritz; Nawroth, Christian; Gerber, Bertram
How is behaviour organised across sensory modalities? Specifically, we ask concerning the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster how visual context affects olfactory learning and recall and whether information about visual context is getting integrated into olfactory memory. We find that changing visual context between training and test does not deteriorate olfactory memory scores, suggesting that these olfactory memories can drive behaviour despite a mismatch of visual context between training and test. Rather, both the establishment and the recall of olfactory memory are generally facilitated by light. In a follow-up experiment, we find no evidence for learning about combinations of odours and visual context as predictors for reinforcement even after explicit training in a so-called biconditional discrimination task. Thus, a ‘true’ interaction between visual and olfactory modalities is not evident; instead, light seems to influence olfactory learning and recall unspecifically, for example by altering motor activity, alertness or olfactory acuity.
Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…
McGovern, David P; Roudaia, Eugenie; Newell, Fiona N; Roach, Neil W
To accurately represent the environment, our brains must integrate sensory signals from a common source while segregating those from independent sources. A reasonable strategy for performing this task is to restrict integration to cues that coincide in space and time. However, because multisensory signals are subject to differential transmission and processing delays, the brain must retain a degree of tolerance for temporal discrepancies. Recent research suggests that the width of this 'temporal binding window' can be reduced through perceptual learning, however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent effects. Here, in separate experiments, we measure the temporal and spatial binding windows of human participants before and after training on an audiovisual temporal discrimination task. We show that training leads to two distinct effects on multisensory integration in the form of (i) a specific narrowing of the temporal binding window that does not transfer to spatial binding and (ii) a general reduction in the magnitude of crossmodal interactions across all spatiotemporal disparities. These effects arise naturally from a Bayesian model of causal inference in which learning improves the precision of audiovisual timing estimation, whilst concomitantly decreasing the prior expectation that stimuli emanate from a common source.
Su, Chih-Ying; Wang, Jing W
Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of innate behavior and the underlying neural circuits. In particular, a wealth of neuromodulatory mechanisms have been uncovered that can alter the input-output relationship of a hereditary neural circuit. It is now clear that this inbuilt flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands and physiological states. Here, we discuss recent insights into how modulation of neural circuits impacts innate behavior, with a special focus on how environmental cues and internal physiological states shape different aspects of feeding behavior in Drosophila. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C
Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning
Seminar learning Veterinarians nowadays need to be equipped with knowledge and skills such as critical scientific thinking, analysing information, problem solving, and making decisions. Development of these skills demands other instructional methods than the traditional ‘transmission of knowledge’
Méndez López, Mariza Guadalupe
Although there have been numerous studies on motivation in foreign language learning and on emotions in general education, little research in foreign language learning have focused on the relation between motivation and learners' emotions (Maclntyre, 2002), as this shift to the affective side of motivation has only recently been suggested. Thus, this study aims to contribute to the body of knowledge on how foreign language learning motivation is shaped by emotional experiences. In order t...
Full Text Available The human visual system can acquire the statistical structures in temporal sequences of object feature changes, such as changes in shape, color, and its combination. Here we investigate whether the statistical learning for spatial position and shape changes operates separately or not. It is known that the visual system processes these two types of information separately; the spatial information is processed in the parietal cortex, whereas object shapes and colors are detected in the temporal pathway, and, after that, we perceive bound information in the two streams. We examined whether the statistical learning operates before or after binding the shape and the spatial information by using the “re-paired triplet” paradigm proposed by Turk-Browne, Isola, Scholl, and Treat (2008. The result showed that observers acquired combined sequences of shape and position changes, but no statistical information in individual sequence was obtained. This finding suggests that the visual statistical learning works after binding the temporal sequences of shapes and spatial structures and would operate in the higher-order visual system; this is consistent with recent ERP (Abla & Okanoya, 2009 and fMRI (Turk-Browne, Scholl, Chun, & Johnson, 2009 studies.
Gordon, Adel; Jackson, Janet; Usher, Julie
As ownership of smartphones and tablets grows there is increasing interest in how they might be used to support learning and teaching, both in the classroom and beyond. \\ud \\ud This Good Practice Guide has been put together by the UCISA Digital Skills and Development Group Academic Support sub-group to provide examples of good practice in using mobile technologies to enhance learning. It goes beyond provision of mobile access to existing technologies and focuses on the impact on the student l...
Author Dr Roseanna Bourke takes the reader on a fascinating exploration of learning: the theory, practice and young people's take on it. What do you say to a young person who tells you her brain is an eighth full? Or to the one who says he only knows he has learned something when he receives a stamp or a sticker? This book is about how learners…
MOOC is an abbreviation of Massive Open Online Course. Whether MOOC can be developed for EFL learning in the Chinese context is discussed regarding both the advantages and disadvantages. MOOC provides open access to resources of high quality, systematic set of social interactions and assessment, but still needs to enlarge structured EFL learning courses and exam-ine their effectiveness (Wu & Zhou, 2014). The lack of needs analysis and existence of language obstacles are the defects of MOOC for EFL learning in China.
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Danielsen, Oluf; Nielsen, Janni
interactive media. The project shows that in children's spare-time use of ICT they employ informal forms of learning based to a large extent on their social interaction both in physical and virtual spaces. These informal learning forms can be identified as learning hierarchies, learning communities...... and learning networks; they are important contributions to the school of the knowledge society. The ICT in New Learning Environments project based on anthropologically inspired methods and social learning theories shows that students bring their informal forms of learning into the school context. This happens...... working with ICT and project-based learning is shown to simultaneously constitute a mixed mode between the school of the industrial and the knowledge society. The research shows that it is possible to tip the balance in the direction of the school of the knowledge society, and thus of the future...
Pendergast, Laura L.; Kaplan, Avi
From an ecological perspective, learning and development in childhood and throughout the lifespan occur in the context of interactions within complex social networks. Collectively, the articles in this special issue illuminate three important themes related to teacher-student interactions within instructional contexts: relationships, competence,…
Despite different epistemologies and assumptions, all theories in second language (L2) acquisition emphasize the centrality of context in understanding L2 acquisition. Under the assumption that language emerges from use in context, the cognitivist approach focuses on distributions and properties of input to infer both learning objects and process…
Van Liere, Lucien
This article raises the question about how definitions of religion and violence can be understood as links to the context in which they are formulated. The focus is on the context of academic learning. Understanding a definition as a micro-narrative that reflects the cultural 'archive', the author
Ozdemir, Devrim; Doolittle, Peter
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of context-dependency of seductive details on recall and transfer in multimedia learning environments. Seductive details were interesting yet irrelevant sentences in the instructional text. Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to identify context-dependent and…
Chun, Marvin M.; Jiang, Yuhong
Six experiments involving a total of 112 college students demonstrate that a robust memory for visual context exists to guide spatial attention. Results show how implicit learning and memory of visual context can guide spatial attention toward task-relevant aspects of a scene. (SLD)
Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy
This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…
Pastoor, Lutine de Wal
This article explores unaccompanied young refugees' participation in various learning contexts beyond school. Drawing from a qualitative study based on interviews with unaccompanied young refugees, educators and social workers in Norway, the findings emphasise the need for a holistic approach to refugee education in and across contexts of…
Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz
Full Text Available The natural environment is of great importance when it comes to developing a city, as it shapes its spaces, defines its roles and performs climatic and protective functions. Industrialization often requires removing landscape obstacles and vegetation to erect new buildings. An urban planner, though, should be aware of the borders that must not be crossed. Designing new streets and buildings should follow a sustainable growth pattern, if the city landscape and its climatic conditions are to improve for generations to come. This paper discusses the aspects of planning and managing urban spaces in such a way as to provide their users with healthy and comfortable living conditions. The paper is based on a survey conducted to gather the opinions of members of a city community on the environment in which they live.
Zhao, Xinyou; Okamoto, Toshio
Empowered by mobile computing, teachers and students can benefit from computing in more scenarios beyond the traditional computer classroom. But because of the much diversity of device specification, learning contents and mobile context existing today, the learners get a bad learning experience (e.g. rich contents cannot be displayed correctly)…
Smith, Deborah C.; Jang, Shinho
This case study of a fifth-year elementary intern's pathway in learning to teach science focused on her science methods course, placement science teaching, and reflections as a first-year teacher. We studied the sociocultural contexts within which the intern learned, their affordances and constraints, and participants' perspectives on their roles…
Le Pichon-Vorstman, E.M.M.; de Swart, H.E.; Vorstman, J.A.S.; van den Bergh, H.H.
The present study was set up to evaluate the extent to which the context in which a foreign language is learned can influence the strategic competence of children. To assess this we conducted a series of think aloud protocols with 101 children. We compared children who have learned an additional
Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda
This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…
The adoption of mobile technology is rapidly transforming how individuals obtain information. Learning occurs when content is accessed in a recursive process of awareness, exploration, reflection and resolution within one's social context. Specifically, the most visible, current definitions of mobile learning provide an overview of the learning…
Ma, Min; Van Oystaeyen, Fred
The authors' aim was to arrive at a measurable model of the creative process by putting creativity in the context of a learning process. The authors aimed to provide a rather detailed description of how creative thinking fits in a general description of the learning process without trying to go into an analysis of a biological description of the…
Trogrlic, Lidia; Wilson, Yvette M.; Newman, Andrew G.; Murphy, Mark
The identity and distribution of neurons that are involved in any learning or memory event is not known. In previous studies, we identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral amygdala that show learning-specific activation of a c-"fos"-regulated transgene following context fear conditioning. Here, we have extended these studies to…
Contextual learning starts from the premise that learning cannot take place in a vacuum, but should somehow be connected with real world attributes to make sense to learners. Today, digital media tend to bring about new dimensions of context: internet connections and mobile devices enable learners to overcome restrictions of time and location, and…
This article reports a study applying an exploratory factor analysis to discovering the underlying factor structure of Chinese college students' obstacles to learning MOOC in an English context. Seven obstacle factors are identified: 1. academic and language skills; 2. internet skills; 3. course instruction/management; 4. learning motivations; 5.…
Papanikolaou, Kyparisia; Boubouka, Maria
In this paper we investigate the value of collaboration scripts for promoting metacognitive knowledge in a project-based e-learning context. In an empirical study, 82 students worked individually and in groups on a project using the e-learning environment MyProject, in which the life cycle of a project is inherent. Students followed a particular…
Roy, Debopriyo; Brine, John; Murasawa, Fuyuki
The act of note-taking offloads cognitive pressure and note-taking applications could be used as an important tool for foreign language acquisition. Its use, importance, and efficacy in a foreign language learning context could be justifiably debated. However, existing computer-assisted language learning literature is almost silent on the topic.…
Making Stuff is a four-part series that explores how materials changed history and are shaping the future. To further enhance public engagement in and understanding of materials science, the project convened an extensive network of community coalitions across the country that hosted Making Stuff outreach activities and events, science cafes, and educator workshops in their local areas. Department Of Energy funding enabled us to increase the number of communities formally involved in the project, from 10 to 20 community hubs. Department of Energy funding also made it possible to develop a collection of materials science resources, activities and hands-on demonstrations for use in a variety of formal and informal settings, and Making Stuff activities were presented at science conferences and festivals around the country. The design, printing and national dissemination of the Making Stuff afterschool activity guide were also developed with DOE funding, as well as professional webinar trainings for scientists and educators to help facilitate many of the community activities and other online and print materials. Thanks to additional funding from the Department of Energy, we were able to expand the reach and scope of the project's outreach plan, specifically in the areas of: 1) content development, 2) training/professional development, 3) educational activities and 4) community partnerships. This report documents how the following DOE project goals were met: (1) Train scientists and provide teachers and informal educators with resources to engage youth with age appropriate information about materials science; (2) Provide activities and resources to five selected communities with ties to DOE researchers; (3) Increase interest in STEM.
Jones, E J H; Webb, S J; Estes, A; Dawson, G
Learning abstract rules is central to social and cognitive development. Across two experiments, we used Delayed Non-Matching to Sample tasks to characterize the longitudinal development and nature of rule-learning impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that children with ASD consistently experienced more difficulty learning an abstract rule from a discrete physical reward than children with DD. Rule learning was facilitated by the provision of more concrete reinforcement, suggesting an underlying difficulty in forming conceptual connections. Learning abstract rules about social stimuli remained challenging through late childhood, indicating the importance of testing executive functions in both social and non-social contexts.
Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur
The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…
Pileggi, Victoria; Holliday, Joanna; de Santis, Carm; Lamarre, Andrea; Jeffrey, Nicole; Tetro, Maria; Rice, Carla
It is within the overlap of three gaps in the literature on feminist classrooms (lack of initiation, student representation, and evaluation) that the authors situate this paper. In conceptualizing this paper, they wanted not only to describe a context from which others can consider their own present or future offerings of feminist,…
Ulges, A.; Worring, M.; Breuel, T.
We present an extension of automatic image annotation that takes the context of a picture into account. Our core assumption is that users do not only provide individual images to be tagged, but group their pictures into batches (e.g., all snapshots taken over the same holiday trip), whereas the
Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Trimbos, B.; Both, S.
BACKGROUND: d-Cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction processes in animals. Although classical conditioning is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of appetitive motivation problems, no research has been conducted on the effect of DCS on the reduction of context specificity of
Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie
d-Cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction processes in animals. Although classical conditioning is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of appetitive motivation problems, no research has been conducted on the effect of DCS on the reduction of context specificity of extinction in human
Anderson, Brian A
There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Kaner, Cem; Pettichord, Bret
Decades of software testing experience condensed into the most important lessons learned.The world's leading software testing experts lend you their wisdom and years of experience to help you avoid the most common mistakes in testing software. Each lesson is an assertion related to software testing, followed by an explanation or example that shows you the how, when, and why of the testing lesson. More than just tips, tricks, and pitfalls to avoid, Lessons Learned in Software Testing speeds you through the critical testing phase of the software development project without the extensive trial an
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter
The aim of the article is to provide new, operational knowledge concerning implementation and quality assurance of e-learning. This is done through the merging of the two models presented in Högskoleverket’s report (Högskoleverket, 2008) and the article, ”The quality of evaluation is enhanced, when...... the model used is contextualized”2 (Kjeldsen, Laursen, & Mark, 2010) respectively. The article builds on the basic assumption that staff who are introduced to e-learning need to know why they must acquire new knowledge and skills, and what it will take for them to reach a position where they master the new...
Daphna S. Horowitz; René van Eeden
Orientation: Personal leadership comprises self-awareness, authenticity, inspiration and passion. The concept of personal leadership was explored together with its relationship with leadership-related learnings derived from a catalytic experience. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the leadership-related learnings derived from a catalytic experience and any connection between these learnings, personal leadership and leadership in an organisational context. Mot...
Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…
This article explores the relationship between language, hegemony and identity in a desegregated school in suburban Johannesburg, South Africa. Drawing on post-structuralist theories of language learning and identity that evaluate cultural models of literacy, ideologies and institutional discourses, this article examines how multilingual learners'…
Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie
Multimodal instruction with text and pictures was compared with unimodal, text-only instruction. More specifically, 44 students used a visual or a textual manual to learn a complex software application. During 2 103–116-min training sessions, cognitive load, and time and ability to recover from
Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules
Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)
In her book "Informal Learning and the School: A new classroom pedagogy" Lucy Green notes: "The issues ... centre around the importance of listening to young people's voices and taking their values and their culture seriously" (Green, 2008, p. 185). It can be argued that for young people, "their culture" is frequently…
Project-based learning (PBL) that has authenticity in the pupils' world enables the teaching of science and technology to pupils from a variety of backgrounds. PBL has the potential to enable pupils to research, plan, design, and reflect on the creation of technological projects (Doppelt, 2000). Engineering education, which is common in Israel,…
Vickery, Timothy J.; Sussman, Rachel S.; Jiang, Yuhong V.
The human visual system is constantly confronted with an overwhelming amount of information, only a subset of which can be processed in complete detail. Attention and implicit learning are two important mechanisms that optimize vision. This study addressed the relationship between these two mechanisms. Specifically we asked, Is implicit learning…
Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping
information. In particular, for feature extraction, we develop a new set of kernel descriptors−Context Kernel Descriptors (CKD), which enhance the original KDES by embedding the spatial context into the descriptors. Context cues contained in the context kernel enforce some degree of spatial consistency, thus...... improving the robustness of CKD. For feature learning and reduction, we propose a novel codebook learning method, based on a Rényi quadratic entropy based mutual information measure called Cauchy-Schwarz Quadratic Mutual Information (CSQMI), to learn a compact and discriminative CKD codebook. Projecting...... as the information about the underlying labels of the CKD using CSQMI. Thus the resulting codebook and reduced CKD are discriminative. We verify the effectiveness of our method on several public image benchmark datasets such as YaleB, Caltech-101 and CIFAR-10, as well as a challenging chicken feet dataset of our own...
Misfeldt, Renée; Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Boakye, Omenaa; Wong, Sabrina; Nasmith, Louise
This paper discusses findings from a high-level scan of the contextual factors and actors that influenced policies on team-based primary healthcare in three Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The team searched diverse sources (e.g., news reports, press releases, discussion papers) for contextual information relevant to primary healthcare teams. We also conducted qualitative interviews with key health system informants from the three provinces. Data from documents and interviews were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. We then wrote narrative summaries highlighting pivotal policy and local system events and the influence of actors and context. Our overall findings highlight the value of reviewing the context, relationships and power dynamics, which come together and create "policy windows" at different points in time. We observed physician-centric policy processes with some recent moves to rebalance power and be inclusive of other actors and perspectives. The context review also highlighted the significant influence of changes in political leadership and prioritization in driving policies on team-based care. While this existed in different degrees in the three provinces, the push and pull of political and professional power dynamics shaped Canadian provincial policies governing team-based care. If we are to move team-based primary healthcare forward in Canada, the provinces need to review the external factors and the complex set of relationships and trade-offs that underscore the policy process. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.
Todd, Juanita; Provost, Alexander; Whitson, Lisa R; Cooper, Gavin; Heathcote, Andrew
Mismatch negativity (MMN), an evoked response potential elicited when a "deviant" sound violates a regularity in the auditory environment, is integral to auditory scene processing and has been used to demonstrate "primitive intelligence" in auditory short-term memory. Using a new multiple-context and -timescale protocol we show that MMN magnitude displays a context-sensitive modulation depending on changes in the probability of a deviant at multiple temporal scales. We demonstrate a primacy bias causing asymmetric evidence-based modulation of predictions about the environment, and we demonstrate that learning how to learn about deviant probability (meta-learning) induces context-sensitive variation in the accessibility of predictive long-term memory representations that underpin the MMN. The existence of the bias and meta-learning are consistent with automatic attributions of behavioral salience governing relevance-filtering processes operating outside of awareness.
This article will focus on the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence by second language learners during a period of study abroad. Various aspects of sociolinguistic competence will be discussed and some of the principal factors which affect it will be described. Factors which affect sociolinguistic competence emerging from research in the area of study abroad include some which are central to the acquisition of second languages in general: context of acquisition, level o...
Recent theoretical models suggest that motor learning includes at least two processes: error minimization and memory decay. While learning a novel movement, a motor memory of the movement is gradually formed to minimize the movement error between the desired and actual movements in each training trial, but the memory is slightly forgotten in each trial. The learning effects of error minimization trained with a certain movement are partially available in other non-trained movements, and this transfer of the learning effect can be reproduced by certain theoretical frameworks. Although most theoretical frameworks have assumed that a motor memory trained with a certain movement decays at the same speed during performing the trained movement as non-trained movements, a recent study reported that the motor memory decays faster during performing the trained movement than non-trained movements, i.e., the decay rate of motor memory is movement or context dependent. Although motor learning has been successfully modeled based on an optimization framework, e.g., movement error minimization, the type of optimization that can lead to context-dependent memory decay is unclear. Thus, context-dependent memory decay raises the question of what is optimized in motor learning. To reproduce context-dependent memory decay, I extend a motor primitive framework. Specifically, I introduce motor effort optimization into the framework because some previous studies have reported the existence of effort optimization in motor learning processes and no conventional motor primitive model has yet considered the optimization. Here, I analytically and numerically revealed that context-dependent decay is a result of motor effort optimization. My analyses suggest that context-dependent decay is not merely memory decay but is evidence of motor effort optimization in motor learning.
Full Text Available Recent theoretical models suggest that motor learning includes at least two processes: error minimization and memory decay. While learning a novel movement, a motor memory of the movement is gradually formed to minimize the movement error between the desired and actual movements in each training trial, but the memory is slightly forgotten in each trial. The learning effects of error minimization trained with a certain movement are partially available in other non-trained movements, and this transfer of the learning effect can be reproduced by certain theoretical frameworks. Although most theoretical frameworks have assumed that a motor memory trained with a certain movement decays at the same speed during performing the trained movement as non-trained movements, a recent study reported that the motor memory decays faster during performing the trained movement than non-trained movements, i.e., the decay rate of motor memory is movement or context dependent. Although motor learning has been successfully modeled based on an optimization framework, e.g., movement error minimization, the type of optimization that can lead to context-dependent memory decay is unclear. Thus, context-dependent memory decay raises the question of what is optimized in motor learning. To reproduce context-dependent memory decay, I extend a motor primitive framework. Specifically, I introduce motor effort optimization into the framework because some previous studies have reported the existence of effort optimization in motor learning processes and no conventional motor primitive model has yet considered the optimization. Here, I analytically and numerically revealed that context-dependent decay is a result of motor effort optimization. My analyses suggest that context-dependent decay is not merely memory decay but is evidence of motor effort optimization in motor learning.
Probst, Janice C; Barker, Judith C; Enders, Alexandra; Gardiner, Paula
Children's health is influenced by the context in which they live. We provide a descriptive essay on the status of children in rural America to highlight features of the rural environment that may affect health. We compiled information concerning components of the rural environment that may contribute to health outcomes. Areas addressed include the economic characteristics, provider availability, uniquely rural health risks, health services use, and health outcomes among rural children. Nearly 12 million children live in the rural United States. Rural counties are economically disadvantaged, leading to higher rates of poverty among rural versus urban children. Rural and urban children are approximately equally likely to be insured, but Medicaid insures a higher proportion of children in rural areas. While generally similar in health, rural children are more likely to be overweight or obese than urban children. Rural parents are less likely to report that their children received preventive medical or oral health visits than urban parents. Rural children are more likely to die than their urban peers, largely due to unintentional injury. Improving rural children's health will require both increased public health surveillance and research that creates solutions appropriate for rural environments, where health care professionals may be in short supply. Most importantly, solutions must be multisectoral, engaging education, economic development, and other community perspectives as well as health care. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.
Lee, Ga-Young; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Kiwoong; Seong, Joon-Kyung
Mobile healthcare applications are becoming a growing trend. Also, the prevalence of dementia in modern society is showing a steady growing trend. Among degenerative brain diseases that cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common. The purpose of this study was to identify AD patients using magnetic resonance imaging in the mobile environment. We propose an incremental classification for mobile healthcare systems. Our classification method is based on incremental learning for AD diagnosis and AD prediction using the cortical thickness data and hippocampus shape. We constructed a classifier based on principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We performed initial learning and mobile subject classification. Initial learning is the group learning part in our server. Our smartphone agent implements the mobile classification and shows various results. With use of cortical thickness data analysis alone, the discrimination accuracy was 87.33% (sensitivity 96.49% and specificity 64.33%). When cortical thickness data and hippocampal shape were analyzed together, the achieved accuracy was 87.52% (sensitivity 96.79% and specificity 63.24%). In this paper, we presented a classification method based on online learning for AD diagnosis by employing both cortical thickness data and hippocampal shape analysis data. Our method was implemented on smartphone devices and discriminated AD patients for normal group.
This paper presents findings collected from a collaborative implementation project established in Spring 2008 between Aalborg University’s IT-department in the Faculty of Social Science (FSS) and the E-Learning Cooperation Unit (ELSA) with the view to implement Moodle in FSS. The purpose of this ......This paper presents findings collected from a collaborative implementation project established in Spring 2008 between Aalborg University’s IT-department in the Faculty of Social Science (FSS) and the E-Learning Cooperation Unit (ELSA) with the view to implement Moodle in FSS. The purpose...... of this cooperation was conceived from an organisational desire to establish a virtual learning environment (VLE), where it was possible, to build activities and underpin the pedagogical approach. Another perspective was to further improve the communication between the administration, teachers and students....... This paper will highlight the development process and some of the didactic considerations undertaken for the implementation. The evaluations undertaken during the process will also be presented, along with the results collected in the use of Moodle to highlight the educational changes. Keywords: Blended...
Roscioli, Deise Caldart
Full Text Available This study aims at investigating whether consciousness-raising tasks, used in a communicative learning environment of EFL, can be considered a valid instrument for eliciting explicit learning in that context. Five participants enrolled in the second level of a language course answered a cycle of tasks that intended to teach the use of comparatives. The materials used in this study consisted of a pre-task, consciousness-raising tasks, an untimed grammaticality judgment test, and a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the instruments used in this research were of a valid nature for eliciting explicit learning. The findings also provide empirical support regarding the importance of consciousness-raising tasks to assist students’ second language learning in a communicative classroom environment. Despite being a small scale research, this study may contribute to a greater understanding of the SLA processes within a communicative context and highlight the importance of explicit knowledge learning within a meaning focused approach
Jiang, Na; Tan, Chee-Wee; Wang, Weiquan
Context-Aware Recommender Systems (CARSs) are becoming commonplace. Yet, there is a paucity of studies that investigates how such systems could affect usage behavior from a user-system interaction perspective. Building on the Social Interdependence Theory (SIT), we construct a research model...... of users’ promotive interaction with CARSs, which in turn, dictates the performance of such recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce scrutability features as design interventions that can be harnessed by developers to mitigate the impact of users’ promotive interaction on the performance of CARSs....
Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun
Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…
Borgnakke, Karen; Lyngsø, Anita
The paper is focusing on e-pedagogical strategies in online nursing education and summarizes empirical findings from ongoing fieldwork. In the ethnographic research close up analysis of the e-pedagogical practice bring light to the process of learning. Following the shifting online and offline...... activities, the analysis of the digital classroom and observations of the students in the clinical practice show how the students creates strategies in interaction with both students fellows, supervisors and patients. The paper will give examples from the fieldwork and hereby show how strategies and the e...
Liao, Donghua; Wang, P; Zhao, Jingbo
Recently we developed analysis for 3D visceral organ deformation by combining the shape context (SC) method with a full-field strain (strain distribution on a whole 3D surface) analysis for calculating distension-induced rat stomach deformation. The surface deformation detected by the SC method...... needs to be further verified by using a feature tracking measurement. Hence, the aim of this study was to verify the SC method-based calculation by using digital image correlation (DIC) measurement on a rat stomach. The rat stomach exposed to distension pressures 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 kPa were studied...... and the SC calculated correspondence surface was compared. Compared with DIC measurement, the SC calculated surface had errors from 5% to 23% at pressures from 0.2 to 0.6 kPa with different surface sample counts between the reference surface and the target surface. This indicates good qualitative...
Amelia S Knopf
Full Text Available AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics.Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population.The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1 being primed for sex, 2 making sense of sex, and 3 having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy.The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape adolescents' sexual lives
Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Tse, Peter U
Visual search is often slow and difficult for complex stimuli such as feature conjunctions. Search efficiency, however, can improve with training. Search for stimuli that can be identified by the spatial configuration of two elements (e.g., the relative position of two colored shapes) improves dramatically within a few hundred trials of practice. Several recent imaging studies have identified neural correlates of this learning, but it remains unclear what stimulus properties participants learn to use to search efficiently. Influential models, such as reverse hierarchy theory, propose two major possibilities: learning to use information contained in low-level image statistics (e.g., single features at particular retinotopic locations) or in high-level characteristics (e.g., feature conjunctions) of the task-relevant stimuli. In a series of experiments, we tested these two hypotheses, which make different predictions about the effect of various stimulus manipulations after training. We find relatively small effects of manipulating low-level properties of the stimuli (e.g., changing their retinotopic location) and some conjunctive properties (e.g., color-position), whereas the effects of manipulating other conjunctive properties (e.g., color-shape) are larger. Overall, the findings suggest conjunction learning involving such stimuli might be an emergent phenomenon that reflects multiple different learning processes, each of which capitalizes on different types of information contained in the stimuli. We also show that both targets and distractors are learned, and that reversing learned target and distractor identities impairs performance. This suggests that participants do not merely learn to discriminate target and distractor stimuli, they also learn stimulus identity mappings that contribute to performance improvements.
Full Text Available There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate why this is happening in one particular campus university context. My study examines the strategies of individual lecturers for adopting e-learning within their disciplinary, departmental and university work environments to develop a conceptual framework for analysing university learning and teaching as a complex adaptive system. This conceptual framework links the processes through which university teaching changes, the resulting forms of learning activity and the learning technologies used – all within the organisational context of the university. The framework suggests that systemic transformation of a university's learning and teaching requires coordinated change across activities that have traditionally been managed separately in campus universities. Without such coordination, established ways of organising learning and teaching will reassert themselves, as support staff and lecturers seek to optimise their own work locally. The conceptual framework could inform strategies for realising the full benefits of new learning technologies in other campus universities.
Rogal, Sonya M M; Snider, Paul D
Problem based learning is a teaching and learning strategy that uses a problematic stimulus as a means of motivating and directing students to develop and acquire knowledge. Problem based learning is a strategy that is typically used with small groups attending a series of sessions. This article describes the principles of problem based learning and its application in atypical contexts; large groups attending discrete, stand-alone sessions. The principles of problem based learning are based on Socratic teaching, constructivism and group facilitation. To demonstrate the application of problem based learning in an atypical setting, this article focuses on the graduate nurse intake from a teaching hospital. The groups are relatively large and meet for single day sessions. The modified applications of problem based learning to meet the needs of atypical groups are described. This article contains a step by step guide of constructing a problem based learning package for large, single session groups. Nurse educators facing similar groups will find they can modify problem based learning to suit their teaching context.
years of tradition with emphasis on classroom teaching (ibid.). The project is methodologically inspired by both ethnographic methods and evaluation re-search (Borgnakke 2013a, Dahler-Larsen 2003). The methodological approach draws on in-ternational experience with school and education ethnographic......The underlying basis for this paper is research-based evaluation of a digital innovative educa-tion in nursing at Faculty of Health Sciences, VIA University College in Denmark, called NETeducation. The purpose of NETeducation is to develop an e-didactic approach to profes-sional learning both...... in a digital and high-tech healthcare. Research shows that young people's use of technology educationally leads to achieving digital literacy or technacy (Borgnakke 2012), but also that the nursing stu-dents’ IT habitus may complicate this (Kolbæk 2013). Furthermore, the e-pedagogical ap-proach challenges 100...
Full Text Available Operant extinction is learning to supress a previously rewarded behavior. It is known to be strongly associated with the specific context in which it was acquired, which limits the therapeutic use of operant extinction in behavioral treatments, e.g., of addiction. We examined whether sleep influences contextual memory of operant extinction over time, using two different recall tests (Recent and Remote. Rats were trained in an operant conditioning task (lever press in context A, then underwent extinction training in context B, followed by a 3-h retention period that contained either spontaneous morning sleep, morning sleep deprivation, or spontaneous evening wakefulness. A recall test was performed either immediately after the 3-h experimental retention period (Recent recall or after 48 h (Remote, in the extinction context B and in a novel context C. The two main findings were: (i at the Recent recall test, sleep in comparison with sleep deprivation and spontaneous wakefulness enhanced extinction memory but, only in the extinction context B; (ii at the Remote recall, extinction performance after sleep was enhanced in both contexts B and C to an extent comparable to levels at Recent recall in context B. Interestingly, extinction performance at Remote recall was also improved in the sleep deprivation groups in both contexts, with no difference to performance in the sleep group. Our results suggest that 3 h of post-learning sleep transiently facilitate the context specificity of operant extinction at a Recent recall. However, the improvement and contextual generalization of operant extinction memory observed in the long-term, i.e., after 48 h, does not require immediate post-learning sleep.
Full Text Available This study examines the perceptions of five English teachers, Mexicans, about their learning environments during their graduate studies in various British universities. The results indicate that the positive influences of their learning contexts were: (a the quality of instruction, (b the use of activities to facilitate understanding, and (c freedom of choice of subjects and study methods. Negative influences reported concerning the learning environment: (a lack of congruence between teaching and evaluation, (b inconsistency in teachers’ evaluation practices, (c teachers lack of clarity regarding their expectations and feedback, and (d type of academic support received. The results suggest that higher education on a global scale requires teachers with more experience in international education. Future research on student perceptions of learning contexts might address thesociocultural aspects of this.
Rizzi Raymundo, C.; Johnson, C. G.; Vargas, P. A.
This work proposes a theoretical architectural model based on the brain's fear learning system with the purpose of generating artificial fear conditioning at both stimuli and context abstraction levels in robot companions. The proposed architecture is inspired by the different brain regions involved in fear learning, here divided into four modules that work in an integrated and parallel manner: the sensory system, the amygdala system, the hippocampal system and the working memory. Each of the...
Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie
The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words...
Khany, Reza; Amiri, Majid
Theoretical developments in second or foreign language motivation research have led to a better understanding of the convoluted nature of motivation in the process of language acquisition. Among these theories, action control theory has recently shown a good deal of explanatory power in second language learning contexts and in the presence of…
W J Coetsee
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI in the South African context. The sample used in this study was a convenience sample of 240 employees working for a Banking group. Exploratory factor analysis of the LTSI was used to determine if an interpretable factor structure of latent transfer system constructs when applied in the South African context could be identified. From the results it appears that the factor structure of the LTSI, as revealed by means of the exploratory approach, appears differently in the South African context.
Mueller, Anneliese Marie
Given the prominence of sense of place in new environmental education curricula, this study aims to strengthen the conceptual and empirical foundations of sense of place, and to determine how sense of place may be linked to environmentally responsible behavior. For this study, five commercial fishermen and five organic farmers from the New England Seacoast region participated in a series of in-depth phenomenological interviews and observations. The data was systematically coded in order to allow themes and categories to emerge. The results indicate that aspects of the existing conceptual framework of sense of place, such as place attachment, ecological knowledge, and public involvement, do in fact describe the relationship between people and place. However, the results also indicate that two conceptual elements---attention to social context and awareness of moral theory---are missing from the current conceptual framework in EE theory. These results suggest that the current framework should be expanded to emphasize the role of human and non-human communities: the development of a sense of place and the learning of environmentally responsible behavior must be situated within a social context. This study lends support to the view that for sense of place to move people to ethical action, it is crucial for them to recognize, and to participate in, a community of support and care.
Le Pichon Vorstman, E.; de Swart, H.; Ceginskas, V.; van den Bergh, H.
What is the influence of a language learning experience (LLE) in a school context on the metacognitive development of children? To answer that question, we presented 54 multilingual preschoolers with two movie clips and examined their reactions to an exolingual situation of communication. These
Montero, Lidia; Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Àngels
This study examines the effects of foreign language learning context (three-month study-abroad; versus "at-home" instruction) and age (10-11-year-old children versus university students) on the development of effective foreign language communication strategies (CS) in monologue production. Participants (N = 95) were all Spanish/Catalan…
Choy, Marisa S.; Johnson, Stephen A.; Ortolano, Leonard
This article describes a simulation-based teaching approach that helps university students learn about negotiation in the context of environmental regulatory enforcement. The approach centers on negotiation of a penalty between government agencies and a fictitious corporation that has violated provisions of the U.S. Clean Water Act. The exercise…
Sasi, Sabri; Chang, Maiga; Altinay-Aksal, Fahriye; Kayimbasioglu, Dervis; Dervis, Huseyin; Kinshuk; Altinay-Gazi, Zehra
Early childhood quality education is a cornerstone in educational development. Many countries have started to develop their own preschool educational system in accordance with the European Union Standards, where learning English language and using technology are prerequisites. In this research, the peace context was used as a mediator for learning…
Sugita McEown, Maya; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Harada, Tetsuo
The study focuses on the role of different theories when considered together in a foreign language other than English (LOTE) context. Specifically, the study examines (a) to what extent influential second language (L2) motivational theories, when integrated, explain motivation to learn LOTEs, and (b) how the powerful status of English in Japan…
Penuel, William R.; DiGiacomo, Daniela K.; Van Horne, Katie; Kirshner, Ben
This paper presents a social practice theory of learning and becoming across contexts and time. Our perspective is rooted in the Danish tradition of critical psychology (Dreier, 1997; Mørck & Huniche, 2006; Nissen, 2005), and we use social practice theory to interpret the pathway of one adolescent whom we followed as part of a longitudinal…
Bennett, Sue; Thomas, Lisa; Agostinho, Shirley; Lockyer, Lori; Jones, Jennifer; Harper, Barry
Based on the premise that providing support for university teachers in designing for their teaching will ultimately improve the quality of student learning outcomes, recent interest in the development of support tools and strategies has gained momentum. This article reports on a study that examined the context in which Australian university…
There is a growing body of scholarship in mathematics education that has attended to the salience of race in mathematics teaching and learning. However, in the context of secondary classrooms with equity-oriented instruction, we know little about race and processes of racialization, and even less from the perspectives of students of color and in…
Dogan, Selçuk; Tatik, R. Samil; Yurtseven, Nihal
The main purpose of this study is to adapt and validate the Professional Learning Communities Assessment Revised (PLCA-R) by Olivier, Hipp, and Huffman within the context of Turkish schools. The instrument was translated and adapted to administer to teachers in Turkey. Internal structure of the Turkish version of PLCA-R was investigated by using…
Goei, Sui Lin; Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia
This paper summarises results of two studies on teachers’ learning when participating in a collaborative Lesson Study team within the context of mathematics teaching. In study one, Lesson Study was used in the classic way of preparing, designing, executing and reflecting on the research lesson.
This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…
van der Zande, P.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827363
Learners in Dialogue; this thesis aims at the exploration of teacher expertise for teachers who want to teach genetics in the context of genetic testing and at finding ways to foster teacher learning concerning this expertise. Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily
Pintrich, Paul R.
Develops a motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired…
Pöntinen, Susanna; Dillon, Patrick; Väisänen, Pertti
This research is a contribution to issues of digital technology use at the interface of formal and informal learning contexts. The research was conducted in the discourse tradition and investigates Finnish teacher training students' 'manners of speaking' as resources for, and obstacles to, making pedagogical changes in response to the potential of…
Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.
This paper reports on the challenge of evaluating students' scientific literacy in a writing-to-learn context, as illustrated by our experience with an online science-writing project. In this mixed methods study, year 9 students in a case study class (13-14 year olds, n?=?26) authored a series of two "hybridised" short stories that…
Somerville, Mary M.; Howard, Zaana
Introduction: This paper discusses an "information in context" design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. Method: This action research project is founded within shared leadership, informed learning and…
Hodgson, Vivien; Shah, Uzair
While there are many studies exploring the phenomenon of lecturers' use of learning technology within teaching practices in western higher education contexts, currently we know little about this phenomenon within less developed countries. In the paper, we discuss the findings from a phenomenographic study of lecturers' conceptions of using…
Hughes, Stephen P.; Tulimirovic, Bojana
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are firmly established in language learning contexts, yet there are still many questions in relation to how widely they are employed and, indeed, how useful they are in developing all aspects of communicative competence. With a cohort of four teachers and one hundred students, this study examines…
Viegas, Maria C.; Marques, Maria A.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Brouns, Francis; Janssen, José; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; Mykowska, Alexandra; Conde, Miguel Á.; García-Holgado, Alicia; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.
Viegas, C., Marques, A., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Janssen, J., Waszkiewicz, E., Mykowska, A., Gonzalez, M., Holgado, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. (2013). Using TRAILER tool for Managing Informal Learning in academic and professional contexts: the learners’ perspective. In F.
Kaminska, Renata; Borzillo, Stefano
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the challenges to the emergence of a learning organization (LO) posed by a context of generational diversity and an enterprise social networking system (ESNS). Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a qualitative methodology based on an analysis of 20 semi-structured…
Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew
As the English language has become a global lingua franca today, it is not surprising that changes in attitudes and perceptions towards learning English in the international context have taken place at the same time. In this paper, I critically examine the notion of "integrative motivation" in the literature of second language (L2)…
Danes, Sharon M.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Brewton, Katherine E.
Grounded in social construction theory, the current study investigates the learning context when studying financial planning in high school by analyzing the nesting of student, teacher and classroom characteristics. Key findings were that three student characteristics (initial financial knowledge, gender, senior grade level), one teacher variable…
This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…
Tunur, Tumay; Dohanich, Gary P.; Schrader, Laura A.
The multiple memory systems hypothesis proposes that different types of learning strategies are mediated by distinct neural systems in the brain. Male and female mice were tested on a water plus-maze task that could be solved by either a place or response strategy. One group of mice was pre-exposed to the same context as training and testing (PTC)…
Beek, W.; Bredeweg, B.; Latour, S.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.
We implemented three kinds of context-dependent help for a qualitative modelling and simulation workbench called DynaLearn. We show that it is possible to generate and select assistance knowledge based on the current model, simulation results and workbench state.
Evangelina Díaz Obando
Full Text Available In Costa Rica, many secondary students have serious difficulties to establish relationships between mathematics and real-life contexts. They question the utilitarian role of the school mathematics. This fact motivated the research object of this report which evidences the need to overcome methodologies unrelated to students’ reality, toward new didactical options that help students to value mathematics, reasoning and its applications, connecting it with their socio-cultural context. The research used a case study as a qualitative methodology and the social constructivism as an educational paradigm in which the knowledge is built by the student; as a product of his social interactions. A collection of learning situations was designed, validated, and implemented. It allowed establishing relationships between mathematical concepts and the socio-cultural context of participants. It analyzed the impact of students’socio-cultural context in their mathematics learning of basic concepts of real variable functions, consistent with the Ministry of Education (MEP Official Program. Among the results, it was found that using students’sociocultural context improved their motivational processes, mathematics sense making, and promoted cooperative social interactions. It was evidenced that contextualized learning situations favored concepts comprehension that allow students to see mathematics as a discipline closely related with their every-day life.
Pattwell, Siobhan S; Bath, Kevin G
The capacity to learn to associate cues with negative outcomes is a highly adaptive process that appears to be conserved across species. However, when the cue is no longer a valid predictor of danger, but the emotional response persists, this can result in maladaptive behaviors, and in humans contribute to debilitating emotional disorders. Over the past several decades, work in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and biology have uncovered key processes underlying, and structures governing, emotional responding and learning, as well as identified disruptions in the structural and functional integrity of these brain regions in models of pathology. In this review, we highlight some of this elegant body of work as well as incorporate emerging findings from the field of developmental neurobiology to emphasize how development contributes to changes in the ability to learn and express emotional responses, and how early experiences, such as stress, shape the development and functioning of these circuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle instructional model using socioscientific issues (SSI learning context on students’ critical thinking skills of acid-base. This study used quasi-experimental posttest only control group design. The sample consisted of three classes, which were XI MIA-4class (n = 32 that learned using 5E LC model, XI MIA-5 class (n = 33 that learned using 5E LC+SSI, and XI MIA-6 class (n = 32 that learned using conventional method. The samples were choosen by convenience sampling technique. The test instrument consisted of 15 multiple choice items which were valid and reliable (r = 0.806. The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA test and LSD posthoc test. The results of this study indicated that the students who learned using 5E LC+SSI model showed greater levels of critical thinking skills ( = 74,95 than both the student who learned using 5E LC model ( = 74,17 and the student who learned using conventional method ( = 68,96. Based on statistics analysis, there was significant differences on students’ critical thinkings between students taught using conventional method and students taught either using 5E LC+SSI model and 5E LC model. However, there was no significant differences on students’ critical thinking skills between students taught using 5E LC+SSI model and the students taught using 5E LC model.
Dai, Guoxian; Xie, Jin; Fang, Yi
How to effectively retrieve desired 3D models with simple queries is a long-standing problem in computer vision community. The model-based approach is quite straightforward but nontrivial, since people could not always have the desired 3D query model available by side. Recently, large amounts of wide-screen electronic devices are prevail in our daily lives, which makes the sketch-based 3D shape retrieval a promising candidate due to its simpleness and efficiency. The main challenge of sketch-based approach is the huge modality gap between sketch and 3D shape. In this paper, we proposed a novel deep correlated holistic metric learning (DCHML) method to mitigate the discrepancy between sketch and 3D shape domains. The proposed DCHML trains two distinct deep neural networks (one for each domain) jointly, which learns two deep nonlinear transformations to map features from both domains into a new feature space. The proposed loss, including discriminative loss and correlation loss, aims to increase the discrimination of features within each domain as well as the correlation between different domains. In the new feature space, the discriminative loss minimizes the intra-class distance of the deep transformed features and maximizes the inter-class distance of the deep transformed features to a large margin within each domain, while the correlation loss focused on mitigating the distribution discrepancy across different domains. Different from existing deep metric learning methods only with loss at the output layer, our proposed DCHML is trained with loss at both hidden layer and output layer to further improve the performance by encouraging features in the hidden layer also with desired properties. Our proposed method is evaluated on three benchmarks, including 3D Shape Retrieval Contest 2013, 2014, and 2016 benchmarks, and the experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.
Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie
The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.
Full Text Available The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 hours later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word’s meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Callingham, Rosemary; Jade, Katara
This paper presents the findings of a small-scale study that investigated the issues and challenges of teaching and learning about quantitative reasoning (QR) within a project-based learning (PjBL) context. Students and teachers were surveyed and interviewed about their experiences of learning and teaching QR in that context in contrast to teaching and learning mathematics in more traditional settings. The grade 9-12 student participants were characterised by a history of disengagement with mathematics and school in general, and the teacher participants were non-mathematics specialist teachers. Both students and teachers were new to the PjBL situation, which resulted in the teaching/learning relationship being a reciprocal one. The findings indicated that students and teachers viewed QR positively, particularly when compared with traditional mathematics teaching, yet tensions were identified for aspects such as implementation of curriculum and integration of relevant mathematics into projects. Both sets of participants identified situations where learning QR was particularly successful, along with concerns or difficulties about integrating QR into project work. The findings have implications for educators, who may need to examine their own approaches to mathematics teaching, particularly in terms of facilitating student engagement with the subject.
Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie
The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973
Odgaard, Ane Bjerre
This paper reports on a socioculturally informed design-based study concerning young children's use of tablets within the educational contexts constituting their transition from day-care to school. The study explores tablet-mediated and dialogical activities as potential means for negotiating...... connections between the different contexts which the children traverse during this transition. At several occasions, the participating 5- to 7-year-old children are invited to use tablets for producing photos, photo-collages and e-books about their everyday institutional environments, thus aiming at mediating...... these contexts are pivots of dialogue. Networked learning is thus conceptualized as a matter of networked situations and contexts for young children during their transition from day-care to primary school, and technological artefacts are viewed as potential means for mediating children's meaning making about...
The acquisition of problem-solving and programming skills in the era of knowledge society seems to be particularly important. Due to the intrinsic difficulty of acquiring such skills various educational tools have been developed. Unfortunately, most of these tools are not utilized. In this paper we present the programming microworlds Karel and objectKarel that support the procedural-imperative and Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) techniques and can be used for supporting the teaching and learning of programming in various learning contexts and audiences. The paper focuses on presenting the pedagogical features that are common to both environments and mainly on presenting the potential uses of these environments.
Full Text Available The constant oscillations in society and the labor market require the management professional to evolve and develop their competencies, organizations are looking for people who are capable and flexible, who adapt quickly to changes. In this way, developing competencies has become paramount in the learning process, and higher education institutions play an important role in this construction, applying learning strategies that provide the academic with the competencies demanded by the market. Thus, it is feasible to use active learning in the Administration course, since it allows the integration between theory and practice and the experience of real situations in the classroom. Active learning is a set of pedagogical practices that address the issue of student learning from a different perspective of the classic learning techniques. In active learning, it is understood that the student should not be merely a receiver of information, but must actively engage in the acquisition of knowledge. This article aims to identify and analyze the skills of the Administrator desired and developed by the undergraduate students in Administration in the context of Active Learning. In this study, a descriptive research was carried out in a sample of 54 students from the Administration courses of three universities in Santa Catarina. Among the results, the research revealed that for students, the most important competences to be developed are: self-criticism and strategic thinking regarding opportunities.
Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’ experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is applied. This research described the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in 3th grade of primary school SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.
Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Schiesser, Roy; Merwade, Venkatesh
Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data-driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower-division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Bavelier, Daphne
The notion that play may facilitate learning has long been touted. Here, we review how video game play may be leveraged for enhancing attentional control, allowing greater cognitive flexibility and learning and in turn new routes to better address developmental disorders. Video games, initially developed for entertainment, appear to enhance the behavior in domains as varied as perception, attention, task switching, or mental rotation. This surprisingly wide transfer may be mediated by enhanced attentional control, allowing increased signal-to-noise ratio and thus more informed decisions. The possibility of enhancing attentional control through targeted interventions, be it computerized training or self-regulation techniques, is now well established. Embedding such training in video game play is appealing, given the astounding amount of time spent by children and adults worldwide with this media. It holds the promise of increasing compliance in patients and motivation in school children, and of enhancing the use of positive impact games. Yet for all the promises, existing research indicates that not all games are created equal: a better understanding of the game play elements that foster attention and learning as well as of the strategies developed by the players is needed. Computational models from machine learning or developmental robotics provide a rich theoretical framework to develop this work further and address its impact on developmental disorders.
Chandra, Shekhar S.; Dowling, Jason A.; Greer, Peter B.; Martin, Jarad; Wratten, Chris; Pichler, Peter; Fripp, Jurgen; Crozier, Stuart
Active shape models (ASMs) have proved successful in automatic segmentation by using shape and appearance priors in a number of areas such as prostate segmentation, where accurate contouring is important in treatment planning for prostate cancer. The ASM approach however, is heavily reliant on a good initialisation for achieving high segmentation quality. This initialisation often requires algorithms with high computational complexity, such as three dimensional (3D) image registration. In this work, we present a fast, self-initialised ASM approach that simultaneously fits multiple objects hierarchically controlled by spatially weighted shape learning. Prominent objects are targeted initially and spatial weights are progressively adjusted so that the next (more difficult, less visible) object is simultaneously initialised using a series of weighted shape models. The scheme was validated and compared to a multi-atlas approach on 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images of 38 cancer patients and had the same (mean, median, inter-rater) Dice’s similarity coefficients of (0.79, 0.81, 0.85), while having no registration error and a computational time of 12-15 min, nearly an order of magnitude faster than the multi-atlas approach.
Bos, L.D.H.; McCabe, S.; Johnson, S.
This paper applies Experiential Learning Theory to examine learning experiences of UK children during a holiday to assess the potential of holidays as influencing factors in educational achievement and attainment. The paper presents findings from a study undertaken with low-income families who had
Made Hery Santosa
Full Text Available The 21st-century learning has eventually transformed today’s classroom. With more digital natives in the class, both educators and students face a changing classroom that should accommodate different learning paces, styles and needs. This study aimed at helping students in becoming English as Foreign Language (EFL competent in-service teachers. Using Flipped Learning, the study utilizes four FLIP pillars into EFL learning, namely Flexible environment, Learning culture, Intentional content, Professional educators. The study employed three instruments, namely survey, tests, and interview. The result of tests showed a promising students’ progress from low to high achievement. The survey showed that students tended to perform deep approaches to learning while findings from the interview provided more interesting phenomena underlying students’ motives in their learning approaches, involving dynamic power distance relationship between lecturer and students. Heavier task loads and learning model familiarity have been highlighted. Effective socialization of the model using technology and sustainability of use of the model are suggested.
Walker, Rachel; Henderson, Amanda; Cooke, Marie; Creedy, Debra
Partnerships between university schools of nursing and health services lead to successful learning experiences for students and staff. A purposive sample of academics and students from a university school of nursing and clinicians from three health institutions involved in clinical learning (n=73) actively participated in a learning circles intervention conducted over 5 months in south east Queensland. Learning circle discussions resulted in enhanced communication and shared understanding regarding: (1) staff attitudes towards students, expectations and student assessment; (2) strategies enhancing preparation of students, mechanisms for greater support of and recognition of clinicians; (3) challenges faced by staff in the complex processes of leadership in clinical nursing education; (4) construction of learning, ideas for improving communication, networking and sharing; and (5) questioning routine practices that may not enhance student learning. Pre-post surveys of hospital staff (n=310) revealed significant differences across three sub-scales of 'accomplishment' (t=-3.98, pLearning circles can positively enhance organisational learning culture. The intervention enabled participants to recognise mutual goals. Further investigation around staff perception of their influence on their workplace is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bouton (1997) proposed a model to explain Pavlovian conditioning according to which the order of the associations (first-learned or second-learned), not the valence of the associations (inhibitory or excitatory), determines context sensitivity in AAB and ABC renewal designs. As a consequence, Bouton’s model does not predict important differences in context sensitivity between AAB and ABC designs. However, evidence suggests that there are indeed differences in context sensitivity between these...
Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique B H; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Puts, Ghita C W M; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
It is generally assumed that learning in context increases performance. This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of a paper-patient context (relevance and familiarity), the mechanisms through which the cognitive dimension of context could improve learning (activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and increasing retrieval cues), and test performance. A total of 145 medical students completed a pretest of 40 questions, of which half were with a patient vignette. One week later, they studied musculoskeletal anatomy in the dissection room without a paper-patient context (control group) or with (ir)relevant-(un)familiar context (experimental groups), and completed a cognitive load scale. Following a short delay, the students completed a posttest. Surprisingly, our results show that students who studied in context did not perform better than students who studied without context. This finding may be explained by an interaction of the participants' expertise level, the nature of anatomical knowledge and students' approaches to learning. A relevant-familiar context only reduced the negative effect of learning the content in context. Our results suggest discouraging the introduction of an uncommon disease to illustrate a basic science concept. Higher self-perceived learning scores predict higher performance. Interestingly, students performed significantly better on the questions with context in both tests, possibly due to a 'framing effect'. Since studies focusing on the physical and affective dimensions of context have also failed to find a positive influence of learning in a clinically relevant context, further research seems necessary to refine our theories around the role of context in learning.
Full Text Available The articulation of Knowledge Management as an organisational strategy has occurred in the context of a radical shift towards an information based economy. The most significant aspect for organisations operating in the information economy is their ability to utilise the volumes of information that are now readily available without the constraint of media, geography or time. A critical factor for organisations is the speed at which they are able to productively process such information to enable the organisation to react rapidly to changes in their operating environments. In this context organisation needs to produce and re-produce knowledge. The shift from information to knowledge is an acknowledgment of the significant role of the human actor in the process of transforming information into effective organisational outcomes. Social learning represents important processes that contribute to actors’ ability to understand information, create knowledge from that information and share what they know. Social learning is therefore intrinsic to knowledge management. In this paper we present a knowledge management architecture that supports a learning organisation. This architecture accommodates social learning and processes by which knowledge is internalised and externalised by individuals, work groups and the organisation as a whole. The architecture incorporates a model social learning based on the results of ethnographic studies and a model of learning derived from knowledge management case studies. The architecture is not domain specific but can be applied to activity that can be characterised as knowledge work in an organisational context. As such the architecture can play a variety of roles; as a conceptual framework, as a diagnostic tool to identify breakdown and as a design tool for organisational change.
Full Text Available This article explores whether active learning techniques can be effectively introduced to large group lectures in the context of legal professional training. It is limited to the perspective of the students (trainee solicitors. It is evident from research literature that a student-centred approach in the form of active learning techniques engages students and is considered a more effective form of teaching than the traditional lecturing style generally adopted at higher level education. There is a distinctive gap in the research literature relating to professional education. This article discusses a small scale qualitative study which adopted an action research methodology to determine the effectiveness of active learning techniques in this particular context. The study was confined to the introduction of two particular techniques, an in-class computation exercise and a re-cap technique, to the traditional lecture format. The views of a small focus group of trainee solicitors from the Law Society’s of Ireland Professional Practice Course were engaged. Findings from this study indicate that active learning techniques are effective in achieving learning outcomes from a trainees’ perspective. The author concludes that limitations of the use of the techniques can be overcome. Important directions for future research include in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of the techniques in preparing trainee solicitors for the professional role.
Heilesen, Simon; Jensen, Sisse Siggaard
This chapter proposes that technologically enhanced learning should be understood and evaluated by means of a combination of analytical strategies. These will allow us to analyze it both as seen from the macro analytical or ‘outside’ perspective of a rich social, cultural and technological context...... university education. Problematizing some common assumptions about technologically enhanced learning the authors define ten questions that may serve as the basis for a research agenda meant to help us understand why the many visions and ideals of the online or remediated classroom are not more widely...
Cognitive theories are fundamental to enable problem solving and the ability to understand and apply principles in a variety of situations. This article looks at Social Learning Theory, critically analysing its principles, which are based on observational learning and modelling, and considering its value and application in the context of nurse education. It also considers the component processes that will determine the outcome of observed behaviour, other than reinforcement, as identified by Bandura, namely: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Mukute, Mutizwa; Chikunda, Charles; Baloi, Aristides; Pesanayi, Tichaona
Environment and sustainability education processes are often oriented to change and transformation, and frequently involve the emergence of new forms of human activity. However, not much is known about how such change emerges from the learning process, or how it contributes to the development of transformative agency in community contexts. The authors of this article present four cross-case perspectives of expansive learning and transformative agency development in community-based education in southern Africa, studying communities pursuing new activities that are more socially just and sustainable. The four cases of community learning and transformative agency focus on the following activities: (1) sustainable agriculture in Lesotho; (2) seed saving and rainwater harvesting in Zimbabwe; (3) community-based irrigation scheme management in Mozambique; and (4) biodiversity conservation co-management in South Africa. The case studies all draw on cultural-historical activity theory to guide learning and change processes, especially third-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), which emphasises expansive learning in collectives across interacting activity systems. CHAT researchers, such as the authors of this article, argue that expansive learning can lead to the emergence of transformative agency. The authors extend their transformative agency analysis to probe if and how expansive learning might also facilitate instances of transgressing norms - viewed here as embedded practices which need to be reframed and changed in order for sustainability to emerge.
Bainbridge, Lesley; Wood, Victoria Isobel
This paper is the first of a two-part series. It presents a research study that aimed to provide a more contextual description of the commonly applied definition of interprofessional education (IPE) offered in 2002 by the Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE) in the UK: "when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and quality of care." The study confirmed and consolidated key characteristics of IPE by exploring the meaning of with, from and about. The words with, from and about were regarded as complex. Words describing learning with each other included active engagement, co-location and equally valued. Concepts linked to learning about included knowing about people outside their professional role and interaction. Learning from others was characterized by trust, respect and confidence in others' knowledge. Although learning about others was described as the first part of learning with, from and about, there were mixed views on whether learning with or from formed the second part of the definition. Based on this work, the second paper in this series presents a proposed taxonomy for IPE that may serve to inform emerging applications for IPE in the context of education, service delivery and policy. This research contributes to an emerging understanding of IPE that will support competency development and sound curriculum design, continuing professional development and evaluation of the impact of IPE and collaboration on health outcomes.
Although Design-based Research (DBR) was developed for investigating class-room training this paper discusses methodological issues when DBR is employed for investigating learning in the context of work, as it is an authentic learning environment, a real-world setting for fostering learning...... and creating usable knowledge and knowing. The purpose of this paper is to provide new perspectives on DBR regarding how to conduct DBR for studying learning from experience in the context of work. The research question is: What to consider to make DBR a smart methodology for exploring learning from experience...
The present study contributes to accounting education literature by describing context-specific conceptions of learning related to case assignments, and by exploring the associations between the conceptions of learning, students' characteristics and performance. The data analysed consist of 1320 learning diaries of 336 students, connected with…
Many scholars and practitioners have emphasized the importance of learning within and by organizations to respond to the fast changing world. As a result, organizational learning has become a necessity to remain competitive. Though the importance of organizational learning has been growing in response to the rapidly changing business context,…
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung
A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment is an authentic learning environment with personalized digital supports. While showing the potential of applying such a learning environment, researchers have also indicated the challenges of providing adaptive and dynamic support to individual students. In this paper, a decision-tree-oriented…
Munir, Farzeen; Minhas, Fayyaz ul Amir Asfar; Jalil, Abdul; Jeon, Moongu
Real time eye tracking has numerous applications in human computer interaction such as a mouse cursor control in a computer system. It is useful for persons with muscular or motion impairments. However, tracking the movement of the eye is complicated by occlusion due to blinking, head movement, screen glare, rapid eye movements, etc. In this work, we present the algorithmic and construction details of a real time eye tracking system. Our proposed system is an extension of Spatio-Temporal context learning through Kalman Filtering. Spatio-Temporal Context Learning offers state of the art accuracy in general object tracking but its performance suffers due to object occlusion. Addition of the Kalman filter allows the proposed method to model the dynamics of the motion of the eye and provide robust eye tracking in cases of occlusion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this tracking technique by controlling the computer cursor in real time by eye movements.
Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe
Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Rouleau, Geneviève; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Côté, José; Hudson, Emilie; Payne-Gagnon, Julie; Bouix-Picasso, Julien; Duboi, Carl-Ardy
Continuing education is an imperative for professional nursing. e-Learning is one modality to support education and it has been extensively examined in a nursing academic context. An overview of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method systematic reviews were conducted to draw a broad picture of the effects of e-Learning and m-Learning used by registered nurses in a continuing education context.
Jonsson, Leif; Borg, Markus; Broman, David; Sandahl, Kristian; Eldh, Sigrid; Runeson, Per
Bug report assignment is an important part of software maintenance. In particular, incorrect assignments of bug reports to development teams can be very expensive in large software development projects. Several studies propose automating bug assignment techniques using machine learning in open source software contexts, but no study exists for large-scale proprietary projects in industry. The goal of this study is to evaluate automated bug assignment techniques that are based on machine learni...
Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S
A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.
Full Text Available Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM, Gaussian processes (GP, and Gaussian mixture models (GMM. A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl. Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.
Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso
Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN) method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM), Gaussian processes (GP), and Gaussian mixture models (GMM). A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl). Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.
Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.
Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia
This paper introduces a research project in which five chemistry teachers, working in cooperation with university researchers, implemented a new teaching approach using context-based modules specially designed to stimulate the intrinsic motivation of students. The intention was to induce change in chemistry teachers' teaching approach from more…
Ward, Aaron D.; Hamarneh, Ghassan
The choice of 3D shape representation for anatomical structures determines the effectiveness with which segmentation, visualization, deformation, and shape statistics are performed. Medial axis-based shape representations have attracted considerable attention due to their inherent ability to encode information about the natural geometry of parts of the anatomy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, based on nonlinear manifold learning, to the parameterization of medial sheets and object surfaces based on the results of skeletonization. For each single-sheet figure in an anatomical structure, we skeletonize the figure, and classify its surface points according to whether they lie on the upper or lower surface, based on their relationship to the skeleton points. We then perform nonlinear dimensionality reduction on the skeleton, upper, and lower surface points, to find the intrinsic 2D coordinate system of each. We then center a planar mesh over each of the low-dimensional representations of the points, and map the meshes back to 3D using the mappings obtained by manifold learning. Correspondence between mesh vertices, established in their intrinsic 2D coordinate spaces, is used in order to compute the thickness vectors emanating from the medial sheet. We show results of our algorithm on real brain and musculoskeletal structures extracted from MRI, as well as an artificial multi-sheet example. The main advantages to this method are its relative simplicity and noniterative nature, and its ability to correctly compute nonintersecting thickness vectors for a medial sheet regardless of both the amount of coincident bending and thickness in the object, and of the incidence of local concavities and convexities in the object's surface.
Arun Kumar Agariya
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid e-learning quality measurement scales from the learner as well as faculty perspectives in Indian context. Exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis was done which is presented in two forms; covariance model and the structural model. The covariance model shows that the factors namely collaboration, industry acceptance and value addition are important from the learner’s point of view whereas the factors namely transparency in assessment, technical know-how and engagement (from students are important from faculty point of view. Factors namely course content and design structures (technology/website design are found equally important for learner’s as well as faculty’s perspective. The structural models validate the previously extracted factors along with their indicators. The findings of this study validate the long held belief that e-learning quality is a multidimensional construct and serves as a critical success factor. The proposed scale will help in identifying issues that contribute towards e-learning quality in Indian context and thereby formulating strategies accordingly, resulting in efficient (in terms of cost and effective (outcomes e-learning practices, which is the necessity of the hour for the economic development of the country. A fair amount of literature on e-learning dealt with identifying factors explaining the constructs of quality, perceived value and satisfaction. But there is paucity of research pertaining to e-learning quality scale development and validation from the learner as well as faculty perspective. This study is an attempt to bridge this gap in the existing literature.
Full Text Available Language learners' productive role in teaching and learning processes has recently been the focus of attention. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of oral vs. written output-based instruction on English as a foreign language (EFL learners' vocabulary learning with a focus on reflective vs. impulsive learning styles. To this end, 131 learners were chosen among 182 learners by taking Nelson vocabulary proficiency test. Next, the participants received a valid Persian version of reflective thinking (Kember et al., 2000 and Barratt, Patton and Stanford (1975 BIS (Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale 11 impulsiveness questionnaires, based on which both experimental groups were divided into impulsive and reflective subgroups, but the control group consisted of both impulsive and reflective learners. After 15 sessions of intervention and based on the results through one-way ANOVA and independent t-test it was concluded that both oral output and written output had significant effect on vocabulary learning of reflective and impulsive EFL Learners. It was also observed that the effect of both oral output and written output on impulsive (oral group’s mean=21.04; written groups’ mean= 21.75 learners and reflective learners (oral groups’ mean=22.38; written group’s mean: 22.23 is not significantly different. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du
This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…
Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.
This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…
Ratana-Ubol, Archanya; Richards, Cameron
The concept of the university of the third age (U3A) is well established overseas and a key international focus for emerging global networks of senior citizen (i.e. seniors) lifelong learning. However it is yet to become so in Thailand although it too is in the process of becoming an ageing society. Moreover, this is despite the extent to which…
Chattopadhyay, Shinjinee; Choudhury, Prithwiraj
We develop and test predictions on how early-career challenges arising from the workplace context affect short- and long-term career advancement of individuals. Typically an organization’s decision to deploy a manager to one of several possible contexts is endogenous to unobservable factors, and selection makes it challenging to disentangle the effect of workplace context on individual career advancement. We work around this problem by studying an organization, the Indian Administrative Servi...
Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’ experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is applied. This research described the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in 3th grade of primary school SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.Keywords: Area measurement, Anyaman, design research, PMRI DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.778.55-66
Ginat-Frolich, Rivkah; Klein, Zohar; Katz, Omer; Shechner, Tomer
Generalization is an adaptive learning mechanism, but it can be maladaptive when it occurs in excess. A novel perceptual discrimination training task was therefore designed to moderate fear overgeneralization. We hypothesized that improvement in basic perceptual discrimination would translate into lower fear overgeneralization in affective cues. Seventy adults completed a fear-conditioning task prior to being allocated into training or placebo groups. Predesignated geometric shape pairs were constructed for the training task. A target shape from each pair was presented. Thereafter, participants in the training group were shown both shapes and asked to identify the image that differed from the target. Placebo task participants only indicated the location of each shape on the screen. All participants then viewed new geometric pairs and indicated whether they were identical or different. Finally, participants completed a fear generalization test consisting of perceptual morphs ranging from the CS + to the CS-. Fear-conditioning was observed through physiological and behavioural measures. Furthermore, the training group performed better than the placebo group on the assessment task and exhibited decreased fear generalization in response to threat/safety cues. The findings offer evidence for the effectiveness of the novel discrimination training task, setting the stage for future research with clinical populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that multiple internal models are acquired in the cerebellum and that these can be switched under a given context of behavior. It has been proposed that long-term depression (LTD of parallel fiber (PF-Purkinje cell (PC synapses forms the cellular basis of cerebellar learning, and that the presynaptically synthesized messenger nitric oxide (NO is a crucial "gatekeeper" for LTD. Because NO diffuses freely to neighboring synapses, this volume learning is not input-specific and brings into question the biological significance of LTD as the basic mechanism for efficient supervised learning. To better characterize the role of NO in cerebellar learning, we simulated the sequence of electrophysiological and biochemical events in PF-PC LTD by combining established simulation models of the electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, and signaling pathways of the PC. The results demonstrate that the local NO concentration is critical for induction of LTD and for its input specificity. Pre- and postsynaptic coincident firing is not sufficient for a PF-PC synapse to undergo LTD, and LTD is induced only when a sufficient amount of NO is provided by activation of the surrounding PFs. On the other hand, above-adequate levels of activity in nearby PFs cause accumulation of NO, which also allows LTD in neighboring synapses that were not directly stimulated, ruining input specificity. These findings lead us to propose the hypothesis that NO represents the relevance of a given context and enables context-dependent selection of internal models to be updated. We also predict sparse PF activity in vivo because, otherwise, input specificity would be lost.
Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Tajti, Gabor; Szilasi, Magdolna Emma; Papp, Csaba; Juhasz, Bela; Gesztelyi, Rudolf
Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted value of future states. Thus the value of state is determined by agent related attributes (action set, policy, discount factor) and the agent's knowledge of the environment embodied by the reward function and hidden environmental factors given by the transition probability. The central objective of reinforcement learning is to solve these two functions outside the agent's control either using, or not using a model. In the present paper, using the proactive model of reinforcement learning we offer insight on how the brain creates simplified representations of the environment, and how these representations are organized to support the identification of relevant stimuli and action. Furthermore, we identify neurobiological correlates of our model by suggesting that the reward and policy functions, attributes of the Bellman equitation, are built by the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. Based on this we propose that the OFC assesses cue-context congruence to activate the most context frame. Furthermore given the bidirectional neuroanatomical link between the OFC and model-free structures, we suggest that model-based input is incorporated into the reward prediction error (RPE) signal, and conversely RPE signal may be used to update the reward-related information of context frames and the policy underlying action selection in the OFC and ACC, respectively. Furthermore clinical implications for cognitive behavioral interventions are discussed.
Dautriche, Isabelle; Fibla, Laia; Fievet, Anne-Caroline; Christophe, Anne
Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories. However, toddlers failed to learn homophones when the two meanings were distinguished only by different grammatical genders. In parallel, we analyzed the lexicon of four languages, Dutch, English, French and German, and observed that homophones are distributed non-arbitrarily in the lexicon, such that easily learnable homophones are more frequent than hard-to-learn ones: pairs of homophones are preferentially distributed across syntactic and semantic categories, but not across grammatical gender. We show that learning homophones is easier than previously thought, at least when the meanings of the same phonological form are made sufficiently distinct by their syntactic or semantic context. Following this, we propose that this learnability advantage translates into the overall structure of the lexicon, i.e., the kinds of homophones present in languages exhibit the properties that make them learnable by toddlers, thus allowing them to remain in languages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper is a position of contextual and holistic approach, and on the principles of constructivist theory examines the role of natural resources in the teaching and learning process. In the center of interest by the possibility of establishing a partnership relationship with nature in the process of teaching and learning, where nature appears as an asset, source and target classes. The aim is to get through the display and analysis of theoretical approaches to nature as a context for learning and teaching perceive from the perspective of affirmation contextual, holistic, active, investigative approach to teaching. This will promote new teaching strategies in order to change the classical approach to teaching and learning process and open up new opportunities to increase the share of after-school space in order to create teaching situations. Results of the analysis of theoretical starting points in particular knowledge of the value of contextual and holistic learning, achieving partnership with nature, in favor of modern theories in which it promotes active student positions close to reality in the process of construction of knowledge systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Models of assessment and strategies of upgrading the quality of education in Serbia and br. 179074: Tradition, modernization and national identity in Serbia and the Balkans in the process of European integrations
Full Text Available In addition to the curriculum and the learning targets, there are some other points –as “the culture of the real life”, “patterns of communication and virtual-life’s experiencing”, and generally “pattern of communication and internet usage”- should be considered in evaluating internet. Applying results of a survey on the impacts of both the web-based and the traditional educational methods on students’ learning and motivation, the present study explores the patterns of internet usage. Research method is experimental, using the t test for independent groups and analyzing multi-variable regression, and some points as the population, method of sampling and data gathering is explained in the article. Results show that there is a meaningful difference between the grades of the test group and the witness group; thus variable of “the internet usage” could predict changes in learning. In other words, supra-usage of internet would decrease learning and curriculum development. However, using internet for scientific and schooling would cause students to correlate their patterns of computer and internet usage. As results show, decline in entertaining usage of internet is related to the socio-cultural context, way and amount of participating in the web, and the quality of virtual learning sphere, rather than the interest or disinterest of the users.
The deficit in STEM skills is a matter of concern for national economies and a major focus for educational policy makers. The development of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) has resulted in a rapidly changing workforce of global scale. In addition, ICT have fostered the growth of digital and mobile technologies which have been the learning context, formal and informal, for a generation of youth. The purpose of this study was to design an intervention based upon a competency-based, digitally-mediated, learning intervention: digital badges for learning STEM habits of mind and practices. Designed purposefully, digital badge learning trajectories and criteria can be flexible tools for scaffolding, measuring, and communicating the acquisition of knowledge, skills, or competencies. One of the most often discussed attributes of digital badges, is the ability of badges to motivate learners. However, the research base to support this claim is in its infancy; there is little empirical evidence. A skills-based digital badge intervention was designed to demonstrate mastery learning in key, age-appropriate, STEM competencies aligned with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and other educational standards. A mixed methods approach was used to study the impact of a digital badge intervention in the sample middle and high school population. Among the findings were statistically significant measures which substantiate that in this student population, the digital badges increased perceived competence and motivated learners to persist at task.
could be used as a change-of-pace option to add variety to IAT and increase (or regain) student engagement . It is important to note language resources...courses’ virtual learning environment (VLE) so tutors could provide feedback (Belanger, 2005). The results of this study indicated that student ... engagement and interest in class discussions increased as a result of the iPods, and that location-independent access to digital course materials led to
Multilingualism in education is a conceptual as well as a pedagogical challenge of the 21st century. Luxembourg, with its three statutory official languages (Luxembourgish, French and German), is an especially complex setting. The gap between traditional principles of language education on the one hand and the challenging impacts of today's multilingualisms on the other led the University of Luxembourg (founded in 2003) to set up a developmentally-driven Master's programme in 2007, entitled "Learning and Development in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts". After a presentation of the general multilingual settings in Luxembourg, this paper discusses the constellation of the multilingual University's staff and students and provides an analysis of the concept of the course by outlining its innovative approach, its principles and lessons learned with regard to running a trilingual higher education programme.
André, Marion Agnès Emma; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise
Dopamine contributes to the regulation of higher order information processing and executive control. It is important for memory consolidation processes, and for the adaptation of learned responses based on experience. In line with this, under aversive learning conditions, application of dopamine receptor antagonists prior to extinction result in enhanced memory reinstatement. Here, we investigated the contribution of the dopaminergic system to extinction and memory reinstatement (renewal) of an appetitive spatial learning task in rodents. Rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze (context "A") to associate a goal arm with a food reward, despite low reward probability (acquisition phase). On day 4, extinction learning (unrewarded) occurred, that was reinforced by a context change ("B"). On day 5, re-exposure to the (unrewarded) "A" context took place (renewal of context "A", followed by extinction of context "A"). In control animals, significant extinction occurred on day 4, that was followed by an initial memory reinstatement (renewal) on day 5, that was, in turn, succeeded by extinction of renewal. Intracerebral treatment with a D1/D5-receptor antagonist prior to the extinction trials, elicited a potent enhancement of extinction in context "B". By contrast, a D1/D5-agonist impaired renewal in context "A". Extinction in the "A" context on day 5 was unaffected by the D1/D5-ligands. Treatment with a D2-receptor antagonist prior to extinction had no overall effect on extinction in context "B" or renewal in context "A", although extinction of the renewal effect was impaired on day 5, compared to controls. Taken together, these data suggest that dopamine acting on the D1/D5-receptor modulates both acquisition and consolidation of context-dependent extinction. By contrast, the D2-receptor may contribute to context-independent aspects of this kind of extinction learning.
Marion Agnes Emma Andre
Full Text Available Dopamine contributes to the regulation of higher order information processing and executive control. It is important for memory consolidation processes, and for the adaptation of learned responses based on experience. In line with this, under aversive learning conditions, application of dopamine receptor antagonists prior to extinction result in enhanced memory reinstatement. Here, we investigated the contribution of the dopaminergic system to extinction and memory reinstatement (renewal of an appetitive spatial learning task in rodents. Rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze (context ‘A’ to associate a goal arm with a food reward, despite low reward probability (acquisition phase. On day 4, extinction learning (unrewarded occurred, that was reinforced by a context change (‘B’. On day 5, re-exposure to the (unrewarded ‘A’-context took place (renewal of context ‘A’, followed by extinction of context ‘A’. In control animals, significant extinction occurred on day 4, that was followed by an initial memory reinstatement (renewal on day 5, that was, in turn, succeeded by extinction of renewal. Intracerebral treatment with a D1/D5-receptor antagonist prior to the extinction trials, elicited a potent enhancement of extinction in context ‘B’. By contrast, a D1/D5-agonist impaired renewal in context ’A’. Extinction in the ‘A’ context on day 5 was unaffected by the D1/D5-ligands. Treatment with a D2-receptor antagonist prior to extinction had no overall effect on extinction in context ‘B or renewal in context ‘A’, although extinction of the renewal effect was impaired on day 5, compared to controls.Taken together, these data suggest that dopamine acting on the D1/D5-receptor modulates both acquisition and consolidation of context-dependent extinction. By contrast, the D2-receptor may contribute to context-independent aspects of this kind of extinction learning.
Mario Germán Almonte Moreno
Full Text Available Gamification, applied to educational contexts, can increase the motivation and engagement of students. First analysis of the bibliography tells that there is not enough research done in this topic, and there are few guidelines marked to implement gamification. This work aims to generate hypotheses that guide the design of a future pilot study in e-learning high education. Students and teachers from the Master of Education and New Technologies at the Madrid Open University (UDIMA have been tested. The methodology includes qualitative and quantitative aspects and two different on-line questionnaires. Student’s questionnaire included a translation of the BrainHex test. Conclusions about the gamification characteristics which are more suitable in this e-learning high education context are generated using these results and through a review of existing research: related to the acceptance of gamification by students and teachers; related to the type of gamification elements that are more suitable for use in the context at the UDIMA and related to aspects or behaviors that need to be changed through the motivation of students.
Daphna S. Horowitz
Full Text Available Orientation: Personal leadership comprises self-awareness, authenticity, inspiration and passion. The concept of personal leadership was explored together with its relationship with leadership-related learnings derived from a catalytic experience. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the leadership-related learnings derived from a catalytic experience and any connection between these learnings, personal leadership and leadership in an organisational context. Motivation for the study: Measurement of leaders’ performance remains largely focused on the results achieved. The importance of personal leadership in the corporate environment is often ignored and even questioned. Recognising that there is a relationship between personal leadership and professional leadership enables leaders to connect who they are being and what they are doing. This can enhance their leadership. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using a qualitative approach, specifically narrative enquiry. The sample comprised seven leaders who have had catalytic experiences in their lives. In-depth interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used to identify themes on the leadership-related learnings gained from the leaders’catalytic experiences. Main findings: Elements of personal leadership and the processes involved in the development of personal leadership were identified. It was furthermore shown that challenging experiences serve as learning opportunities and that time for reflection is essential in this learning process. Practical/managerial implications: Leadership lessons are best learnt through experience.Using challenging experiences as learning opportunities may assist leaders in their growth and development. Contribution: Leadership effectiveness and organisational effectiveness may be enhanced by a more holistic view of leadership that includes elements of personal leadership.
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: to study learning curiosity within student, teacher and administrators, and to suggest the student of non-formal education learning curiosity by using daily life context. A sample was selected from a group of student of non-formal education for 400 students, categorized to 184 students of secondary education, students of high school education 216, 40 teachers of non-formal education and 20 administrators with district level of the office of the Non - Formal and Informal Education by Multi - Stage Sampling. The research tools were surveyed by using questionnaire of students. The results of the study were as follows and the questionnaire as learning curiosity of the teacher and administrator from the Non - Formal and Informal Education awareness, and transcribing from focus group discussion. The quantitative analysis by the computer program (SPSS for statistical analysis and analyzing qualitative data by content analysis were included. The results of the study were as follows a student learning curiosity was in high level, a student supporting for learning curiosity in occupation was in high level, the teacher opinion for learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The supporting should be academic, Work and family consecutive. The administrator of the Non - Formal and Informal Education thought, learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The student should be gained occupation knowledge for the first, because of their lifestyle in the north eastern of Thailand; they needed to support their family. Almost citizens were agriculturist, gardener, farmer or merchandiser, and then to permit academic education, family and socialization, the occupation developing was given precedence.
Corrias, Alberto; Cho Hong, James Goh
The design and implementation of a learning environment that leverages on the use of various technologies is presented. The context is an undergraduate core engineering course within the biomedical engineering curriculum. The topic of the course is data analysis in biomedical engineering problems. One of the key ideas of this study is to confine the most mathematical and statistical aspects of data analysis in prerecorded video lectures. Students are asked to watch the video lectures before coming to class. Since the classroom session does not need to cover the mathematical theory, the time is spent on a selected real world scenario in the field of biomedical engineering that exposes students to an actual application of the theory. The weekly cycle is concluded with a hands-on tutorial session in the computer rooms. A potential problem would arise in such learning environment if the students do not follow the recommendation of watching the video lecture before coming to class. In an attempt to limit these occurrences, two key instruments were put in place: a set of online self-assessment questions that students are asked to take before the classroom session and a simple rewards system during the classroom session. Thanks to modern learning analytics tools, we were able to show that, on average, 57.9% of students followed the recommendation of watching the video lecture before class. The efficacy of the learning environment was assessed through various means. A survey was conducted among the students and the gathered data support the view that the learning environment was well received by the students. Attempts were made to quantify the impacts on learning of the proposed measures by taking into account the results of selected questions of the final examination of the course. Although the presence of confounding factors demands caution in the interpretation, these data seem to indicate a possible positive effect of the use of video lectures in this technologically
Moiseeva, A.; Jessurun, A.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Stopher, P.
Anastasia Moiseeva, Joran Jessurun and Harry Timmermans (2010), ‘Semiautomatic Imputation of Activity Travel Diaries: Use of Global Positioning System Traces, Prompted Recall, and Context-Sensitive Learning Algorithms’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board,
Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.
Full Text Available Scientific writing is an important aspect of the student's education. Writing requires the student to give reference sources in a proper manner in accordance with a certain style. Experience has found that the process to deal with different styles requires time. Critical thinking is a fundamental requirement in scientific work and as such requires no detailed knowledge about different styles structure. Today's technology makes it possible to facilitate scientific writing using reference management software. The current reference management tools available are license-based and others are available free through the Internet. In recent years, social media, such as Facebook, Blogs and Wikipedia have received increasing attention. The discussion, in educational settings, has touched on the pros and cons, but also on the potential opportunities using social media in educational settings. Social media creates opportunities for communication, which in turn affects learning. This learning can be described as collaborative. Illeris (2007 points out that such learning refers to activities where a group of people strive to learn and develop something together. Thus, it is the technical possibilities that facilitate communication and learning. From an educational point of view Vygotsky appears to be central in terms of pedagogy and technology. His theoretical argument is based on a sociocultural perspective where people learn from each other and are believed to be active in its social context using technology as a helpful instrument. Individual knowledge thus grows between individuals (Vygotsky, 1978. The teacher's role, based on Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective, is to encourage good learning environments, and thus use existing technology in the educational setting. With this background, the purpose of this study was to examine two different reference management software tools, Zotero (a social media free downloaded from Internet and EndNote (license
Wurtz, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaplan, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is a variety of statistical classifier. Fully-realized statistical classifiers rely on a comprehensive set of tools for designing, building, and implementing. PSD advances rely on improvements to the implemented algorithm. PSD advances can be improved by using conventional statistical classifier or machine learning methods. This paper provides the reader with a glossary of classifier-building elements and their functions in a fully-designed and operational classifier framework that can be used to discover opportunities for improving PSD classifier projects. This paper recommends reporting the PSD classifier’s receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and its behavior at a gamma rejection rate (GRR) relevant for realistic applications.
Jocz, Jennifer Ann; Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik Ling
Recent research reveals that students' interest in school science begins to decline at an early age. As this lack of interest could result in fewer individuals qualified for scientific careers and a population unprepared to engage with scientific societal issues, it is imperative to investigate ways in which interest in school science can be increased. Studies have suggested that inquiry learning is one way to increase interest in science. Inquiry learning forms the core of the primary syllabus in Singapore; as such, we examine how inquiry practices may shape students' perceptions of science and school science. This study investigates how classroom inquiry activities relate to students' interest in school science. Data were collected from 425 grade 4 students who responded to a questionnaire and 27 students who participated in follow-up focus group interviews conducted in 14 classrooms in Singapore. Results indicate that students have a high interest in science class. Additionally, self-efficacy and leisure-time science activities, but not gender, were significantly associated with an increased interest in school science. Interestingly, while hands-on activities are viewed as fun and interesting, connecting learning to real-life and discussing ideas with their peers had a greater relation to student interest in school science. These findings suggest that inquiry learning can increase Singaporean students' interest in school science; however, simply engaging students in hands-on activities is insufficient. Instead, student interest may be increased by ensuring that classroom activities emphasize the everyday applications of science and allow for peer discussion.
Full Text Available Automation of the robust control system synthesis for uncertain systems is of great practical interest. In this paper, the loop shaping step for synthesizing quantitative feedback theory (QFT based controller for a two-phase permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM has been automated using teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm. The QFT controller design problem has been posed as an optimization problem and TLBO algorithm has been used to minimize the proposed cost function. This facilitates designing low-order fixed-structure controller, eliminates the need of manual loop shaping step on the Nichols charts, and prevents the overdesign of the controller. A performance comparison of the designed controller has been made with the classical PID tuning method of Ziegler-Nichols and QFT controller tuned using other optimization algorithms. The simulation results show that the designed QFT controller using TLBO offers robust stability, disturbance rejection, and proper reference tracking over a range of PMSM’s parametric uncertainties as compared to the classical design techniques.
Blumberg, Fran C; Fisch, Shalom M
The authors present reasons why developmental psychologists should care about children's and adolescents' digital game play. These reasons may be identified as: a) digital game play is an integral aspect of children's and adolescents' lives; b) digital game play contributes to learning and cognitive development; and c) developmental research has the potential to contribute to effective educational game design. The authors expand on these reasons with the goal of introducing or reintroducing to developmental psychologists a rich and very relevant context in which to examine children's and adolescents' applied cognitive development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Full Text Available In this paper I examine children’s play as a context for managing physiological arousal and learning to regulate strong emotions. I define emotion regulation as the process by which children monitor and control their emotional states and their expression to adapt to different social situations or demands. Age trends and gender differences in emotion regulation problems and competencies are described. I then review the development of play, deprivation studies, and the biological functions of different forms of play in primates before discussing children’s play. Vigorous social play benefits children by promoting the development of communication, perspective-taking and emotion regulation skills. For boys especially, rough-and-tumble play in early childhood provides a scaffold for learning emotion regulation skills related to managing anger and aggression.
Rakena, Te Oti; Airini,; Brown, Deidre
This study applied a cultural lens to the "expert-novice dyad" (Kennell, 2002, p. 243) and explored the learning experiences of indigenous minorities studying in this context. The purpose of this study was to gather narratives that reflected the nature of teaching practices in the one-to-one studio context. The resulting data presented…
Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the problems, challenges and strengths of network-based distance learning in archaeology. Based on the experience of one project - the PATOIS (Publications and Archives Teaching with Online Information Systems Project - it looks at how archaeologists might best respond (and by implication how they ought not to respond to the use of information technology in teaching. The PATOIS project is an attempt on behalf of a consortium of UK higher education institutions and allied research bodies to tell students about the information tools that are emerging in archaeology, and which are changing the culture of scholarship. Funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC and led by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS, PATOIS presents students with these new research tools and novel forms of academic literacy by direct exposure to 'primary' datasets. The PATOIS project is producing a set of Internet-based tutorials that lead students through different datasets and show how they may be deployed in research. This article describes the institutional and intellectual background to the project, and reports on the content of the tutorials themselves. Perhaps more importantly, it looks at the process through which PATOIS was developed, reviewing the challenges and constraints that the development team faced. Thereafter, we turn to the implementation of PATOIS in real teaching scenarios and look at how and when these have been successful as well as the challenges that remain unanswered. The project is not yet complete, so at this stage we can come to no firm conclusions about the long-term impact of PATOIS in facilitating change in undergraduate research training. Nonetheless, from the perspective of development work, the project has largely been completed, so those conclusions that may be drawn are most appropriately addressed to developers hoping or planning to undertake similar work in the future, or academics looking to
Recently, hospitals that have been successful in preventing infections have labeled their improvement approaches as either the Toyota Production System (TPS) approach or the Positive Deviance (PD) approach. PD has been distinguished from TPS as being a bottom-up approach to improvement, as against top-down. Facilities that have employed both approaches have suggested that PD may be more effective than TPS for infection prevention. This article integrates organizational learning, institutional, and knowledge network theories to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the structure and evolution of effective knowledge-sharing networks in health care organizations, that is, networks most conducive to learning and improvement. Contrary to arguments put forth by hospital success stories, the framework suggests that networks rich in brokerage and hierarchy (ie, top-down, "TPS-like" structures) may be more effective for learning and improvement in health care organizations, compared with a networks rich in density (ie, bottom-up, "PD-like" structures). The theoretical framework and ensuing analysis help identify several gaps in the literature related to organization learning and improvement in the infection prevention context. This, in turn, helps put forth recommendations for health management research and practice.
Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Solati, Kamal
Communication skills training, responsibility, respect, and self-awareness are important indexes of changing learning behaviours in modern approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of three learning approaches, collaborative, context-based learning (CBL), and traditional, on learning, attitude, and behaviour of undergraduate nursing students. This study was a clinical trial with pretest and post-test of control group. The participants were senior nursing students. The samples were randomly assigned to three groups; CBL, collaborative, and traditional. To gather data a standard questionnaire of students' behaviour and attitude was administered prior to and after the intervention. Also, the rate of learning was investigated by a researcher-developed questionnaire prior to and after the intervention in the three groups. In CBL and collaborative training groups, the mean score of behaviour and attitude increased after the intervention. But no significant association was obtained between the mean scores of behaviour and attitude prior to and after the intervention in the traditional group. However, the mean learning score increased significantly in the CBL, collaborative, and traditional groups after the study in comparison to before the study. Both CBL and collaborative approaches were useful in terms of increased respect, self-awareness, self-evaluation, communication skills and responsibility as well as increased motivation and learning score in comparison to traditional method.
Scoppio, Grazia; Covell, Leigha
Increased technological advances, coupled with new learners' needs, have created new realities for higher education contexts. This study explored and mapped trends in pedagogical approaches and learning technologies in postsecondary education and identified how these innovations are affecting teaching and learning practices in higher education…
Sandberg, J.; Maris, M.; Hoogendoorn, P.
Two groups participated in a study on the added value of a gaming context and intelligent adaptation for a mobile learning application. The control group worked at home for a fortnight with the original Mobile English Learning application (MEL-original) developed in a previous project. The
Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan
The identification of students’ learning strategies by using multi-modal data that combine trace data with self-report data is the prime aim of this study. Our context is an application of dispositional learning analytics in a large introductory course mathematics and statistics, based on blended
T. Wubbels; Dr. S. Bolhuis; R.C. Zwart; T. Bergen
In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching
Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul
This study addresses the need for reliable and valid information concerning how innovative classrooms on college and university campuses affect teaching and learning. The Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) survey was developed though a three-stage process involving approximately 1300 college students. Exploratory and confirmatory…
Yu, Yuanfang; Wang, Bing
Language learning strategy (LLS) use is not only an individual attribute of language users, but also a group behaviour reflecting the learning culture and language pedagogy in a particular social context. This article reports a study on the LLS use of Chinese secondary school students of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Northeast China from…
Samarapungavan, Ala; Bryan, Lynn; Wills, Jamison
In this paper, we present a study of second graders' learning about the nature of matter in the context of content-rich, model-based inquiry instruction. The goal of instruction was to help students learn to use simple particle models to explain states of matter and phase changes. We examined changes in students' ideas about matter, the coherence…
Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M
Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics
James N Ingram
Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi
Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murat, Miraemiliana; Chang, Siow-Wee; Abu, Arpah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Yong, Kien-Thai
Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD), Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Hu invariant moments (Hu) and Zernike moments (ZM). Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM). In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS) and Pearson's coefficient correlation (PCC). The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia dataset and 99
Marschalek, Douglas G.
This study investigated the ability of first-, third-, and fifth-grade students to perceive similarities and differences in contour and interior pattern of shapes in color drawings. Results showed that with increase of age, attention to contour information was significantly affected by the surrounding contextual information found in the drawings.…
McCullough Chavis, Annie
This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.
Fujisaki, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota
The terrestrial slug Limax has been used as a model animal for studying the neural mechanisms underlying associative olfactory learning. The slug also innately exhibits negative phototactic behavior using its eyes. In the present study, we developed an experimental paradigm for quantification of slug's negative phototaxis behavior, and investigated whether the nature of the negative phototaxis can be modified by learning experience. The experimental set-up consists of light and dark compartments, between which the slug can move freely. During conditioning, the slug was placed in the light compartment, and an aversive stimulus (quinidine sulfate solution) was applied when it reached the dark compartment. After a single conditioning session, the time to reach the dark compartment significantly increased when it was tested following 24 hr or one week. Protein synthesis inhibition immediately following the conditioning impaired the memory retention at one week but not at 24 hr. The retrieval of the memory was context-dependent, as the time to reach the dark compartment did not significantly increase if the slug was placed on a floor with a different texture in the memory retention test. If the aversive stimulus was applied when the slug was in the light compartment, the time to reach the dark compartment did not increase after 24 hr. This is the first report demonstrating the capability of the slug to form context-dependent passive avoidance memory that can be established in a single conditioning session.
Zang, Xuelian; Jia, Lina; Müller, Hermann J; Shi, Zhuanghua
Our visual brain is remarkable in extracting invariant properties from the noisy environment, guiding selection of where to look and what to identify. However, how the brain achieves this is still poorly understood. Here we explore interactions of local context and global structure in the long-term learning and retrieval of invariant display properties. Participants searched for a target among distractors, without knowing that some "old" configurations were presented repeatedly (randomly inserted among "new" configurations). We simulated tunnel vision, limiting the visible region around fixation. Robust facilitation of performance for old versus new contexts was observed when the visible region was large but not when it was small. However, once the display was made fully visible during the subsequent transfer phase, facilitation did become manifest. Furthermore, when participants were given a brief preview of the total display layout prior to tunnel view search with 2 items visible, facilitation was already obtained during the learning phase. The eye movement results revealed contextual facilitation to be coupled with changes of saccadic planning, characterized by slightly extended gaze durations but a reduced number of fixations and shortened scan paths for old displays. Taken together, our findings show that invariant spatial display properties can be acquired based on scarce, para-/foveal information, while their effective retrieval for search guidance requires the availability (even if brief) of a certain extent of peripheral information. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Environments of learning often remain unnoticed and unacknowledged. This study follows a student and myself as we became aware of our local environment at MIT and welcomed that environment as a vibrant contributor to our learning. We met this environment in part through its educational heritage in two centennial anniversaries: John Dewey's 1916 work Democracy and Education and MIT's 1916 move from Boston to the Cambridge campus designed by architect William Welles Bosworth. Dewey argued that for learning to arise through constructive, active engagement among students, the environment must be structured to accommodate investigation. In designing an environment conducive to practical and inventive studies, Bosworth created organic classical forms harboring the illusion of symmetry, while actually departing from it. Students and I are made open to the effects of this environment through the research pedagogy of "critical exploration in the classroom," which informs my practice of listening and responding, and teaching while researching; it lays fertile grounds for the involvement of one student and myself with our environment. Through viewing the moon and sky by eye, telescope, airplane, and astrolabe, the student developed as an observer. She became connected with the larger universe, and critical of formalisms that encage mind and space. Applying Euclid's geometry to the architecture outdoors, the student noticed and questioned classical features in Bosworth's buildings. By encountering these buildings while accompanied by their current restorer, we came to see means by which their structure and design promote human interaction and environmental sustainability as intrinsic to education. The student responded creatively to Bosworth's buildings through photography, learning view-camera, and darkroom techniques. In Dewey's view, democracy entails rejecting dualisms endemic in academic culture since the Greek classical era. Dewey regarded experimental science, where
Hock, Tan Tong; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi
This study was conducted using a new hybrid method of research which combined qualitative and quantitative designs to investigate the viewpoints of primary school students' conceptual understanding in learning geometry from the aspect of shapes and spaces according to van Hiele theory. Q-methodology is used in this research to find out what…
While literature on research methods abounds, little attention has been given to understanding how qualitative researchers and their approaches to research (i.e., the researcher's stance) shape what we know about global service-learning (GSL) and how we come to know what we know about GSL. Researchers often uncritically adopt a particular research…
Metzger, Mary Ann; Freund, Lisa
The major purpose of this study was to describe the rule-governed and contingency-shaped behavior of learning-disabled, hyperactive, and nonselected elementary school children working on a computer-managed task. Hypotheses tested were (1) that the children would differ in the degree to which either instructions or external contingencies controlled…
Shimansky, Y; Saling, M; Wunderlich, D A; Bracha, V; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R
This study addresses the issue of the role of the cerebellum in the processing of sensory information by determining the capability of cerebellar patients to acquire and use kinesthetic cues received via the active or passive tracing of an irregular shape while blindfolded. Patients with cerebellar lesions and age-matched healthy controls were tested on four tasks: (1) learning to discriminate a reference shape from three others through the repeated tracing of the reference template; (2) reproducing the reference shape from memory by drawing blindfolded; (3) performing the same task with vision; and (4) visually recognizing the reference shape. The cues used to acquire and then to recognize the reference shape were generated under four conditions: (1) "active kinesthesia," in which cues were acquired by the blindfolded subject while actively tracing a reference template; (2) "passive kinesthesia," in which the tracing was performed while the hand was guided passively through the template; (3) "sequential vision," in which the shape was visualized by the serial exposure of small segments of its outline; and (4) "full vision," in which the entire shape was visualized. The sequential vision condition was employed to emulate the sequential way in which kinesthetic information is acquired while tracing the reference shape. The results demonstrate a substantial impairment of cerebellar patients in their capability to perceive two-dimensional irregular shapes based only on kinesthetic cues. There also is evidence that this deficit in part relates to a reduced capacity to integrate temporal sequences of sensory cues into a complete image useful for shape discrimination tasks or for reproducing the shape through drawing. Consequently, the cerebellum has an important role in this type of sensory information processing even when it is not directly associated with the execution of movements.
Power, Andrew; Bartlett, Ruth
Recent work in geography has begun to look at the opportunities for care from siblings, friends and neighbours alongside parents and spouses. This paper examines the daily relationships that middle to older age adults with a learning disability have with remaining kin members, friends, and neighbours, within the context of declining formal day services. Adults with learning disabilities are more likely to have different life course experiences and be living on low incomes and in poor housing than the rest of the population as they have had less opportunity to work and save money through their lives. We draw on two qualitative studies with adults with learning disabilities. Findings suggest that friend and kin networks are anything but certain, as opportunities to meet and socialise shrink, and connections with siblings do not necessarily lend themselves to support. The findings raise the possibility of a space of attenuated care to convey the increasingly limited fronts from which support can be derived. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The evaluation of virtual learning environments (VLEs and similar applications has, to date, largely consisted of checklists of system features, phenomenological studies or measures of specific forms of educational efficacy. Although these approaches offer some value, they are unable to capture the complex and holistic nature of a group of individuals using a common system to support the wide range of activities that make up a course or programme of study over time. This paper employs Wenger's theories of ‘communities of practice' to provide a formal structure for looking at how a VLE supports a pre-existing course community. Wenger proposes a Learning Architecture Framework for a learning community of practice, which the authors have taken to provide an evaluation framework. This approach is complementary to both the holistic and complex natures of course environments, in that particular VLE affordances are less important than the activities of the course community in respect of the system. Thus, the VLE's efficacy in its context of use is the prime area of investigation rather than a reductionist analysis of its tools and components. An example of this approach in use is presented, evaluating the VLE that supports the undergraduate medical course at the University of Edinburgh. The paper provides a theoretical grounding, derives an evaluation instrument, analyses the efficacy and validity of the instrument in practice and draws conclusions as to how and where it may best be used.
This paper describes the consequences for workplace e-learning of viewing organisations as political systems. Organisations tend to stratify, and potential conflicts develop between ???top-down???, or designer-generation of workplace systems, and ???bottom-up???, or learner- and practice-based approaches. The differences between these groups in terms of their objectives, procedures, tacit knowledge and conceptions of the value of workplace e-learning have led to conflicts which have damaged r...
Schulz, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Walther, Lydia; Schweinberger, Stefan R
To assess the role of shape information for unfamiliar face learning, we investigated effects of photorealistic spatial anticaricaturing and caricaturing on later face recognition. We assessed behavioural performance and event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of recognition, using different images of anticaricatures, veridical faces, or caricatures at learning and test. Relative to veridical faces, recognition performance improved for caricatures, with performance decrements for anticaricatures in response times. During learning, an amplitude pattern with caricatures>veridicals=anticaricatures was seen for N170, left-hemispheric ERP negativity during the P200 and N250 time segments (200-380 ms), and for a late positive component (LPC, 430-830 ms), whereas P200 and N250 responses exhibited an additional difference between veridicals and anticaricatures over the right hemisphere. During recognition, larger amplitudes for caricatures again started in the N170, whereas the P200 and the right-hemispheric N250 exhibited a more graded pattern of amplitude effects (caricatures>veridicals>anticaricatures), a result which was specific to learned but not novel faces in the N250. Together, the results (i) emphasise the role of facial shape for visual encoding in the learning of previously unfamiliar faces and (ii) provide important information about the neuronal timing of the encoding advantage enjoyed by faces with distinctive shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hakeem Olafemi Ogunmuyiwa
Full Text Available It is common knowledge that the incorporation of Learning Management Systems (LMS in ESL/EFL instruction has enhanced learners understanding of the language just as it has helped teachers in monitoring students’ progress. However, the use of these eLearning platforms can be quite challenging for EFL learners who are yet to be proficient in the English language. This is because all course information and instructions are offered in the language. Following the notion of context and language metafunctions by Halliday (1985 and his followers, analysis of some linguistic expressions in typical learning management systems is conducted. I show how context and interpersonal meanings are established, and how they can enhance learners’ comprehension of information and instructions. The linguistic expressions used as data are sourced from student-specific pages of the web-based Learning Management System (Blackboard and the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle as adapted in colleges and institutes in Saudi Arabia.
Ergazaki, Marida; Saltapida, Konstantina; Zogza, Vassiliki
This paper is concerned with highlighting young children’s ideas about the nature, location and appearance of germs, as well as their reasoning strands about germs’ ontological category and biological functions. Moreover, it is concerned with exploring how all these could be taken into account for shaping a potentially fruitful learning environment. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 35 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of public kindergartens in the broader area of Patras, we attempted to trace their ideas about what germs are, where they may be found, whether they are good or bad and living or non-living and how they might look like in a drawing. Moreover, children were required to attribute a series of biological functions to dogs, chairs and germs, and finally to create a story with germs holding a key-role. The analysis of our qualitative data within the “NVivo” software showed that the informants make a strong association of germs with health and hygiene issues, locate germs mostly in our body and the external environment, are not familiar with the ‘good germs’-idea, and draw germs as ‘human-like’, ‘animal-like’ or ‘abstract’ entities. Moreover, they have significant difficulties not only in employing biological functions as criteria for classifying germs in the category of ‘living’, but also in just attributing such functions to germs using a warrant. Finally, the shift from our findings to a 3-part learning environment aiming at supporting preschoolers in refining their initial conceptualization of germs is thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Haguma, D.; Leconte, R.
Spatial and temporal water resources variability are associated with large-scale pressure and circulation anomalies known as teleconnections that influence the pattern of the atmospheric circulation. Teleconnection indices have been used successfully to forecast streamflow in short term. However, in some watersheds, classical methods cannot establish relationships between seasonal streamflow and teleconnection indices because of weak correlation. In this study, machine learning algorithms have been applied for seasonal streamflow forecast using teleconnection indices. Machine learning offers an alternative to classical methods to address the non-linear relationship between streamflow and teleconnection indices the context non-stationary climate. Two machine learning algorithms, random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM), with teleconnection indices associated with North American climatology, have been used to forecast inflows for one and two leading seasons for the Romaine River and Manicouagan River watersheds, located in Quebec, Canada. The indices are Pacific-North America (PNA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The results showed that the machine learning algorithms have an important predictive power for seasonal streamflow for one and two leading seasons. The RF performed better for training and SVM generally have better results with high predictive capability for testing. The RF which is an ensemble method, allowed to assess the uncertainty of the forecast. The integration of teleconnection indices responds to the seasonal forecast of streamflow in the conditions of the non-stationarity the climate, although the teleconnection indices have a weak correlation with streamflow.
Divya C. Senan
Full Text Available Physics is considered by some to be the most perplexing area in the sciences and perceived as a hard subject for students from secondary school to the university to adult-graduate education. Educational research has provided evidence that attitudes towards physics change with exposure to it. When students have negative attitudes towards physics, they often do not "like" physics courses or the teachers of those courses. Based on this premise, numerous studies have been conducted to determine the factors that affect students' attitudes towards physics. A goal that is important to most if not all teachers of physics courses is to inspire students to have a positive attitude towards the subject. This goal encompasses an appreciation of how physicists think and how they incorporate the values that it provides, as well as, how it is applied to other areas or related fields, and its application in everyday life. In this regard, the aim of this investigation has been to explore how to impact more effectively positive students' attitudes in physics courses. To that end, we report the effectiveness of a constructivistic multimedia-learning package (MLP in shaping and guiding students' attitudes towards physics.
Full Text Available Against the conceptual and theoretical background of a socio-culturally orientated approach to mobile learning (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, this paper examines the evaluation of user-generated contexts by referring to an example from the use of mobile phones in schools. We discuss how mobile device-related, user- generated contexts around structures, agency and cultural practices might be brought into a fruitful relationship with institution-based learning. And, we provide categories for evaluating the use of mobile devices to generate meaning from and with fragmented and discontinuous media and modes at the interface of learning in formal, institutionalised and informal, self-directed settings. The evaluation criteria build on the framework of a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning developed by the London Mobile Learning Group.
White, Paul J.; Larson, Ian; Styles, Kim; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Evans, Darrell R.; Rangachari, P. K.; Short, Jennifer L.; Exintaris, Betty; Malone, Daniel T.; Davie, Briana; Eise, Nicole; Mc Namara, Kevin; Naidu, Somaiya
The conventional lecture has significant limitations in the higher education context, often leading to a passive learning experience for students. This paper reports a process of transforming teaching and learning with active learning strategies in a research-intensive educational context across a faculty of 45 academic staff and more than 1,000…
Mehus, Christopher J; Doty, Jennifer; Chan, Gary; Kelly, Adrian B; Hemphill, Sheryl; Toumbourou, John; McMorris, Barbara J
Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10. The model fit was good (χ2(95) = 248.52, p role in the formation of adolescent peer relations that influence substance misuse and identifies etiological pathways that can guide the targets of prevention. The SIL pathways appear robust to the Australian social and policy context.
In a quasi-experimental comparison of 6 physics classes of secondary level 1 (N=122; grade 10, topic: energy learning with newspaper based problems vs. conventional textbook problems (same content, lesson plan and teacher showed considerable positive effects. This holds for general motivation, including several subscales (p<0.01, ω2=0.52 as well as for achievement, including transfer (p<0.01, ω2=0.20. Moreover, these results show robustness towards to various individual and classroom features (e.g. gender, non-verbal intelligence and school type, and at least mid-term temporal stability. Newspaper story problems thus appear as a useful element of context-based science teaching.
Full Text Available Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM, Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG, Hu invariant moments (Hu and Zernike moments (ZM. Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN, random forest (RF, support vector machine (SVM, k-nearest neighbour (k-NN, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM. In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS and Pearson’s coefficient correlation (PCC. The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia
Robert E. Guinness
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the use of smartphone sensors (namely, GPS and accelerometers, geospatial information (points of interest, such as bus stops and train stations and machine learning (ML to sense mobility contexts. Our goal is to develop techniques to continuously and automatically detect a smartphone user’s mobility activities, including walking, running, driving and using a bus or train, in real-time or near-real-time (<5 s. We investigated a wide range of supervised learning techniques for classification, including decision trees (DT, support vector machines (SVM, naive Bayes classifiers (NB, Bayesian networks (BN, logistic regression (LR, artificial neural networks (ANN and several instance-based classifiers (KStar, LWLand IBk. Applying ten-fold cross-validation, the best performers in terms of correct classification rate (i.e., recall were DT (96.5%, BN (90.9%, LWL (95.5% and KStar (95.6%. In particular, the DT-algorithm RandomForest exhibited the best overall performance. After a feature selection process for a subset of algorithms, the performance was improved slightly. Furthermore, after tuning the parameters of RandomForest, performance improved to above 97.5%. Lastly, we measured the computational complexity of the classifiers, in terms of central processing unit (CPU time needed for classification, to provide a rough comparison between the algorithms in terms of battery usage requirements. As a result, the classifiers can be ranked from lowest to highest complexity (i.e., computational cost as follows: SVM, ANN, LR, BN, DT, NB, IBk, LWL and KStar. The instance-based classifiers take considerably more computational time than the non-instance-based classifiers, whereas the slowest non-instance-based classifier (NB required about five-times the amount of CPU time as the fastest classifier (SVM. The above results suggest that DT algorithms are excellent candidates for detecting mobility contexts in
Slezak, Thomas Joseph; Radebaugh, Jani; Christiansen, Eric
The shapes of craterform morphology on planetary surfaces provides rich information about their origins and evolution. While morphologic information provides rich visual clues to geologic processes and properties, the ability to quantitatively communicate this information is less easily accomplished. This study examines the morphology of craterforms using the quantitative outline-based shape methods of geometric morphometrics, commonly used in biology and paleontology. We examine and compare landforms on planetary surfaces using shape, a property of morphology that is invariant to translation, rotation, and size. We quantify the shapes of paterae on Io, martian calderas, terrestrial basaltic shield calderas, terrestrial ash-flow calderas, and lunar impact craters using elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and the Zahn and Roskies (Z-R) shape function, or tangent angle approach to produce multivariate shape descriptors. These shape descriptors are subjected to multivariate statistical analysis including canonical variate analysis (CVA), a multiple-comparison variant of discriminant analysis, to investigate the link between craterform shape and classification. Paterae on Io are most similar in shape to terrestrial ash-flow calderas and the shapes of terrestrial basaltic shield volcanoes are most similar to martian calderas. The shapes of lunar impact craters, including simple, transitional, and complex morphology, are classified with a 100% rate of success in all models. Multiple CVA models effectively predict and classify different craterforms using shape-based identification and demonstrate significant potential for use in the analysis of planetary surfaces.
Guinness, Robert E
This paper presents the results of research on the use of smartphone sensors (namely, GPS and accelerometers), geospatial information (points of interest, such as bus stops and train stations) and machine learning (ML) to sense mobility contexts. Our goal is to develop techniques to continuously and automatically detect a smartphone user's mobility activities, including walking, running, driving and using a bus or train, in real-time or near-real-time (feature selection process for a subset of algorithms, the performance was improved slightly. Furthermore, after tuning the parameters of RandomForest, performance improved to above 97.5%. Lastly, we measured the computational complexity of the classifiers, in terms of central processing unit (CPU) time needed for classification, to provide a rough comparison between the algorithms in terms of battery usage requirements. As a result, the classifiers can be ranked from lowest to highest complexity (i.e., computational cost) as follows: SVM, ANN, LR, BN, DT, NB, IBk, LWL and KStar. The instance-based classifiers take considerably more computational time than the non-instance-based classifiers, whereas the slowest non-instance-based classifier (NB) required about five-times the amount of CPU time as the fastest classifier (SVM). The above results suggest that DT algorithms are excellent candidates for detecting mobility contexts in smartphones, both in terms of performance and computational complexity.
Full Text Available Currently many children in early childhood education cannot be accommodated in provincial department schools. Consequently, different non-governmental institutions offer Grade R programmes in an attempt to support the DBE. Pre-primary schools that traditionally took responsibility for early childhood education also offer Grade R education. The recent policy decision to include Grade R in the primary school is an innovation, which is still in its infancy. It is against this background that the national South African Curriculum (NCS has to be implemented. This paper focuses on the teaching of natural science in Grade R and attempts to determine if the teaching and learning of natural science has different outcomes in the different contexts described above. An oral questionnaire was administered to capture children’s understanding of natural science phenomena, while interviews provided data with regard to teachers’ understanding of natural science in the foundation phase. The results show that there are differences in children’s understanding of natural phenomena in the different contexts and these differences are related to teachers’ understanding of the curriculum, as well as their views of the nature of science.
Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall
Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention. To investigate these questions we compared the adaptability of weight predictions used when lifting objects and judging their weights in different groups of participants who experienced size-weight inverted objects passively (with the objects placed on the hands) or actively (where participants lift the objects) under full or divided attention. To assess weight judgments we measured the size-weight illusion after every 20 trials of experience with the inverted objects both passively and actively. The attenuation of the illusion that arises when lifting inverted object was found to be context-specific such that the attenuation was larger when the mode of interaction with the inverted objects matched the method of assessment of the illusion. Dividing attention during interaction with the inverted objects had no effect on attenuation of the illusion, but did slow the rate at which lifting forces were scaled to the weight inverted objects. These findings suggest that the brain stores multiple representations of priors that are context specific, and that focused attention is important for scaling lifting forces, but not for updating weight predictions used when judging object weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi
This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research study was to describe guidelines to improve the community health clinics as a learning context conducive to learning. The objectives of the study commenced by getting the perception of student nurses from a nursing college in Gauteng; community sisters from ten community health clinics in the Southern Metropolitan Local Council and college tutors from a college in Gauteng. The research design and method used, consisting of a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual approach and the design was divided into two phases. Phase one consisted of a field/empirical study and phase two of conceptualization. In all the samples follow-up focus group interviews were conducted to confirm the findings. To ensure trustworthiness, Lincoln and Guba’s model (1985 was implemented and data analysis was according to Tesch’s model (1990 in Creswell 1994:155 based on a qualitative approach. The conceptual framework discussed, indicating a body of knowledge, was based on the study and empirical findings from phase one to give clear meaning and understanding regarding the research study. The research findings were then compared with existing literature within the framework, to determine similarities and differences as literature control method. Guidelines were then formulated from phase one and two to solve the indicated problems based on the three different sample groups. Ethical consideration was maintained throughout the research study. Recommendations related to nursing education, nursing practice and nursing research were indicated accordingly.
Makupu, M B; Botes, A
The purpose of the research study was to describe guidelines to improve the community health clinics as a learning context conductive to learning. The objectives of the study commenced by getting the perception of student nurses from a nursing college in Gauteng; community sisters from ten community health clinics in the Southern Metropolitan Local Council and college tutors from a college in Gauteng. The research design and method used, consisting of a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual approach and the design was divided into two phases. Phase one consisted of a field/empirical study and phase two of conceptualization. In all the samples follow-up focus group interviews were conducted to confirm the findings. To ensure trustworthiness, Lincoln and Guba's model (1985) was implemented and data analysis was according to Tesch's model (1990 in Creswell 1994:155) based on a qualitative approach. The conceptual framework discussed, indicating a body of knowledge, was based on the study and empirical findings from phase one to give clear meaning and understanding regarding the research study.
Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela
Sibling relationships are usually lifelong and reciprocal. They can assume particular significance when a brother or sister has a learning disability. Until recently, adult siblings of people with disabilities such as severe autism have been ignored by policy, practice and research. This qualitative study contributes to an emerging literature by exploring how adult siblings, who have a brother or sister with autism (plus learning disability) and living in England, give meaning to their family (and caring) relationships and engage with service delivery. We spoke to 21 adult siblings using semi-structured interviews and met with 12 of their siblings with autism. Our analysis, using a broad narrative approach, demonstrates the continuity of the sibling relationship and an enduring personalised commitment. The nature of this relationship, however, is sensitive to context. How non-disabled adult siblings relate to their childhood experience is fundamental when making sense of this, as is their need to fulfil other social and family obligations, alongside their 'sense of duty' to support their disabled brother or sister. Sibling experience was further mediated by negotiating their 'perceived invisibility' in social care policy and practice. Our work concludes that by understanding the way relationships between siblings have developed over time, adult siblings' contribution to the lives of their brother or sister with autism can be better supported for the benefit of both parties. Such an approach would support current policy developments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Florin Răzvan Bălășescu
Full Text Available Objective The Lisbon Strategy set a new goal for the EU economy: the transition to a knowledge based economy, competitive and sustainable at macro and regional levels, by creating the European Research Area – a geographic area without frontiers for researches, where scientific resources are better managed to create more jobs and improve Europe's competitiveness. That means an interaction between specific and multidisciplinary research network. Approach However, general research methodology sustains the importance of static and revolutionary specific criteria of Scientific Research Programs but also reveals the natural process of multidisciplinary researches. In this context, the European Union could be regarded as a specific and multidisciplinary research area, as a network of flows, connections, relationships, interdependencies, and interferences between natural - experimental and social-humanistic research spheres (economics, management, sociology and complex systems ecology. Prior Work: In this respect some researchers suggested that both natural and social systems could be considered as multidisciplinary complex adaptive systems consisting of specific cluster network connections ( in the form of biotic and abiotic nodes, respectively, the competitive and regional poles with the ability to continuous self-organizing, learning and regenerating process especially in crisis situations. Implications and Value Paper Utility The present paper might be useful to illustrate the contribution of technical-economic and socio-ecological researches to increasing the sustainability framework of European Research Area by considering the transition from the R&D approach (development through research process to the L&D approach (development through learning process.
Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert A.
Although IT has been very successful in enabling distributed, collaborative learning and knowledge creation in open-source communities, its promise in other contexts is still an open question. In this paper, we describe the deployment of a video-based Web2.0 platform in an executive education context. The platform, which we developed, makes extensive use of video, profiling, game dynamics, agents and network visualizations in order to capture the attention and involvement of the learning community members. Our goal was to provide executive education participants with an attractive, interactive platform for extending their learning and networking beyond the classroom. This experience has allowed us to identify three main barriers to Web2.0 inter-organizational learning and collaboration in executive education: technological barriers, motivational barriers and the inter-organizational aspect itself.
Schwartz, Mila; Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Share, David L
The aim of this study was to examine self-teaching in the context of English as a foreign language literacy acquisition. Three groups comprising 88 sixth-grade children participated. The first group consisted of Russian-Hebrew-speaking bilinguals who had acquired basic reading skills in Russian as their first language (L1) and literacy and who were literate in Hebrew as a second language. The second group consisted of Russian-Hebrew-speaking bilinguals who had not learned to read in their native Russian but had acquired Hebrew as their first literate language. The third group consisted of Hebrew-speaking monolingual children who were literate in Hebrew. This design facilitated examining the effect of biliteracy and bilingualism on basic English reading skills. We hypothesized that due to the proximity between the Russian and English orthographies as opposed to the Hebrew-English "distance," the Russian-Hebrew-speaking biliterate group who acquired basic reading and spelling skills in L1 Russian would have superior self-teaching in English as opposed to the two other groups. The standard two-session self-teaching paradigm was employed with naming (speed and accuracy) and orthographic choice as posttest measures of orthographic learning. Results showed that after 4 years of English instruction, all three groups showed evidence of self-teaching on naming speed and orthographic recognition. The Russian-Hebrew-speaking biliterate group, moreover, showed a partial advantage over the comparison groups for initial decoding of target pseudowords and clear-cut superiority for measures of later orthographic learning, thereby showing self-teaching while supporting the script dependence hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
King, Donna; Ginns, Ian
Engaging middle school students in science continues to be a challenge in Australian schools. One initiative that has been tried in the senior years but is a more recent development in the middle years is the context-based approach. In this ethnographic study, we researched the teaching and learning transactions that occurred in one ninth grade…
Bailenson, Jeremy N.; Yee, Nick; Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.; Lundblad, Nicole; Jin, Michael
This article illustrates the utility of using virtual environments to transform social interaction via behavior and context, with the goal of improving learning in digital environments. We first describe the technology and theories behind virtual environments and then report data from 4 empirical studies. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that…
Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Coyle, Do
This article addresses the need to develop new pedagogic approaches which promote learner independence in contexts where learning takes place through the medium of more than one language. The challenges of responding to a rapidly changing educational landscape to ensure that our learners become pluriliterate global citizens are presented through…
Wiescholleck, Valentina; Emma André, Marion Agnès; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise
The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging. Young (7-8 week old) and older (7-8 month old) Wistar rats were used. For the extinction study, animals learned that a particular floor context indicated that they should turn into one specific arm (e.g., left) to receive a food reward. On the day after reaching the learning criterion of 80% correct choices, the floor context was changed, no reward was given and animals were expected to extinguish the learned response. Both, young and older rats managed this first extinction trial in the new context with older rats showing a faster extinction performance. One day later, animals were returned to the T-maze with the original floor context and renewal effects were assessed. In this case, only young but not older rats showed the expected renewal effect (lower extinction ratio as compared to the day before). To assess general memory abilities, animals were tested in the standard object recognition and object-place memory tasks. Evaluations were made at 5 min, 1 h and 7 day intervals. Object recognition memory was poor at short-term and intermediate time-points in older but not young rats. Object-place memory performance was unaffected at 5 min, but impaired at 1 h in older but not young rats. Both groups were impaired at 7 days. These findings support that not only aspects of general memory, but also context-dependent extinction learning, are affected by moderate aging. This may reflect less flexibility in
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja
E-learning is increasingly used in nurse education and practice development. This method can enhance learning opportunities for students and qualified nurses. This article examines the features of this technology and the ways in which it can be harnessed to maximise learning opportunities.
McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja
E-learning is increasingly used in nurse education and practice development. This method can enhance learning opportunities for students and qualified nurses. This article examines the features of this technology and the ways in which it can be harnessed to maximise learning opportunities.
Michelle M. Vine
Full Text Available The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended learning model? and How satisfied are implementers (faculty, administrators and library instructional/support staff with the new blended learning model for geospatial and information fluency? Focus groups (n=7 plus one interview (total n=22 were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g., staff, faculty, administrators to better understand facilitators, barriers, and/or issues related to module development, in addition to perceptions about how the modules are utilized by teaching assistants (TAs, instructional assistants (IAs, and instructors. Participants were identified according to their status as either discipline-specific instructional staff (i.e., instructor, TA, IA or staff who supported the development of modules (i.e., library instructional staff, library management, administrators. From an ontological standpoint that privileges an individual perspective on the nature of reality, while epistemologically seeking to understand the relationship between the “knower” and what can be known, we adopted a theory of constructivism to support this inquiry. Transcripts were imported into a qualitative analysis software package (NVivo 8.0 for organization, coding and analysis. Instructors found value in the online modules, particularly in a blended learning setting. Instructors felt that having the material in advance, in-class time could be better focused on interaction, assignments, and assessments and resulted in reduced anxiety in busy lab environments. Several key themes emerged, including: (a instructor expectations (time constraints, sustainability, and collaborative nature of development process and
Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke
Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms, and whether this teaching differs from traditional chemistry lessons, is scarce. This study aims to develop our understanding of what teaching looks like, according to students, in context-based chemistry classrooms compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. As such, it might also provide a better understanding of whether teachers implement and attain the intentions of curriculum developers. To study teacher behaviour we used three theoretical perspectives deemed to be important for student learning: a content perspective, a learning activities perspective, and an interpersonal perspective. Data were collected from 480 students in 24 secondary chemistry classes in the Netherlands. Our findings suggest that, according to the students, the changes in teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms imply a lessening of the emphasis on fundamental chemistry and the use of a teacher-centred approach, compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. However, teachers in context-based chemistry classrooms seem not to display more 'context-based' teaching behaviour, such as emphasizing the relation between chemistry, technology, and society and using a student-centred approach. Furthermore, students in context-based chemistry classrooms perceive their teachers as having less interpersonal control and showing less affiliation than teachers in traditional chemistry classrooms. Our findings should be interpreted in the context of former and daily experiences of both teachers and students. As only chemistry is reformed in the schools in which context-based chemistry is implemented, it is challenging for both students and teachers to
Full Text Available Purpose – this research is aimed to identify the metacognitive online reading strategies employed by MRU students and assess the interrelation between online reading strategies and metacognitive awareness.Design/methodology/approach – the authors present and evaluate the findings obtained by using Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS, the survey, which helped to identify MRU students’ metacognitive online reading strategies in a foreign language learning context. The methods applied in the research were the following ones: literature review and descriptive analysis of the obtained quantitative data. The quantitative research and descriptive analysis of the data received from the survey was applied. The target group of the study conducted at MRU consisted of 89 full-time students having different online reading experience. The sample was composed of students from five Bachelor study programmes studying in the academic year of 2012-2013. The instrument of the research (OSORS was composed of 38 items.Findings – the findings obtained through the survey revealed that readers work directly with the text to solve problems while reading online. However, a low score on any of the subscales of the inventory (i.e. Support strategies use indicates that there may be strategies in these parts that students might want to learn about and consider using them when reading online. By focusing students’ attention on the metacognitive reading strategies identified in the OSORS language, teachers could help students improve their online reading ability. Teachers should include strategy awareness as training component in their students’ online learning tasks.Research limitations/implications – the research sample is rather limited (89 participants.Practical implications – seeking to develop students’ online reading capacity, it is valuable for teachers to discover students’ preferences for online reading strategies and identify encountered
Chang, Shih-pei; Anagnostopoulos, Dorothea; Omae, Hilda
Multicultural service learning (MSL) seeks to develop pre-service teachers' capacities and commitment to teach diverse student populations. We use multiple regression analyses of survey data collected from 212 pre-service teachers engaged in 22 MSL sites to assess the effects of pre-service teachers' social identities, MSL contexts, and university…
Full Text Available An increasing debate is growing today, in both academic and research-in-action contexts, about the roles of new and traditional technologies in raising knowledge of agents involved, as well as in boosting an effective development of communities. The last century has been largely dominated by capital-intensive technologies, impacting large and populated areas. From the late 1990s up to the present days, due to social, financial, environmental concerns, new low-impact, local-born, little to medium-scale experiences have been challenging large technologies, with interesting results. The importance of such experiences seems to lay on the abilities and knowledge of local populations, which are quite difficult to emerge as formal methodologies and attain recognizable levels of generalization and sharing. Yet the effectiveness of local-based technologies is being increasingly documented, often succeeding in cases where more formal technologies had previously failed. The EU-funded ANTINOMOS project has largely dealt with local-community knowledge enhancing and managing in the water sector management, aiming at creating a real learning environment for the sharing and the active generation of knowledge through mutual synergies. In this paper, the above subject is discussed and carried out with a cross-disciplinary, cross-scale, multi-agent approach, considering the different forms of local knowledge and language involved.
Full Text Available Amidst the different challenges facing higher education, and particularly distance education (DE and open distance learning (ODL, access to information and communication technology (ICT and students’ abilities to use ICTs are highly contested issues in the South African higher education landscape. While there are various opinions about the scope and definition of the digital divide, increasing empirical evidence questions the uncritical use of the notion of the digital divide in South African and international higher education discourses.In the context of the University of South Africa (Unisa as a mega ODL institution, students’ access to technology and their functional competence are some of the critical issues to consider as Unisa prepares our graduates for an increasingly digital and networked world.This paper discusses a descriptive study that investigated students’ access to technology and their capabilities in using technology, within the broader discourse of the “digital divide.” Results support literature that challenges a simplistic understanding of the notion of the “digital divide” and reveal that the nature of access is varied.
Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa
This study aims to investigate the applicability of context- and problem-based learning (C-PBL) into teaching thermodynamics and to examine its influence on the students' achievements in chemistry, retention of knowledge, students' attitudes, motivation and interest towards chemistry. The embedded mixed method design was utilized with a group of 13 chemistry students in a 2-year program of "Medical Laboratory and Techniques" at a state university in an underdeveloped city at the southeastern region of Turkey. The research data were collected via questionnaires regarding the students' attitudes, motivation and interest in chemistry, an achievement test on "thermodynamics" and interviews utilized to find out the applicability of C-PBL into thermodynamics. The findings demonstrated that C-PBL led a statistically significant increase in the students' achievement in thermodynamics and their interest in chemistry, while no statistically significant difference was observed in the students' attitudes and motivation towards chemistry before and after the intervention. The interviews revealed that C-PBL developed not only the students' communication skills but also their skills in using time effectively, making presentations, reporting research results and using technology. It was also found to increase their self-confidence together with the positive attitudes towards C-PBL and being able to associate chemistry with daily life. In light of these findings, it could be stated that it will be beneficial to increase the use of C-PBL in teaching chemistry.
Li, Bing; Xiong, Weihua; Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen; Yan, Shuicheng
Horror content sharing on the Web is a growing phenomenon that can interfere with our daily life and affect the mental health of those involved. As an important form of expression, horror images have their own characteristics that can evoke extreme emotions. In this paper, we present a novel context-aware multi-instance learning (CMIL) algorithm for horror image recognition. The CMIL algorithm identifies horror images and picks out the regions that cause the sensation of horror in these horror images. It obtains contextual cues among adjacent regions in an image using a random walk on a contextual graph. Borrowing the strength of the fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM), we define a heuristic optimization procedure based on the FSVM to search for the optimal classifier for the CMIL. To improve the initialization of the CMIL, we propose a novel visual saliency model based on the tensor analysis. The average saliency value of each segmented region is set as its initial fuzzy membership in the CMIL. The advantage of the tensor-based visual saliency model is that it not only adaptively selects features, but also dynamically determines fusion weights for saliency value combination from different feature subspaces. The effectiveness of the proposed CMIL model is demonstrated by its use in horror image recognition on two large-scale image sets collected from the Internet.
Manafe Novriani Rabeka
Full Text Available This paper outlines an attempt to discover students’ progress in both content and language skill in a content and language integrated learning (CLIL lessons at an Indonesia’s higher education context. This is a part of a research conducted at Faculty of Science and Technology of Nusa Cendana University in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. This study employs mixed method approach with 20 participants attending by taking pre-test and post-test as well as joining a focus group interview particularly for 6 students. The tests were aimed at measuring the participants’ comprehension of English as the language of CLIL lesson. They were also used as the tool to evaluate students’ mastery of Mathematics as the content subject. Based on the post-test results, the findings showed that more students made significant progress in content subject in comparison to their achievement in language proficiency. Regarding the interview, the students admitted that their failure to made progress in both subjects were mainly caused by their inadequate level of English. This, therefore, led to rising anxiety among the students to complete the tests.
Crump, Matthew J C
Multiple lines of evidence from the attention and performance literature show that attention filtering can be controlled by higher level voluntary processes and lower-level cue-driven processes (for recent reviews see Bugg, 2012; Bugg & Crump, 2012; Egner, 2008). The experiments were designed to test a general hypothesis that cue-driven control learns from context-specific histories of prior acts of selective attention. Several web-based flanker studies were conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Attention filtering demands were induced by a secondary one-back memory task after each trial prompting recall of the last target or distractor letter. Blocking recall demands produced larger flanker effects for the distractor than target recall conditions. Mixing recall demands and associating them with particular stimulus-cues (location, colour, letter, and font) sometimes showed rapid, contextual control of flanker interference, and sometimes did not. The results show that subtle methodological parameters can influence whether or not contextual control is observed. More generally, the results show that contextual control phenomena can be influenced by other sources of control, including other cue-driven sources competing for control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Shindo, Kiyo; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi; Nawano, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kenji
An organ segmentation learned by a conventional ensemble learning algorithm suffers from unnatural errors because each voxel is classified independently in the segmentation process. This paper proposes a novel ensemble learning algorithm that can take into account global shape and location of organs. It estimates the shape and location of an organ from a given image by combining an intermediate segmentation result with a statistical shape model. Once an ensemble learning algorithm could not improve the segmentation performance in the iterative learning process, it estimates the shape and location by finding an optimal model parameter set with maximum degree of correspondence between a statistical shape model and the intermediate segmentation result. Novel weak classifiers are generated based on a signed distance from a boundary of the estimated shape and a distance from a barycenter of the intermediate segmentation result. Subsequently it continues the learning process with the novel weak classifiers. This paper presents experimental results where the proposed ensemble learning algorithm generates a segmentation process that can extract a spleen from a 3D CT image more precisely than a conventional one. (author)
Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.
Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne
Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...
Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to capture the relationship between cognitive and motivational variables and the student learning. 102 students from the Psychology specialization, license cycle, took part in the study. The following tools were used: the Rational-Experiential Inventory (Paccini & Epstein, 1999; the Intellectual development level questionnaire (Paloş, 2009, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Rao & Sachs, 1999. The results indicated that the motivational and learning strategies used by students are influenced by their intellectual development level and their information processing style. Knowing the cognitive and motivational variables play an important role in devising the educational experiences and in making learning more efficient.
van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dulmen, Sandra; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning and transfer to broaden the view for future research. Relevant literature was identified using Pubmed, GoogleScholar, Cochrane database, and Web of Science; and analyzed using an iterative procedure. Research findings on the effectiveness of medical communication training still show inconsistencies and variability. Contemporary theories on learning based on a constructivist paradigm offer the following insights: acquisition of knowledge and skills should be viewed as an ongoing process of exchange between the learner and his environment, so called lifelong learning. This process can neither be atomized nor separated from the context in which it occurs. Four contemporary approaches are presented as examples. The following shift in focus for future research is proposed: beyond isolated single factor effectiveness studies toward constructivist, non-reductionistic studies integrating the context. Future research should investigate how constructivist approaches can be used in the medical context to increase effective learning and transition of communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woldeit, M L; Korz, V
A functional connection between theta rhythms, information processing, learning and memory formation is well documented by studies focusing on the impact of theta waves on motor activity, global context or phase coding in spatial learning. In the present study we analyzed theta oscillations during a spatial learning task and assessed which specific behavioral contexts were connected to changes in theta power and to the formation of memory. Therefore, we measured hippocampal dentate gyrus theta modulations in male rats that were allowed to establish a long-term spatial reference memory in a holeboard (fixed pattern of baited holes) in comparison to rats that underwent similar training conditions but could not form a reference memory (randomly baited holes). The first group established a pattern specific learning strategy, while the second developed an arbitrary search strategy, visiting increasingly more holes during training. Theta power was equally influenced during the training course in both groups, but was significantly higher when compared to untrained controls. A detailed behavioral analysis, however, revealed behavior- and context-specific differences within the experimental groups. In spatially trained animals theta power correlated with the amounts of reference memory errors in the context of the inspection of unbaited holes and exploration in which, as suggested by time frequency analyses, also slow wave (delta) power was increased. In contrast, in randomly trained animals positive correlations with working memory errors were found in the context of rearing behavior. These findings indicate a contribution of theta/delta to long-lasting memory formation in spatially trained animals, whereas in pseudo trained animals theta seems to be related to attention in order to establish trial specific short-term working memory. Implications for differences in neuronal plasticity found in earlier studies are discussed. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd
The role of context in preschool learning: a multilevel examination of the contribution of context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality to low-income children's approaches to learning.
Domínguez, Ximena; Vitiello, Virginia E; Fuccillo, Janna M; Greenfield, Daryl B; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J
Research suggests that promoting adaptive approaches to learning early in childhood may help close the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children. Recent research has identified specific child-level and classroom-level variables that are significantly associated with preschoolers' approaches to learning. However, further research is needed to understand the interactive effects of these variables and determine whether classroom-level variables buffer the detrimental effects of child-level risk variables. Using a largely urban and minority sample (N=275) of preschool children, the present study examined the additive and interactive effects of children's context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality dimensions on children's approaches to learning. Teachers rated children's problem behavior and approaches to learning and independent assessors conducted classroom observations to assess process quality. Problem behaviors in structured learning situations and in peer and teacher interactions were found to negatively predict variance in approaches to learning. Classroom process quality domains did not independently predict variance in approaches to learning. Nonetheless, classroom process quality played an important role in these associations; high emotional support buffered the detrimental effects of problem behavior, whereas high instructional support exacerbated them. The findings of this study have important implications for classroom practices aimed at helping children who exhibit problem behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…
Longcamp, Marieke; Boucard, Céline; Gilhodes, Jean-Claude; Anton, Jean-Luc; Roth, Muriel; Nazarian, Bruno; Velay, Jean-Luc
Fast and accurate visual recognition of single characters is crucial for efficient reading. We explored the possible contribution of writing memory to character recognition processes. We evaluated the ability of adults to discriminate new characters from their mirror images after being taught how to produce the characters either by traditional pen-and-paper writing or with a computer keyboard. After training, we found stronger and longer lasting (several weeks) facilitation in recognizing the orientation of characters that had been written by hand compared to those typed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings indicated that the response mode during learning is associated with distinct pathways during recognition of graphic shapes. Greater activity related to handwriting learning and normal letter identification was observed in several brain regions known to be involved in the execution, imagery, and observation of actions, in particular, the left Broca's area and bilateral inferior parietal lobules. Taken together, these results provide strong arguments in favor of the view that the specific movements memorized when learning how to write participate in the visual recognition of graphic shapes and letters.
Manushi P. Wijayapala
Full Text Available In Sri Lanka (SL, graduands’ employability remains a national issue due to the increasing number of graduates produced by higher education institutions each year. Thus, predicting the employability of university graduands can mitigate this issue since graduands can identify what qualifications or skills they need to strengthen up in order to find a job of their desired field with a good salary, before they complete the degree. The main objective of the study is to discover the plausibility of applying machine learning approach efficiently and effectively towards predicting the employability and related context of university graduands in Sri Lanka by proposing an architectural framework which consists of four modules; employment status prediction, job salary prediction, job field prediction and job relevance prediction of graduands while also comparing performance of classification algorithms under each prediction module. Series of machine learning algorithms such as C4.5, Naïve Bayes and AODE have been experimented on the Graduand Employment Census - 2014 data. A pre-processing step is proposed to overcome challenges embedded in graduand employability data and a feature selection process is proposed in order to reduce computational complexity. Additionally, parameter tuning is also done to get the most optimized parameters. More importantly, this study utilizes several types of Sampling (Oversampling, Undersampling and Ensemble (Bagging, Boosting, RF techniques as well as a newly proposed hybrid approach to overcome the limitations caused by the class imbalance phenomena. For the validation purposes, a wide range of evaluation measures was used to analyze the effectiveness of applying classification algorithms and class imbalance mitigation techniques on the dataset. The experimented results indicated that RandomForest has recorded the highest classification performance for 3 modules, achieving the selected best predictive models under hybrid
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care. Circa 2009, nearly a decade after the release of the IOM report, the health care organizational literature began referring to this challenge as “innovation implementation failure” in health care organizations (HCOs), ie, failure to implement an evidence-based practice that is new to a HCO. This stream of literature drew upon management research to explain why innovation implementation failure occurs in HCOs and what could be done to prevent it. This paper conducts an integrative review of the literature on “innovation implementation” in hospitals and health systems over the last decade, since the spotlight was cast on “innovation implementation failure” in HCOs. The review reveals that while some studies have retrospectively sought to identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, through surveys and interviews of practitioners (the “what”), other studies have prospectively sought to understand how innovation implementation occurs in hospitals and health systems (the “how”). Both make distinctive contributions to identifying strategies for success in innovation implementation. While retrospective studies have helped identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, prospective studies have shed light on how these drivers could be attained, thereby helping to develop context-sensitive management strategies for success. The literature has called for more prospective research on the implementation and
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care. Circa 2009, nearly a decade after the release of the IOM report, the health care organizational literature began referring to this challenge as "innovation implementation failure" in health care organizations (HCOs), ie, failure to implement an evidence-based practice that is new to a HCO. This stream of literature drew upon management research to explain why innovation implementation failure occurs in HCOs and what could be done to prevent it. This paper conducts an integrative review of the literature on "innovation implementation" in hospitals and health systems over the last decade, since the spotlight was cast on "innovation implementation failure" in HCOs. The review reveals that while some studies have retrospectively sought to identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, through surveys and interviews of practitioners (the "what"), other studies have prospectively sought to understand how innovation implementation occurs in hospitals and health systems (the "how"). Both make distinctive contributions to identifying strategies for success in innovation implementation. While retrospective studies have helped identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, prospective studies have shed light on how these drivers could be attained, thereby helping to develop context-sensitive management strategies for success. The literature has called for more prospective research on the implementation and sustainability of health
Full Text Available By following the example proposed by Corrêa (2011 in the investigation of texts produced by undergraduate and pre-undergraduate students in two different assessment, this work aims to approach “hidden” aspects in the teaching of writing at the university (Street, 2009, to reflections produced in the language field, in particular the ones referred as “socially assumed”, proposed by Voloshinov/Bakhtin (s/d: 1926. It is particularly important to investigate the conception of text in digital context, by means of the study of updated semiotic resources in the production of undergraduate students using a computer with internet access in the process of semi-present Distance Learning (DL. The collected material comprises 29 (twenty nine texts which were produced by students of the semi-present Pedagogy Course from Univesp (Universidade Virtual do Estado de São Paulo – Virtual University from the state of São Paulo, who were studying “Education and Language”, in 2010. This qualitative analysis aims to show that regarding the institution there is a prevalence of structural and procedural aspects for the accomplishment of the proposed activity and, regarding the undergraduate student it is noticed that the production is characterized by a traditional conception of text, mainly recognized by written verbal text, although the proposal prioritized the relation between verbal and non verbal language. Regarding discursive-linguistic studies, it is important to reflect about a text conception that privileges the integration of multiple semiosis by taking into account the socio-historical interlocution character established within utterances of others.
Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde
Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.
Bertels, Julie; San Anton, Estibaliz; Gebuis, Titia; Destrebecqz, Arnaud
Extracting the statistical regularities present in the environment is a central learning mechanism in infancy. For instance, infants are able to learn the associations between simultaneously or successively presented visual objects (Fiser & Aslin,; Kirkham, Slemmer & Johnson,). The present study
Lenz, Alexander; Spannowsky, Michael; Tetlalmatzi-Xolocotzi, Gilberto
We study the possibility of identifying a boosted resonance that decays into a charm pair against different sources of background using QCD event shapes, which are promoted to jet shapes. Using a set of jet shapes as input to a boosted decision tree, we find that observables utilizing the simultaneous presence of two charm quarks can access complementary information compared to approaches relying on two independent charm tags. Focusing on Higgs associated production with subsequent H →c c ¯ decay and on a C P -odd scalar A with mA≤10 GeV we obtain the limits B r (H →c c ¯ )≤6.48 % and B r (H →A (→c c ¯ )Z )≤0.01 % at 95% C.L.
Jones, E. J. H.; Webb, S. J.; Estes, A.; Dawson, G.
Learning abstract rules is central to social and cognitive development. Across two experiments, we used Delayed Non-Matching to Sample tasks to characterize the longitudinal development and nature of rule-learning impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that children with ASD consistently experienced more difficulty learning an abstract rule from a discrete physical reward than children with DD. Rule learning was facilitated by the provision of more concret...
Loebach, Jeremy L; Pisoni, David B; Svirsky, Mario A
The effect of feedback and materials on perceptual learning was examined in listeners with normal hearing who were exposed to cochlear implant simulations. Generalization was most robust when feedback paired the spectrally degraded sentences with their written transcriptions, promoting mapping between the degraded signal and its acoustic-phonetic representation. Transfer-appropriate processing theory suggests that such feedback was most successful because the original learning conditions were reinstated at testing: Performance was facilitated when both training and testing contained degraded stimuli. In addition, the effect of semantic context on generalization was assessed by training listeners on meaningful or anomalous sentences. Training with anomalous sentences was as effective as that with meaningful sentences, suggesting that listeners were encouraged to use acoustic-phonetic information to identify speech than to make predictions from semantic context.
Verbert, K.; Manouselis, N.; Ochoa, X.; Wolpers, M.; Drachsler, H.; Bosnic, I.; Duval, E.
Recommender systems have been researched extensively by the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) community during the last decade. By identifying suitable resources from a potentially overwhelming variety of choices, such systems offer a promising approach to facilitate both learning and teaching tasks. As learning is taking place in extremely…
Chaney, Terry Andrew
In spite of its growing popularity, researchers have focused little attention on the effectiveness of combining traditional classroom instruction and online learning, a practice generally referred to as blended learning. The modest research on blended learning to date has tended to focus on higher education, leaving a significant gap in the…
Lu, Chris; Chang, Maiga; Kinshuk; Huang, Echo; Chen, Ching-Wen
The research presented in this paper is part of a 5-year renewable national research program in Canada, namely the NSERC/iCORE/Xerox/Markin research chair program that aims to explore possibilities of adaptive mobile learning and to provide learners with a learning environment which facilitates personalized learning at any time and any place. One…
Mittal, Ankush; Krishnan, Pagalthivarthi V.; Altman, Edward
A recent focus in web based learning systems has been the development of reusable learning materials that can be delivered as personalized courses depending of a number of factors such as the user's background, his/her learning preferences, current knowledge based on previous assessments, or previous browsing patterns. The student is often…
How successful learners learn English has been one of the primary interest of scientists and researchers in recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to determine what language learning strategies the military personnel from different nations used while learning English. 56 subjects from 14 different nations deployed in three different military…
Niemann, Katja; Wolpers, Martin
In this paper, we introduce a new way of detecting semantic similarities between learning objects by analysing their usage in web portals. Our approach relies on the usage-based relations between the objects themselves rather then on the content of the learning objects or on the relations between users and learning objects. We then take this new…
Waragai, Ikumi; Kurabayashi, Shuichi; Ohta, Tatsuya; Raindl, Marco; Kiyoki, Yasushi; Tokuda, Hideyuki
This paper presents another stage in a series of research efforts by the authors to develop an experience-connected mobile language learning environment, bridging formal and informal learning. Building on a study in which the authors tried to connect classroom learning (of German in Japan) with learners' real life experiences abroad by having…
Dilin Meiyi, Yao
There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving
Jancke L; Brugger E; Brummer M; Scherrer S; Alahmadi N
BACKGROUND: Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. METHODS: 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The con...
Nicholson, Karen; Evans, Judith F.; Tellier-Robinson, Dora; Aviles, Leticia
Three teachers describe how parents of deaf, severely disabled, and bilingual children participated in their children's learning. Qualitative research methods were used to help parents share their knowledge with teachers. (SK)
Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen
Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not
Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T
It has been suggested that extinction-based therapy benefits from administration of the stress hormone cortisol. However, it is unclear whether similar effects can be obtained by inducing stress instead of administering cortisol, and whether the effects also persist if memory is tested in a different context (renewal test) or after exposure to an aversive stimulus (reinstatement). The present study therefore applied a fear conditioning (context A, day 1) and extinction (context B, day 2) paradigm in healthy men. After fear extinction, participants were exposed to a stress or control procedure (n = 20 each). Fear retrieval was tested in contexts A and B on day 3. Postextinction stress increased skin conductance responses to the extinguished stimulus in the retrieval and reinstatement test especially in the acquisition context. The context-dependent return of fear may reflect enhancing effects of stress on the consolidation of contextual cues. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.
Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…
Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U
Many perceptual learning experiments show that repeated exposure to a basic visual feature such as a specific orientation or spatial frequency can modify perception of that feature, and that those perceptual changes are associated with changes in neural tuning early in visual processing. Such perceptual learning effects thus exert a bottom-up influence on subsequent stimulus processing, independent of task-demands or endogenous influences (e.g., volitional attention). However, it is unclear whether such bottom-up changes in perception can occur as more complex stimuli such as conjunctions of visual features are learned. It is not known whether changes in the efficiency with which people learn to process feature conjunctions in a task (e.g., visual search) reflect true bottom-up perceptual learning versus top-down, task-related learning (e.g., learning better control of endogenous attention). Here we show that feature conjunction learning in visual search leads to bottom-up changes in stimulus processing. First, using fMRI, we demonstrate that conjunction learning in visual search has a distinct neural signature: an increase in target-evoked activity relative to distractor-evoked activity (i.e., a relative increase in target salience). Second, we demonstrate that after learning, this neural signature is still evident even when participants passively view learned stimuli while performing an unrelated, attention-demanding task. This suggests that conjunction learning results in altered bottom-up perceptual processing of the learned conjunction stimuli (i.e., a perceptual change independent of the task). We further show that the acquired change in target-evoked activity is contextually dependent on the presence of distractors, suggesting that search array Gestalts are learned. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2319-2330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper highlights the Indonesian’s road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the student used many strategies when teaching and learning process conducted. In situational level they used their knowledge of experience-base activity, in referential level they use manik-manik (string of beads, and in general level they used number line to solve the problem. From the research was known that the Indonesian’s road transportation context helps student to understand basic concept of addition and subtraction. The suggestion to further research this context can be used in design research of multiplication.Key word: Indonesian’s road transportation, angkot, context, addition, subtraction DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.779.67-78
This article discusses the conceptual framework that leads to the design of a teaching and learning model as part of a recent ethnographic study that considered the effectiveness of current Victorian government secondary school music teaching and learning practices when engaged with technology. The philosophical and theoretical basis for this…
Song, Ji Hoon; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Cho, Sei Hyoung
Purpose: The primary purposes of the current paper are to: provide theoretically clear concepts of the learning organization (LO) and organizational learning (OL) process; and empirically test the relationships among research constructs--environmental aspects of the LO and three types of OL processes at the levels of individual, group/team, and…
Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking. Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. There-fore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is re-lated to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participa-tion with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.
Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M.; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel
This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success. PMID:27199812
Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel
This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people's self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.
Full Text Available Characterizing vertical distributions of ozone from nadir-viewing satellite measurements is known to be challenging, particularly the ozone information in the troposphere. A novel retrieval algorithm called Full-Physics Inverse Learning Machine (FP-ILM, has been developed at DLR in order to estimate ozone profile shapes based on machine learning techniques. In contrast to traditional inversion methods, the FP-ILM algorithm formulates the profile shape retrieval as a classification problem. Its implementation comprises a training phase to derive an inverse function from synthetic measurements, and an operational phase in which the inverse function is applied to real measurements. This paper extends the ability of the FP-ILM retrieval to derive tropospheric ozone columns from GOME- 2 measurements. Results of total and tropical tropospheric ozone columns are compared with the ones using the official GOME Data Processing (GDP product and the convective-cloud-differential (CCD method, respectively. Furthermore, the FP-ILM framework will be used for the near-real-time processing of the new European Sentinel sensors with their unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution and corresponding large increases in the amount of data.
Xu, J.; Heue, K.-P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Romahn, F.; Doicu, A.; Loyola, D.
Characterizing vertical distributions of ozone from nadir-viewing satellite measurements is known to be challenging, particularly the ozone information in the troposphere. A novel retrieval algorithm called Full-Physics Inverse Learning Machine (FP-ILM), has been developed at DLR in order to estimate ozone profile shapes based on machine learning techniques. In contrast to traditional inversion methods, the FP-ILM algorithm formulates the profile shape retrieval as a classification problem. Its implementation comprises a training phase to derive an inverse function from synthetic measurements, and an operational phase in which the inverse function is applied to real measurements. This paper extends the ability of the FP-ILM retrieval to derive tropospheric ozone columns from GOME- 2 measurements. Results of total and tropical tropospheric ozone columns are compared with the ones using the official GOME Data Processing (GDP) product and the convective-cloud-differential (CCD) method, respectively. Furthermore, the FP-ILM framework will be used for the near-real-time processing of the new European Sentinel sensors with their unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution and corresponding large increases in the amount of data.
Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed; Sapkota, Brahmananda; Zarghami, Alireza; Vriezekolk, E.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Wieringa, P.A.
In this paper, we discuss possible risks posed by the application of tailorable context-aware systems in real-life practices. We use a tailorable context-aware system in the homecare domain as a case study to identify and analyse such risks. Next, we discuss which of these risks can be generalized
Lozano-Verduzco, Ignacio; Rosales Mendoza, Adriana Leona
This paper addresses how educational and cultural contexts incorporate lessons around sexuality, particularly sexual and gender identity, and how these contexts impact on identity construction of gay men in Mexico City. We analyse the experiences of 15 gay men reported through semi-structured in-depth interviews and how they incorporate sexuality…
Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick
To form a coherent representation of the objects around us, the brain must group the different sensory features composing these objects. Here, we investigated whether actions contribute in this grouping process. In particular, we assessed whether action-outcome learning and prediction contribute to audiovisual temporal binding. Participants were presented with two audiovisual pairs: one pair was triggered by a left action, and the other by a right action. In a later test phase, the audio and visual components of these pairs were presented at different onset times. Participants judged whether they were simultaneous or not. To assess the role of action-outcome prediction on audiovisual simultaneity, each action triggered either the same audiovisual pair as in the learning phase ('predicted' pair), or the pair that had previously been associated with the other action ('unpredicted' pair). We found the time window within which auditory and visual events appeared simultaneous increased for predicted compared to unpredicted pairs. However, no change in audiovisual simultaneity was observed when audiovisual pairs followed visual cues, rather than voluntary actions. This suggests that only action-outcome learning promotes temporal grouping of audio and visual effects. In a second experiment we observed that changes in audiovisual simultaneity do not only depend on our ability to predict what outcomes our actions generate, but also on learning the delay between the action and the multisensory outcome. When participants learned that the delay between action and audiovisual pair was variable, the window of audiovisual simultaneity for predicted pairs increased, relative to a fixed action-outcome pair delay. This suggests that participants learn action-based predictions of audiovisual outcome, and adapt their temporal perception of outcome events based on such predictions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Recent theoretical models suggest that motor learning includes at least two processes: error minimization and memory decay. While learning a novel movement, a motor memory of the movement is gradually formed to minimize the movement error between the desired and actual movements in each training trial, but the memory is slightly forgotten in each trial. The learning effects of error minimization trained with a certain movement are partially available in other non-trained movements, and this t...
Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel
Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a 2-dimensional (2D) screen and 3-dimensional (3D) object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emot...
Figueiredo, Sandra; Silva, Carlos Fernandes da; Monteiro, Sara
A compelling body of evidence shows a strong association between psychological, affective and learning variables, related also with the age and gender factors, which are involved in the language learning development process. Children and adolescents with migratory experience (direct/indirect) can develop behaviours at risk in their academic learning and psychosocial adaptation, according to several stressors as anxiety, low motivation, negative attitudes, within a stressed internal l...
Jaiswal, Shashank; Valstar, Michel F.
Spontaneous facial expression recognition under uncontrolled conditions is a hard task. It depends on multiple factors including shape, appearance and dynamics of the facial features, all of which are adversely affected by environmental noise and low intensity signals typical of such conditions. In this work, we present a novel approach to Facial Action Unit detection using a combination of Convolutional and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks (CNN-BLSTM), which jointly lear...
Kolbæk, Ditte; McKenzie, Jane
efficiency, or develop work processes, products, or services. We examine dialogues in Proactive Reviews (PR), which is a process for organisational learning. The methodological approach takes its departure in learning by applying Design Based Research. The paper provides suggestions for codes of conduct...... and organisational requirements for establishing and maintaining dialogues as they thrive in Proactive Reviews. The originality of the paper lays in approaching organisational learning from a learning perspective, by applying Design Based Research in a world-class IT company rather than in a classroom...
Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M
Prior research has shown that people can learn many nouns (i.e., word-object mappings) from a short series of ambiguous situations containing multiple words and objects. For successful cross-situational learning, people must approximately track which words and referents co-occur most frequently. This study investigates the effects of allowing some word-referent pairs to appear more frequently than others, as is true in real-world learning environments. Surprisingly, high-frequency pairs are not always learned better, but can also boost learning of other pairs. Using a recent associative model (Kachergis, Yu, & Shiffrin, 2012), we explain how mixing pairs of different frequencies can bootstrap late learning of the low-frequency pairs based on early learning of higher frequency pairs. We also manipulate contextual diversity, the number of pairs a given pair appears with across training, since it is naturalistically confounded with frequency. The associative model has competing familiarity and uncertainty biases, and their interaction is able to capture the individual and combined effects of frequency and contextual diversity on human learning. Two other recent word-learning models do not account for the behavioral findings. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C
Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.
Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.
Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400
de Bruin, Leon R.
Interpersonal and collaborative activity plays an important role in the social aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL) development. Peer, teacher and group interactions facilitate support for self-regulation, co-regulation and socially shared regulatory processes. Situated and experiential interplay facilitates personal, co-constructed and…
Cumming, Fiona; Nash, Melanie
There is growing discussion on the use of local outdoor environments to enhance a person's sense of belonging. Sense of belonging and sense of place are components that can promote positive learning identities and attachments to community and, in turn, address issues of cycles of disadvantage. This article researched the impact of an…
Fouragnan, Elsa; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen; Philiastides, Marios G
Avoiding repeated mistakes and learning to reinforce rewarding decisions is critical for human survival and adaptive actions. Yet, the neural underpinnings of the value systems that encode different decision-outcomes remain elusive. Here coupling single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging, we uncover the spatiotemporal dynamics of two separate but interacting value systems encoding decision-outcomes. Consistent with a role in regulating alertness and switching behaviours, an early system is activated only by negative outcomes and engages arousal-related and motor-preparatory brain structures. Consistent with a role in reward-based learning, a later system differentially suppresses or activates regions of the human reward network in response to negative and positive outcomes, respectively. Following negative outcomes, the early system interacts and downregulates the late system, through a thalamic interaction with the ventral striatum. Critically, the strength of this coupling predicts participants' switching behaviour and avoidance learning, directly implicating the thalamostriatal pathway in reward-based learning.
Mintz, Keren; Tal, Tali
This research investigates the ways in which undergraduate courses dealing with the environment address sustainable development (SD), and contribute to the development of sustainability learning outcomes (SLO). The participants in the study were 13 instructors, and 360 students who were enrolled in 13 courses that addressed the environment in a…
Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…
AlShoaibi, Rana; Shukri, Nadia
The major aim of this study is to better understand the university students' perceptions and attitudes towards using social network sites for learning English as well as to identify if there is a difference between male and female university students in terms of using social networking sites for learning English inside and outside the classroom.…
Holtham, Clive; Courtney, Nigel
Training for 561 executives in the use of information and communications technologies was based on a model, the Executive Learning Ladder. Results indicated that sense making was accelerated when conducted in peer groups before being extended to less-experienced managers. Learning preference differences played a role. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)
Maslo, Elina; Leví Orta, Genoveva; Persevica, Aija
-Europe Meeting (ASEM-LLL). The objectives of this comparative study were to find out what people understand to be voluntary and compulsory with respect to workplace learning, what companies and organisations offer in terms of formal and non-formal work-related learning, which of these are voluntary and which...
Monroy, Claire D; Gerson, Sarah A; Hunnius, Sabine
Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects. Both implicit and explicit measures of learning were compared between agent and ghost conditions. Implicit learning was measured via predictive eye movements to upcoming actions or events, and explicit learning was measured via both uninstructed reproduction of the action sequences and verbal reports of the regularities. The findings revealed that participants, regardless of condition, readily learned the regularities and made correct predictive eye movements to upcoming events during online observation. However, different patterns of explicit-learning outcomes emerged following observation: Participants were most likely to re-create the sequence regularities and to verbally report them when they had observed an actor create a contingent effect. These results suggest that the shift from implicit predictions to explicit knowledge of what has been learned is facilitated when observers perceive another agent's actions and when these actions cause effects. These findings are discussed with respect to the potential role of the motor system in modulating how statistical regularities are learned and used to modify behavior.
An Irish company embarked on implementing a business excellence model and continuous improvement initiatives. Some employees' reluctance to participate impeded organizational learning, but the creation of a culture that encouraged, facilitated, and rewarded learning enabled movement toward excellence. (Contains 64 references.) (SK)
Mojica, Claudia Patricia; Castañeda-Peña, Harold
Eighteen Colombian English teachers participated in a course with an emphasis on gender and foreign language teaching in a Master's program in Bogotá. This text describes the design, implementation, and the learning in this educational experience. The analysis of the course was based on a view of learning as a process of participation rooted in…
Background: Open distance learning (ODL) institutions provide educational challenges with specific reference to the training of nurses. They have adopted online technologies to facilitate teaching and learning. However it is observed that most nurses do not use or minimally use tools such as a discussion forum for online ...
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole
The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…
Ornellas, Adriana; Muñoz Carril, Pablo César
This article outlines a methodological approach to the creation, production and dissemination of online collaborative audio-visual projects, using new social learning technologies and open-source video tools, which can be applied to any e-learning environment in higher education. The methodology was developed and used to design a course in the…
Cyphert, Dale; Dodge, Elena Nefedova; Duclos (Wilson), Leslie K.
The value of experiential learning is widely acknowledged, especially for the development of communication skills, but students are not always aware of their own learning. While we can observe students practicing targeted skills during the experiential activity, the experience can also color their explicit understanding of those skills. Transfer…