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Sample records for learning conditional independence

  1. Naïve and Robust: Class-Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jana B.; Meder, Björn; Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2018-01-01

    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference…

  2. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  3. Test-potentiated learning: three independent replications, a disconfirmed hypothesis, and an unexpected boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-04-01

    Arnold and McDermott [(2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 940-945] isolated the indirect effects of testing and concluded that encoding is enhanced to a greater extent following more versus fewer practice tests, referred to as test-potentiated learning. The current research provided further evidence for test-potentiated learning and evaluated the covert retrieval hypothesis as an alternative explanation for the observed effect. Learners initially studied foreign language word pairs and then completed either one or five practice tests before restudy occurred. Results of greatest interest concern performance on test trials following restudy for items that were not correctly recalled on the test trials that preceded restudy. Results replicate Arnold and McDermott (2013) by demonstrating that more versus fewer tests potentiate learning when trial time is limited. Results also provide strong evidence against the covert retrieval hypothesis concerning why the effect occurs (i.e., it does not reflect differential covert retrieval during pre-restudy trials). In addition, outcomes indicate that the magnitude of the test-potentiated learning effect decreases as trial length increases, revealing an unexpected boundary condition to test-potentiated learning.

  4. Learning-dependent and -independent enhancement of mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses following olfactory fear conditioning in awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jordan M; Fletcher, Max L

    2018-04-18

    Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm. We then used awake, in vivo calcium imaging to quantify learning-induced changes in glomerular odor responses, which constitute the first site of olfactory processing in the brain. The results demonstrate that odor-shock pairing non-specifically enhances glomerular odor representations in a learning-dependent manner and increases representational similarity between the CS and non-conditioned odors, potentially priming the system towards generalization of learned fear. Additionally, CS-specific glomerular enhancements remain even when associative learning is blocked, suggesting two separate mechanisms lead to enhanced glomerular responses following odor-shock pairings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the olfactory bulb (OB), odors are uniquely coded in a spatial map that represents odor identity, making the OB a unique model system for investigating how learned fear alters sensory processing. Classical fear conditioning causes fear of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and of neutral stimuli, known as generalization. Combining fear conditioning with fluorescent calcium imaging of OB glomeruli, we found enhanced glomerular responses of the CS as well as neutral stimuli in awake mice, which mirrors fear generalization. We report that CS and neutral stimuli enhancements are, respectively, learning- independent and learning-dependent. Together, these results reveal distinct mechanisms leading to enhanced OB processing of fear-inducing stimuli and provide important

  5. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  6. Boosting orthographic learning during independent reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2016-01-01

    . The present training study was conducted to assess experimentally whether this relation between prior orthographic knowledge and orthographic learning while reading is causal by assessing whether instruction designed to increase sublexical orthographic knowledge would facilitate orthographic learning during......Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text...... independent reading. A group of Danish-speaking third graders (n = 21) was taught conditional spelling patterns conforming to the opaque Danish writing system, with emphasis on how to map the spellings onto their pronunciations. A matched control group (n = 21) received no treatment. Both groups were exposed...

  7. Efficient algorithms for conditional independence inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouckaert, R.; Hemmecke, R.; Lindner, S.; Studený, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2010), s. 3453-3479 ISSN 1532-4435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : conditional independence inference * linear programming approach Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.949, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/studeny-efficient algorithms for conditional independence inference.pdf

  8. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  9. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  10. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  11. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  12. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147 ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs- Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  13. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  14. Condition monitoring with Mean field independent components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss condition monitoring based on mean field independent components analysis of acoustic emission energy signals. Within this framework it is possible to formulate a generative model that explains the sources, their mixing and also the noise statistics of the observed signals. By using...... a novelty approach we may detect unseen faulty signals as indeed faulty with high precision, even though the model learns only from normal signals. This is done by evaluating the likelihood that the model generated the signals and adapting a simple threshold for decision. Acoustic emission energy signals...... from a large diesel engine is used to demonstrate this approach. The results show that mean field independent components analysis gives a better detection of fault compared to principal components analysis, while at the same time selecting a more compact model...

  15. Characterization of NMDAR-independent learning in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaycie Kuss Tayler

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is currently thought that memory formation requires the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs in the hippocampus. However, recent studies indicate that these receptors are not necessary for all forms of learning. The current experiments examine this issue using context fear conditioning in mice. First, we show that context fear can be acquired without NMDAR activation in previously trained animals. Mice trained in one environment (context A are subsequently able to learn about a second environment (context B in the presence of NMDAR antagonists. Second, we demonstrate that NMDAR-independent learning requires the hippocampus and is dependent on protein synthesis. However, unlike NMDAR-dependent learning, it is not contingent on the expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc. Lastly, we present data that suggests NMDAR-independent learning is only observed when recently stimulated neurons are re-activated during conditioning. These data suggest that context fear conditioning modifies synaptic plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus and allows subsequent learning to occur in the absence of NMDAR activation.

  16. Independent Learning Crossing Cultures: Learning Cultures and Shifting Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jane; Henderson, Juliet; Clifford, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper contrasts the notion of "independent learning" as perceived by two informant groups at a UK institution of higher education: (1) teachers, educators and providers of education and (2) their students or "consumers" of education. Both informant groups are staff and students studying in a culture different to that of…

  17. Dissociable Learning Processes Underlie Human Pain Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Robbins, Trevor; Seymour, Ben

    2016-01-11

    Pavlovian conditioning underlies many aspects of pain behavior, including fear and threat detection [1], escape and avoidance learning [2], and endogenous analgesia [3]. Although a central role for the amygdala is well established [4], both human and animal studies implicate other brain regions in learning, notably ventral striatum and cerebellum [5]. It remains unclear whether these regions make different contributions to a single aversive learning process or represent independent learning mechanisms that interact to generate the expression of pain-related behavior. We designed a human parallel aversive conditioning paradigm in which different Pavlovian visual cues probabilistically predicted thermal pain primarily to either the left or right arm and studied the acquisition of conditioned Pavlovian responses using combined physiological recordings and fMRI. Using computational modeling based on reinforcement learning theory, we found that conditioning involves two distinct types of learning process. First, a non-specific "preparatory" system learns aversive facial expressions and autonomic responses such as skin conductance. The associated learning signals-the learned associability and prediction error-were correlated with fMRI brain responses in amygdala-striatal regions, corresponding to the classic aversive (fear) learning circuit. Second, a specific lateralized system learns "consummatory" limb-withdrawal responses, detectable with electromyography of the arm to which pain is predicted. Its related learned associability was correlated with responses in ipsilateral cerebellar cortex, suggesting a novel computational role for the cerebellum in pain. In conclusion, our results show that the overall phenotype of conditioned pain behavior depends on two dissociable reinforcement learning circuits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  19. Learning strategies during fear conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Russ E.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model of fear learning, in which subjects have an option of behavioral responses to impending social defeat. The model generates two types of learning: social avoidance and classical conditioning, dependent upon 1) escape from or 2) social subordination to an aggressor. We hypothesized that social stress provides the impetus as well as the necessary information to stimulate dichotomous goal-oriented learning. Specialized tanks were constructed to subject rainbow trout t...

  20. Comparative Study of Learning Using E-Learning and Printed Materials on Independent Learning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Utami, Niken; Aziz Saefudin, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine: 1) differences in students taking independent learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 2) differences in the creativity of students who follow learning with e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 3) differences in learning independence and creativity of students attend learning with e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the subject of Mathematics Instructional Media Development. This study was a quasi-experimental research design using only posttest control design. The study population was all students who take courses in Learning Mathematics Media Development, Academic Year 2014/2015 100 students and used a random sample (random sampling) is 60 students. To test the hypothesis used multivariate analysis of variance or multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the track. The results of this study indicate that 1) There is a difference in student learning independence following study using the e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 4.177, p = 0.046 0.05) ; No difference learning independence and creativity of students attend learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM (F = 2.452, p = 0.095 > 0.05). Based on these studies suggested that the learning using e -learning can be used to develop student creativity, while learning to use e -learning and teaching materials can be printed to use to develop students’ independence.

  1. Spatial Learning: Conditions and Basic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Chamizo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the spatial and the temporal domains seem to share the same or similar conditions, basic effects, and mechanisms. The blocking, unblocking and overshadowing experiments (and also those of latent inhibition and perceptual learning reviewed by Prados and Redhead in this issue show that to exclude associative learning as a basic mechanism responsible for spatial learning is quite inappropriate. All these results, especially those obtained with strictly spatial tasks, seem inconsistent with O’Keefe and Nadel’s account of true spatial learning or locale learning. Their theory claims that this kind of learning is fundamentally different and develops with total independence from other ways of learning (like classical and instrumental conditioning -taxon learning. In fact, the results reviewed can be explained appealing on to a sophisticated guidance system, like for example the one proposed by Leonard and McNaughton (1990; see also McNaughton and cols, 1996. Such a system would allow that an animal generates new space information: given the distance and address from of A to B and from A to C, being able to infer the distance and the address from B to C, even when C is invisible from B (see Chapuis and Varlet, 1987 -the contribution by McLaren in this issue constitutes a good example of a sophisticated guidance system.

  2. On the path independence conditions for discrete-continuous demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    We consider the manner in which the well-established path independence conditions apply to Small and Rosen's (1981) problem of discrete-continuous demand, focussing especially upon the restricted case of discrete choice (probabilistic) demand. We note that the consumer surplus measure promoted...... by Small and Rosen, which is specific to the probabilistic demand, imposes path independence to price changes a priori. We find that path independence to income changes can further be imposed provided a numeraire good is available in the consumption set. We show that, for practical purposes, Mc...

  3. A linear-algebraic tool for conditional independence inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanaka, K.; Studený, Milan; Takemura, A.; Sei, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2015), s. 150-167 ISSN 1309-3452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence inference * Automated theorem proving Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/studeny-0450036.pdf

  4. Compositional models and conditional independence in evidence theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Radim; Vejnarová, Jiřina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 316-334 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Evidence theory * Conditional independence * multidimensional models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/jirousek-0370515.pdf

  5. THE CORRELATION OF LEARNING INDEPENDENCE ATTITUDES AND STUDENT’S LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT ON PHYSICS LEARNING BASED-PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Saefullah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine correlation between learning independence attitudes and student’s learning achievement. Type of this research is a correlation study to detect the connection of learning independence attitude’s variance in relation to learning achievement variance. This study used an attitude scale to measure the student’s learning independence attitude and objective multiple-choice questions to measure the student’s learning achievement. The results showed that there is a positive correlation (unidirectional and significant betweenthe learning independence attitude and learning achievement. This means that the better student’s learning independence attitude, it will be the better students learning achievement. The attitude of learning independence contributed to 40.96% of students learning achievement.

  6. Cognitive independence in foreign language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Rodríguez Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to describe a didactic strategy to contribute to the development of foreign languages course students’ cognitive independence at Camagüey University. In its theoretical conception it is re-defined the concept “cognitive independence”, springing from the context in which the research is carried out, and the distinguishing features that characterize this capacity in students of foreign languages for pedagogical purposes are determined. The strategy comprises four stages: diagnosis, planning, execution, and evaluation. It is included the exemplification of the actions comprised in each stage, as well as the valuation of its effectiveness by means of experts’ opinions. Theoretical and empirical methods were applied, allowing the identification of the scientific problem and the modeling of its solution.

  7. The Influence of Cognitive Learning Style and Learning Independence on the Students' Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2018-01-01

    Students of Open University are strongly required to be able to study independently. They rely heavily on the cognitive learning styles that they have in attempt to get maximum scores in every final exam. The participants of this research were students in the Physics Education program taking Thermodynamic subject course. The research analysis…

  8. Lessons Learned from Becoming an Independent Standards Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, John C.

    This paper discusses lessons learned from becoming an independent standards board. It begins by explaining that teachers lacked adequate academic preparation during the two World Wars and shortly thereafter. At the end of World War II, public education had to deal with poor pay, little job security, inadequate pensions, and inadequate and…

  9. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  10. Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

  11. Interactive learning environments to support independent learning: the impact of discernability of embedded support devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Rob; Valcke, Martin; Portier, Stanley

    2017-01-01

    In this article the effectivity of prototypes of interactive learning environments (ILE) is investigated. These computer-based environments are used for independent learning. In the learning materials, represented in the prototypes, a clear distinction is made between the basic content and embedded

  12. Map as a tool for independent learning in geography teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different views on self-regulation in the learning process, how it has to be monitored, controlled, which are the circumstances and external factors that affect independent learning. Dominant are the opinions in which the self-regulation is treated as interaction of processes related to the personality, behavioural and contextual processes. Special attention has been given to motivational strategies and students’ desire to focus on goals. By enabling students to make decisions, set their own goals, make a choice, plan and organize activities, the development of self-learning and student autonomy is being encouraged. If students are given the opportunity of independent activities, effect of self-control in the process of learning and self-regulation becomes more pronounced. The paper will explain the factors that influence the process of self-learning that takes place in regular teaching with the help of map as the basic geographic media. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 17008

  13. Advances in independent component analysis and learning machines

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Ella; Laaksonen, Jorma; Lampinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    In honour of Professor Erkki Oja, one of the pioneers of Independent Component Analysis (ICA), this book reviews key advances in the theory and application of ICA, as well as its influence on signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning, and data mining. Examples of topics which have developed from the advances of ICA, which are covered in the book are: A unifying probabilistic model for PCA and ICA Optimization methods for matrix decompositions Insights into the FastICA algorithmUnsupervised deep learning Machine vision and image retrieval A review of developments in the t

  14. Occam factors and model independent Bayesian learning of continuous distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Bialek, William

    2002-01-01

    Learning of a smooth but nonparametric probability density can be regularized using methods of quantum field theory. We implement a field theoretic prior numerically, test its efficacy, and show that the data and the phase space factors arising from the integration over the model space determine the free parameter of the theory ('smoothness scale') self-consistently. This persists even for distributions that are atypical in the prior and is a step towards a model independent theory for learning continuous distributions. Finally, we point out that a wrong parametrization of a model family may sometimes be advantageous for small data sets

  15. Empirical Bayes conditional independence graphs for regulatory network recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Rami; Madduri, Abishek S.; Wang, Guoqing; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Computational inference methods that make use of graphical models to extract regulatory networks from gene expression data can have difficulty reconstructing dense regions of a network, a consequence of both computational complexity and unreliable parameter estimation when sample size is small. As a result, identification of hub genes is of special difficulty for these methods. Methods: We present a new algorithm, Empirical Light Mutual Min (ELMM), for large network reconstruction that has properties well suited for recovery of graphs with high-degree nodes. ELMM reconstructs the undirected graph of a regulatory network using empirical Bayes conditional independence testing with a heuristic relaxation of independence constraints in dense areas of the graph. This relaxation allows only one gene of a pair with a putative relation to be aware of the network connection, an approach that is aimed at easing multiple testing problems associated with recovering densely connected structures. Results: Using in silico data, we show that ELMM has better performance than commonly used network inference algorithms including GeneNet, ARACNE, FOCI, GENIE3 and GLASSO. We also apply ELMM to reconstruct a network among 5492 genes expressed in human lung airway epithelium of healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assayed using microarrays. The analysis identifies dense sub-networks that are consistent with known regulatory relationships in the lung airway and also suggests novel hub regulatory relationships among a number of genes that play roles in oxidative stress and secretion. Availability and implementation: Software for running ELMM is made available at http://mezeylab.cb.bscb.cornell.edu/Software.aspx. Contact: ramimahdi@yahoo.com or jgm45@cornell.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22685074

  16. Changing Conditions for Networked Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    in describing the novel pedagogical potentials of these new technologies and practices (e.g. in debates around virtual learning environments versus personal learning environment). Likewise, I shall briefly discuss the notions of ‘digital natives’ or ‘the net generation’ from a critical perspective...... of social technologies. I argue that we are seeing the emergence of new architectures and scales of participation, collaboration and networking e.g. through interesting formations of learning networks at different levels of scale, for different purposes and often bridging boundaries such as formal...

  17. Conditional discrimination learning: A critique and amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, Allan M.; Thompson, Claudia R.

    1980-01-01

    Carter and Werner recently reviewed the literature on conditional discrimination learning by pigeons, which consists of studies of matching-to-sample and oddity-from-sample. They also discussed three models of such learning: the “multiple-rule” model (learning of stimulus-specific relations), the “configuration” model, and the “single-rule” model (concept learning). Although their treatment of the multiple-rule model, which seems most applicable to the pigeon data, is generally excellent, the...

  18. Maximum Likelihood Learning of Conditional MTE Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a procedure for inducing conditional densities within the mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTE) framework. We analyse possible conditional MTE specifications and propose a model selection scheme, based on the BIC score, for partitioning the domain of the conditioning variables....... Finally, experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the learning procedure as well as the expressive power of the conditional MTE distribution....

  19. Rapid, Labile, and Protein Synthesis– Independent Short-Term Memory in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Berlin, RoseAnn

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with int...

  20. Informal Learning on "YouTube": Exploring Digital Literacy in Independent Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…

  1. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Conditions for Productive Learning in Network Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponti, M.; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lindström, B.

    2004-01-01

    are designed without a deep understanding of the pedagogical, communicative and collaborative conditions embedded in networked learning. Despite the existence of good theoretical views pointing to a social understanding of learning, rather than a traditional individualistic and information processing approach......The Kaleidoscope1 Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for Productive Networked Learning Environments is developing and elaborating conceptual understandings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) emphasizing the use of cross-cultural comparative......: Pedagogical design and the dialectics of the digital artefacts, the concept of collaboration, ethics/trust, identity and the role of scaffolding of networked learning environments.   The JEIRP is motivated by the fact that many networked learning environments in various European educational settings...

  3. Conditions of Practice in Perceptual Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, D.; Hagemann, N.; Althoetmar, R.; Geppert, S.; Seiler, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses three experiments with different kinds of training conditions to investigate the "easy-to-hard" principle, context interference conditions, and feedback effects for learning anticipatory skills in badminton. Experiment 1 (N = 60) showed that a training program that gradually increases the difficulty level has no advantage over the…

  4. Some psycholinguistic conditions for second language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Spolsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses some psycho linguistic conditions for second language learning based on a preference rr ode! in linguistics. The outcome of second language learning depends on a number of conditions. Second language learning takes place in a social context, and social conditions determine a learner's attitudes. These attitudes are twofold in nature, namely those towards the community speaking the target language and those towards the learning situation. The two kinds of attitudes lead to motivation. The social context also provides opportunities for language learning and can be divided into formal and informal situations. There are also individual conditions of the learner. The author is concerned with the exploration of several specific psycholinguistic factors, as well as the kinds of rules which they contribute to the theory. Die skrywer bespreek enkele psigolinguistiese voorwaardes vir die aanleer van 'n tweede taal, gebaseer op 'n voorkeurmodel in die l!nguistiek. Die aanleer van 'n tweede taal geskied bin ne 'n sosiale konteks, en sosiale omstandighede bepaal 'n leerder se houding. Hierdie houding kan bestaan ten opsigte van die gemeenskap wat die teikentaal praat, sowel as ten opsigte van die leersituasie. Motivering word bepaal deur hierdie tweeledige houding. Die sosiale konteks bepaal ook geleenthede vir die aanleer van 'n taal en kan verdeel word in forme le en informele situasies. Verder is daar die individuele omstandighede van elke leerder. Die skrywer hou horn besig met 'n verkenning van spesifieke psigolinguistiese faktore, sowel as die soort reels wat hydra tot die teorie.

  5. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  6. Conditioning and learning in relation to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Guy, W

    1985-12-01

    Of the two generally recognized processes through which learning occurs--imprinting and conditioning--only the latter with its two paradigms, classical and operant, has both practical and heuristic implications for disease. From the classical conditioning experiments of Pavlov's laboratory over 100 years ago to the later work in operant conditioning by Skinner and others in the past four decades has evolved much of the basis of modern learning theory and its applications to disease in the form of behavior therapy. Variants of behavior therapy have been employed in the treatment of wide variety of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Recent developments in the study of brain function and biochemistry have led to renewed interest in the conditioning paradigm and its value as tool in these areas of research.

  7. Variational Bayesian Learning for Wavelet Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Roberts, S.; Daubechies, I.

    2005-11-01

    In an exploratory approach to data analysis, it is often useful to consider the observations as generated from a set of latent generators or "sources" via a generally unknown mapping. For the noisy overcomplete case, where we have more sources than observations, the problem becomes extremely ill-posed. Solutions to such inverse problems can, in many cases, be achieved by incorporating prior knowledge about the problem, captured in the form of constraints. This setting is a natural candidate for the application of the Bayesian methodology, allowing us to incorporate "soft" constraints in a natural manner. The work described in this paper is mainly driven by problems in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, for the neuro-scientific goal of extracting relevant "maps" from the data. This can be stated as a `blind' source separation problem. Recent experiments in the field of neuroscience show that these maps are sparse, in some appropriate sense. The separation problem can be solved by independent component analysis (ICA), viewed as a technique for seeking sparse components, assuming appropriate distributions for the sources. We derive a hybrid wavelet-ICA model, transforming the signals into a domain where the modeling assumption of sparsity of the coefficients with respect to a dictionary is natural. We follow a graphical modeling formalism, viewing ICA as a probabilistic generative model. We use hierarchical source and mixing models and apply Bayesian inference to the problem. This allows us to perform model selection in order to infer the complexity of the representation, as well as automatic denoising. Since exact inference and learning in such a model is intractable, we follow a variational Bayesian mean-field approach in the conjugate-exponential family of distributions, for efficient unsupervised learning in multi-dimensional settings. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on some representative experiments.

  8. Learning context conditions for BDI plan selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, D.; Sardina, S.; Padgham, L.; Airiau, S.; van der Hoek, W.; Kaminka, G.A.; Lespérance, Y.; Luck, M.; Sen, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important drawback to the popular Belief, Desire, and Intentions (BDI) paradigm is that such systems include no element of learning from experience. In particular, the so-called context conditions of plans, on which the whole model relies for plan selection, are restricted to be boolean formulas

  9. Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

  10. Rapid, labile, and protein synthesis-independent short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T A; Berlin, R

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with intraoral catheters to allow presentation of taste solutions at arbitrary times. Intraoral intake was measured under conditions of long-delay, single-trial learning typical of CTA. Rats decreased intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min after contingent pairing of sucrose and LiCl, but not after noncontingent LiCl or sucrose. Thus CTA learning can be expressed rapidly. To determine if short-term CTA memory is labile and decays in the absence of long-term memory, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose after pairing sucrose with low doses of LiCl. Rats received an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6 ml/6 min); 30 min later LiCl was injected at three different doses (19, 38, or 76 mg/kg). A second intraoral infusion of sucrose was administered 15 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4.5 hr, 6 hr, or 48 hr later. The formation of long-term CTA memory was dependent on the dose of LiCl paired with sucrose during acquisition. Low doses of LiCl induced a CTA that decayed within 6 hr after pairing. Central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prior to LiCl injection blocked long-term CTA expression at 6 and 48 hr, but not short-term CTA expression at 1 hr. Thus, short-term memory for CTA learning exists that is acquired rapidly and independent of protein synthesis, but labile in the absence of long-term memory formation.

  11. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the way in which students work together, in the structure of learning tasks as well as in the degree to which cooperative efforts of students are coupled with competition among groups, some elements should be present in the structure of conditions irrespective of the type of group work in question. Potential effects of cooperation are not likely to emerge unless teachers apply five basic elements of cooperative structure: 1. structuring of the learning task and students’ positive interdependence, 2. individual responsibility, 3. upgrading of "face to face" interaction, 4. training of students’ social skills, and 5. evaluation of group processes. The paper discusses various strategies for establishing the mentioned elements and concrete examples for teaching practice are provided, which should be of assistance to teachers for as much successful cooperative learning application as possible in work with children.

  12. Learning Algorithms for Audio and Video Processing: Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machine Based Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qi, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose two new machine learning schemes, a subband-based Independent Component Analysis scheme and a hybrid Independent Component Analysis/Support Vector Machine scheme, and apply...

  13. Science Learning Cycle Method to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding and the Learning Independence on Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari

    2017-01-01

    There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…

  14. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  15. Informal Workplace Learning among Nurses: Organisational Learning Conditions and Personal Characteristics That Predict Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…

  16. Conditional expectations on the von Neumann algebras and causal independence of quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashyan, K.Yu.; Khoruzhij, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Implementation of the condition of casual independence of quantized fields has been established for a number of quantum-field systems. Implementation of a property of the Haag-Castler casual independence has been proved for a net of the von Neumann local algebras in a number of models of free and quantized fields interacting in the Fock local way. In particular, proved is a theorem of meeting the condition of casual independence with the net of local albegras of the Dirac free field. A new method based on the techniques of noncommutative probability law has been used for the proof [ru

  17. FEATURES OF THE INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE FORM OF TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of introduction of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions in the conditions of implementation of the correspondence form of training. Examples of the use of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions, in particular in the preparation of specialists in pedagogics of higher school in the conditions of the correspondence form of training are presented. Discussed the basic didactic principles of distance and traditional forms of education. The theoretical substantiation of a choice of a virtual learning environment compass for the needs of training of specialists in pedagogics of higher school is presented. Determined the location of independent work of students in the educational process of higher education. Outputed the main functional modules of modern management systems of distance learning.

  18. Learning Conditions, Members' Motivation and Satisfaction: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Isabel Dórdio; Rebelo, Teresa; Lourenço, Paulo Renato

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to contribute to the clarification of the conditions under which teams can be successful, especially those related to team learning. To attain this goal, in the present study, the mediating role played by team members' motivation on the relationship between team learning conditions (shared learning beliefs…

  19. Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time - dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time - dependent boundary conditions.pdf

  20. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…

  1. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...

  2. PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF ACTIVATION OF CREATIVE COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE OF A COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Strogina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to creation of the model and methodic conditions of activation of creative cognitive independence of a college students. Useof the present system could allow to solve one ofthe prime tasks in the modern studying process,as well as significantly increase professionalqualifications of the college graduates.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES OF INITIATING STUDENTS INTO INDEPENDENT (SELF-GUIDED ACTIVITY IN SUPPLEMENTARY DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Abakumova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research in question investigates the technologies of initiating independent activity within the framework of distance learning and their psychological aspects. The authors’ classification of educational technologies of initiating students into independent cognitive activity is presented. Such technologies utilize various psychological mechanisms of exciting students’ cognitive interest, intensifying cognitive processes, developing independent activity skills, and, as a result, increase motivation for independent activity and learning on the whole. These include such types of technologies as developmental technologies, interactive technologies, technologies of information transfer, technologies of meaning-making initiation. The research of the attitude of distance learning educators to independent activity of students and the content of the academic courses were done at Moodle-based education programs. The findings show the differences in retention rate among distance learning educators whose competence in terms of initiating students into independent (self-guided activity varies. It’s emphasized that interactive lectures, videoconferences, audio-visual aids, interactive seminars, glossaries, interactive tests are considered the most efficient technologies in initiating students into independent (self-guided activity. The obtained results have made it possible to stress the developmental effect of distance learning technologies and the technologies of initiating students into independent (self-guided activity in various psychic spheres of students: cognitive, individual, emotional. We mention the changes in motivational sphere of students and their meaning-making activity. In the course of correct development of distance learning we notice the development of voluntary and nonvoluntary cognitive activity. A student starts actively participating in educational process, he becomes the creator of his own world.

  4. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  5. Student perceptions of independent versus facilitated small group learning approaches to compressed medical anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Multiple brain networks underpinning word learning from fluent speech revealed by independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barroso, Diana; Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mohammadi, Bahram; Münte, Thomas F; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2015-04-15

    Although neuroimaging studies using standard subtraction-based analysis from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have suggested that frontal and temporal regions are involved in word learning from fluent speech, the possible contribution of different brain networks during this type of learning is still largely unknown. Indeed, univariate fMRI analyses cannot identify the full extent of distributed networks that are engaged by a complex task such as word learning. Here we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to characterize the different brain networks subserving word learning from an artificial language speech stream. Results were replicated in a second cohort of participants with a different linguistic background. Four spatially independent networks were associated with the task in both cohorts: (i) a dorsal Auditory-Premotor network; (ii) a dorsal Sensory-Motor network; (iii) a dorsal Fronto-Parietal network; and (iv) a ventral Fronto-Temporal network. The level of engagement of these networks varied through the learning period with only the dorsal Auditory-Premotor network being engaged across all blocks. In addition, the connectivity strength of this network in the second block of the learning phase correlated with the individual variability in word learning performance. These findings suggest that: (i) word learning relies on segregated connectivity patterns involving dorsal and ventral networks; and (ii) specifically, the dorsal auditory-premotor network connectivity strength is directly correlated with word learning performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Problem based learning: the effect of real time data on the website to student independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowidodo, I.; Pramesti, Y. S.; Handayani, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    Learning science developed as an integrative science rather than disciplinary education, the reality of the nation character development has not been able to form a more creative and independent Indonesian man. Problem Based Learning based on real time data in the website is a learning method focuses on developing high-level thinking skills in problem-oriented situations by integrating technology in learning. The essence of this study is the presentation of authentic problems in the real time data situation in the website. The purpose of this research is to develop student independence through Problem Based Learning based on real time data in website. The type of this research is development research with implementation using purposive sampling technique. Based on the study there is an increase in student self-reliance, where the students in very high category is 47% and in the high category is 53%. This learning method can be said to be effective in improving students learning independence in problem-oriented situations.

  8. Imaging learning and memory: classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, B G; Alkon, D L

    2001-12-15

    The search for the biological basis of learning and memory has, until recently, been constrained by the limits of technology to classic anatomic and electrophysiologic studies. With the advent of functional imaging, we have begun to delve into what, for many, was a "black box." We review several different types of imaging experiments, including steady state animal experiments that image the functional labeling of fixed tissues, and dynamic human studies based on functional imaging of the intact brain during learning. The data suggest that learning and memory involve a surprising conservation of mechanisms and the integrated networking of a number of structures and processes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  10. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ePamir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  11. On patterns of conditional independences and covariance signs among binary variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    Roč. 154, č. 2 ( 2018 ), s. 511-524 ISSN 0236-5294 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : conditional independence * covariance * correlation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/ 2018 /MTR/matus-0488279.pdf

  12. Counterbalancing clinical supervision and independent practice: case studies in learning thoracic epidural catheter insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T

    2010-12-01

    Thoracic epidural catheter placement is an example of a demanding and high-risk clinical skill that junior anaesthetists need to learn by experience and under the supervision of consultants. This learning is known to present challenges that require further study. Ten consultant and 10 trainee anaesthetists in a teaching hospital were interviewed about teaching and learning this skill in the operating theatre, and a phenomenological analysis of their experience was performed. Trainee participation was limited by time pressure, lack of familiarity with consultants, and consultants' own need for clinical experience. There was a particular tension between safe and effective consultant practice and permitting trainees' independence. Three distinct stages of participation and assistance were identified from reports of ideal practice: early (part-task or basic procedure, consultant always present giving instruction and feedback), middle (independent practice with straightforward cases without further instruction), and late (skill extension and transfer). Learning assistance provided by consultants varied, but it was often not matched to the trainees' stages of learning. Negotiation of participation and assistance was recognized as being useful, but it did not happen routinely. There are many obstacles to trainees' participation in thoracic epidural catheter insertion, and learning assistance is not matched to need. A more explicit understanding of stages of learning is required to benefit the learning of this and other advanced clinical skills.

  13. Hypothetical learning trajectory design on the history of Indonesian independence struggle in Mathematics logic instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra Nurjanah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at developing learning resources for mathematics logic using the hypothetical learning trajectory designed through reflection on the history of Indonesian independence struggle. The study was carried out at the Department of Mathematics Education of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences Nusantara Islamic University (Uninus. The study used design research consisted of three stages: preparing the experiments, design the experiments, and retrospective analysis. Preparing the experiments stage has been completed and design the experiments stage is currently under preparation. The main activities accomplished in preparing the experiments stage consisted of: studies of Indonesian independence struggle, curriculum analysis, literature review, and early prototype design. Design the experiments phase has enabled the development of the research instruments. The learning trajectory which has been designed in the first stage involved: reflections on the history of Indonesian independence struggle; implication and bi-implication; implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of the history of the Indonesian independence struggle; and implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of mathematics. Based on the results of discussions with colleagues, the students’ ability in mathematical thinking can be developed by using the history of Indonesian independence struggle as the context of learning in a mathematics logics course.

  14. Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...

  15. Development of methodological principles for organization of students’ independent work in the e-learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Іванович Пушкар

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of organization of professional competence formation of students’ independent work in e-learning is proposed in the article. Implementation of the proposed model of competence formation in e-learning is done on the example of multimedia complex for discipline "Processes of publishing and printing". Selection of the most important components for each competence is made on the basis of Saaty method

  16. Water quality and ecological condition of urban streams in Independence, Missouri, June 2005 through December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Harris, Thomas E.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the sources of selected constituents in urban streams and better understand processes affecting water quality and their effects on the ecological condition of urban streams and the Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Independence Water Pollution Control Department initiated a study in June 2005 to characterize water quality and evaluate the ecological condition of streams within Independence. Base-flow and stormflow samples collected from five sites within Independence, from June 2005 to December 2008, were used to characterize the physical, chemical, and biologic effects of storm runoff on the water quality in Independence streams and the Little Blue River. The streams draining Independence-Rock Creek, Sugar Creek, Mill Creek, Fire Prairie Creek, and the Little Blue River-drain to the north and the Missouri River. Two small predominantly urban streams, Crackerneck Creek [12.9-square kilometer (km2) basin] and Spring Branch Creek (25.4-km2 basin), were monitored that enter into the Little Blue River between upstream and downstream monitoring sites. The Little Blue River above the upstream site is regulated by several reservoirs, but streamflow is largely uncontrolled. The Little Blue River Basin encompasses 585 km2 with about 168 km2 or 29 percent of the basin lying within the city limits of Independence. Water-quality samples also were collected for Rock Creek (24.1-km2 basin) that drains the western part of Independence. Data collection included streamflow, physical properties, dissolved oxygen, chloride, metals, nutrients, common organic micro-constituents, and fecal indicator bacteria. Benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys and habitat assessments were conducted to establish a baseline for evaluating the ecological condition and health of streams within Independence. Additional dry-weather screenings during base flow of all streams draining Independence were conducted to

  17. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Evren; Szyszka, Paul; Scheiner, Ricarda; Nawrot, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24 h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  18. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  19. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  20. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  1. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  2. Equilibrium I: Principles. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…

  3. Virtual Physics Laboratory Application Based on the Android Smartphone to Improve Learning Independence and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista, Fitra Suci; Kuswanto, Heru

    2018-01-01

    The research study concerned here was to: (1) produce a virtual physics laboratory application to be called ViPhyLab by using the Android smartphone as basis; (2) determine the appropriateness and quality of the virtual physics laboratory application that had been developed; and (3) describe the improvement in learning independence and conceptual…

  4. Hydrocarbons. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…

  5. The Gaseous State. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the gaseous state is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one deals with the distinctive characteristics of gases, then considers the gas laws, in particular the ideal gas equation and its applications. Level two concentrates on…

  6. Using Independent Research Projects to Foster Learning in the Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…

  7. Theoretical framework on selected core issues on conditions for productive learning in networked learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ponti, Marisa

    The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments.......The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments....

  8. The conditions that promote fear learning: prediction error and Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan Shi Yuan; McNally, Gavan P

    2014-02-01

    A key insight of associative learning theory is that learning depends on the actions of prediction error: a discrepancy between the actual and expected outcomes of a conditioning trial. When positive, such error causes increments in associative strength and, when negative, such error causes decrements in associative strength. Prediction error can act directly on fear learning by determining the effectiveness of the aversive unconditioned stimulus or indirectly by determining the effectiveness, or associability, of the conditioned stimulus. Evidence from a variety of experimental preparations in human and non-human animals suggest that discrete neural circuits code for these actions of prediction error during fear learning. Here we review the circuits and brain regions contributing to the neural coding of prediction error during fear learning and highlight areas of research (safety learning, extinction, and reconsolidation) that may profit from this approach to understanding learning. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development Of Entrepreneur Learning Model Based On Problem Based Learning To Increase Competency Independence And Creativity Students Of Industrial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola Dewiyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is undeniable that the competition to get a job is very tight and of course universities have an important role in printing human resources that can compete globally not least with the Department of Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta FT UMJ. Problems that occur is based on the analysis obtained from the track record of graduates researchers found that 60 percent of students of Industrial Engineering FT UMJ work not in accordance with the level of education owned so financially their income is still below the standard. This study aims to improve the competence of students of Industrial Engineering Department FT UMJ in entrepreneurship courses especially through the development of Problem Based Learning based learning model. Specific targets of this research were conducted with the aim to identify and analyze the need to implement learning model based on Problem Based Learning Entrepreneurship and to design and develop the model of entrepreneurship based on Problem Based Learning to improve the competence independence and creativity of Industrial Engineering students of FT UMJ in Entrepreneurship course. To achieve the above objectives this research uses research and development R amp D method. The product produced in this research is the detail of learning model of entrepreneurial model based on Problem Based Learning entrepreneurship model based on Problem Based Learning and international journals

  10. Bayesian conditional-independence modeling of the AIDS epidemic in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilks, Walter R.; De Angelis, Daniela; Day, Nicholas E.

    We describe the use of conditional-independence modeling, Bayesian inference and Markov chain Monte Carlo, to model and project the HIV-AIDS epidemic in homosexual/bisexual males in England and Wales. Complexity in this analysis arises through selectively missing data, indirectly observed underlying processes, and measurement error. Our emphasis is on presentation and discussion of the concepts, not on the technicalities of this analysis, which can be found elsewhere [D. De Angelis, W.R. Gilks, N.E. Day, Bayesian projection of the the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic (with discussion), Applied Statistics, in press].

  11. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  12. How Teachers Learn: The Roles of Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…

  13. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  14. Conditioning Factors for Group Management in Blended Learning Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Blat, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Hernández-Leo D., & Blat, J. (accepted). Conditioning Factors for Group Management in Blended Learning Scenarios. The 9th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. July, 14-18, 2009, Riga, Latvia.

  15. Learning Mixtures of Polynomials of Conditional Densities from Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. López-Cruz, Pedro; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Bielza, Concha

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of polynomials (MoPs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique for hybrid Bayesian networks with continuous and discrete variables. We propose two methods for learning MoP ap- proximations of conditional densities from data. Both approaches are based on learning MoP approximatio...

  16. Experimental stress during molt suggests the evolution of condition-dependent and condition-independent ornaments in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Quentin; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Dobson, F Stephen; Saadaoui, Hédi; Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species. Whereas some ornamental features showed strong condition-dependence (yellow auricular feather chroma, yellow and UV chroma of the beak), others were condition-independent and remained highly correlated before and after the molt (auricular patch size and beak UV hue). Our study provides a rare examination of the links between ornament determinism and selection processes in the wild. We highlight the coexistence of ornaments costly to produce that may be honest signals used in mate choice, and ornaments for which honesty may be enforced by social mediation or rely on genetic constraints.

  17. Collaborative learning in condition based maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, J.; Ao, SI; Gelman, L; Hukins, DWL; Hunter, A; Korsunsky, AM

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of reliable and consistent production equipments has increased. As a result, companies are shifting their maintenance policy from preventive maintenance towards Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Despite the growing trend in this area and success stories of CBM

  18. Self-Directed Learning Modules for Independent Learning: IELTS Exam Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Morrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Learners studying for exams sometimes show a lack of awareness in their abilities as tested through the framework of that exam. Instead, such learners focus on the score obtained in exams, and exam preparation includes using textbooks, online materials and timed use of past papers. The purpose of exam-focused flexible self-directed learning modules (FSDLMs at Kanda University of International Studies have been designed to address this by developing learners’ ability to identify their strengths and weaknesses, to make informed decisions about their own learning, and to improve their test-taking skills. Each FSDLM has at its core a diagnostic for learners to use for self-evaluation, often with guidance from a learning advisor. This process leads to the setting of clear goals and the development and implementation of an individual learning plan through a variety of dialogues. Learners have the potential to transfer this skill beyond examination preparation to other areas of learning. In other words, learners’ awareness of needs analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation is fostered with a view to developing their language learning ability within and beyond this module.

  19. Learned helplessness is independent of levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, B N; Strong, P V; Foley, T E; Thompson, R S; Fleshner, M

    2007-02-23

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus have been implicated in human affective disorders and behavioral stress responses. The current studies examined the role of BDNF in the behavioral consequences of inescapable stress, or learned helplessness. Inescapable stress decreased BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of sedentary rats. Rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for either 3 or 6 weeks prior to exposure to stress were protected against stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF protein. The observed prevention of stress-induced deceases in BDNF, however, occurred in a time course inconsistent with the prevention of learned helplessness by wheel running, which is evident following 6 weeks, but not 3 weeks, of wheel running. BDNF suppression in physically active rats was produced by administering a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) just prior to stress. Despite reduced levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA following stress, physically active rats given the combination of fluoxetine and stress remained resistant against learned helplessness. Sedentary rats given both fluoxetine and stress still demonstrated typical learned helplessness behaviors. Fluoxetine by itself reduced BDNF mRNA in sedentary rats only, but did not affect freezing or escape learning 24 h later. Finally, bilateral injections of BDNF (1 mug) into the dentate gyrus prior to stress prevented stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF but did not prevent learned helplessness in sedentary rats. These data indicate that learned helplessness behaviors are independent of the presence or absence of hippocampal BDNF because blocking inescapable stress-induced BDNF suppression does not always prevent learned helplessness, and learned helplessness does not always occur in the presence of reduced BDNF. Results also suggest that the prevention of stress-induced hippocampal BDNF suppression is not

  20. REMEMBERING TO LEARN: INDEPENDENT PLACE AND JOURNEY CODING MECHANISMS CONTRIBUTE TO MEMORY TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Amir S.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that integrate new episodes with established memories are unknown. When rats explore an environment, CA1 cells fire in place fields that indicate locations. In goal-directed spatial memory tasks, some place fields differentiate behavioral histories (journey-dependent place fields) while others do not (journey-independent place fields). To investigate how these signals inform learning and memory for new and familiar episodes, we recorded CA1 and CA3 activity in rats train...

  1. Women's Learning in Contract Work: Practicing Contradictions in Boundaryless Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara

    2008-01-01

    The general rise in contractors, particularly among knowledge workers negotiating "boundaryless" employment conditions, has generated interest in the nature and forms of contract work. This article explores the learning of contract workers as they negotiate these conditions, with a focus on women. Drawing from a qualitative study of…

  2. Obtaining learning independence and academic success through self-assessment and referral to a Mathematics Learning Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Adams

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, universities are striving to increase enrolment rates, especially for low socioeconomic status and mature-aged students. In order to meet these targets, universities are accepting a broader range of students, often resulting in a widening mathematical knowledge gap between secondary school and university (Hoyles, Newman & Noss, 2001. Therefore, even amid the growing trend of scaling back services, there exists a need for extra learning support in mathematics. Mathematics support services are recognised as vital in assisting students to both bridge the knowledge gap and become independent learners. Through a survey of students using the Mathematics Learning Centre at Central Queensland University Australia, it was found that the implementation of scaffolding, adult learning principles and the embedding of mathematics support provides students with not only fundamental mathematical knowledge but also the skills required to become self-directed learners. 

  3. Questioning Student Learning: An Exploration of Student's Views on Learning to Become Independent Nurse Prescribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Maggi; Cortazzi, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This illuminative evaluation study gives insights into attitudes to learning, interaction and the perceived roles of theory, evidence, reading and previous experience. These insights lead us to question some aspects of the course as currently presented. Students indicated that they found the course material stimulating but prior guidance on the…

  4. Independent effects of age and levodopa on reversal learning in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2018-05-18

    The dopamine overdose hypothesis has provided an important theoretical framework for understanding cognition in Parkinson's disease. It posits that effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in Parkinson's disease depend on baseline dopamine levels in brain regions that support different functions. Although functions performed by more severely dopamine-depleted brain regions improve with medication, those associated with less dopamine deficient areas are actually worsened. It is presumed that medication-related worsening of cognition owes to dopamine overdose. We investigated whether age-related changes in baseline dopamine levels would modulate effects of dopaminergic therapy on reward learning in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, crossover design, healthy younger and older adults completed a probabilistic reversal learning task after treatment with 100/25 mg of levodopa/carbidopa versus placebo. Older adults learned more poorly than younger adults at baseline, being more likely to shift responses after misleading punishment. Levodopa worsened stimulus-reward learning relative to placebo to the same extent in both groups, irrespective of differences in baseline performance and expected dopamine levels. When order effects were eliminated, levodopa induced response shifts after reward more often than placebo. Our results reveal independent deleterious effects of age group and exogenous dopamine on reward learning, suggesting a more complex scenario than predicted by the dopamine overdose hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner's dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.

  6. Conditional non-independence of radiographic image features and the derivation of post-test probabilities – A mammography BI-RADS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Bayes' theorem has proven to be one of the cornerstones in medical decision making. It allows for the derivation of post-test probabilities, which in case of a positive test result become positive predictive values. If several test results are observed successively Bayes' theorem may be used with assumed conditional independence of test results or with incorporated conditional dependencies. Herein it is examined whether radiographic image features should be considered conditionally independent diagnostic tests when post-test probabilities are to be derived. For this purpose the mammographic mass dataset from the UCI (University of California, Irvine) machine learning repository is analysed. It comprises the description of 961 (516 benign, 445 malignant) mammographic mass lesions according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging: Reporting and Data System) lexicon. Firstly, an exhaustive correlation matrix is presented for mammography BI-RADS features among benign and malignant lesions separately; correlation can be regarded as measure for conditional dependence. Secondly, it is shown that the derived positive predictive values for the conjunction of the two features “irregular shape” and “spiculated margin” differ significantly depending on whether conditional dependencies are incorporated into the decision process or not. It is concluded that radiographic image features should not generally be regarded as conditionally independent diagnostic tests.

  7. Learning through simulated independent practice leads to better future performance in a simulated crisis than learning through simulated supervised practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Silverman, E; Samuelson, S; Katz, D; Lin, H M; Levine, A; DeMaria, S

    2015-05-01

    Anaesthetists may fail to recognize and manage certain rare intraoperative events. Simulation has been shown to be an effective educational adjunct to typical operating room-based education to train for these events. It is yet unclear, however, why simulation has any benefit. We hypothesize that learners who are allowed to manage a scenario independently and allowed to fail, thus causing simulated morbidity, will consequently perform better when re-exposed to a similar scenario. Using a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded design, 24 first-year residents were exposed to an oxygen pipeline contamination scenario, either where patient harm occurred (independent group, n=12) or where a simulated attending anaesthetist intervened to prevent harm (supervised group, n=12). Residents were brought back 6 months later and exposed to a different scenario (pipeline contamination) with the same end point. Participants' proper treatment, time to diagnosis, and non-technical skills (measured using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Checklist, ANTS) were measured. No participants provided proper treatment in the initial exposure. In the repeat encounter 6 months later, 67% in the independent group vs 17% in the supervised group resumed adequate oxygen delivery (P=0.013). The independent group also had better ANTS scores [median (interquartile range): 42.3 (31.5-53.1) vs 31.3 (21.6-41), P=0.015]. There was no difference in time to treatment if proper management was provided [602 (490-820) vs 610 (420-800) s, P=0.79]. Allowing residents to practise independently in the simulation laboratory, and subsequently, allowing them to fail, can be an important part of simulation-based learning. This is not feasible in real clinical practice but appears to have improved resident performance in this study. The purposeful use of independent practice and its potentially negative outcomes thus sets simulation-based learning apart from traditional operating room learning. © The Author

  8. An exploration of metacognition and its interplay with other forms of conscious thought processing in independent learning at tertiary level.

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Educators are increasingly required to assist learners not simply with subject content, but with developing metacognitive skills for independent learning, interdisciplinary learning and lifelong learning. However, there is a dearth of research on how metacognitive processing interacts with other forms of processing in authentic, real-world learning environments. In light of this, this study concerned itself with furthering understanding of metacognition, cognition and its interactions with ...

  9. On the Conditioning of Machine-Learning-Assisted Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlong; Sun, Rui; Wang, Qiqi; Xiao, Heng

    2017-11-01

    Recently, several researchers have demonstrated that machine learning techniques can be used to improve the RANS modeled Reynolds stress by training on available database of high fidelity simulations. However, obtaining improved mean velocity field remains an unsolved challenge, restricting the predictive capability of current machine-learning-assisted turbulence modeling approaches. In this work we define a condition number to evaluate the model conditioning of data-driven turbulence modeling approaches, and propose a stability-oriented machine learning framework to model Reynolds stress. Two canonical flows, the flow in a square duct and the flow over periodic hills, are investigated to demonstrate the predictive capability of the proposed framework. The satisfactory prediction performance of mean velocity field for both flows demonstrates the predictive capability of the proposed framework for machine-learning-assisted turbulence modeling. With showing the capability of improving the prediction of mean flow field, the proposed stability-oriented machine learning framework bridges the gap between the existing machine-learning-assisted turbulence modeling approaches and the demand of predictive capability of turbulence models in real applications.

  10. It doesn't matter what you say: FMRI correlates of voice learning and recognition independent of speech content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Belin, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test. To investigate "pure" voice learning, i.e., independent of sentence meaning, we presented German sentence stimuli to non-German speaking listeners. To disentangle stimulus-invariant and stimulus-dependent learning, during the test phase we contrasted a "same sentence" condition in which listeners heard speakers repeating the sentences from the preceding study phase, with a "different sentence" condition. Voice recognition performance was above chance in both conditions although, as expected, performance was higher for same than for different sentences. During study phases activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was related to subsequent voice recognition performance and same versus different sentence condition, suggesting an involvement of the left IFG in the interactive processing of speaker and speech information during learning. Importantly, at test reduced activation for voices correctly classified as "old" compared to "new" emerged in a network of brain areas including temporal voice areas (TVAs) of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), as well as the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG), the right medial frontal gyrus, and the left caudate. This effect of voice novelty did not interact with sentence condition, suggesting a role of temporal voice-selective areas and extra-temporal areas in the explicit recognition of learned voice identity

  11. Development of Boundary Condition Independent Reduced Order Thermal Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Arun; Ghia, Karman; Ghia, Urmila

    2008-11-01

    Compact Thermal Models (CTM) to represent IC packages has been traditionally developed using the DELPHI-based (DEvelopment of Libraries of PHysical models for an Integrated design) methodology. The drawbacks of this method are presented, and an alternative method is proposed. A reduced-order model that provides the complete thermal information accurately with less computational resources can be effectively used in system level simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), a statistical method, can be used to reduce the order of the degree of freedom or variables of the computations for such a problem. POD along with the Galerkin projection allows us to create reduced-order models that reproduce the characteristics of the system with a considerable reduction in computational resources while maintaining a high level of accuracy. The goal of this work is to show that this method can be applied to obtain a boundary condition independent reduced-order thermal model for complex components. The methodology is applied to the 1D transient heat equation.

  12. Second-order conditioning and conditioned inhibition: influences of speed versus accuracy on human causal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Lee

    Full Text Available In human causal learning, excitatory and inhibitory learning effects can sometimes be found in the same paradigm by altering the learning conditions. This study aims to explore whether learning in the feature negative paradigm can be dissociated by emphasising speed over accuracy. In two causal learning experiments, participants were given a feature negative discrimination in which the outcome caused by one cue was prevented by the addition of another. Participants completed training trials either in a self-paced fashion with instructions emphasising accuracy, or under strict time constraints with instructions emphasising speed. Using summation tests in which the preventative cue was paired with another causal cue, participants in the accuracy groups correctly rated the preventative cue as if it reduced the probability of the outcome. However, participants in the speed groups rated the preventative cue as if it increased the probability of the outcome. In Experiment 1, both speed and accuracy groups later judged the same cue to be preventative in a reasoned inference task. Experiment 2 failed to find evidence of similar dissociations in retrospective revaluation (release from overshadowing vs. mediated extinction or learning about a redundant cue (blocking vs. augmentation. However in the same experiment, the tendency for the accuracy group to show conditioned inhibition and the speed group to show second-order conditioning was consistent even across sub-sets of the speed and accuracy groups with equivalent accuracy in training, suggesting that second-order conditioning is not merely a consequence of poorer acquisition. This dissociation mirrors the trade-off between second-order conditioning and conditioned inhibition observed in animal conditioning when training is extended.

  13. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  14. Role of classical conditioning in learning gastrointestinal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Nausea and/or vomiting are aversive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Nausea and vomiting manifest unconditionally after a nauseogenic experience. However, there is correlative, quasiexperimental and experimental evidence that nausea and vomiting can also be learned via classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and might occur in anticipation of the nauseogenic event. Classical conditioning of nausea can develop with chemotherapy in cancer patients. Initially, nausea and vomiting occur during and afte...

  15. Are environmental conditions in South African classrooms conducive for learning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available not provide an environment that promotes productivity and comfort for particular summer conditions, and therefore is unlikely to be conducive for learning. The paper draws a number of conclusions from the study and makes recommendations for further research....

  16. Online Learning in Higher Education: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2005-01-01

    The spectacular development of information and communication technologies through the Internet has provided opportunities for students to explore the virtual world of information. In this article, the author discusses the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful online learning in educational institutions. The necessary conditions…

  17. Variability in Second Language Learning: The Roles of Individual Differences, Learning Conditions, and Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…

  18. Distributed interactive virtual environments for collaborative experiential learning and training independent of distance over Internet2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Dale C; Saiki, Stanley M; Jacobs, Joshua; Saland, Linda; Keep, Marcus F; Norenberg, Jeffrey; Baker, Rex; Nakatsu, Curtis; Kalishman, Summers; Lindberg, Marlene; Wax, Diane; Mowafi, Moad; Summers, Kenneth L; Holten, James R; Greenfield, John A; Aalseth, Edward; Nickles, David; Sherstyuk, Andrei; Haines, Karen; Caudell, Thomas P

    2004-01-01

    between Western Australia and UNM. We successfully demonstrated the ability to fully immerse participants in a distributed virtual environment independent of distance for collaborative team interaction in medical simulation designed for education and training. The ability to make mistakes in a safe environment is well received by students and has a positive impact on their understanding, as well as memory of the principles involved in correcting those mistakes. Bringing people together as virtual teams for interactive experiential learning and collaborative training, independent of distance, provides a platform for distributed "just-in-time" training, performance assessment and credentialing. Further validation is necessary to determine the potential value of the distributed VRE in knowledge transfer, improved future performance and should entail training participants to competence in using these tools.

  19. The Role of Interactive E-Learning in Problem-Solving Skill and Independent Learning of Medical Students in Psychology Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Mohamadi; Sayedeh Maryam Hosseiny; Sayedeh Sana Hosseiny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, due to the speed and amount of science production in the world, knowledge processing and learning is changing. In this regard, independent learning using new instructional methods interactively with a specific goal in order to dominate the content and assignments with self-regulation strategies is of great importance. This study is aimed to evaluate interactive e-learning role on medical students’ learning in psychology courses. Methods: This study is a experimental r...

  20. Conditional High-Order Boltzmann Machines for Supervised Relation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-09-01

    Relation learning is a fundamental problem in many vision tasks. Recently, high-order Boltzmann machine and its variants have shown their great potentials in learning various types of data relation in a range of tasks. But most of these models are learned in an unsupervised way, i.e., without using relation class labels, which are not very discriminative for some challenging tasks, e.g., face verification. In this paper, with the goal to perform supervised relation learning, we introduce relation class labels into conventional high-order multiplicative interactions with pairwise input samples, and propose a conditional high-order Boltzmann Machine (CHBM), which can learn to classify the data relation in a binary classification way. To be able to deal with more complex data relation, we develop two improved variants of CHBM: 1) latent CHBM, which jointly performs relation feature learning and classification, by using a set of latent variables to block the pathway from pairwise input samples to output relation labels and 2) gated CHBM, which untangles factors of variation in data relation, by exploiting a set of latent variables to multiplicatively gate the classification of CHBM. To reduce the large number of model parameters generated by the multiplicative interactions, we approximately factorize high-order parameter tensors into multiple matrices. Then, we develop efficient supervised learning algorithms, by first pretraining the models using joint likelihood to provide good parameter initialization, and then finetuning them using conditional likelihood to enhance the discriminant ability. We apply the proposed models to a series of tasks including invariant recognition, face verification, and action similarity labeling. Experimental results demonstrate that by exploiting supervised relation labels, our models can greatly improve the performance.

  1. Statistical learning of action: the role of conditional probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Baldwin, Dare

    2011-12-01

    Identification of distinct units within a continuous flow of human action is fundamental to action processing. Such segmentation may rest in part on statistical learning. In a series of four experiments, we examined what types of statistics people can use to segment a continuous stream involving many brief, goal-directed action elements. The results of Experiment 1 showed no evidence for sensitivity to conditional probability, whereas Experiment 2 displayed learning based on joint probability. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that additional exposure to the input failed to engender sensitivity to conditional probability. However, the results of Experiment 4 showed that a subset of adults-namely, those more successful at identifying actions that had been seen more frequently than comparison sequences-were also successful at learning conditional-probability statistics. These experiments help to clarify the mechanisms subserving processing of intentional action, and they highlight important differences from, as well as similarities to, prior studies of statistical learning in other domains, including language.

  2. Role of classical conditioning in learning gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2007-07-07

    Nausea and/or vomiting are aversive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Nausea and vomiting manifest unconditionally after a nauseogenic experience. However, there is correlative, quasiexperimental and experimental evidence that nausea and vomiting can also be learned via classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and might occur in anticipation of the nauseogenic event. Classical conditioning of nausea can develop with chemotherapy in cancer patients. Initially, nausea and vomiting occur during and after the administration of cytotoxic drugs (post-treatment nausea and vomiting) as unconditioned responses (UR). In addition, 20%-30% of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy report these side effects, despite antiemetic medication, when being re-exposed to the stimuli that usually signal the chemotherapy session and its drug infusion. These symptoms are called anticipatory nausea (AN) and/or anticipatory vomiting (ANV) and are explained by classical conditioning. Moreover, there is recent evidence for the assumption that post-chemotherapy nausea is at least partly influenced by learning. After summarizing the relevant assumptions of the conditioning model, revealing that a context can become a conditioned stimulus (CS), the present paper summarizes data that nausea and/or vomiting is acquired by classical conditioning and, consequently, may be alleviated by conditioning techniques. Our own research has focussed on two aspects and is emphasized here. First, a conditioned nausea model was established in healthy humans using body rotation as the nausea-inducing treatment. The validity of this motion-sickness model to examine conditioning mechanisms in the acquisition and alleviation of conditioned nausea and associated endocrine and immunological responses is summarized. Results from the rotation-induced motion sickness model showed that gender is an important moderator variable to be considered in further studies. This paper concludes with a review of the application of the

  3. Language Learners Perceptions and Experiences on the Use of Mobile Applications for Independent Language Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Ana

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact…

  4. Spectral Transfer Learning using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy Waytowich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG, which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both offline and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP. For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs, the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  5. Spectral Transfer Learning Using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytowich, Nicholas R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Bohannon, Addison W; Ball, Kenneth R; Lance, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both off-line and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP). For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs), the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  6. A Machine LearningFramework to Forecast Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; James, S. C.; O'Donncha, F.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, significant effort has been undertaken to quantify and extract wave energy because it is renewable, environmental friendly, abundant, and often close to population centers. However, a major challenge is the ability to accurately and quickly predict energy production, especially across a 48-hour cycle. Accurate forecasting of wave conditions is a challenging undertaking that typically involves solving the spectral action-balance equation on a discretized grid with high spatial resolution. The nature of the computations typically demands high-performance computing infrastructure. Using a case-study site at Monterey Bay, California, a machine learning framework was trained to replicate numerically simulated wave conditions at a fraction of the typical computational cost. Specifically, the physics-based Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model, driven by measured wave conditions, nowcast ocean currents, and wind data, was used to generate training data for machine learning algorithms. The model was run between April 1st, 2013 and May 31st, 2017 generating forecasts at three-hour intervals yielding 11,078 distinct model outputs. SWAN-generated fields of 3,104 wave heights and a characteristic period could be replicated through simple matrix multiplications using the mapping matrices from machine learning algorithms. In fact, wave-height RMSEs from the machine learning algorithms (9 cm) were less than those for the SWAN model-verification exercise where those simulations were compared to buoy wave data within the model domain (>40 cm). The validated machine learning approach, which acts as an accurate surrogate for the SWAN model, can now be used to perform real-time forecasts of wave conditions for the next 48 hours using available forecasted boundary wave conditions, ocean currents, and winds. This solution has obvious applications to wave-energy generation as accurate wave conditions can be forecasted with over a three-order-of-magnitude reduction in

  7. Early Extinction after Fear Conditioning Yields a Context-Independent and Short-Term Suppression of Conditional Freezing in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats is a useful model for therapeutic interventions in humans with anxiety disorders. Recently, we found that delivering extinction trials soon (15 min) after fear conditioning yields a short-term suppression of fear, but little long-term extinction. Here, we explored the possible mechanisms underlying…

  8. Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koemans, Tom S; Oppitz, Cornelia; Donders, Rogier A T; van Bokhoven, Hans; Schenck, Annette; Keleman, Krystyna; Kramer, Jamie M

    2017-06-05

    Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits resulting from mutations in genes associated with human cognitive disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This work describes a methodology for testing learning and memory using a classic paradigm in Drosophila known as courtship conditioning. Male flies court females using a distinct pattern of easily recognizable behaviors. Premated females are not receptive to mating and will reject the male's copulation attempts. In response to this rejection, male flies reduce their courtship behavior. This learned reduction in courtship behavior is measured over time, serving as an indicator of learning and memory. The basic numerical output of this assay is the courtship index (CI), which is defined as the percentage of time that a male spends courting during a 10 min interval. The learning index (LI) is the relative reduction of CI in flies that have been exposed to a premated female compared to naïve flies with no previous social encounters. For the statistical comparison of LIs between genotypes, a randomization test with bootstrapping is used. To illustrate how the assay can be used to address the role of a gene relating to learning and memory, the pan-neuronal knockdown of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (Dhap-at) was characterized here. The human ortholog of Dhap-at, glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPT), is involved in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2, an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by severe ID. Using the courtship conditioning assay, it was determined that Dhap-at is required for long-term memory, but not for short-term memory. This result serves as a basis for further investigation of the underlying molecular

  9. THE EFFECT OF USING DIGIMON (SCIENCE DIGITAL MODULE WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH AT THE VISUALIZATIONOF STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENCE AND LEARNING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Syahroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the influence of digimon based scientific approach on independence and learning autcomes of learners. This research has designed as quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this reaserch is learners at 8 E and 8 F on SMP N 1 Magelang in year 2014/2015. The results showed that there was a strong perfect linear relationship between digimon with independent learning or learning outcomes of learners. The result of independent assessment on the experiment group was 85,47 while the result of independent assessment on the control group was 69,94. Digimon based scientific approach are influential 51.93% to the independence of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors. Digimon give influence 39.69% on learning outcomes of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors.This relation is empharized through an independent test (t-test which shows dependent bridge between digimon with independence toward concept understanding of learners in experiment group.

  10. Mental Condition and Ventricular Size in Arrested Hydrocephalus: an Analysis of 29 Shunt‐independent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTZER, G.J.; de LANGE, S.A.; ORBAAN, I.J.C.; GELSEMA, R.

    1971-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of the diameter of the ventricular system, in a series of 29 patients with arrested hydrocephalus who had become shunt‐independent, showed that enlargement of the ventricles does not necessarily play a part in the arrest of hydrocephalus, for in many of these cases the

  11. Learnings and challenges to deploy an interprofessional and independent medical education programme to a new audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, Mieke L.; McGuire, Treasure M.; Stark, Richard; Lazure, Patrice; Garcia, Tina; Sullivan, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The importance of interprofessional education (IPE) in continuing medical education and professional development has long been recognised by health organisations and academic societies, benefiting not only patient outcomes and interprofessional relationships but also overall health systems and workforce shortage. We report on the outcomes of an Australian IPE activity on medication-overuse headache (MOH) with general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists as learners. The design of the activity, which followed the predisposing–enabling–reinforcing instructional framework by Green and Kreuter, aimed to: (1) improve knowledge and foster a willingness in GPs and pharmacists to work collaboratively to enhance the prevention, diagnosis and management of MOH; and (2) address their educational gap by demonstrating the utility of a blended learning IPE strategy on MOH. Integrated into the activity was an assessment of its effectiveness and impact to instil change in the participants’ knowledge of MOH, attitude and willingness to treat, and clinical practice behaviours of GPs and pharmacists to work together. The learners gained knowledge and confidence in diagnosing and managing MOH and in their ability to educate patients. The IPE approach suited the activity and was valued by the participating GPs and pharmacists, who seldom experience such learning formats. However, for educational providers in Australia, developing and deploying an independent medical education (IME) programme can be challenging. Providers of IMEs need to be aware of the potential pitfalls when competing with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored and delivered programmes. PMID:29644141

  12. Resting State EEG in Children With Learning Disabilities: An Independent Component Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) in children are examined using resting state EEG. We were particularly interested in the neurophysiological differences between children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified (LD-NOS), learning disabilities with verbal disabilities (LD-Verbal), and healthy control (HC) children. We applied 2 different approaches to examine the differences between the different groups. First, we calculated theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios in order to quantify the relationship between slow and fast EEG oscillations. Second, we used a recently developed method for analyzing spectral EEG, namely the group independent component analysis (gICA) model. Using these measures, we identified substantial differences between LD and HC children and between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children in terms of their spectral EEG profiles. We obtained the following findings: (a) theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios were substantially larger in LD than in HC children, with no difference between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children; (b) there was substantial slowing of EEG oscillations, especially for gICs located in frontal scalp positions, with LD-NOS children demonstrating the strongest slowing; (c) the estimated intracortical sources of these gICs were mostly located in brain areas involved in the control of executive functions, attention, planning, and language; and (d) the LD-Verbal children demonstrated substantial differences in EEG oscillations compared with LD-NOS children, and these differences were localized in language-related brain areas. The general pattern of atypical neurophysiological activation found in LD children suggests that they suffer from neurophysiological dysfunction in brain areas involved with the control of attention, executive functions, planning, and language functions. LD-Verbal children also demonstrate atypical activation, especially in language-related brain areas. These atypical

  13. Residential roof condition assessment system using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Kerekes, John P.; Xu, Zhuoyi; Wang, Yandong

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of high resolution (HR) and ultra high resolution (UHR) airborne remote sensing imagery is enabling humans to move beyond traditional land cover analysis applications to the detailed characterization of surface objects. A residential roof condition assessment method using techniques from deep learning is presented. The proposed method operates on individual roofs and divides the task into two stages: (1) roof segmentation, followed by (2) condition classification of the segmented roof regions. As the first step in this process, a self-tuning method is proposed to segment the images into small homogeneous areas. The segmentation is initialized with simple linear iterative clustering followed by deep learned feature extraction and region merging, with the optimal result selected by an unsupervised index, Q. After the segmentation, a pretrained residual network is fine-tuned on the augmented roof segments using a proposed k-pixel extension technique for classification. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated on both HR and UHR imagery collected by EagleView over different study sites. The proposed algorithm has yielded promising results and has outperformed traditional machine learning methods using hand-crafted features.

  14. Dutch care innovation units in elderly care: A qualitative study into students' perspectives and workplace conditions for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, Miranda; Volbeda, Patricia; Niessen, Theo J H; Abma, Tineke A

    2016-03-01

    To promote workplace learning for staff as well as students, a partnership was formed between a residential care organisation for older people and several nursing faculties in the Netherlands. This partnership took the form of two care innovation units; wards where qualified staff, students and nurse teachers collaborate to integrate care, education, innovation and research. In this article, the care innovation units as learning environments are studied from a student perspective to deepen understandings concerning the conditions that facilitate learning. A secondary analysis of focus groups, held with 216 nursing students over a period of five years, revealed that students are satisfied about the units' learning potential, which is formed by various inter-related and self-reinforcing affordances: co-constructive learning and working, challenging situations and activities, being given responsibility and independence, and supportive and recognisable learning structures. Time constraints had a negative impact on the units' learning potential. It is concluded that the learning potential of the care innovation units was enhanced by realising certain conditions, like learning structures and activities. The learning potential was also influenced, however, by the non-controllable and dynamic interaction of various elements within the context. Suggestions for practice and further research are offered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Employee (Dis)Engagement: Learning from Nurses Who Left Organizational Jobs for Independent Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlke Wall, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Employee engagement is of growing interest in healthcare organizations. Engaged employees give an extra measure of effort to contribute to organization goals, whereas disengaged employees withdraw, have lower performance and are more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this ethnographic study was, in part, to explore the reasons why high-calibre nurses became disengaged from their work and opted to leave their hospital-based employment in favour of independent practice, as well as to consider the organizational conditions that influenced their desire to leave. The findings revealed that nurses left their hospital-based jobs because of health system change, job characteristics, working conditions and lack of respect, which relate closely to the antecedents of employee engagement. Employee engagement can be fostered through organizational support, trust-building management behaviour and transformational leadership. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  17. Language Learners Perceptions and Experiences on the Use of Mobile Applications for Independent Language Learning in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Niño

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact that they are keen to take control of their learning and autonomy is thought to lead to greater motivation and engagement, and the link with games-based learning suggests that the fun factor involved should not be overseen. This paper focuses on the use of mobile applications for independent language learning in higher education. It investigates how learners use mobile apps in line with their classes to enhance their learning experience. We base our analysis on a survey carried out in autumn 2013 in which 286 credited and non-credited language students from various levels of proficiency at The University of Manchester express their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mobile applications for independent language learning, together with examples of useful apps and suggestions of how these could be integrated in the language class.

  18. Independent and inverse association of healthcare utilisation with physical activity in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Ambrose, T Y L; Ashe, M C; Marra, C

    2010-11-01

    In this study, whether physical activity is independently associated with direct healthcare costs in community-dwelling older adults with multiple chronic conditions was examined. Cross-sectional analysis. Research laboratory. 299 community-dwelling men and women volunteers aged 65 years and older with chronic conditions. None. Primary dependent variable was direct healthcare costs incurred in the previous 3 months. Participants completed the Health Resource Utilisation (HRU) questionnaire. To estimate HRU, direct costs in the previous 3 months were calculated using the three-party payer perspective of the British Columbia Ministry of Health, deemed representative of the Canadian healthcare system costs. For medications, the Retail Pharmacy Dispensed prescription cost tables were used. Primary independent variables were (1) self-report current level of physical activity as assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) and (2) general balance and mobility as assessed by the National Institute on Aging Balance Scale. The mean number of chronic conditions per participant was six. Current level of physical activity was independently and inversely associated with HRU. Age, sex, number of chronic conditions, global cognitive function, body mass index, and general balance and mobility together accounted for 24.3% of the total variance. Adding the PASIPD score resulted in an R2 change of 3.3% and significantly improved the model. The total variance accounted by the final model was 27.6%. Physical activity promotion may reduce healthcare costs in older adults with chronic conditions.

  19. Improve Outcomes Study subjects Chemistry Teaching and Learning Strategies through independent study with the help of computer-based media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharti, Gulmah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to see the improvement of student learning outcomes by independent learning using computer-based learning media in the course of STBM (Teaching and Learning Strategy) Chemistry. Population in this research all student of class of 2014 which take subject STBM Chemistry as many as 4 class. While the sample is taken by purposive as many as 2 classes, each 32 students, as control class and expriment class. The instrument used is the test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple choice with the number of questions as many as 20 questions that have been declared valid, and reliable. Data analysis techniques used one-sided t test and improved learning outcomes using a normalized gain test. Based on the learning result data, the average of normalized gain values for the experimental class is 0,530 and for the control class is 0,224. The result of the experimental student learning result is 53% and the control class is 22,4%. Hypothesis testing results obtained t count> ttable is 9.02> 1.6723 at the level of significance α = 0.05 and db = 58. This means that the acceptance of Ha is the use of computer-based learning media (CAI Computer) can improve student learning outcomes in the course Learning Teaching Strategy (STBM) Chemistry academic year 2017/2018.

  20. Mechanisms of radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The literature on taste aversion learning is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis on those studies that have used exposure to ionizing radiation as an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned taste aversion. The primary aim of the review is to attempt to define the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of the taste aversion response following exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies using drug treatments to produce a taste aversion have been included to the extent that they are relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can affect the behavior of the organism. 141 references

  1. Development of a prototype interactive learning system using multi-media technology for mission independent training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jack E.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacelab Mission Independent Training Program provides an overview of payload operations. Most of the training material is currently presented in workbook form with some lecture sessions to supplement selected topics. The goal of this project was to develop a prototype interactive learning system for one of the Mission Independent Training topics to demonstrate how the learning process can be improved by incorporating multi-media technology into an interactive system. This report documents the development process and some of the problems encountered during the analysis, design, and production phases of this system.

  2. Mode of delivery has an independent impact on neonatal condition at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Tomas; Kumar, Sailesh

    2014-10-01

    Current intra-partum monitoring techniques are often criticized for their poor specificity, with their performance frequently evaluated using measures of the neonatal condition at birth as a surrogate marker for intra-partum fetal compromise. However, these measures may potentially be influenced by a multitude of other factors, including the mode of delivery itself. This study aimed to investigate the impact of mode of delivery on neonatal condition at birth. This prospective observational study, undertaken at a tertiary referral maternity unit in London, UK, included 604 'low risk' women recruited prior to delivery. Commonly assessed neonatal outcome variables (Apgar score at 1 and 5min, umbilical artery pH and base excess, neonatal unit admission, and a composite neonatal outcome score) were used to compare the condition at birth between babies born by different modes of delivery, using one-way ANOVA and chi-squared testing. Infants born by instrumental delivery for presumed fetal compromise had the poorest condition at birth (mean composite score=1.20), whereas those born by Cesarean section for presumed fetal compromise had a better condition at birth (mean composite score=0.64) (p=surrogate marker of intra-partum fetal compromise. When evaluating the efficacy of intra-partum monitoring techniques, the isolated use of Apgar scores, umbilical artery acidosis and neonatal unit admission should be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Remembering to learn: independent place and journey coding mechanisms contribute to memory transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Amir S; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2012-02-08

    The neural mechanisms that integrate new episodes with established memories are unknown. When rats explore an environment, CA1 cells fire in place fields that indicate locations. In goal-directed spatial memory tasks, some place fields differentiate behavioral histories ("journey-dependent" place fields) while others do not ("journey-independent" place fields). To investigate how these signals inform learning and memory for new and familiar episodes, we recorded CA1 and CA3 activity in rats trained to perform a "standard" spatial memory task in a plus maze and in two new task variants. A "switch" task exchanged the start and goal locations in the same environment; an "altered environment" task contained unfamiliar local and distal cues. In the switch task, performance was mildly impaired, new firing maps were stable, but the proportion and stability of journey-dependent place fields declined. In the altered environment, overall performance was strongly impaired, new firing maps were unstable, and stable proportions of journey-dependent place fields were maintained. In both tasks, memory errors were accompanied by a decline in journey codes. The different dynamics of place and journey coding suggest that they reflect separate mechanisms and contribute to distinct memory computations. Stable place fields may represent familiar relationships among environmental features that are required for consistent memory performance. Journey-dependent activity may correspond with goal-directed behavioral sequences that reflect expectancies that generalize across environments. The complementary signals could help link current events with established memories, so that familiarity with either a behavioral strategy or an environment can inform goal-directed learning.

  4. Independent Component Analysis and Time-Frequency Masking for Speech Recognition in Multitalker Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Orglmeister

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When a number of speakers are simultaneously active, for example in meetings or noisy public places, the sources of interest need to be separated from interfering speakers and from each other in order to be robustly recognized. Independent component analysis (ICA has proven a valuable tool for this purpose. However, ICA outputs can still contain strong residual components of the interfering speakers whenever noise or reverberation is high. In such cases, nonlinear postprocessing can be applied to the ICA outputs, for the purpose of reducing remaining interferences. In order to improve robustness to the artefacts and loss of information caused by this process, recognition can be greatly enhanced by considering the processed speech feature vector as a random variable with time-varying uncertainty, rather than as deterministic. The aim of this paper is to show the potential to improve recognition of multiple overlapping speech signals through nonlinear postprocessing together with uncertainty-based decoding techniques.

  5. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independen...... of the methods often (but not always) varies with the features of the data generating process....

  6. Exploring the Relation between Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Conditions and Their Professional Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Schools' structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers' collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that support or impede professional learning but the way…

  7. Automatic generation of boundary conditions using demons nonrigid image registration for use in 3-D modality-independent elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S; Ou, Jao J; Ong, Rowena E; Miga, Michael I

    2011-09-01

    Modality-independent elastography (MIE) is a method of elastography that reconstructs the elastic properties of tissue using images acquired under different loading conditions and a biomechanical model. Boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm and are often determined by time-consuming point correspondence methods requiring manual user input. This study presents a novel method of automatically generating boundary conditions by nonrigidly registering two image sets with a demons diffusion-based registration algorithm. The use of this method was successfully performed in silico using magnetic resonance and X-ray-computed tomography image data with known boundary conditions. These preliminary results produced boundary conditions with an accuracy of up to 80% compared to the known conditions. Demons-based boundary conditions were utilized within a 3-D MIE reconstruction to determine an elasticity contrast ratio between tumor and normal tissue. Two phantom experiments were then conducted to further test the accuracy of the demons boundary conditions and the MIE reconstruction arising from the use of these conditions. Preliminary results show a reasonable characterization of the material properties on this first attempt and a significant improvement in the automation level and viability of the method.

  8. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  9. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to Comprehensive English Classes in a Chinese Independent College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ji

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…

  10. Independencies Induced from a Graphical Markov Model After Marginalization and Conditioning: The R Package ggm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Marchetti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe some functions in the R package ggm to derive from a given Markov model, represented by a directed acyclic graph, different types of graphs induced after marginalizing over and conditioning on some of the variables. The package has a few basic functions that find the essential graph, the induced concentration and covariance graphs, and several types of chain graphs implied by the directed acyclic graph (DAG after grouping and reordering the variables. These functions can be useful to explore the impact of latent variables or of selection effects on a chosen data generating model.

  11. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness

  12. A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samli, Ruya

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mice lacking Ras-GRF1 show contextual fear conditioning but not spatial memory impairments: convergent evidence from two independently generated mouse mutant lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele ed'Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning the Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53 in which a nonsense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in the Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdalar functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to

  14. Conditional Müllercell ablation causes independent neuronal and vascular pathologies in a novel transgenic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiyong; Fruttiger, Marcus; Zhu, Ling; Chung, Sook H; Barnett, Nigel L; Kirk, Joshua K; Lee, SoRa; Coorey, Nathan J; Killingsworth, Murray; Sherman, Larry S; Gillies, Mark C

    2012-11-07

    Müller cells are the major glia of the retina that serve numerous functions essential to retinal homeostasis, yet the contribution of Müller glial dysfunction to retinal diseases remains largely unknown. We have developed a transgenic model using a portion of the regulatory region of the retinaldehyde binding protein 1 gene for conditional Müller cell ablation and the consequences of primary Müller cell dysfunction have been studied in adult mice. We found that selective ablation of Müller cells led to photoreceptor apoptosis, vascular telangiectasis, blood-retinal barrier breakdown and, later, intraretinal neovascularization. These changes were accompanied by impaired retinal function and an imbalance between vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor inhibited photoreceptor injury but had no effect on the vasculopathy. Conversely, inhibition of VEGF-A activity attenuated vascular leak but did not protect photoreceptors. Our findings show that Müller glial deficiency may be an important upstream cause of retinal neuronal and vascular pathologies in retinal diseases. Combined neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic therapies may be required to treat Müller cell deficiency in retinal diseases and in other parts of the CNS associated with glial dysfunction.

  15. IP-MLI: An Independency of Learning Materials from Platforms in a Mobile Learning using Intelligent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdallh Otair

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to deliver a monolithic mobile learning system is too inflexible in view of the heterogeneous mixture of hardware and services available and the desirability of facility blended approaches to learning delivery, and how to build learning materials to run on all platforms[1]. This paper proposes a framework of mobile learning system using an intelligent method (IP-MLI . A fuzzy matching method is used to find suitable learning material design. It will provide a best matching for each specific platform type for each learner. The main contribution of the proposed method is to use software layer to insulate learning materials from device-specific features. Consequently, many versions of learning materials can be designed to work on many platform types.

  16. RESEARCH OF CONDITION OF PUBLIC DRUG ASSISTANCE DURING INDEPENDENCE YEARS OF UKRAINE - FORMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Boryshchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the correspondence of existing legislative and regulatory requirements of the pharmaceutical industry development, the analysis of the formation of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the condition of drug assistance according to European requirements and recommendations of the WHO. For the study archival materials, publications in scientific journals, and mass media were used, laws and provisions regulating pharmaceutical activity were studied and a survey among citizens was conducted. Systematic and logical methods, analytical and comparative analysis were applied, and own researches were performed. For 22 years of Ukrainian statehood formation the following institutes were created: Pharmacological College, Pharmacopoeia Committee and State Service for Quality Control of Drugs which were transported to other institutes. Important laws were adopted: the Law of Ukraine «On Medicines», the Law of Ukraine «On small-scale privatization», the Law of Ukraine «On large-scale privatization» and others, which contributed to the formation and development of the pharmaceutical market. In comparison with 1990 the amount of drugstore chains increased two and a half times and in 2013 in the country already worked 15 566 drugstores, including 3 025 in villages. Specific peculiarity of pharmaceutical market formation in Ukraine was the creation of powerful own regional and all-Ukrainian drugstore chains, that is greatly different from such situation in EU countries, where the legislation allows to have only one or two drugstores. As the result of pharmaceutical market formation the drugs nomenclature increased eight times and now makes up more than 20 000 names, including 92.4 % generic drugs. According to publications, Ukraine lacks about 40 % of drug molecules needed for medical treatment, and 30 % of studied drugs are not proved. There is the problem of uncontrollable turnover and drugs consumption in Ukraine

  17. Self-Access Language Learning Programme: The Case of the English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.

  18. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  19. VALIDATION OF A SCALE OF LEVELS AND CONDITIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELIO IGNACIO CASTAÑEDA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizational learning has been studied from the perspective of levels of learning: individual, group and organizational,as well as from the needed conditions for learning in order to be produced. An instrument of six dimensions wasvalidated, three of them levels: individual, group and organizational, and three of them conditions: culture oforganizational learning, training and transmission of information. Participants were 845 workers of a public institution.From results support was found for the three levels of learning and for two conditions: culture of organizationallearning and training. Additionally a condition called strategic clarity was identified.

  20. Recent progresses of neural network unsupervised learning: I. Independent component analyses generalizing PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.

    1999-03-01

    The early vision principle of redundancy reduction of 108 sensor excitations is understandable from computer vision viewpoint toward sparse edge maps. It is only recently derived using a truly unsupervised learning paradigm of artificial neural networks (ANN). In fact, the biological vision, Hubel- Wiesel edge maps, is reproduced seeking the underlying independent components analyses (ICA) among 102 image samples by maximizing the ANN output entropy (partial)H(V)/(partial)[W] equals (partial)[W]/(partial)t. When a pair of newborn eyes or ears meet the bustling and hustling world without supervision, they seek ICA by comparing 2 sensory measurements (x1(t), x2(t))T equalsV X(t). Assuming a linear and instantaneous mixture model of the external world X(t) equals [A] S(t), where both the mixing matrix ([A] equalsV [a1, a2] of ICA vectors and the source percentages (s1(t), s2(t))T equalsV S(t) are unknown, we seek the independent sources approximately equals [I] where the approximated sign indicates that higher order statistics (HOS) may not be trivial. Without a teacher, the ANN weight matrix [W] equalsV [w1, w2] adjusts the outputs V(t) equals tanh([W]X(t)) approximately equals [W]X(t) until no desired outputs except the (Gaussian) 'garbage' (neither YES '1' nor NO '-1' but at linear may-be range 'origin 0') defined by Gaussian covariance G equals [I] equals [W][A] the internal knowledge representation [W], as the inverse of the external world matrix [A]-1. To unify IC, PCA, ANN & HOS theories since 1991 (advanced by Jutten & Herault, Comon, Oja, Bell-Sejnowski, Amari-Cichocki, Cardoso), the LYAPONOV function L(v1,...,vn, w1,...wn,) equals E(v1,...,vn) - H(w1,...wn) is constructed as the HELMHOTZ free energy to prove both convergences of supervised energy E and unsupervised entropy H learning. Consequently, rather using the faithful but dumb computer: 'GARBAGE-IN, GARBAGE-OUT,' the smarter neurocomputer will be equipped with an unsupervised learning that extracts

  1. Learning outdoors: male lizards show flexible spatial learning under semi-natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Daniel W. A.; Carazo, Pau; Whiting, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is predicted to be a fundamental component of fitness in many lizard species, and yet some studies suggest that it is relatively slow and inflexible. However, such claims are based on work conducted using experimental designs or in artificial contexts that may underestimate their cognitive abilities. We used a biologically realistic experimental procedure (using simulated predatory attacks) to study spatial learning and its flexibility in the lizard Eulamprus quoyii in semi-natural outdoor enclosures under similar conditions to those experienced by lizards in the wild. To evaluate the flexibility of spatial learning, we conducted a reversal spatial-learning task in which positive and negative reinforcements of learnt spatial stimuli were switched. Nineteen (32%) male lizards learnt both tasks within 10 days (spatial task mean: 8.16 ± 0.69 (s.e.) and reversal spatial task mean: 10.74 ± 0.98 (s.e.) trials). We demonstrate that E. quoyii are capable of flexible spatial learning and suggest that future studies focus on a range of lizard species which differ in phylogeny and/or ecology, using biologically relevant cognitive tasks, in an effort to bridge the cognitive divide between ecto- and endotherms. PMID:23075525

  2. Mixed-Handedness Advantages in Episodic Memory Obtained under Conditions of Intentional Learning Extend to Incidental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D.; Butler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The existence of handedness differences in the retrieval of episodic memories is well-documented, but virtually all have been obtained under conditions of intentional learning. Two experiments are reported that extend the presence of such handedness differences to memory retrieval under conditions of incidental learning. Experiment 1 used Craik…

  3. Using an adapted form of the picture exchange communication system to increase independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Maeve; Rohrer, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    The current study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted form of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in increasing independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities. PECS cards were created to accommodate individual needs, including adaptations such as enlarging photographs and using swelled images which consisted of images created on raised line drawing paper. Training included up to Phase III of PECS and procedures ensuring generalizations across individuals and contexts were included. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Results demonstrated an increase in independent requesting with each of the participants reaching mastery criterion. These results suggest that PECS, in combination with some minor adaptations, may be an effective communicative alternative for individuals who are deafblind and have learning impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of Students' Independent Learning through Their Critical Thinking Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopzhassarova, Umit; Akbayeva, Gulden; Eskazinova, Zhanar; Belgibayeva, Gulbarshyn; Tazhikeyeva, Akerke

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the problem of developing students' critical thinking skills, which help them become independent learners. Analysis of research works of educators and scholars enable the authors to reveal qualities, necessary for students to enhance their critical thinking skills and become independent learners. Different points of view on…

  5. Electronic Learning Courses as a Means to Activate Students' Independent Work in Studying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…

  6. Teacher Perspectives on Technology Integration Professional Development: Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the technology integration learning activities of four teachers throughout one year using weekly quantitative surveys and a series of three qualitative individual interviews. Through the teachers' own voices an illustration of their learning processes is presented, and the gap between what is supported by their…

  7. Vascular dynamics aid a coupled neurovascular network learn sparse independent features: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Thomas Philips

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vascular dynamics are generally thought to be controlled by neural activity in a unidirectional fashion. However, both computational modeling and experimental evidence point to the feedback effects of vascular dynamics on neural activity. Vascular feedback in the form of glucose and oxygen controls neuronal ATP, either directly or via the agency of astrocytes, which in turn modulates neural firing. Recently, a detailed model of the neuron-astrocyte-vessel system has shown how vasomotion can modulate neural firing. Similarly, arguing from known cerebrovascular physiology, an approach known as `hemoneural hypothesis' postulates functional modulation of neural activity by vascular feedback. To instantiate this perspective, we present a computational model in which a network of `vascular units' supplies energy to a neural network. The complex dynamics of the vascular network, modeled by a network of oscillators, turns neurons ON and OFF randomly. The informational consequence of such dynamics is explored in the context of an auto-encoder network. In the proposed model, each vascular unit supplies energy to a subset of hidden neurons of an autoencoder network, which constitutes its `projective field'. Neurons that receive adequate energy in a given trial have reduced threshold, and thus are prone to fire. Dynamics of the vascular network are governed by changes in the reconstruction error of the auto-encoder network, interpreted as the neuronal demand. Vascular feedback causes random inactivation of a subset of hidden neurons in every trial. We observe that, under conditions of desynchronized vascular dynamics, the output reconstruction error is low and the feature vectors learnt are sparse and independent. Our earlier modeling study highlighted the link between desynchronized vascular dynamics and efficient energy delivery in skeletal muscle. We now show that desynchronized vascular dynamics leads to efficient training in an auto

  8. Exploring the relation between teachers’ perceptions of workplace conditions and their professional learning goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Schools’ structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers’ collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that

  9. Spectral Transfer Learning using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Roy Waytowich; Nicholas Roy Waytowich; Vernon Lawhern; Vernon Lawhern; Addison Bohannon; Addison Bohannon; Kenneth Ball; Brent Lance

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this p...

  10. Spectral Transfer Learning Using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Waytowich, Nicholas R.; Lawhern, Vernon J.; Bohannon, Addison W.; Ball, Kenneth R.; Lance, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this p...

  11. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  13. The independent roles of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary time on chronic conditions and Body Mass Index in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, L; Dogra, S; Paterson, D H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the independent influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior on chronic disease incidence and body composition in older adults. A sample of 292 community dwelling men and women (mean 69.3±8.1 years) underwent maximal treadmill testing and completed questionnaires relating to their leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time, and health. The average V O2 of the sample was approximately 21 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with the average sedentary time being over 3 hours per day. Cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of number of chronic conditions and BMI than total physical activity and sedentary. Those with a higher cardiorespiratory fitness had fewer chronic conditions and a lower BMI. No such associations were seen for either total physical activity levels or sedentary time. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger predictor of health among older adults and further highlights the importance of promoting public health guidelines for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  14. College Online Developmental Reading Instruction: Creating a Path to Independent and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. Janet

    2010-01-01

    Online courses require students to be independent readers and efficient learners. College students who need developmental reading lack these qualities; consequently, faculty do not generally view developmental reading courses as appropriate for an online format. However, an effectively designed online course based on best practices can engage less…

  15. World of Learning: Houston Independent School District 2014 Annual Report and 2015 Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, 2015

    2015-01-01

    No other city in the nation more clearly exemplifies the dramatically changing social, political, and economic landscape of America's urban centers than Houston. Houston has transformed from a bi-racial southern city on the bayou to one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse communities in the nation. Houston Independent School District…

  16. Effects of Interactive Chat versus Independent Writing on L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa M.; Vatz, Karen; Bonilla, Carrie L.; Crooks, Carolyn; Strong, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the importance of interaction for second language (L2) acquisition by analyzing outcomes from two types of out-of-class activities. The study compared: (a) interactive homework, completed via text chat, and (b) individual homework, completed via independent writing. In a between-subjects design, participants in two…

  17. Can an Online Tool Support Contemporary Independent Music Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Julia; Upitis, Rena

    2015-01-01

    The body of research examining deliberate practice and self-regulation in musical instruction has grown extensively over the past several decades, while at the same time many practices in the independent music studio remain unchanged and/or under-researched. Compelling evidence indicates that students with high levels of self-regulation experience…

  18. Security Engineering Lessons Learned for Migrating Independent LANs to an Enterprise Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Robert L.; Bonneau, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Transition from small, independent LANs into larger enterprise managed infrastructures is becoming more prominent in academia, business and government. Consolidation of IT resources into larger, more disciplined, and more professionally managed environments has significant advantages however they do bring their own unique issues to solve in order…

  19. A Full Life with Autism: From Learning to Forming Relationships to Achieving Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicile-Kira, Chantal; Sicile-Kira, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    A guide for helping our children lead meaningful and independent lives as they reach adulthood. In the next five years, hundreds of thousands of children with autism spectrum disorder will reach adulthood. And while diagnosis and treatment for children has improved in recent years, parents want to know: What happens to my child when I am no longer…

  20. Balancing Direction and Independence in Second Language Vocabulary Learning: A Gesture Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Lake

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study looks at the effect of learning second language vocabulary with gesture. Specifically, this current study asks whether researcher-instructed or student-constructed gestures are more effective. Depth of processing theories (Craik and Lockhart 1972) as well as more recent educational frameworks like ICAP ("Interactive,"…

  1. An Evaluation of Independent Learning of the Japanese Hiragana System Using an Interactive CD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Barbara; Quinn, Ann Marcus

    2009-01-01

    As Japanese uses three writing systems (hiragana, katakana, and the ideograms known as kanji), and as materials in the target language include all three, it is a major challenge to learn to read and write quickly. This paper focuses on interactive multi-media methods of teaching Japanese reading which foster learner autonomy. As little has been…

  2. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  3. Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning: Project Kaleidoscope-Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges Conference for Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    College and university science educators from across Connecticut gathered at Yale's West Campus in April 2010 for a Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) program entitled "Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning." Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and co-sponsored by the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges (CCIC) and Yale's McDougal Graduate Teaching Center, the event was the latest in a PKAL series of one-day conferences aimed at equipping science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) instructors with effective approaches to engaging students and training future scientists.

  4. Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, T.S.; Oppitz, C.; Donders, R.; Bokhoven, H. van; Schenck, A.; Keleman, K.; Kramer, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits

  5. Estimators for initial conditions for optimisation in learning hydraulic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.J.A.E.M.; Burrows, C.R.; Edge, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    In Learning Hydraulic Systems (LHS1. developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology, a specialised optimisation routine is employed In order to reduce energy losses in hydraulic systems. Typical load situations which can be managed by LHS are variable cyclic loads, as can be observed In many

  6. Possibilities of Independent Learning in Two Self-Access Facilities of an Iranian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The roles that self-access centers play in language learners’ development of autonomy considerably vary in accordance with the institutional features attributed to their structure and the services they offer. As part of a larger study which assessed 100 learners’ readiness for autonomy, this paper reports on the status quo of two facilities at the humanities faculty of an Iranian university, based on English-as-Foreign-Language (EFL learners’ views and practices. Seven undergraduate EFL learners from various years of study were asked to describe the ways in which they exploit self-access services for language learning purposes and express their opinions vis-à-vis their functionality through semi-structured interviews. Findings reveal that most learners preferred not to attend the computer center, principally because, the Internet, as the most widely acknowledged service, had become available in other places around the university, such as in the dormitory. The reasons for this reluctance are highlighted, along with a presentation of some suggestions for upgrading learners’ participation in self-access language learning in similar contexts.

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  8. Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information, 10(2), 4-24.

  9. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 d...

  10. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Cheng-Yu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer. Results To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2 regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage

  11. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiang-Yuan; Cheng, Shih-Wu; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Shih-Fang; Soo, Von-Wun

    2009-12-21

    Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer. To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN) algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2) regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage. We provide a computational framework to reconstruct

  12. Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    impairment of the synthesis of these cells, especially those in In addition to emesis. exposure to lower doses of ionizing bone marrow. However. since...pretreatment with fluoxetine in gustatory conditioning. 629-635. 1983. Pharmnat l Bioc/n-a 8,4,ui 17: 431-443. 1982. 100. Rabin. B. M. and J. S. Rabin

  13. An ensemble training scheme for machine-learning classification of Hyperion satellite imagery with independent hyperspectral libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    A training scheme is proposed for the real-time classification of soil and vegetation (landscape) components in EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral images. First, an auto-contractive map is used to compute connectivity of reflectance values for spectral bands (N=200) from independent laboratory spectral library components. Second, a minimum spanning tree is used to identify optimal grouping of training components from connectivity values. Third, the reflectance values for optimal landscape component signatures are sorted. Fourth, empirical distribution functions (EDF) are computed for each landscape component. Fifth, the Monte-Carlo technique is used to generate realizations (N=30) for each landscape EDF. The correspondence of component realizations to original signatures validates the stochastic procedure. Presentation of the realizations to the self-organizing map (SOM) is done using three different map sizes: 14x10, 28x20, and 40 x 30. In each case, the SOM training proceeds first with a rough phase (20 iterations using a Gaussian neighborhood with an initial and final radius of 11 units and 3 units) and then fine phase (400 iterations using a Gaussian neighborhood with an initial and final radius of 3 units and 1 unit). The initial and final learning rates of 0.5 and 0.05 decay linearly down to 10-5, and the Gaussian neighborhood function decreases exponentially (decay rate of 10-3 iteration-1) providing reasonable convergence. Following training of the three networks, each corresponding SOM is used to independently classify the original spectral library signatures. In comparing the different SOM networks, the 28x20 map size is chosen for independent reproducibility and processing speed. The corresponding universal distance matrix reveals separation of the seven component classes for this map size thereby supporting it use as a Hyperion classifier.

  14. Self-learning basic life support: A randomised controlled trial on learning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Kasper, Nina; Roman, Hari; Egloff, Mike; Marx, David; Abegglen, Sandra; Greif, Robert

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether pure self-learning without instructor support, resulted in the same BLS-competencies as facilitator-led learning, when using the same commercially available video BLS teaching kit. First-year medical students were randomised to either BLS self-learning without supervision or facilitator-led BLS-teaching. Both groups used the MiniAnne kit (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) in the students' local language. Directly after the teaching and three months later, all participants were tested on their BLS-competencies in a simulated scenario, using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter™ (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). The primary outcome was percentage of correct cardiac compressions three months after the teaching. Secondary outcomes were all other BLS parameters recorded by the SkillReporter and parameters from a BLS-competence rating form. 240 students were assessed at baseline and 152 students participated in the 3-month follow-up. For our primary outcome, the percentage of correct compressions, we found a median of 48% (interquartile range (IQR) 10-83) for facilitator-led learning vs. 42% (IQR 14-81) for self-learning (p = 0.770) directly after the teaching. In the 3-month follow-up, the rate of correct compressions dropped to 28% (IQR 6-59) for facilitator-led learning (p = 0.043) and did not change significantly in the self-learning group (47% (IQR 12-78), p = 0.729). Self-learning is not inferior to facilitator-led learning in the short term. Self-learning resulted in a better retention of BLS-skills three months after training compared to facilitator-led training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial and begging behaviours of juvenile Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) from fledging to independence under contrasting food conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Naundrup, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    The post-fledging dependency period (PFDP: from fledging to cessation of parental care) is a critical yet poorly studied life history transition phase during which juveniles mature and develop skills for independence. We studied the spatial and vocal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Tawny Owls...... during the last 5 days before juvenile independence. Hence, juvenile Tawny Owls old enough to survive on their own invested heavily in begging, with no noticeable signs of increased hunting or exploration of potential settling areas outside the natal range, until they were no longer fed by their parents...... of the parental home range. The probability of begging per 20-min nocturnal observation period increased from 21 % at fledging to 80 % at independence during years of good food supply, but remained high (>82 %) in years of poor food supply. No change was observed in nocturnal movement distances or begging rates...

  16. Mixed-handedness advantages in episodic memory obtained under conditions of intentional learning extend to incidental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D; Butler, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The existence of handedness differences in the retrieval of episodic memories is well-documented, but virtually all have been obtained under conditions of intentional learning. Two experiments are reported that extend the presence of such handedness differences to memory retrieval under conditions of incidental learning. Experiment 1 used Craik and Tulving's (1975) classic levels-of-processing paradigm and obtained handedness differences under incidental and intentional conditions of deep processing, but not under conditions of shallow incidental processing. Experiment 2 looked at incidental memory for distracter items from a recognition memory task and again found a mixed-handed advantage. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between interhemispheric interaction, levels of processing, and episodic memory retrieval. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inferior frontal gyrus preserves working memory and emotional learning under conditions of impaired noradrenergic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eBecker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compensation has been widely applied to explain neuroimaging findings in neuropsychiatric patients. Functional compensation is often invoked when patients display equal performance and increased neural activity in comparison to healthy controls. According to the compensatory hypothesis increased activity allows the brain to maintain cognitive performance despite underlying neuropathological changes. Due to methodological and pathology-related issues, however, the functional relevance of the increased activity and the specific brain regions involved in the compensatory response remain unclear. An experimental approach that allows a transient induction of compensatory responses in the healthy brain could help to overcome these issues. To this end we used the nonselective beta-blocker propranolol to pharmacologically induce sub-optimal noradrenergic signaling in healthy participants. In two independent fMRI experiments participants received either placebo or propranolol before they underwent a cognitive challenge (experiment 1: working memory; experiment 2: emotional learning: Pavlovian fear conditioning. In experiment 1 propranolol had no effects on working memory performance, but evoked stronger activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. In experiment 2 propranolol produced no effects on emotional memory formation, but evoked stronger activity in the right IFG. The present finding that sub-optimal beta-adrenergic signaling did not disrupt performance and concomitantly increased IFG activity is consistent with, and extends, current perspectives on functional compensation. Together, our findings suggest that under conditions of impaired noradrenergic signaling, heightened activity in brain regions located within the cognitive control network, particularly the IFG, may reflect compensatory operations subserving the maintenance of behavioral performance.

  18. Topological and Graph-Coloring Conditions on the Parameter-Independent Stability of Second-Order Networked Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Filip; Bürger, Mathias; van der Schaft, Abraham; De Persis, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study parameter-independent stability in qualitatively heterogeneous passive networked systems containing damped and undamped nodes. Given the graph topology and a set of damped nodes, we ask if output consensus is achieved for all system parameter values. For given parameter

  19. Examining the Conditions of Using an On-Line Dictionary to Learn Words and Comprehend Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilenschneider, Robert Francis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated three look-up conditions for language learners to learn unknown target words and comprehend a reading passage when their attention is transferred away to an on-line dictionary. The research questions focused on how each look-up condition impacted the recall and recognition of word forms, word meanings, and passage…

  20. Role of physical activity, physical fitness, and chronic health conditions on the physical independence of community-dwelling older adults over a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina; Baptista, Fátima; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the individual characteristics and habits could help determine how older adults maintain independence. The impact of the variability in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic health conditions (co-morbidities) on the independence of older adults, especially over time, is seldom examined. This study aims to analyze quantitatively the impact of baseline values and changes in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and co-morbidities on the physical independence of community-dwelling, older adults over a 5-year period. Data from 106 and 85 community-dwelling adults (≥60 years) were collected at baseline and after five years, respectively. Linear regression selected the main predictors of changes in physical independence as follows: the baseline physical independence (β=0.032, R(2)=9.9%) and co-morbidities (β=-0.191, R(2)=6.3%) and the changes in co-morbidities (β=-0.244, R(2)=10.8%), agility (β=-0.288, R(2)=6.7%), aerobic endurance (β=0.007, R(2)=3.2%), and walking expenditure (β=0.001, R(2)=5.1%) (page and gender. Gains of up to 8.3% in physical independence were associated with improvements in these variables, which corresponds to regaining independence for performing one or two activities of daily living. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. The effect of encoding conditions on learning in the prototype distortion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica C; Livesey, Evan J

    2017-06-01

    The prototype distortion task demonstrates that it is possible to learn about a category of physically similar stimuli through mere observation. However, there have been few attempts to test whether different encoding conditions affect learning in this task. This study compared prototypicality gradients produced under incidental learning conditions in which participants performed a visual search task, with those produced under intentional learning conditions in which participants were required to memorize the stimuli. Experiment 1 showed that similar prototypicality gradients could be obtained for category endorsement and familiarity ratings, but also found (weaker) prototypicality gradients in the absence of exposure. In Experiments 2 and 3, memorization was found to strengthen prototypicality gradients in familiarity ratings in comparison to visual search, but there were no group differences in participants' ability to discriminate between novel and presented exemplars. Although the Search groups in Experiments 2 and 3 produced prototypicality gradients, they were no different in magnitude to those produced in the absence of stimulus exposure in Experiment 1, suggesting that incidental learning during visual search was not conducive to producing prototypicality gradients. This study suggests that learning in the prototype distortion task is not implicit in the sense of resulting automatically from exposure, is affected by the nature of encoding, and should be considered in light of potential learning-at-test effects.

  2. Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-11-01

    Animal experiments provide evidence that learning to associate an auditory stimulus with a reward causes representational changes in auditory cortex. However, most studies did not investigate the temporal formation of learning-dependent plasticity during the task but rather compared auditory cortex receptive fields before and after conditioning. We here present a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on learning-related plasticity in the human auditory cortex during operant appetitive conditioning. Participants had to learn to associate a specific category of frequency-modulated tones with a reward. Only participants who learned this association developed learning-dependent plasticity in left auditory cortex over the course of the experiment. No differential responses to reward predicting and nonreward predicting tones were found in auditory cortex in nonlearners. In addition, learners showed similar learning-induced differential responses to reward-predicting and nonreward-predicting tones in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, two core regions of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. This may indicate a dopaminergic influence on the formation of learning-dependent plasticity in auditory cortex, as it has been suggested by previous animal studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tau protein degradation is catalyzed by the ATP/ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome under normal cell conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Grune, Tilman; Botzen, Diana; Engels, Martina; Voss, Peter; Kaiser, Barbara; Jung, Tobias; Grimm, Stefanie; Ermak, Gennady; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Tau is the major protein exhibiting intracellular accumulation in Alzheimer disease. The mechanisms leading to its accumulation are not fully understood. It has been proposed that the proteasome is responsible for degrading tau but, since proteasomal inhibitors block both the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome and the ubiqutin-independent 20S proteasome pathways, it is not clear which of these pathways is involved in tau degradation. Some involvement of the ubiquitin ligase, CHIP in tau degra...

  4. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  5. Dissociation of learned helplessness and fear conditioning in mice: a mouse model of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Landgraf

    Full Text Available The state of being helpless is regarded as a central aspect of depression, and therefore the learned helplessness paradigm in rodents is commonly used as an animal model of depression. The term 'learned helplessness' refers to a deficit in escaping from an aversive situation after an animal is exposed to uncontrollable stress specifically, with a control/comparison group having been exposed to an equivalent amount of controllable stress. A key feature of learned helplessness is the transferability of helplessness to different situations, a phenomenon called 'trans-situationality'. However, most studies in mice use learned helplessness protocols in which training and testing occur in the same environment and with the same type of stressor. Consequently, failures to escape may reflect conditioned fear of a particular environment, not a general change of the helpless state of an animal. For mice, there is no established learned helplessness protocol that includes the trans-situationality feature. Here we describe a simple and reliable learned helplessness protocol for mice, in which training and testing are carried out in different environments and with different types of stressors. We show that with our protocol approximately 50% of mice develop learned helplessness that is not attributable to fear conditioning.

  6. Dissociation of learned helplessness and fear conditioning in mice: a mouse model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Streets, Margo; Welsh, David K

    2015-01-01

    The state of being helpless is regarded as a central aspect of depression, and therefore the learned helplessness paradigm in rodents is commonly used as an animal model of depression. The term 'learned helplessness' refers to a deficit in escaping from an aversive situation after an animal is exposed to uncontrollable stress specifically, with a control/comparison group having been exposed to an equivalent amount of controllable stress. A key feature of learned helplessness is the transferability of helplessness to different situations, a phenomenon called 'trans-situationality'. However, most studies in mice use learned helplessness protocols in which training and testing occur in the same environment and with the same type of stressor. Consequently, failures to escape may reflect conditioned fear of a particular environment, not a general change of the helpless state of an animal. For mice, there is no established learned helplessness protocol that includes the trans-situationality feature. Here we describe a simple and reliable learned helplessness protocol for mice, in which training and testing are carried out in different environments and with different types of stressors. We show that with our protocol approximately 50% of mice develop learned helplessness that is not attributable to fear conditioning.

  7. Cue competition in evaluative conditioning as a function of the learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Green, C Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is the change in the valence of a stimulus resulting from pairings with an affective (unconditioned) stimulus (US). With some exceptions, previous work has indicated that this form of conditioning might be insensitive to cue competition effects such as blocking and overshadowing. Here we assessed whether the extent of cue competition in EC depends upon the type of contingency learning during conditioning. Specifically, we contrasted a learning task that biased participants toward cognitive/inferential learning (i.e., predicting the US) with a learning task that prevented prolonged introspection (i.e., a rapid response made to the US). In all cases, standard EC effects were observed, with the subjective liking of stimuli changed in the direction of the valence of the US. More importantly, when inferential learning was likely, larger EC effects occurred for isolated stimuli than for compounds (indicating overshadowing). No blocking effects on explicit evaluations were observed for either learning task. Contingency judgments and implicit evaluations, however, were sensitive to blocking, indicating that the absence of a blocking effect on explicit evaluations might be due to inferences that occur during testing.

  8. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  9. No Certification, No Training...No Problem: The Influence of Formative Beliefs and Learning Experiences in the Instructional Practice of New Independent School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derick Graham

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to answer the question: "To what extent do prior beliefs about and experiences of teaching and learning influence the instructional practices of new independent school teachers," who are generally not required to have any formal pedagogical training or hold teacher certification prior to beginning full-time employment.…

  10. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  11. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: evidence for conditioned appetitive responding to negative emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Appetitive learning has been demonstrated several times using neutral cues or contexts as a predictor of food intake and it has been shown that humans easily learn cued desires for foods. It has, however, never been studied whether internal cues are also capable of appetitive conditioning. In this study, we tested whether humans can learn cued eating desires to negative moods as conditioned stimuli (CS), thereby offering a potential explanation of emotional eating (EE). Female participants were randomly presented with 10 different stimuli eliciting either negative or neutral emotional states, with one of these states paired with eating chocolate. Expectancy to eat, desire to eat, salivation, and unpleasantness of experiencing negative emotions were assessed. After conditioning, participants were brought into a negative emotional state and were asked to choose between money and chocolate. Data showed differential conditioned responding on the expectancy and desire measures, but not on salivation. Specific conditioned effects were obtained for participants with a higher BMI (body mass index) on the choice task, and for participants high on EE on the unpleasantness ratings. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for the idea that negative emotions can act as conditioned stimuli, and might suggest that classical conditioning is involved in EE.

  12. Robust Machine Learning Variable Importance Analyses of Medical Conditions for Health Care Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sherri

    2018-03-11

    To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning. Previous literature studying the impact of medical conditions on health care spending has almost exclusively focused on parametric risk adjustment; thus, I compare my approach to parametric regression. My results demonstrate that multiple sclerosis, congestive heart failure, severe cancers, major depression and bipolar disorders, and chronic hepatitis are the most costly medical conditions on average per individual. These findings differed from those obtained using parametric regression. The literature may be underestimating the spending contributions of several medical conditions, which is a potentially critical oversight. If current methods are not capturing the true incremental effect of medical conditions, undesirable incentives related to care may remain. Further work is needed to directly study these issues in the context of federal formulas. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: does negative mood facilitate appetitive conditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  15. Force Sensor Based Tool Condition Monitoring Using a Heterogeneous Ensemble Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tool condition monitoring (TCM plays an important role in improving machining efficiency and guaranteeing workpiece quality. In order to realize reliable recognition of the tool condition, a robust classifier needs to be constructed to depict the relationship between tool wear states and sensory information. However, because of the complexity of the machining process and the uncertainty of the tool wear evolution, it is hard for a single classifier to fit all the collected samples without sacrificing generalization ability. In this paper, heterogeneous ensemble learning is proposed to realize tool condition monitoring in which the support vector machine (SVM, hidden Markov model (HMM and radius basis function (RBF are selected as base classifiers and a stacking ensemble strategy is further used to reflect the relationship between the outputs of these base classifiers and tool wear states. Based on the heterogeneous ensemble learning classifier, an online monitoring system is constructed in which the harmonic features are extracted from force signals and a minimal redundancy and maximal relevance (mRMR algorithm is utilized to select the most prominent features. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, a titanium alloy milling experiment was carried out and samples with different tool wear states were collected to build the proposed heterogeneous ensemble learning classifier. Moreover, the homogeneous ensemble learning model and majority voting strategy are also adopted to make a comparison. The analysis and comparison results show that the proposed heterogeneous ensemble learning classifier performs better in both classification accuracy and stability.

  16. Learning to predict and control harmful events: chronic pain and conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-04-01

    Pain is a biologically relevant signal and response to bodily threat, associated with the urge to restore the integrity of the body. Immediate protective responses include increased arousal, selective attention, escape, and facial expressions, followed by recuperative avoidance and safety-seeking behaviors. To facilitate early and effective protection against future bodily threat or injury, learning takes place rapidly. Learning is the observable change in behavior due to events in the internal and external environmental and includes nonassociative (habituation and sensitization) and associative learning (Pavlovian and operant conditioning). Once acquired, these knowledge representations remain stored in memory and may generalize to perceptually or functionally similar events. Moreover, these processes are not just a consequence of pain; they may directly influence pain perception. In contrast to the rapid acquisition of learned responses, their extinction is slow, fragile, context dependent and only occurs through inhibitory processes. Here, we review features of associative forms of learning in humans that contribute to pain, pain-related distress, and disability and discuss promising future directions. Although conditioning has a long and honorable history, a conditioning perspective still might open new windows on novel treatment modalities that facilitate the well-being of individuals with chronic pain.

  17. Learning of conditioned reflexes of the Wistar rat under intermittent action of low CO concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, H.

    1972-04-01

    The influence of an intermittent long-time exposure to a concentration of 150 ppm carbon monoxide on the ability to learn conditioned reflexes was investigated with Wistar rats. Half the 80 rats employed and divided into intelligence groups were exposed to this concentration at night five times for 8 hr weekly. The carboxyhemoglobin level in the blood of these animals increased to 7-13 percent. After an adequate interval for CO elimination, the rats exposed and the control animals were trained to develop a conditioned flight reflex. At a later date, the results were ascertained. With regard to the progress in learning this action, the CO-exposed animals showed a significant reduction in performance (longer learning time, more frequent deficient behavior, and inclination for stupor and anxious denial).

  18. Integrase-independent HIV-1 infection is augmented under conditions of DNA damage and produces a viral reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebina, Hirotaka, E-mail: hebina@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kanemura, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Urata, Kozue; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2012-05-25

    HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection of inhibitor-incubated cells infected with WT HIV which was identical to cells infected with IN-deficient HIV, D64A. Furthermore, the IN-independent integration could be enhanced by the pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents suggesting that integration is mediated by a DNA repair system. Moreover, significantly faster viral replication kinetics with augmented viral DNA integration was observed after infection in irradiated cells treated with IN inhibitor compared to nonirradiated cells. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV DNA has integration potential in the presence of an IN inhibitor and may serve as a virus reservoir.

  19. Integrase-independent HIV-1 infection is augmented under conditions of DNA damage and produces a viral reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Hirotaka; Kanemura, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Urata, Kozue; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection of inhibitor-incubated cells infected with WT HIV which was identical to cells infected with IN-deficient HIV, D64A. Furthermore, the IN-independent integration could be enhanced by the pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents suggesting that integration is mediated by a DNA repair system. Moreover, significantly faster viral replication kinetics with augmented viral DNA integration was observed after infection in irradiated cells treated with IN inhibitor compared to nonirradiated cells. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV DNA has integration potential in the presence of an IN inhibitor and may serve as a virus reservoir.

  20. Dissociable Hippocampal and Amygdalar D1-like receptor contribution to Discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Ryals, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning is an elementary form of reward-related behavioral adaptation. The mesolimbic dopamine system is widely considered to mediate critical aspects of reward-related learning. For example, initial acquisition of positively-reinforced operant behavior requires dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) activation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the ventral subiculum (vSUB). However, the role of D1R activation in these areas on appetitive, non-drug-related, Pavlovian learning is not currently known. In separate experiments, microinfusions of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (3.0 nmol/0.5 μL per side) into the amygdala and subiculum preceded discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach (dPCA) training sessions. D1-like antagonism in all three structures impaired the acquisition of discriminated approach, but had no effect on performance after conditioning was asymptotic. Moreover, dissociable effects of D1-like antagonism in the three structures on components of discriminated responding were obtained. Lastly, the lack of latent inhibition in drug-treated groups may elucidate the role of D1-like in reward-related Pavlovian conditioning. The present data suggest a role for the D1 receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus in learning the significance of conditional stimuli, but not in the expression of conditional responses. PMID:26632336

  1. Computer Mathematics Games and Conditions for Enhancing Young Children's Learning of Number Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Hengameh

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to examine whether mathematics computer games improved young children's learning of number sense under three different conditions: when used individually, with a peer, and with teacher facilitation. Methodology: This study utilized a mixed methodology, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. A…

  2. Simultaneous and Sequential Feature Negative Discriminations: Elemental Learning and Occasion Setting in Human Pavlovian Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Frank; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated simultaneous (XA-/A+) vs. sequential (X [right arrow] A-/A+) Feature Negative (FN) discrimination learning in humans. We expected the simultaneous discrimination to result in X (or alternatively the XA configuration) becoming an inhibitor acting directly on the US, and the sequential…

  3. Blockade of Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Impairs Learning Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman-Assif, Orit; Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to investigate the role of dopamine activity in learning to inhibit conditioned fear responses (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, rats systemically injected with the D2 dopamine antagonist, haloperidol, froze more across multiple extinction sessions and on a drug-free retention test than control rats. In…

  4. Hyperresponsiveness of the Neural Fear Network During Fear Conditioning and Extinction Learning in Male Cocaine Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, A.M.; Levar, N.; Woutersen, K.; Homberg, J.R.; Brink, W. van den; Reneman, L.; Wingen, G. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated whether cocaine use disorder is associated with abnormalities in the neural underpinnings of aversive conditioning and extinction learning, as these processes may play an important role in the development and persistence of drug abuse. METHOD: Forty male regular

  5. Individual differences in discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity: a vulnerability factor for anxiety disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.; Krypotos, A.M.; Effting, M.; Boddez, Y.; Kindt, M.; Beckers, T.

    2013-01-01

    Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their

  6. Learning to Promote Health at an Emergency Care Department: Identifying Expansive and Restrictive Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Maria; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a planned workplace health promotion intervention, and the aim is to identify conditions that facilitated or restricted the learning to promote health at an emergency care department in a Swedish hospital. The study had a longitudinal design, with interviews before and after the intervention and follow-up…

  7. Learning-based encoding with soft assignment for age estimation under unconstrained imaging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.; Shan, C.; Gevers, T.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose to adopt a learning-based encoding method for age estimation under unconstrained imaging conditions. A similar approach [Cao et al., 2010] is applied to face recognition in real-life face images. However, the feature vectors are encoded in hard manner i.e. each feature

  8. Conditions for Contingent Instructors Engaged in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kloet, Marie; Frake-Mistak, Mandy; McGinn, Michelle K.; Caldecott, Marion; Aspenlieder, Erin D.; Beres, Jacqueline L.; Fukuzawa, Sherry; Cassidy, Alice; Gill, Apryl

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly large number of courses in Canadian postsecondary institutions are taught by contingent instructors who hold full- or part-time positions for contractually limited time periods. Despite strong commitments to advancing teaching and learning, the labour and employment conditions for contingent instructors affect the incentives and…

  9. The Effects of Hypertext Gloss on Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Zeinab; Jafarigohar, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated comprehension, immediate and delayed vocabulary retention under incidental and intentional learning conditions via computer mediated hypertext gloss. One hundred and eighty four (N = 184) intermediate students of English as a foreign language at an English school participated in the study. They were randomly assigned…

  10. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  11. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  12. Resting heart rate variability predicts safety learning and fear extinction in an interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Pappens

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether interindividual differences in autonomic inhibitory control predict safety learning and fear extinction in an interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm. Data from a previously reported study (N = 40 were extended (N = 17 and re-analyzed to test whether healthy participants' resting heart rate variability (HRV - a proxy of cardiac vagal tone - predicts learning performance. The conditioned stimulus (CS was a slight sensation of breathlessness induced by a flow resistor, the unconditioned stimulus (US was an aversive short-lasting suffocation experience induced by a complete occlusion of the breathing circuitry. During acquisition, the paired group received 6 paired CS-US presentations; the control group received 6 explicitly unpaired CS-US presentations. In the extinction phase, both groups were exposed to 6 CS-only presentations. Measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance responses (SCR and US-expectancy ratings. Resting HRV significantly predicted the startle blink EMG learning curves both during acquisition and extinction. In the unpaired group, higher levels of HRV at rest predicted safety learning to the CS during acquisition. In the paired group, higher levels of HRV were associated with better extinction. Our findings suggest that the strength or integrity of prefrontal inhibitory mechanisms involved in safety- and extinction learning can be indexed by HRV at rest.

  13. Individual differences in discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity: A vulnerability factor for anxiety disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eArnaudova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing CS and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (DASS-S, but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder.

  14. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraldi, Piero, E-mail: piero.baraldi@polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Razavi-Far, Roozbeh [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris-Supelec, Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  15. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh; Zio, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  16. Biomarkers for Musculoskeletal Pain Conditions: Use of Brain Imaging and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Sevel, Landrew; Letzen, Janelle; Robinson, Michael; Staud, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain condition often shows poor correlations between tissue abnormalities and clinical pain. Therefore, classification of pain conditions like chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia depends mostly on self report and less on objective findings like X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. However, recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging have identified brain abnormalities in chronic pain conditions that can be used for illness classification. Because the analysis of complex and multivariate brain imaging data is challenging, machine learning techniques have been increasingly utilized for this purpose. The goal of machine learning is to train specific classifiers to best identify variables of interest on brain MRIs (i.e., biomarkers). This report describes classification techniques capable of separating MRI-based brain biomarkers of chronic pain patients from healthy controls with high accuracy (70-92%) using machine learning, as well as critical scientific, practical, and ethical considerations related to their potential clinical application. Although self-report remains the gold standard for pain assessment, machine learning may aid in the classification of chronic pain disorders like chronic back pain and fibromyalgia as well as provide mechanistic information regarding their neural correlates.

  17. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Akinari Inui,1 Ippei Takahashi,2 Sizuka Kurauchi,2 Yuki Soma,2 Toshiaki Oyama,1 Yoshihiro Tamura,1 Takao Noguchi,1 Kouichi Murashita,3 Shigeyuki Nakaji,2 Wataru Kobayashi1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Social Medicine, 3COI Research Initiatives Organization, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture, Japan Purpose: Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods: In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females. Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results: Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8% and 76 females (21.9%. To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males were found to be significantly related to dysphagia

  18. Predicting memory performance under conditions of proactive interference: immediate and delayed judgments of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2011-07-01

    Four experiments examined the monitoring accuracy of immediate and delayed judgments of learning (JOLs) under conditions of proactive interference (PI). PI was produced using paired-associate learning tasks that conformed to variations of classic A-B, A-D paradigms. Results revealed that the relative monitoring accuracy of interference items was better for delayed than for immediate JOLs. However, delayed JOLs were overconfident for interference items, but not for items devoid of interference. Intrusions retrieved prior to delayed JOLs produced inflated predictions of performance. These results show that delayed JOLs enhance monitoring accuracy in PI situations, except when intrusions are mistaken for target responses.

  19. Lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells under LDL loading is independent of LDL receptor pathway and enhanced by hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Youichiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Yamamoto, Takashi; Naito, Makoto; Noguchi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Tsujita, Maki; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Mika; Izumi, Akashi; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Niki, Etsuo; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2002-10-01

    The effect of a variety of hypoxic conditions on lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was studied in an arterial wall coculture and monocultivation model. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was loaded under various levels of oxygen tension. Oil red O staining of rabbit and human SMCs revealed that lipid accumulation was greater under lower oxygen tension. Cholesterol esters were shown to accumulate in an oxygen tension-dependent manner by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Autoradiograms using radiolabeled LDL indicated that LDL uptake was more pronounced under hypoxia. This result holds in the case of LDL receptor-deficient rabbit SMCs. However, cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular cholesterol release were unaffected by oxygen tension. Hypoxia significantly increases LDL uptake and enhances lipid accumulation in arterial SMCs, exclusive of LDL receptor activity. Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the model is useful for studying lipid accumulation in arterial wall cells and the difficult-to-elucidate events in the initial stage of atherogenesis.

  20. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis A K; Verga, Patrick W; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2013-11-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N = 109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS-), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS + E) but not the other (CS + U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 h (within AM or PM), 12 h (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 h (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p = .002). Collapsing across CS + type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p = .003) and fear renewal (p = .005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS + E to CS + U with the response to the CS + U significantly larger than to the CS + E only in the evening (p = .028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicted better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin; Gustavsson, Maria; Karlsson, Nadine; Johansson, Gun; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The experiences of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in facing and learning about their clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Iwata, Yuko; Saito, Toshio; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Imura, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Patients experience extreme difficulty when facing an intractable genetic disease. Herein, we examine the experiences of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in facing and learning about their disease. A total of seven patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (age range: 20-48) participated. We conducted in-depth interviews with them about how they learned of their disease and how their feelings regarding the disease changed over time. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis. The following themes emerged from this analysis: "experiences before receiving the diagnosis," "experiences when they learned of their condition and progression of the disease," "supports," and "desired explanations." Anxiety and worry were most pronounced when they had to transition to using wheelchairs or respirators due to disease progression; indeed, such transitions affect the patients psychological adjustment. In such times, support from significant others in their lives helped patients adjust.

  3. A fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical conditioning and testing system for behavioral learning and memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L; Page, Terry L; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-03-01

    Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24h) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ∼$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alignment Condition-Based Robust Adaptive Iterative Learning Control of Uncertain Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Tong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive iterative learning control strategy integrated with saturation-based robust control for uncertain robot system in presence of modelling uncertainties, unknown parameter, and external disturbance under alignment condition. An important merit is that it achieves adaptive switching of gain matrix both in conventional PD-type feedforward control and robust adaptive control in the iteration domain simultaneously. The analysis of convergence of proposed control law is based on Lyapunov's direct method under alignment initial condition. Simulation results demonstrate the faster learning rate and better robust performance with proposed algorithm by comparing with other existing robust controllers. The actual experiment on three-DOF robot manipulator shows its better practical effectiveness.

  5. Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus lesions impair stimulus--reward learning in autoshaping and conditioned reinforcement paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, W L; Olmstead, M C; Robbins, T W

    2000-04-01

    The role of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in stimulus-reward learning was assessed by testing the effects of PPTg lesions on performance in visual autoshaping and conditioned reinforcement (CRf) paradigms. Rats with PPTg lesions were unable to learn an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and a primary reward in either paradigm. In the autoshaping experiment, PPTg-lesioned rats approached the CS+ and CS- with equal frequency, and the latencies to respond to the two stimuli did not differ. PPTg lesions also disrupted discriminated approaches to an appetitive CS in the CRf paradigm and completely abolished the acquisition of responding with CRf. These data are discussed in the context of a possible cognitive function of the PPTg, particularly in terms of lesion-induced disruptions of attentional processes that are mediated by the thalamus.

  6. [Cooperative learning for improving healthy housing conditions in Bogota: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Parra, Camilo A; García-Ubaque, Juan C; García-Ubaque, César A

    2014-01-01

    This was a community-based effort at constructing an educational proposal orientated towards self-empowerment aimed at improving the target population's sanitary, housing and living conditions through cooperative learning. A constructivist approach was adopted based on a programme called "Habitat community manger". The project involved working with fifteen families living in the Mochuelo Bajo barrio in Ciudad Bolívar in Bogotá, Colombia, for identifying the most relevant sanitary aspects for improving their homes and proposing a methodology and organisation for an educational proposal. Twenty-one poor housing-related epidemiological indicators were identified which formed the basis for defining specific problems and establishing a methodology for designing an educational proposal. The course which emerged from the cooperative learning experience was designed to promote the community's skills and education regarding health aimed at improving households' living conditions and ensuring a healthy environment which would allow them to develop an immediate habitat ensuring their own welfare and dignity.

  7. Lateralized implicit sequence learning in uni- and bi-manual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rémy; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    It has been proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is better suited to acquire novel material whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is more able to process well-routinized information. Here, we ask whether this potential dissociation also manifests itself in an implicit learning task. Using a lateralized version of the serial reaction time task (SRT), we tested whether participants trained in a divided visual field condition primarily stimulating the RH would learn the implicit regularities embedded in sequential material faster than participants in a condition favoring LH processing. In the first study, half of participants were presented sequences in the left (vs. right) visual field, and had to respond using their ipsilateral hand (unimanual condition), hence making visuo-motor processing possible within the same hemisphere. Results showed successful implicit sequence learning, as indicated by increased reaction time for a transfer sequence in both hemispheric conditions and lack of conscious knowledge in a generation task. There was, however, no evidence of interhemispheric differences. In the second study, we hypothesized that a bimanual response version of the lateralized SRT, which requires interhemispheric communication and increases computational and cognitive processing loads, would favor RH-dependent visuospatial/attentional processes. In this bimanual condition, our results revealed a much higher transfer effect in the RH than in the LH condition, suggesting higher RH sensitivity to the processing of novel sequential material. This LH/RH difference was interpreted within the framework of the Novelty-Routinization model [Goldberg, E., & Costa, L. D. (1981). Hemisphere differences in the acquisition and use of descriptive systems. Brain and Language, 14(1), 144-173] and interhemispheric interactions in attentional processing [Banich, M. T. (1998). The missing link: the role of interhemispheric interaction in attentional processing. Brain and Cognition, 36

  8. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Attentional Bias for Uncertain Cues of Shock in Human Fear Conditioning: Evidence for Attentional Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Koenig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a human fear conditioning experiment in which three different color cues were followed by an aversive electric shock on 0, 50, and 100% of the trials, and thus induced low (L, partial (P, and high (H shock expectancy, respectively. The cues differed with respect to the strength of their shock association (L < P < H and the uncertainty of their prediction (L < P > H. During conditioning we measured pupil dilation and ocular fixations to index differences in the attentional processing of the cues. After conditioning, the shock-associated colors were introduced as irrelevant distracters during visual search for a shape target while shocks were no longer administered and we analyzed the cues’ potential to capture and hold overt attention automatically. Our findings suggest that fear conditioning creates an automatic attention bias for the conditioned cues that depends on their correlation with the aversive outcome. This bias was exclusively linked to the strength of the cues’ shock association for the early attentional processing of cues in the visual periphery, but additionally was influenced by the uncertainty of the shock prediction after participants fixated on the cues. These findings are in accord with attentional learning theories that formalize how associative learning shapes automatic attention.

  10. Attentional Bias for Uncertain Cues of Shock in Human Fear Conditioning: Evidence for Attentional Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a human fear conditioning experiment in which three different color cues were followed by an aversive electric shock on 0, 50, and 100% of the trials, and thus induced low (L), partial (P), and high (H) shock expectancy, respectively. The cues differed with respect to the strength of their shock association (L H). During conditioning we measured pupil dilation and ocular fixations to index differences in the attentional processing of the cues. After conditioning, the shock-associated colors were introduced as irrelevant distracters during visual search for a shape target while shocks were no longer administered and we analyzed the cues’ potential to capture and hold overt attention automatically. Our findings suggest that fear conditioning creates an automatic attention bias for the conditioned cues that depends on their correlation with the aversive outcome. This bias was exclusively linked to the strength of the cues’ shock association for the early attentional processing of cues in the visual periphery, but additionally was influenced by the uncertainty of the shock prediction after participants fixated on the cues. These findings are in accord with attentional learning theories that formalize how associative learning shapes automatic attention. PMID:28588466

  11. Conditional Independence in Applied Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul E.

    This material assumes the user has the background provided by a good undergraduate course in applied probability. It is felt that introductory courses in calculus, linear algebra, and perhaps some differential equations should provide the requisite experience and proficiency with mathematical concepts, notation, and argument. The document is…

  12. On Gaussian conditional independence structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lněnička, Radim; Matúš, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2007), s. 327-342 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multivariate Gaussian distribution * positive definite matrices * determinants * gaussoids * covariance selection models * Markov perfectness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2007

  13. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Associative learning in humans--conditioning of sensory-evoked brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrandies, W; Jedynak, A

    2000-01-01

    A classical conditioning paradigm was employed in two experiments performed on 35 human volunteers. In nine subjects, the presentation of Landolt rings (conditioned stimuli, CS + ) was paired with an electric stimulus (unconditioned stimuli, UCS) applied to the left median nerve. Neutral visual control stimuli were full circles (CS -) that were not paired with the UCS. The skin conductance response (SCR) was determined in a time interval of 5 s after onset of the visual stimuli, and it was measured in the acquisition and test phase. Associative learning was reflected by a SCR occurring selectively with CS +. The same experiment was repeated with another group of 26 adults while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 30 electrodes. For each subject, mean evoked potentials were computed. In 13 of the subjects, a conditioning paradigm was followed while the other subjects served as the control group (non-contingent stimulation). There were somatosensory and visual brain activity evoked by the stimuli. Conditioned components were identified by computing cross-correlation between evoked somatosensory components and the averaged EEG. In the visual evoked brain activity, three components with mean latencies of 105.4, 183.2, and 360.3 ms were analyzed. Somatosensory stimuli were followed by major components that occurred at mean latencies of 48.8, 132.5, 219.7, 294.8, and 374.2 ms latency after the shock. All components were analyzed in terms of latency, field strength, and topographic characteristics, and were compared between groups and experimental conditions. Both visual and somatosensory brain activity was significantly affected by classical conditioning. Our data illustrate how associative learning affects the topography of brain electrical activity elicited by presentation of conditioned visual stimuli.

  15. An improved segmentation-based HMM learning method for Condition-based Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Lemeire, J; Cartella, F; Meganck, S

    2012-01-01

    In the domain of condition-based maintenance (CBM), persistence of machine states is a valid assumption. Based on this assumption, we present an improved Hidden Markov Model (HMM) learning algorithm for the assessment of equipment states. By a good estimation of initial parameters, more accurate learning can be achieved than by regular HMM learning methods which start with randomly chosen initial parameters. It is also better in avoiding getting trapped in local maxima. The data is segmented with a change-point analysis method which uses a combination of cumulative sum charts (CUSUM) and bootstrapping techniques. The method determines a confidence level that a state change happens. After the data is segmented, in order to label and combine the segments corresponding to the same states, a clustering technique is used based on a low-pass filter or root mean square (RMS) values of the features. The segments with their labelled hidden state are taken as 'evidence' to estimate the parameters of an HMM. Then, the estimated parameters are served as initial parameters for the traditional Baum-Welch (BW) learning algorithms, which are used to improve the parameters and train the model. Experiments on simulated and real data demonstrate that both performance and convergence speed is improved.

  16. Food approach conditioning and discrimination learning using sound cues in benthic sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Pouca, Catarina; Brown, Culum

    2018-07-01

    The marine environment is filled with biotic and abiotic sounds. Some of these sounds predict important events that influence fitness while others are unimportant. Individuals can learn specific sound cues and 'soundscapes' and use them for vital activities such as foraging, predator avoidance, communication and orientation. Most research with sounds in elasmobranchs has focused on hearing thresholds and attractiveness to sound sources, but very little is known about their abilities to learn about sounds, especially in benthic species. Here we investigated if juvenile Port Jackson sharks could learn to associate a musical stimulus with a food reward, discriminate between two distinct musical stimuli, and whether individual personality traits were linked to cognitive performance. Five out of eight sharks were successfully conditioned to associate a jazz song with a food reward delivered in a specific corner of the tank. We observed repeatable individual differences in activity and boldness in all eight sharks, but these personality traits were not linked to the learning performance assays we examined. These sharks were later trained in a discrimination task, where they had to distinguish between the same jazz and a novel classical music song, and swim to opposite corners of the tank according to the stimulus played. The sharks' performance to the jazz stimulus declined to chance levels in the discrimination task. Interestingly, some sharks developed a strong side bias to the right, which in some cases was not the correct side for the jazz stimulus.

  17. Development of innovative problem based learning model with PMRI-scientific approach using ICT to increase mathematics literacy and independence-character of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardono; Waluya, B.; Kartono; Mulyono; Mariani, S.

    2018-03-01

    This research is very urgent in relation to the national issue of human development and the nation's competitiveness because of the ability of Indonesian Junior High School students' mathematics literacy results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by OECD field of Mathematics is still very low compared to other countries. Curriculum 2013 launched one of them reflect the results of PISA which is still far from the expectations of the Indonesian nation and to produce a better quality of education, PISA ratings that reflect the nation's better competitiveness need to be developed innovative, interactive learning models such as innovative interactive learning Problem Based Learning (PBL) based on the approach of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) and the Scientific approach using Information and Communication Technology (ICT).The research was designed using Research and Development (R&D), research that followed up the development and dissemination of a product/model. The result of the research shows the innovative interactive learning PBL model based on PMRI-Scientific using ICT that developed valid, practical and effective and can improve the ability of mathematics literacy and independence-character of junior high school students. While the quality of innovative interactive learning PBL model based on PMRI-Scientific using ICT meet the good category.

  18. Staged Inference using Conditional Deep Learning for energy efficient real-time smart diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Maryam; Panda, Priyadarshini; Sen, Shreyas; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-07-01

    Recent progress in biosensor technology and wearable devices has created a formidable opportunity for remote healthcare monitoring systems as well as real-time diagnosis and disease prevention. The use of data mining techniques is indispensable for analysis of the large pool of data generated by the wearable devices. Deep learning is among the promising methods for analyzing such data for healthcare applications and disease diagnosis. However, the conventional deep neural networks are computationally intensive and it is impractical to use them in real-time diagnosis with low-powered on-body devices. We propose Staged Inference using Conditional Deep Learning (SICDL), as an energy efficient approach for creating healthcare monitoring systems. For smart diagnostics, we observe that all diagnoses are not equally challenging. The proposed approach thus decomposes the diagnoses into preliminary analysis (such as healthy vs unhealthy) and detailed analysis (such as identifying the specific type of cardio disease). The preliminary diagnosis is conducted real-time with a low complexity neural network realized on the resource-constrained on-body device. The detailed diagnosis requires a larger network that is implemented remotely in cloud and is conditionally activated only for detailed diagnosis (unhealthy individuals). We evaluated the proposed approach using available physiological sensor data from Physionet databases, and achieved 38% energy reduction in comparison to the conventional deep learning approach.

  19. Learning an operant conditioning task differentially induces gliogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex and neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rapanelli

    Full Text Available Circuit modification associated with learning and memory involves multiple events, including the addition and remotion of newborn cells trough adulthood. Adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis were mainly described in models of voluntary exercise, enriched environments, spatial learning and memory task; nevertheless, it is unknown whether it is a common mechanism among different learning paradigms, like reward dependent tasks. Therefore, we evaluated cell proliferation, neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, survival and neuronal maturation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the hippocampus (HIPP during learning an operant conditioning task. This was performed by using endogenous markers of cell proliferation, and a bromodeoxiuridine (BrdU injection schedule in two different phases of learning. Learning an operant conditioning is divided in two phases: a first phase when animals were considered incompletely trained (IT, animals that were learning the task when they performed between 50% and 65% of the responses, and a second phase when animals were considered trained (Tr, animals that completely learned the task when they reached 100% of the responses with a latency time lower than 5 seconds. We found that learning an operant conditioning task promoted cell proliferation in both phases of learning in the mPFC and HIPP. Additionally, the results presented showed that astrogliogenesis was induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in both phases, however, the first phase promoted survival of these new born astrocytes. On the other hand, an increased number of new born immature neurons was observed in the HIPP only in the first phase of learning, whereas, decreased values were observed in the second phase. Finally, we found that neuronal maturation was induced only during the first phase. This study shows for the first time that learning a reward-dependent task, like the operant conditioning, promotes neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, survival and

  20. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning. PMID:26028984

  1. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning.

  2. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  3. How Much Professional Development Is Enough? Meeting the Needs of Independent Music Teachers Learning to Use a Digital Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Brook, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Even though there are demonstrated benefits of using online tools to support student musicians, there is a persistent challenge of providing sufficient and effective professional development for independent music teachers to use such tools successfully. This paper describes several methods for helping teachers use an online tool called iSCORE,…

  4. Using TQM/CQI Processes To Guide Development of Independent and Collaborative Learning in Two Levels of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, LaVerne F.; Kelley, Jane H.; Northington, LaDonna; Barlow, Delores

    2002-01-01

    Junior and senior nursing students participated in collaborative learning projects developed using total quality management/continuous quality improvement processes. Seniors mentored and evaluated juniors. Feedback from 37 seniors and 53 juniors was predominantly positive; dissatisfaction centered on time issues and misunderstanding of project…

  5. Learning How the Electron Transport Chain Works: Independent and Interactive Effects of Instructional Strategies and Learners' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C.; Nelson, David W.; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course…

  6. Statistical Learning Framework with Adaptive Retraining for Condition-Based Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sang Ha; Chang, Soon Heung; Heo, Gyun Young; Seo, Ho Joon; Kim, Su Young

    2009-01-01

    As systems become more complex and more critical in our daily lives, the need for the maintenance based on the reliable monitoring and diagnosis has become more apparent. However, in reality, the general opinion has been that 'maintenance is a necessary evil' or 'nothing can be done to improve maintenance costs'. Perhaps these were true statements twenty years ago when many of the diagnostic technologies were not fully developed. The developments of microprocessor or computer based instrumentation that can be used to monitor the operating condition of plant equipment, machinery and systems have provided the means to manage the maintenance operation. They have provided the means to reduce or eliminate unnecessary repairs, prevent catastrophic machine failures and reduce the negative impact of the maintenance operation on the profitability of manufacturing and production plants. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) techniques help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed. Most of the statistical learning techniques are only valid as long as the physics of a system does not change. If any significant change such as the replacement of a component or equipment occurs in the system, the statistical learning model should be re-trained or re-developed to adapt the new system. In this research, authors will propose a statistical learning framework which can be applicable for various CBMs, and the concept of the adaptive retraining technique will be described to support the execution of the framework so that the monitoring system does not need to be re-developed or re-trained even though there are any significant changes in the system or component

  7. Improving Work Outcome in Supported Employment for Serious Mental Illness: Results From 2 Independent Studies of Errorless Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F

    2018-01-13

    Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  8. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  9. Towards New Learning Partnerships in Bilingual Educational Contexts--Raising "Learner Awareness" and Creating Conditions for "Reciprocity" and "Pedagogic Attention"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Coyle, Do

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the need to develop new pedagogic approaches which promote learner independence in contexts where learning takes place through the medium of more than one language. The challenges of responding to a rapidly changing educational landscape to ensure that our learners become pluriliterate global citizens are presented through…

  10. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Roep, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the

  11. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  12. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior : A narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Both, S.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  13. Learning-induced Dependence of Neuronal Activity in Primary Motor Cortex on Motor Task Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X; Shimansky, Y; He, Jiping

    2005-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system such as a cortically controlled robotic arm must have a capacity of adjusting its function to a specific environmental condition. We studied this capacity in non-human primates based on chronic multi-electrode recording from the primary motor cortex of a monkey during the animal's performance of a center-out 3D reaching task and adaptation to external force perturbations. The main condition-related feature of motor cortical activity observed before the onset of force perturbation was a phasic raise of activity immediately before the perturbation onset. This feature was observed during a series of perturbation trials, but were absent under no perturbations. After adaptation has been completed, it usually was taking the subject only one trial to recognize a change in the condition to switch the neuronal activity accordingly. These condition-dependent features of neuronal activity can be used by a BCI for recognizing a change in the environmental condition and making corresponding adjustments, which requires that the BCI-based control system possess such advanced properties of the neural motor control system as capacity to learn and adapt.

  14. Social makes smart: rearing conditions affect learning and social behaviour in jumping spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, J; Schneider, J M

    2017-11-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.

  15. Learning how the electron transport chain works: independent and interactive effects of instructional strategies and learners' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C; Nelson, David W; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies' in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course (n = 151). Additionally, the participants' cognitive flexibility, prior knowledge, and mental effort in the learning process are also investigated. The data were analyzed using a series of general linear models to compare the strategies. Although the two strategies did not differ significantly in terms of mental model progression and learning outcomes, both groups' mental models progressed significantly. Mental effort and prior knowledge were identified as significant predictors of mental model progression. An interaction between instructional strategy and cognitive flexibility revealed that the backward instruction was more efficient than the conventional (forward) strategy for students with lower cognitive flexibility, whereas the conventional instruction was more efficient for students with higher cognitive flexibility. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research on the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility in the area of health education are presented.

  16. Physiotherapy students' perspectives of online e-learning for interdisciplinary management of chronic health conditions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Peter; Slater, Helen; Jordan, Joanne E; Fary, Robyn E; Chua, Jason; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-02-16

    To qualitatively explore physiotherapy students' perceptions of online e-learning for chronic disease management using a previously developed, innovative and interactive, evidence-based, e-learning package: Rheumatoid Arthritis for Physiotherapists e-Learning (RAP-eL). Physiotherapy students participated in three focus groups in Perth, Western Australia. Purposive sampling was employed to ensure maximum heterogeneity across age, gender and educational background. To explore students' perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of online e-learning, ways to enhance e-learning, and information/learning gaps in relation to interdisciplinary management of chronic health conditions, a semi-structured interview schedule was developed. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using inductive methods within a grounded theory approach to derive key themes. Twenty-three students (78 % female; 39 % with previous tertiary qualification) of mean (SD) age 23 (3.6) years participated. Students expressed a preference for a combination of both online e-learning and lecture-style learning formats for chronic disease management, citing flexibility to work at one's own pace and time, and access to comprehensive information as advantages of e-learning learning. Personal interaction and ability to clarify information immediately were considered advantages of lecture-style formats. Perceived knowledge gaps included practical application of interdisciplinary approaches to chronic disease management and developing and implementing physiotherapy management plans for people with chronic health conditions. Physiotherapy students preferred multi-modal and blended formats for learning about chronic disease management. This study highlights the need for further development of practically-oriented knowledge and skills related to interdisciplinary care for people with chronic conditions among physiotherapy students. While RAP-eL focuses on rheumatoid arthritis, the principles of learning apply to

  17. Independent technical review and analysis of hydraulic modeling and hydrology under low-flow conditions of the Des Plaines River near Riverside, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Hortness, Jon E.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a streamgage and published daily flows for the Des Plaines River at Riverside since Oct. 1, 1943. A HEC-RAS model has been developed to estimate the effect of the removal of Hofmann Dam near the gage on low-flow elevations in the reach approximately 3 miles upstream from the dam. The Village of Riverside, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources (IDNR-OWR), and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-Chicago District (USACE-Chicago) are interested in verifying the performance of the HEC-RAS model for specific low-flow conditions, and obtaining an estimate of selected daily flow quantiles and other low-flow statistics for a selected period of record that best represents current hydrologic conditions. Because the USGS publishes streamflow records for the Des Plaines River system and provides unbiased analyses of flows and stream hydraulic characteristics, the USGS served as an Independent Technical Reviewer (ITR) for this study.

  18. One-against-all weighted dynamic time warping for language-independent and speaker-dependent speech recognition in adverse conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglilan Zhang

    Full Text Available Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English names, language-independent (LI with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD automatic speech recognition (ASR is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW. This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW, as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions.

  19. Parents' learning needs and preferences when sharing management of their child's long-term/chronic condition: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Ruth; Friedl, Simone; Swallow, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    This review aimed to (1) identify parents' learning needs and preferences when sharing the management of their child's long-term/chronic (long-term) condition and (2) inform healthcare professional support provided to parents across the trajectory. We conducted a literature search in seven health databases from 1990 to 2013. The quality of included studies was assessed using a critical appraisal tool developed for reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. Twenty-three studies met our criteria and were included in the review. Three themes emerged from synthesis of the included studies: (1) parents' learning needs and preferences (2) facilitators to parents' learning, and (3) barriers to parents' learning. Asking parents directly about their learning needs and preferences may be the most reliable way for healthcare professionals to ascertain how to support and promote individual parents' learning when sharing management of their child's long-term condition. With the current emphasis on parent-healthcare professional shared management of childhood long-term conditions, it is recommended that professionals base their assessment of parents' learning needs and preferences on identified barriers and facilitators to parental learning. This should optimise delivery of home-based care, thereby contributing to improved clinical outcomes for the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience and Lessons Learned from Conditioning of Spent Sealed Sources in Singapore - 13107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dae-Seok; Kang, Il-Sik; Jang, Kyung-Duk; Jang, Won-Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hoo, Wee-Teck [National Environment Agency, 40 Scotts Road 228231 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, IAEA requested KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to support Singapore for conditioning spent sealed sources. Those that had been used for a lightning conductor, check source, or smoke detector, various sealed sources had been collected and stored by the NEA (National Environment Agency) in Singapore. Based on experiences for the conditioning of Ra-226 sources in some Asian countries since 2000, KAERI sent an expert team to Singapore for the safe management of spent sealed sources in 2011. As a result of the conditioning, about 575.21 mCi of Am-241, Ra-226, Co-60, and Sr-90 were safely conditioned in 3 concrete lining drums with the cooperation of the KAERI expert team, the IAEA supervisor, the NEA staff and local laborers in Singapore. Some lessons were learned during the operation: (1) preparations by a local authority are very helpful for an efficient operation, (2) a preliminary inspection by an expert team is helpful for the operation, (3) brief reports before and after daily operation are useful for communication, and (4) a training opportunity is required for the sustainability of the expert team. (authors)

  1. High-Tech or High-Touch? Online Learning and Independent Higher Education. Innovations in Teaching and Learning. Research Brief 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Independent colleges and universities are cautious adopters of online education for undergraduate students. These institutions seek to balance a tradition of student-focused pedagogy in face-to-face settings and faculty wariness of online courses against the promise of lower instructional costs, changing student expectations, and the potential for…

  2. Why do organizations not learn from incidents? Bottlenecks, causes and conditions for a failure to effectively learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drupsteen, Linda; Hasle, Peter

    2014-01-01

    be studied.Difficulties were identified in multiple steps of the learning process, but most difficulties became visiblewhen planning actions, which is the phase that bridges the gap from incident investigation to actions forimprovement. The main causes for learning difficulties, which were identified...... learn. In sevenorganizations focus groups were held to discuss factors that according to employees contributed to thefailure to learn. By use of a model of the learning from incidents process, the steps, where difficulties forlearning arose, became visible, and the causes for these difficulties could...

  3. MDMA enhances hippocampal-dependent learning and memory under restrictive conditions, and modifies hippocampal spine density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Sònia; Fole, Alberto; del Olmo, Nuria; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Junyent, Fèlix; Camarasa, Jorge; Camins, Antonio; Escubedo, Elena

    2014-03-01

    Addictive drugs produce forms of structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chronic MDMA exposure on pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus and drug-related spatial learning and memory changes. Adolescent rats were exposed to saline or MDMA in a regime that mimicked chronic administration. One week later, when acquisition or reference memory was evaluated in a standard Morris water maze (MWM), no differences were obtained between groups. However, MDMA-exposed animals performed better when the MWM was implemented under more difficult conditions. Animals of MDMA group were less anxious and were more prepared to take risks, as in the open field test they ventured more frequently into the central area. We have demonstrated that MDMA caused an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. When spine density was evaluated, MDMA-treated rats presented a reduced density when compared with saline, but overall, training increased the total number of spines, concluding that in MDMA-group, training prevented a reduction in spine density or induced its recovery. This study provides support for the conclusion that binge administration of MDMA, known to be associated to neurotoxic damage of hippocampal serotonergic terminals, increases BDNF expression and stimulates synaptic plasticity when associated with training. In these conditions, adolescent rats perform better in a more difficult water maze task under restricted conditions of learning and memory. The effect on this task could be modulated by other behavioural changes provoked by MDMA.

  4. Lessons Learned from Independent Technical Reviews of U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Landfills/Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, V.; Gupta, D.C.; Smegal, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from a series of independent technical reviews (ITRs) of waste management operations conducted at existing and proposed low-level radioactive waste landfills/disposal facilities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The evaluated waste disposal programs include those at Hanford, Idaho, Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, Portsmouth, Paducah, and the Nevada Test Site. Based on these evaluations, cost-effective lessons learned were identified to improve reliability and effectiveness of DOE on-site disposal facilities. Key recommendations covered a wide range of issues, including the following: complex-wide applied research effort is needed to evaluate settlement behavior of DOE wastes and how they may affect cover performance; there is a need for unbiased assessment of relevance of liners for different climates and wastes to evaluate where and when liners should be used; there is a need to develop information to demonstrate attenuation capability of modern liner materials and to understand the attenuation capability of liners during performance assessment; a review of historical data on demolition volumes and logistics from past DOE projects can provide valuable insight that can be helpful in planning capacity of future on-site disposal facilities; and operating procedures need to be reviewed and updated on a regular basis so that procedures remain consistent with changes in requirements and take advantage of improvements in technology. The complex-wide independent reviews have assisted DOE sites in considering lessons learned regarding common technical, regulatory, and management issues. Facility management and their operating contractors have begun implementing the applicable recommendations within the context of the DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. (authors)

  5. Valsartan independent of AT1 receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and-4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and-4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and-4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2,-4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. PMID:25109475

  6. Valsartan independent of AT₁ receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and -4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-10-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and -4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2, -4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Learning a constrained conditional random field for enhanced segmentation of fallen trees in ALS point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewski, Przemyslaw; Yao, Wei; Heurich, Marco; Krzystek, Peter; Stilla, Uwe

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we present a method for improving the quality of automatic single fallen tree stem segmentation in ALS data by applying a specialized constrained conditional random field (CRF). The entire processing pipeline is composed of two steps. First, short stem segments of equal length are detected and a subset of them is selected for further processing, while in the second step the chosen segments are merged to form entire trees. The first step is accomplished using the specialized CRF defined on the space of segment labelings, capable of finding segment candidates which are easier to merge subsequently. To achieve this, the CRF considers not only the features of every candidate individually, but incorporates pairwise spatial interactions between adjacent segments into the model. In particular, pairwise interactions include a collinearity/angular deviation probability which is learned from training data as well as the ratio of spatial overlap, whereas unary potentials encode a learned probabilistic model of the laser point distribution around each segment. Each of these components enters the CRF energy with its own balance factor. To process previously unseen data, we first calculate the subset of segments for merging on a grid of balance factors by minimizing the CRF energy. Then, we perform the merging and rank the balance configurations according to the quality of their resulting merged trees, obtained from a learned tree appearance model. The final result is derived from the top-ranked configuration. We tested our approach on 5 plots from the Bavarian Forest National Park using reference data acquired in a field inventory. Compared to our previous segment selection method without pairwise interactions, an increase in detection correctness and completeness of up to 7 and 9 percentage points, respectively, was observed.

  8. The Role of Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Learning about Neutral versus Excitatory Stimuli during Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Laura A.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the role of nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Rats were trained to fear conditioned stimulus A (CSA) in Stage I, which was then presented in compound with a neutral stimulus and paired with shock in Stage II. AcbSh lesions had no effect on fear-learning to CSA in Stage I, but selectively prevented learning…

  9. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L

    2016-03-01

    The Clock Drawing Test - a simple pencil and paper test - has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject's performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice.

  10. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-conditional Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-10-05

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in specific patterns, and rarely in isolation. Yet, most existing methods for automatic action unit detection fail to exploit dependencies among them, and the corresponding facial features. To address this, we propose a novel multi-conditional latent variable model for simultaneous fusion of facial features and joint action unit detection. Specifically, the proposed model performs feature fusion in a generative fashion via a low-dimensional shared subspace, while simultaneously performing action unit detection using a discriminative classification approach. We show that by combining the merits of both approaches, the proposed methodology outperforms existing purely discriminative/generative methods for the target task. To reduce the number of parameters, and avoid overfitting, a novel Bayesian learning approach based on Monte Carlo sampling is proposed, to integrate out the shared subspace. We validate the proposed method on posed and spontaneous data from three publicly available datasets (CK+, DISFA and Shoulder-pain), and show that both feature fusion and joint learning of action units leads to improved performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods for the task.

  11. Document page structure learning for fixed-layout e-books using conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Tang, Zhi; Xu, Canhui

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a model is proposed to learn logical structure of fixed-layout document pages by combining support vector machine (SVM) and conditional random fields (CRF). Features related to each logical label and their dependencies are extracted from various original Portable Document Format (PDF) attributes. Both local evidence and contextual dependencies are integrated in the proposed model so as to achieve better logical labeling performance. With the merits of SVM as local discriminative classifier and CRF modeling contextual correlations of adjacent fragments, it is capable of resolving the ambiguities of semantic labels. The experimental results show that CRF based models with both tree and chain graph structures outperform the SVM model with an increase of macro-averaged F1 by about 10%.

  12. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  13. Integrating critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry across a four-year dental curriculum: a model for independent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Handoo, Nidhi; Solow, Catherine M; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Finkelstein, Michael W

    2014-03-01

    Introducing critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) content into an established dental curriculum can be a difficult and challenging process. Over the past three years, the University of Iowa College of Dentistry has developed and implemented a progressive four-year integrated critical thinking and EBD curriculum. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation process to make it available as a model for other dental schools contemplating introduction of critical thinking and EBD into their curricula. The newly designed curriculum built upon an existing problem-based learning foundation, which introduces critical thinking and the scientific literature in the D1 year, in order to expose students to the rationale and resources for practicing EBD in the D2 and D3 years and provide opportunities to practice critical thinking and apply the EBD five-step process in the D2, D3, and D4 years. All curricular content is online, and D3 and D4 EBD activities are integrated within existing clinical responsibilities. The curricular content, student resources, and student activities are described.

  14. Adaptive learning can result in a failure to profit from good conditions: implications for understanding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Pete C; Higginson, Andrew D; Fawcett, Tim W; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2015-04-26

    Depression is a major medical problem diagnosed in an increasing proportion of people and for which commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs are frequently ineffective. Development of treatment options may be facilitated by an evolutionary perspective; several adaptive reasons for proneness to depression have been proposed. A common feature of many explanations is that depressive behaviour is a way to avoid costly effort where benefits are small and/or unlikely. However, this viewpoint fails to explain why low mood persists when the situation improves. We investigate whether a behavioural rule that is adapted to a stochastically changing world can cause inactivity which appears similar to the effect of depression, in that it persists after the situation has improved. We develop an adaptive learning model in which an individual has repeated choices of whether to invest costly effort that may result in a net benefit. Investing effort also provides information about the current conditions and rates of change of the conditions. An individual following the optimal behavioural strategy may sometimes remain inactive when conditions are favourable (i.e. when it would be better to invest effort) when it is poorly informed about the current environmental state. Initially benign conditions can predispose an individual to inactivity after a relatively brief period of negative experiences. Our approach suggests that the antecedent factors causing depressed behaviour could go much further back in an individual s history than is currently appreciated. The insights from our approach have implications for the ongoing debate about best treatment options for patients with depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  15. Overlapping neurobiology of learned helplessness and conditioned defeat: implications for PTSD and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Sayamwong E; Cooper, Matthew A; Lezak, Kimberly R

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to traumatic events can increase the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and pharmacological treatments for these disorders often involve the modulation of serotonergic (5-HT) systems. Several behavioral paradigms in rodents produce changes in behavior that resemble symptoms of MDD and these behavioral changes are sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Here we review two animal models in which MDD-like behavioral changes are elicited by exposure to an acute traumatic event during adulthood, learned helplessness (LH) and conditioned defeat. In LH, exposure of rats to inescapable, but not escapable, tailshock produces a constellation of behavioral changes that include deficits in fight/flight responding and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. In conditioned defeat, exposure of Syrian hamsters to a social defeat by a more aggressive animal leads to a loss of territorial aggression and an increase in submissive and defensive behaviors in subsequent encounters with non-aggressive conspecifics. Investigations into the neural substrates that control LH and conditioned defeat revealed that increased 5-HT activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is critical for both models. Other key brain regions that regulate the acquisition and/or expression of behavior in these two paradigms include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). In this review, we compare and contrast the role of each of these neural structures in mediating LH and conditioned defeat, and discuss the relevance of these data in developing a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying trauma-related depression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Declarative virtual water maze learning and emotional fear conditioning in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Marion; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Feige, Bernd; Landmann, Nina; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Hemmerling, Johanna; Durand, Diana; Frase, Lukas; Klöppel, Stefan; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2018-05-02

    Healthy sleep restores the brain's ability to adapt to novel input through memory formation based on activity-dependent refinements of the strength of neural transmission across synapses (synaptic plasticity). In line with this framework, patients with primary insomnia often report subjective memory impairment. However, investigations of memory performance did not produce conclusive results. The aim of this study was to further investigate memory performance in patients with primary insomnia in comparison to healthy controls, using two well-characterized learning tasks, a declarative virtual water maze task and emotional fear conditioning. Twenty patients with primary insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria (17 females, three males, 43.5 ± 13.0 years) and 20 good sleeper controls (17 females, three males, 41.7 ± 12.8 years) were investigated in a parallel-group study. All participants completed a hippocampus-dependent virtual Morris water maze task and amygdala-dependent classical fear conditioning. Patients with insomnia showed significantly delayed memory acquisition in the virtual water maze task, but no significant difference in fear acquisition compared with controls. These findings are consistent with the notion that memory processes that emerge from synaptic refinements in a hippocampal-neocortical network are particularly sensitive to chronic disruptions of sleep, while those in a basic emotional amygdala-dependent network may be more resilient. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  18. Conditions for the quality of primary education teachers’ collective learning at individual and group level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppenberg, J.J.; Brok, den P.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Collective teacher learning plays an important role in teachers' professional development and schools' innovative capacity. Despite this importance, collective learning in schools has been weakly conceptualised and little empirical evidence exists with respect to the contributions of collective

  19. Automatic machine-learning based identification of jogging periods from accelerometer measurements of adolescents under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravevski, Eftim; Risteska Stojkoska, Biljana; Standl, Marie; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of health benefits associated with physical activity depend on the activity duration, intensity and frequency, therefore their correct identification is very valuable and important in epidemiological and clinical studies. The aims of this study are: to develop an algorithm for automatic identification of intended jogging periods; and to assess whether the identification performance is improved when using two accelerometers at the hip and ankle, compared to when using only one at either position. The study used diarized jogging periods and the corresponding accelerometer data from thirty-nine, 15-year-old adolescents, collected under field conditions, as part of the GINIplus study. The data was obtained from two accelerometers placed at the hip and ankle. Automated feature engineering technique was performed to extract features from the raw accelerometer readings and to select a subset of the most significant features. Four machine learning algorithms were used for classification: Logistic regression, Support Vector Machines, Random Forest and Extremely Randomized Trees. Classification was performed using only data from the hip accelerometer, using only data from ankle accelerometer and using data from both accelerometers. The reported jogging periods were verified by visual inspection and used as golden standard. After the feature selection and tuning of the classification algorithms, all options provided a classification accuracy of at least 0.99, independent of the applied segmentation strategy with sliding windows of either 60s or 180s. The best matching ratio, i.e. the length of correctly identified jogging periods related to the total time including the missed ones, was up to 0.875. It could be additionally improved up to 0.967 by application of post-classification rules, which considered the duration of breaks and jogging periods. There was no obvious benefit of using two accelerometers, rather almost the same performance could be achieved from

  20. Automatic machine-learning based identification of jogging periods from accelerometer measurements of adolescents under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftim Zdravevski

    Full Text Available Assessment of health benefits associated with physical activity depend on the activity duration, intensity and frequency, therefore their correct identification is very valuable and important in epidemiological and clinical studies. The aims of this study are: to develop an algorithm for automatic identification of intended jogging periods; and to assess whether the identification performance is improved when using two accelerometers at the hip and ankle, compared to when using only one at either position.The study used diarized jogging periods and the corresponding accelerometer data from thirty-nine, 15-year-old adolescents, collected under field conditions, as part of the GINIplus study. The data was obtained from two accelerometers placed at the hip and ankle. Automated feature engineering technique was performed to extract features from the raw accelerometer readings and to select a subset of the most significant features. Four machine learning algorithms were used for classification: Logistic regression, Support Vector Machines, Random Forest and Extremely Randomized Trees. Classification was performed using only data from the hip accelerometer, using only data from ankle accelerometer and using data from both accelerometers.The reported jogging periods were verified by visual inspection and used as golden standard. After the feature selection and tuning of the classification algorithms, all options provided a classification accuracy of at least 0.99, independent of the applied segmentation strategy with sliding windows of either 60s or 180s. The best matching ratio, i.e. the length of correctly identified jogging periods related to the total time including the missed ones, was up to 0.875. It could be additionally improved up to 0.967 by application of post-classification rules, which considered the duration of breaks and jogging periods. There was no obvious benefit of using two accelerometers, rather almost the same performance could be

  1. The Ghost Condition: Imitation Versus Emulation in Young Children's Observational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Doreen E.; Russell, James

    2004-01-01

    Although observational learning by children may occur through imitating a modeler's actions, it can also occur through learning about an object's dynamic affordances- a process that M. Tomasello (1996) calls "emulation." The relative contributions of imitation and emulation within observational learning were examined in a study with 14- to…

  2. Conditions for the Effectiveness of Multiple Visual Representations in Enhancing STEM Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.

    2017-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in enhancing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Educational psychology research shows that adding visual representations to text can enhance students' learning of content knowledge, compared to text-only. But should students learn with a single type of visual…

  3. Quality of the Home Learning Environment during Preschool Age--Domains and Contextual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Katharina; Lehrl, Simone; Kuger, Susanne; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the home learning environment has been proven to be of major importance for child development, but little is known about the role of domain specificity in promoting early childhood learning at home and its dependence on family background. This article presents a framework of the home learning environment in early childhood that…

  4. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  5. The Patient Educator Presentation in Dental Education: Reinforcing the Importance of Learning About Rare Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul C; Graham, Jasmine; Oling, Rebecca; Frantz, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a patient educator presentation (PEP) on pemphigus vulgaris would increase second-year dental students' awareness of the importance of learning about rare conditions and improve their retention of rare disease knowledge. The study involved students' subjective assessments of a PEP experience at two U.S. dental schools. In this mixed methods study, cross-sectional data were obtained by surveys and in-depth interviews. Questions focused on students' assessment of the messages acquired from the PEP and its likely impact on their future clinical care. At University 1, students completed paper surveys with open-ended questions and participated in a focus group. At University 2, students completed an online survey consisting of rating scale and open-ended questions. Responses to open-ended questions were categorized into themes. At University 1, 79 students (out of a possible 102; response rate 77.5%) completed the survey, and an additional ten students participated in a focus group. At University 2, 30 students (out of a possible 104; response rate 28.8%) completed the survey. At Universities 1 and 2, 88% and 100%, respectively, of respondents stated the PEP would influence their future clinical decision making. The vast majority of respondents (94% and 100% at University 1 and University 2, respectively) were of the opinion that the personal testimonial from a patient would help them recall information about pemphigus vulgaris in five years' time. Respondents from both universities commented that the PEP emphasized the importance of not dismissing a patient's concerns. These results suggest that a presentation by a patient with a rare condition can be an effective educational tool for preclinical dental students.

  6. From conditioning to learning communities: implications of fifty years of research in e-learning interaction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ravenscroft

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider e-learning in terms of the underlying learning processes and interactions that are stimulated, supported or favoured by new media and the contexts or communities in which it is used. We will review and critique a selection of research and development from the past fifty years that has linked pedagogical and learning theory to the design of innovative e-learning systems and activities, and discuss their implications. It will include approaches that are, essentially, behaviourist (Skinner and Gagné, cognitivist (Pask, Piaget and Papert, situated (Lave, Wenger and Seely-Brown, socioconstructivist (Vygotsky, socio-cultural (Nardi and Engestrom and community-based (Wenger and Preece. Emerging from this review is the argument that effective elearning usually requires, or involves, high-quality educational discourse, that leads to, at the least, improved knowledge, and at the best, conceptual development and improved understanding. To achieve this I argue that we need to adopt a more holistic approach to design that synthesizes features of the included approaches, leading to a framework that emphasizes the relationships between cognitive changes, dialogue processes and the communities, or contexts for e-learning.

  7. CGBayesNets: conditional Gaussian Bayesian network learning and inference with mixed discrete and continuous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachie, Michael J; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Weiss, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    Bayesian Networks (BN) have been a popular predictive modeling formalism in bioinformatics, but their application in modern genomics has been slowed by an inability to cleanly handle domains with mixed discrete and continuous variables. Existing free BN software packages either discretize continuous variables, which can lead to information loss, or do not include inference routines, which makes prediction with the BN impossible. We present CGBayesNets, a BN package focused around prediction of a clinical phenotype from mixed discrete and continuous variables, which fills these gaps. CGBayesNets implements Bayesian likelihood and inference algorithms for the conditional Gaussian Bayesian network (CGBNs) formalism, one appropriate for predicting an outcome of interest from, e.g., multimodal genomic data. We provide four different network learning algorithms, each making a different tradeoff between computational cost and network likelihood. CGBayesNets provides a full suite of functions for model exploration and verification, including cross validation, bootstrapping, and AUC manipulation. We highlight several results obtained previously with CGBayesNets, including predictive models of wood properties from tree genomics, leukemia subtype classification from mixed genomic data, and robust prediction of intensive care unit mortality outcomes from metabolomic profiles. We also provide detailed example analysis on public metabolomic and gene expression datasets. CGBayesNets is implemented in MATLAB and available as MATLAB source code, under an Open Source license and anonymous download at http://www.cgbayesnets.com.

  8. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Dobson, Richard J. B.; Dutta, Rina

    2017-03-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of ‘in the moment’ daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions.

  9. Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning? A Call to Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Knezek, G.; Cox, M.; Knezek, D.; ten Brummelhuis, A.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning?’ This was the leading question of the International EDUsummIT in The Hague, the Netherlands. The bases for the discussion were the scholarly findings of the International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary

  10. Under Which Conditions Does ICT Have a Positive Effect on Teaching and Learning? A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Cox, M.; Knezek, D.; ten Brummelhuis, A.

    2013-01-01

    "Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning?" This was the leading question of the International EDUsummIT in The Hague, the Netherlands. The bases for the discussion were the scholarly findings of the International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, a synthesis of research…

  11. "It's Not Like a Normal 9 to 5!": The Learning Journeys of Media Production Apprentices in Distributed Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiff, Ann; Guile, David

    2016-01-01

    An apprenticeship in media production in England is at the centre of this case study exploration. The context is exemplified by the organisation of the process of production around project teams and the development of project-based working cultures. Given these developments, the working conditions and learning opportunities presented to…

  12. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  13. Conditions for excellence in teaching in medical education: The Frankfurt Model to ensure quality in teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giesler, Marianne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is general consensus that the organizational and administrative aspects of academic study programs exert an important influence on teaching and learning. Despite this, no comprehensive framework currently exists to describe the conditions that affect the quality of teaching and learning in medical education. The aim of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively identify these factors to offer academic administrators and decision makers interested in improving teaching a theory-based and, to an extent, empirically founded framework on the basis of which improvements in teaching quality can be identified and implemented.Method: Primarily, the issue was addressed by combining a theory-driven deductive approach with an experience based, “best evidence” one during the course of two workshops held by the GMA Committee on Personnel and Organizational Development in Academic Teaching (POiL in Munich (2013 and Frankfurt (2014. Two models describing the conditions relevant to teaching and learning (Euler/Hahn and Rindermann were critically appraised and synthesized into a new third model. Practical examples of teaching strategies that promote or hinder learning were compiled and added to the categories of this model and, to the extent possible, supported with empirical evidence.Based on this, a checklist with recommendations for optimizing general academic conditions was formulated.Results: The covers six categories: and These categories have been supplemented by the interests, motives and abilities of the actual teachers and students in this particular setting. The categories of this model provide the structure for a checklist in which recommendations for optimizing teaching are given.Conclusions: The checklist derived from the Frankfurt Model for ensuring quality in teaching and learning can be used for quality assurance and to improve the conditions under which teaching and learning take place in medical schools.

  14. Microcultures and Informal Learning: A Heuristic Guiding Analysis of Conditions for Informal Learning in Local Higher Education Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxå, Torgny; Mårtensson, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to knowledge about learning in workgroups, so called "microcultures" in higher education. It argues that socially constructed and institutionalised traditions, recurrent practices, and tacit assumptions in the various microcultures influence academic teachers towards certain behaviour. In line with this…

  15. Inter-Labeler and Intra-Labeler Variability of Condition Severity Classification Models Using Active and Passive Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers’ learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. Methods We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by

  16. Inter-labeler and intra-labeler variability of condition severity classification models using active and passive learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers' learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by using the labels provided by seven

  17. Lack of effect of Pitressin on the learning ability of Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus using positively reinforced operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, J F; Gartside, I B

    1985-08-01

    Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) received daily subcutaneous injections of vasopressin in the form of Pitressin tannate (0.5 IU/24 hr). They were initially deprived of food and then trained to work for food reward in a Skinner box to a fixed ratio of ten presses for each pellet received. Once this schedule had been learned the rats were given a discrimination task daily for seven days. The performances of these BDI rats were compared with those of rats of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain receiving daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (arachis oil). Comparisons were also made between these two groups of treated animals and untreated BDI and LE rats studied under similar conditions. In the initial learning trial, both control and Pitressin-treated BDI rats performed significantly better, and manifested less fear initially, than the control or vehicle-injected LE rats when first placed in the Skinner box. Once the initial task had been learned there was no marked difference in the discrimination learning between control or treated BDI and LE animals. These results support the view that vasopressin is not directly involved in all types of learning behaviour, particularly those involving positively reinforced operant conditioning.

  18. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rop (Gertjan); M. van Wermeskerken (Margot); J.A. de Nooijer (Jacqueline); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractResearch on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking

  19. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Gertjan; van Wermeskerken, Margot; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Research on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking research suggests that task experience might be a boundary…

  20. Simulating Conditions of Learned Helplessness: The Effects of Interventions and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Wilberta L.; Leavitt, Lewis A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a version of the "learned helplessness" paradigm, assesses mothers' performance on a solvable task following pretreatments that involved exposure to an infant cry but that differed in the mothers' ability to exert control over termination of the cry. Proposes that learned helplessness models are relevant to the study of…

  1. Deep Learning as an Individual, Conditional, and Contextual Influence on First-Year Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Cox, Bradley E.; McIntosh, Kadian; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    For years, educators have drawn a distinction between deep cognitive processing and surface-level cognitive processing, with the former resulting in greater learning. In recent years, researchers at NSSE have created DEEP Learning scales, which consist of items related to students' experiences which are believed to encourage deep processing. In…

  2. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contextual Change After Fear Acquisition Affects Conditioned Responding and the Time Course of Extinction Learning-Implications for Renewal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjouwerman, Rachel; Niehaus, Johanna; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2015-01-01

    Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear) memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF) paradigms (in particular renewal), involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g., in ABC and ABA renewal). Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e., renewal). Thus, the possibility of a general effect of context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied. Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36) was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149), while measuring physiological (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle) measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e., contextual switch after extinction). Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  4. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  5. Learning classifier systems with memory condition to solve non-Markov problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Zhaoxiang; Li, Dehua; Wang, Junying

    2012-01-01

    In the family of Learning Classifier Systems, the classifier system XCS has been successfully used for many applications. However, the standard XCS has no memory mechanism and can only learn optimal policy in Markov environments, where the optimal action is determined solely by the state of current sensory input. In practice, most environments are partially observable environments on agent's sensation, which are also known as non-Markov environments. Within these environments, XCS either fail...

  6. Expatriate’s and Host Country National’s Professional Learning in Adverse Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romani, Laurence; Lorenzen, Julie; Holck, Lotte

    important professional learning, which leads them to become better officers once back in Denmark. This contribution, based on a qualitative case study, intends to elicit this unexpected finding and to contribute to further theory development in expatriate adjustment literature. In the present case, no cross-cultural....... This case provides an example of how an environment perceived as foreign and undesirable turns out to be beneficial for individual learning...

  7. Successive and discrete spaced conditioning in active avoidance learning in young and aged zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Kajiwara, Riki; Tonoki, Ayako; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2018-05-01

    We designed an automated device to study active avoidance learning abilities of zebrafish. Open source tools were used for the device control, statistical computing, and graphic outputs of data. Using the system, we developed active avoidance tests to examine the effects of trial spacing and aging on learning. Seven-month-old fish showed stronger avoidance behavior as measured by color preference index with discrete spaced training as compared to successive spaced training. Fifteen-month-old fish showed a similar trend, but with reduced cognitive abilities compared with 7-month-old fish. Further, in 7-month-old fish, an increase in learning ability during trials was observed with discrete, but not successive, spaced training. In contrast, 15-month-old fish did not show increase in learning ability during trials. Therefore, these data suggest that discrete spacing is more effective for learning than successive spacing, with the zebrafish active avoidance paradigm, and that the time course analysis of active avoidance using discrete spaced training is useful to detect age-related learning impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  9. Comparison of three problem-based learning conditions (real patients, digital and paper) with lecture-based learning in a dermatology course: a prospective randomized study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Qing Ling; Li, Ji; Chen, Ming Liang; Xie, Hong Fu; Li, Ya Ping; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The precise effect and the quality of different cases used in dermatology problem-based learning (PBL) curricula are yet unclear. To prospectively compare the impact of real patients, digital, paper PBL (PPBL) and traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) on academic results and student perceptions. A total of 120 students were randomly allocated into either real-patients PBL (RPBL) group studied via real-patient cases, digital PBL (DPBL) group studied via digital-form cases, PPBL group studied via paper-form cases, or conventional group who received didactic lectures. Academic results were assessed through review of written examination, objective structured clinical examination and student performance scores. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to evaluate student perceptions. Compared to those receiving lectures only, all PBL participants had better results for written examination, clinical examination and overall performance. Students in RPBL group exhibited better overall performance than those in the other two PBL groups. Real-patient cases were more effective in helping develop students' self-directed learning skills, improving their confidence in future patient encounters and encouraging them to learn more about the discussed condition, compared to digital and paper cases. Both real patient and digital triggers are helpful in improving students' clinical problem-handling skills. However, real patients provide greater benefits to students.

  10. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  11. Performance comparison of machine learning algorithms and number of independent components used in fMRI decoding of belief vs. disbelief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P K; Harris, Sam; Yuille, Alan; Cohen, Mark S

    2011-05-15

    Machine learning (ML) has become a popular tool for mining functional neuroimaging data, and there are now hopes of performing such analyses efficiently in real-time. Towards this goal, we compared accuracy of six different ML algorithms applied to neuroimaging data of persons engaged in a bivariate task, asserting their belief or disbelief of a variety of propositional statements. We performed unsupervised dimension reduction and automated feature extraction using independent component (IC) analysis and extracted IC time courses. Optimization of classification hyperparameters across each classifier occurred prior to assessment. Maximum accuracy was achieved at 92% for Random Forest, followed by 91% for AdaBoost, 89% for Naïve Bayes, 87% for a J48 decision tree, 86% for K*, and 84% for support vector machine. For real-time decoding applications, finding a parsimonious subset of diagnostic ICs might be useful. We used a forward search technique to sequentially add ranked ICs to the feature subspace. For the current data set, we determined that approximately six ICs represented a meaningful basis set for classification. We then projected these six IC spatial maps forward onto a later scanning session within subject. We then applied the optimized ML algorithms to these new data instances, and found that classification accuracy results were reproducible. Additionally, we compared our classification method to our previously published general linear model results on this same data set. The highest ranked IC spatial maps show similarity to brain regions associated with contrasts for belief > disbelief, and disbelief < belief. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Universal salt iodization in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) Region during the decade 2000-09: experiences, achievements, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Frits; Gerasimov, Gregory; Tyler, Vilma Qahoush; Timmer, Arnold

    2011-12-01

    By 2000, the global track record on universal salt iodization (USI) indicated 26% access to adequately iodized salt in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/ CIS) Region. Aimed at extracting lessons learned, this study examined experiences, achievements, and outcomes of USI strategies in CEE/CIS countries during the subsequent decade. Information from the design, timing, execution, outputs, multi-sector management and results of actions by national stakeholders yielded 20 country summaries. Analysis across countries used a LogFrame Analysis typical for public nutrition development. By 2009, USI strategies had reached the target and population iodine nutrition shown adequate levels in 9 countries, while in 6 others, USI was close and/or population iodine status showed only minor imperfection. True USI, i.e., iodization of salt destined both for the food industry and the household, had been made mandatory in 13 of these 15 countries. In the Balkan area, USI and iodine nutrition advanced more than in CIS. Of the 20 sample countries, 17 (85%) had exceeded the mark of 50% adequate access, while the overall regional score reached 55% by 2010. Experience from this region suggests that strong partnership collaboration, a new concept in post-Soviet societies, was a major success factor. Voluntary iodization or focusing on household salt alone was less likely conducive for success. Achieving optimum iodine nutrition required the setting of proper iodine standard Weak political leadership insistence in the Russian Federation and Ukraine to embrace USI is the main factor why the region remains behind in the global progress.

  13. Olfactory Bulb [alpha][subscript 2]-Adrenoceptor Activation Promotes Rat Pup Odor-Preference Learning via a cAMP-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawat, Amin MD.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Yuan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three lines of evidence suggest a role for [alpha][subscript 2]-adrenoreceptors in rat pup odor-preference learning: olfactory bulb infusions of the [alpha][subscript 2]-antagonist, yohimbine, prevents learning; the [alpha][subscript 2]-agonist, clonidine, paired with odor, induces learning; and subthreshold clonidine paired with…

  14. Learning in a Different Era: "Do Our Education Systems Do Enough to Enable Learners to Flourish as Independent, Autonomous and Well-Balanced Individuals?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-ming

    2015-01-01

    There is a prime necessity to make a distinction between "education" and "learning." Learning is a human instinct. Education is not. Education is about learning processes designed by adults for the young. In the past two centuries in the industrial era, education has developed into society-wide "school" systems. Young…

  15. Independent component analysis: recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Hyv?rinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in th...

  16. Far red/near infrared light-induced protection against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury remains intact under diabetic conditions and is independent of nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes eKeszler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Far red/near-infrared light (NIR promotes a wide range of biological effects including tissue protection but whether and how NIR is capable of acutely protecting myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo is not fully elucidated. Our previous work indicates that NIR exposure immediately before and during early reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction through mechanisms that are nitric oxide (NO-dependent. Here we tested the hypothesis that NIR elicits protection in a diabetic mouse model where other cardioprotective interventions such as pre- and postconditioning fail, and that the protection is independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. NIR reduced infarct size dose dependently. Importantly, NIR-induced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db and during acute hyperglycemia, as well as in endothelial NOS-/- mice and in wild type mice treated with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In in vitro experiments NIR light liberates NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO and nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO in a wavelength (660-830 nm and dose-dependent manner. Irradiation at 660 nm yields the highest release of NO, while at longer wavelengths a dramatic decrease of NO release can be observed. Similar wavelength dependence was observed for the protection of mice against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo. NIR-induced NO release from deoxymyoglobin in the presence of nitrite mildly inhibits respiration of isolated mitochondria after hypoxia. In summary, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction in an NO dependent, but NOS-independent mechanisms, whereby mitochondria may be a target of NO released by NIR, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species generation during reperfusion. This unique mechanism preserves protection even during diabetes where other protective strategies fail.

  17. Independent and additive association of prenatal famine exposure and intermediary life conditions with adult mortality between age 18-63 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekamper, P.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Stein, A.D.; Lumey, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the relation between prenatal famine exposure and adult mortality, taking into account mediating effects of intermediary life conditions. Design Historical follow-up study. Setting The Dutch famine (Hunger Winter) of 1944–1945 which occurred towards the end of WWII in occupied

  18. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lesaint

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US, some rats (sign-trackers come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in

  19. Modelling Individual Differences in the Form of Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Responses: A Dual Learning Systems Approach with Factored Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B.; Robinson, Terry E.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself – a lever – more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in

  20. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in computational

  1. Contextual change after fear acquisition affects conditioned responding and the time course of extinction learning – Implications for renewal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eSjouwerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF paradigms (in particular renewal, involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g. in ABC and ABA renewal. Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e. renewal. Thus, the possibility of a general effect of a context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied.Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36 was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149, while measuring autonomic (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e. contextual switch after extinction. Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  2. Effects of pre-conditioning on behavior and physiology of horses during a standardised learning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fenner

    Full Text Available Rein tension is used to apply pressure to control both ridden and unridden horses. The pressure is delivered by equipment such as the bit, which may restrict voluntary movement and cause changes in behavior and physiology. Managing the effects of such pressure on arousal level and behavioral indicators will optimise horse learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of training horses to turn away from bit pressure on cardiac outcomes and behavior (including responsiveness over the course of eight trials in a standardised learning task. The experimental procedure consisted of a resting phase, treatment/control phase, standardised learning trials requiring the horses (n = 68 to step backwards in response to bit pressure and a recovery phase. As expected, heart rate increased (P = 0.028 when the handler applied rein tension during the treatment phase. The amount of rein tension required to elicit a response during treatment was higher on the left than the right rein (P = 0.009. Total rein tension required for trials reduced (P < 0.001 as they progressed, as did time taken (P < 0.001 and steps taken (P < 0.001. The incidence of head tossing decreased (P = 0.015 with the progression of the trials and was higher (P = 0.018 for the control horses than the treated horses. These results suggest that preparing the horses for the lesson and slightly raising their arousal levels, improved learning outcomes.

  3. Lateralized Implicit Sequence Learning in Uni- and Bi-Manual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Remy; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is better suited to acquire novel material whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is more able to process well-routinized information. Here, we ask whether this potential dissociation also manifests itself in an implicit learning task. Using a lateralized version of the serial reaction time task (SRT),…

  4. Cholinergic Modulation during Acquisition of Olfactory Fear Conditioning Alters Learning and Stimulus Generalization in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Gooch, Allison; Lee, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in olfactory fear learning. Mice receiving pairings of odor and foot shock displayed fear to the trained odor the following day. Pretraining injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine had no effect on subsequent freezing, while the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly…

  5. Engagement in Learning after Errors at Work: Enabling Conditions and Types of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johannes; Mulder, Regina H.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses two research questions concerning nurses' engagement in social learning activities after errors at work. Firstly, we investigated how this engagement relates to nurses' interpretations of the error situation and perceptions of a safe team climate. The results indicate that the individual estimation of an error as relevant to…

  6. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Carding, Paul; Flanagan, Kieran; Kaufman, Jordy; Armitage, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate "Correct"/"Incorrect" feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a "Wizard of Oz" experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human "Wizard" will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children.

  7. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Carding, Paul; Flanagan, Kieran; Kaufman, Jordy; Armitage, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate “Correct”/”Incorrect” feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a “Wizard of Oz” experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human “Wizard” will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children. PMID:29674986

  8. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Doubé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate “Correct”/”Incorrect” feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a “Wizard of Oz” experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human “Wizard” will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children.

  9. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli ...

  10. Autonomous Scanning Probe Microscopy in Situ Tip Conditioning through Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad; Wolkow, Robert A

    2018-05-23

    Atomic-scale characterization and manipulation with scanning probe microscopy rely upon the use of an atomically sharp probe. Here we present automated methods based on machine learning to automatically detect and recondition the quality of the probe of a scanning tunneling microscope. As a model system, we employ these techniques on the technologically relevant hydrogen-terminated silicon surface, training the network to recognize abnormalities in the appearance of surface dangling bonds. Of the machine learning methods tested, a convolutional neural network yielded the greatest accuracy, achieving a positive identification of degraded tips in 97% of the test cases. By using multiple points of comparison and majority voting, the accuracy of the method is improved beyond 99%.

  11. A Machine-Learning Approach to Predict Main Energy Consumption under Realistic Operational Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Joan P; Winther, Ole; Jacobsen, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel and publicly available set of high-quality sensory data collected from a ferry over a period of two months and overviews exixting machine-learning methods for the prediction of main propulsion efficiency. Neural networks are applied on both real-time and predictive...... settings. Performance results for the real-time models are shown. The presented models were successfully developed in a trim optimisation application onboard a product tanker....

  12. Stability in the country as a key condition for the progressive improvement of the quality of life in the new independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Rotman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the sociological data the article determines the causes of emergence of social tensions in the country and society, estimates the reliance of such situations on the population’s satisfaction with the living conditions, and argues the importance of maintaining the sustainable stability for the sustainable development of the state. The author aims to build a comprehensive rating of ‘social concern’ of the post-Soviet states’ citizens as a sum of the following empirical indicators: economic problems of individuals and their families; chances to ensure decent living conditions (health care, access to education, security, etc.; environmental problems; political problems. The article also reconstructs an ideal-typical model of social transformation of post-communist societies consisting of three main stages: searching, stabilization, sustainable development. Based on the analysis of empirical data, the author states that some transitional societies at the turn of the third millennium (for instance, Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan have reached the stabilization phase. The author proposes to assess the level of social stability with the indicator of social tension obtained through the ‘many-stage data grouping’. The empirical data presented in the article are the results of the projects of the Center for Sociological and Political Studies of the Belarusian State University.

  13. Conditioned Object Preference: An Alternative Approach to Measuring Reward Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bruce C.; Kohli, Maulika; Maertens, Jamie J.; Marell, Paulina S.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior can be directed as much toward discrete cues as it is toward the environmental contexts in which those cues are encountered. The current experiments characterized a tendency of rats to approach object cues whose prior exposure had been paired with reward (conditioned object preference, COP). To demonstrate…

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: A higher-order conditioning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Littel (Marianne); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses.

  15. Infant rats can learn time intervals before the maturation of the striatum: evidence from odor fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBoulanger Bertolus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval timing refers to the ability to perceive, estimate and discriminate durations in the range of seconds to minutes. Very little is currently known about the ontogeny of interval timing throughout development. On the other hand, even though the neural circuit sustaining interval timing is a matter of debate, the striatum has been suggested to be an important component of the system and its maturation occurs around the third post-natal week in rats. The global aim of the present study was to investigate interval timing abilities at an age for which striatum is not yet mature. We used odor fear conditioning, as it can be applied to very young animals. In odor fear conditioning, an odor is presented to the animal and a mild footshock is delivered after a fixed interval. Adult rats have been shown to learn the temporal relationships between the odor and the shock after a few associations. The first aim of the present study was to assess the activity of the striatum during odor fear conditioning using 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography during development in rats. The data showed that although fear learning was displayed at all tested ages, activation of the striatum was observed in adults but not in juvenile animals. Next, we assessed the presence of evidence of interval timing in ages before and after the inclusion of the striatum into the fear conditioning circuit. We used an experimental setup allowing the simultaneous recording of freezing and respiration that have been demonstrated to be sensitive to interval timing in adult rats. This enabled the detection of duration-related temporal patterns for freezing and/or respiration curves in infants as young as 12 days post-natal during odor-fear conditioning. This suggests that infants are able to encode time durations as well as and as quickly as adults while their striatum is not yet functional. Alternative networks possibly sustaining interval timing in infant rats are discussed.

  16. Operant Conditioning Principles in the Treatment of Learning and Behavior Problems with Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Richard L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study on operant conditioning showed that both groups showed significant improvement in reading skills from pretest to posttest, but that the reinforced group showed significantly more improvement than the nonreinforced group. (Author)

  17. Dumb and Lazy? A Comparison of Color Learning and Memory Retrieval in Drones and Workers of the Buff-Tailed Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, by Means of PER Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Leonie; Sommerlandt, Frank M J; Spaethe, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 years ago, Karl von Frisch showed that honeybee workers learn and discriminate colors. Since then, many studies confirmed the color learning capabilities of females from various hymenopteran species. Yet, little is known about visual learning and memory in males despite the fact that in most bee species males must take care of their own needs and must find rewarding flowers to obtain food. Here we used the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm to study the color learning capacities of workers and drones of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Light stimuli were paired with sucrose reward delivered to the insects' antennae and inducing a reflexive extension of the proboscis. We evaluated color learning (i.e. conditioned PER to color stimuli) in absolute and differential conditioning protocols and mid-term memory retention was measured two hours after conditioning. Different monochromatic light stimuli in combination with neutral density filters were used to ensure that the bumblebees could only use chromatic and not achromatic (e.g. brightness) information. Furthermore, we tested if bees were able to transfer the learned information from the PER conditioning to a novel discrimination task in a Y-maze. Both workers and drones were capable of learning and discriminating between monochromatic light stimuli and retrieved the learned stimulus after two hours. Drones performed as well as workers during conditioning and in the memory test, but failed in the transfer test in contrast to workers. Our data clearly show that bumblebees can learn to associate a color stimulus with a sugar reward in PER conditioning and that both workers and drones reach similar acquisition and mid-term retention performances. Additionally, we provide evidence that only workers transfer the learned information from a Pavlovian to an operant situation.

  18. Dumb and Lazy? A Comparison of Color Learning and Memory Retrieval in Drones and Workers of the Buff-Tailed Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, by Means of PER Conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Lichtenstein

    Full Text Available More than 100 years ago, Karl von Frisch showed that honeybee workers learn and discriminate colors. Since then, many studies confirmed the color learning capabilities of females from various hymenopteran species. Yet, little is known about visual learning and memory in males despite the fact that in most bee species males must take care of their own needs and must find rewarding flowers to obtain food. Here we used the proboscis extension response (PER paradigm to study the color learning capacities of workers and drones of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Light stimuli were paired with sucrose reward delivered to the insects' antennae and inducing a reflexive extension of the proboscis. We evaluated color learning (i.e. conditioned PER to color stimuli in absolute and differential conditioning protocols and mid-term memory retention was measured two hours after conditioning. Different monochromatic light stimuli in combination with neutral density filters were used to ensure that the bumblebees could only use chromatic and not achromatic (e.g. brightness information. Furthermore, we tested if bees were able to transfer the learned information from the PER conditioning to a novel discrimination task in a Y-maze. Both workers and drones were capable of learning and discriminating between monochromatic light stimuli and retrieved the learned stimulus after two hours. Drones performed as well as workers during conditioning and in the memory test, but failed in the transfer test in contrast to workers. Our data clearly show that bumblebees can learn to associate a color stimulus with a sugar reward in PER conditioning and that both workers and drones reach similar acquisition and mid-term retention performances. Additionally, we provide evidence that only workers transfer the learned information from a Pavlovian to an operant situation.

  19. Learning the condition of satisfaction of an elementary behavior in dynamic field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Luciw, M; Kazerounian, S; Lahkman, K; Richter, M; Sandamirskaya, Y

    2015-01-01

    In order to proceed along an action sequence, an autonomous agent has to recognize that the intended final condition of the previous action has been achieved. In previous work, we have shown how a sequence of actions can be generated by an embodied agent using a neural-dynamic architecture for behavioral organization, in which each action has an intention and condition of satisfaction. These components are represented by dynamic neural fields, and are coupled to motors...

  20. Attentional processing of input in explicit and implicit learning conditions : an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Indrarathne, Bimali; Kormos, Judit

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examined language learners’ attentional processing of a target syntactic construction in written L2 input in different input conditions, the change in learners’ knowledge of the targeted construction in these conditions and the relationship between the change in knowledge and attentional processing. 100 L2 learners of English in Sri Lanka were divided into four experimental groups and control group: input flood, input enhancement, a specific instruction to pay attention to th...

  1. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning (EC procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50% and negative stimuli (50%. Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  2. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  3. Self-regulated learning of important information under sequential and simultaneous encoding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Castel, Alan D

    2018-05-01

    Learners make a number of decisions when attempting to study efficiently: they must choose which information to study, for how long to study it, and whether to restudy it later. The current experiments examine whether documented impairments to self-regulated learning when studying information sequentially, as opposed to simultaneously, extend to the learning of and memory for valuable information. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1-10 points sequentially or simultaneously at a preset presentation rate; in Experiment 2, study was self-paced and participants could choose to restudy. Although participants prioritized high-value over low-value information, irrespective of presentation, those who studied the items simultaneously demonstrated superior value-based prioritization with respect to recall, study selections, and self-pacing. The results of the present experiments support the theory that devising, maintaining, and executing efficient study agendas is inherently different under sequential formatting than simultaneous. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Postnatal liver growth and regeneration are independent of c-myc in a mouse model of conditional hepatic c-myc deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor c-myc regulates genes involved in hepatocyte growth, proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. It has also been assigned roles in liver development and regeneration. In previous studies, we made the unexpected observation that c-Myc protein levels were similar in proliferating fetal liver and quiescent adult liver with c-Myc displaying nucleolar localization in the latter. In order to investigate the functional role of c-Myc in adult liver, we have developed a hepatocyte-specific c-myc knockout mouse, c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre. Results Liver weight to body weight ratios were similar in control and c-myc deficient mice. Liver architecture was unaffected. Conditional c-myc deletion did not result in compensatory induction of other myc family members or in c-Myc's binding partner Max. Floxed c-myc did have a negative effect on Alb-Cre expression at 4 weeks of age. To explore this relationship further, we used the Rosa26 reporter line to assay Cre activity in the c-myc floxed mice. No significant difference in Alb-Cre activity was found between control and c-mycfl/fl mice. c-myc deficient mice were studied in a nonproliferative model of liver growth, fasting for 48 hr followed by a 24 hr refeeding period. Fasting resulted in a decrease in liver mass and liver protein, both of which recovered upon 24 h of refeeding in the c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre animals. There was also no effect of reducing c-myc on recovery of liver mass following 2/3 partial hepatectomy. Conclusions c-Myc appears to be dispensable for normal liver growth during the postnatal period, restoration of liver mass following partial hepatectomy and recovery from fasting.

  5. Lessons Learned "Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition" Specifically related to Racking Electrical Breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Tommy Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Philbert Roland [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Samuel Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    During low voltage electrical equipment maintenance, a bad breaker was identified. The breaker was racked out from the substation cubicle without following the hazardous energy control process identified in the Integrated Work Document (IWD). The IWD required the substation to be in an electrically safe work condition prior to racking the breaker. Per NFPA 70E requirements, electrical equipment shall be put into an electrically safe work condition before an employee performs work on or interacts with equipment in a manner that increases the likelihood of creating an arc flash. Racking in or out a breaker on an energized bus may increase the likelihood of creating an arc flash dependent on equipment conditions. A thorough risk assessment must be performed prior to performing such a task. The risk assessment determines the risk control measures to be put in place prior to performing the work. Electrical Safety Officers (ESO) can assist in performing risk assessments and incorporating risk control measures.

  6. Learning to Design Together: Introducing Conditional Design as a Method for Co-design Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akoglu, Canan

    2017-01-01

    In today’s world, designing include participation of users and stakeholders at different levels varying from minimum participation to co-creating with these actors. In such a context, it becomes crucial to include related educational modules to be able to prepare design students for their future...... as the empirical study of this paper. The participants of the workshops were students from Communication Design and Industrial Design undergraduate programs with different seniorities in the same faculty. In terms of its content and operative flow, all the workshops were organized in a way that would enable equal...... contribution from each student and an active learning space was provided to the students. Based on the feedbacks, it is possible to foresee that the workshops were positive experiences especially in terms of understanding the importance of collective creativity and beyond the educational purposes...

  7. Meeting the Challenge of Chronic Conditions in a Sustainable Manner: Building on the AHC Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Healthcare Collaboration for Innovation and Improvement in Chronic Disease (AHC) set out to achieve three aims: to create a patient- and family-centred approach to manage chronic diseases; to build a network of organizational, regional and provincial teams to share evidence-informed, systems-level solutions and work together to develop, implement and sustain improvement initiatives; and to promote the sustainability of the participating health systems. Important elements of all three aims were achieved and the synthesis provides a meaningful contribution to systems working to improve chronic care. This paper explores those achievements as well as some of the areas for improvement, including replicability, expanded outcome measurement, greater detail around patient and family engagement, increased focus on specific outcomes and processes, and further articulation of lessons learned and recommendations.

  8. Forecasting of flowrate under rolling motion flow instability condition based on on-line sequential extreme learning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanying; Gao Puzhen; Tan Sichao; Tang Jiguo; Hou Xiaofan; Xu Huiqiang; Wu Xiangcheng

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of multiple thermal-hydraulic parameters can result in complex flow instability in natural circulation system under rolling motion. A real-time thermal-hydraulic condition prediction is helpful to the operation of systems in such condition. A single hidden layer feedforward neural networks algorithm named extreme learning machine (ELM) is considered as suitable method for this application because of its extremely fast training time, good accuracy and simplicity. However, traditional ELM assumes that all the training data are ready before the training process, while the training data is received sequentially in practical forecasting of flowrate. Therefore, this paper proposes a forecasting method for flowrate under rolling motion based on on-line sequential ELM (OS-ELM), which can learn the data one by one or chunk-by-chunk. The experiment results show that the OS-ELM method can achieve a better forecasting performance than basic ELM method and still keep the advantage of fast training and simplicity. (author)

  9. Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiske, Andressa; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Conde-Ocazionez, Sergio A; Feitosa, Anatildes; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín

    2017-10-04

    Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. Disruption of reconsolidation, the process by which reactivated memories become susceptible to modifications, is a promising approach for treating PTSD patients. However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an

  10. High fat diet intake during pre and periadolescence impairs learning of a conditioned place preference in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanabria Federico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain regions that mediate learning of a conditioned place preference (CPP undergo significant development in pre and periadolescence. Consuming a high fat (HF diet during this developmental period and into adulthood can lead to learning impairments in rodents. The present study tested whether HF diet intake, consumed only in pre and periadolescence, would be sufficient to cause impairments using a CPP procedure. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to consume a HF or a low fat (LF diet during postnatal days (PD 21-40 and were then placed back on a standard lab chow diet. A 20-day CPP procedure, using HF Cheetos® as the unconditioned stimulus (US, began either the next day (PD 41 or 40 days later (PD 81. A separate group of adult rats were given the HF diet for 20 days beginning on PD 61, and then immediately underwent the 20-day CPP procedure beginning on PD 81. Results Pre and periadolescent exposure to a LF diet or adult exposure to a HF diet did not interfere with the development of a HF food-induced CPP, as these groups exhibited robust preferences for the HF Cheetos® food-paired compartment. However, pre and periadolescent exposure to the HF diet impaired the development of a HF food-induced CPP regardless of whether it was assessed immediately or 40 days after the exposure to the HF diet, and despite showing increased consumption of the HF Cheetos® in conditioning. Conclusions Intake of a HF diet, consumed only in pre and periadolescence, has long-lasting effects on learning that persist into adulthood.

  11. Learning and memory in conditioned fear extinction: effects of d-cycloserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervliet, B.

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effects of the cognitive enhancer D-cycloserine (DCS) on the memory processes that occur in conditioned fear extinction, which is the experimental model for exposure techniques to reduce clinical anxiety. All reported rat studies show an enhanced fear extinction effect when

  12. The Education Penalty: Schooling, Learning and the Diminishment of Wages, Working Conditions and Worker Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Currently dominant human capital and knowledge economy rhetoric holds that education can raise wages, empower workers and enhance working conditions. Education, however, can also have the opposite impact in the workplace and labour market, an impact that has received only limited attention. In this article we draw together a broad range of…

  13. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  14. How Learning Conditions and Program Structure Predict Burnout and Satisfaction in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Rösler, Lena; Möller, Jens; Köller, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    To support prospective teachers' professional development, teacher education should be characterised by conditions that help to prevent burnout and facilitate satisfaction. This study investigates predictors of burnout and satisfaction in teacher education by drawing on universities with different teacher education programme structures and assumed…

  15. One Size Fits All? Learning Conditions and Working Memory Capacity in "Ab Initio" Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Cristina; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lado, Beatriz; Stafford, Catherine A.; Bowden, Harriet W.

    2016-01-01

    The article summarizes results from two experimental studies (N = 23, N = 21) investigating the extent to which working memory capacity (WMC) intervenes in "ab initio" language development under two pedagogical conditions [± grammar lesson + input-based practice + explicit feedback]. The linguistic target is the use of morphosyntax to…

  16. Joint management of working conditions, environment and quality : in search of synergy and organizational learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.

    1994-01-01

    Working conditions, environmental protection and quality control are increasingly important for organizations. Most companies are being confronted with sharply increasing requirements in all three areas. It is up to the managers and the respective experts to determine the most desirable strategies

  17. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  18. Machine-Learning Techniques for the Determination of Attrition of Forces Due to Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    selected as a proof of concept due to its vast number of data points. While this report does note some trends associated with temperature and dew...separate data sets for helicopters and airplanes, while selectively requesting the event IDs, descriptions of events, light conditions, temperature , dew...weather events) and the error rate for that class . The rows are labeled for the actual occurrence of those events. Thus, for every row–column

  19. The effects of cocaine, alcohol and cocaine/alcohol combinations in conditioned taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Gregory D; Verendeev, Andrey; Jones, Jermaine; Riley, Anthony L

    2005-09-01

    We have recently reported that alcohol attenuates cocaine place preferences. Although the basis for this effect is unknown, alcohol may attenuate cocaine reward by potentiating its aversive effects. To examine this possibility, these experiments assessed the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions under conditions similar to those that resulted in attenuated place preferences. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on taste aversions induced by 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg cocaine. Experiment 3 examined the role of intertrial interval in the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on cocaine (30 mg/kg) taste aversions. In Experiments 1 and 2, cocaine was effective at conditioning aversions. Alcohol produced no measurable effect. Combining cocaine and alcohol produced no greater aversion than cocaine alone (and, in fact, weakened aversions at the lowest dose of cocaine). In Experiment 3, varying the intertrial interval from 3 days (as in the case of Experiments 1 and 2) to 1 day (a procedure identical to that in which alcohol attenuated cocaine place preferences) resulted in significant alcohol- and cocaine-induced taste aversions. Nonetheless, alcohol remained ineffective in potentiating cocaine aversions. Thus, under these conditions alcohol does not potentiate cocaine's aversiveness. These results were discussed in terms of their implication for the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced place preferences. Further, the effects of alcohol on place preferences conditioned by cocaine were discussed in relation to other assessments of the effects of alcohol on the affective properties of cocaine and the implications of these interactions for alcohol and cocaine co-use.

  20. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  1. Lesson Learned from Conditioning of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Norasalwa Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the conditioning of disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS) in Malaysia. In Malaysia, sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are widely used in Malaysia especially in industry, medicine and research. Once SRS are no longer in use, they are declared disused and managed as radioactive waste. In order to reduce the risk associated with disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), the first priority would be to bring them under appropriate controls. This paper describes the experience developed and activities performed by Nuclear Malaysia throughout the period in conditioning of DSRS as well as future programme to further enhancing the infrastructure. Collaborative efforts with the various relevant groups such as Loji and Prototaip Development Centre (PDC) and Industrial Technology Division (BTI) provide an effective avenue in ensuring successful implementation of the programme. Currently, until August 2015, Malaysia has in possession about 12,154 unit of DSRS categories 3-5 and 4 units of DSRS category 2 sources which being stored at the interim storage facility Nuclear Malaysia. A national activity was implemented for the on-the-job training of personnel tasked with the conditioning of DSRS, at the Waste Technology Development Centre (WasTeC) facilities. This is part of -cradle-to-grave- control of radioactive sources to protect the workers and public from the hazards of ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Learning deficits expressed as delayed extinction of a conditioned running response following perinatal exposure to vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Susan M; Markowski, Vincent P

    2006-01-01

    Vinclozolin (Vz) is one member of a group of fungicides whose metabolites are androgen receptor antagonists. These fungicides have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. The current study sought to determine if Vz also affects learning following exposure to low doses during the perinatal period. To test this, an androgen-dependent behavior was examined, the extinction of a previously reinforced running response. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered a daily oral dose of 0, 1.5, 3, 6 or 12 mg/kg Vz from the 14th day of gestation through postnatal day 3. After reaching adulthood, male and female offspring were trained to run through a short alleyway for food reinforcement. Acquisition of the response was not affected by Vz exposure. However, males required more trials than females for response extinction once food was no longer available in the apparatus. Males exposed to 6 or 12 mg/kg Vz failed to show any extinction by the end of the procedure, while the lowest dose of Vz appeared to facilitate extinction in both male and female offspring. These results demonstrate that endocrine disrupting antiandrogens can alter nervous system development in addition to the reproductive system.

  3. From Mobile to Wearable System: A Wearable RFID System to Enhance Teaching and Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Larabi Marie-Sainte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, wearable technology has seen significant developments, making it possible to enhance our lives. One of the areas in which wearable technology can cause large changes is education, where it can be used to make educational experiences intrinsically motivating and more relevant to youth culture. In this paper, we focus on the use of wearable technology to improve the educational environment. The quantity of electronic assets used in the learning environment is rising, which presents a managerial problem when these devices are nonfunctioning. Therefore, we present a mobile application to solve this problem. The suggested approach consists of creating a mobile application named classroom clinic (CRC to help faculty members and students locate the closest maintenance technician via wearable radio frequency identification (RFID technology and to provide fast responses to the problems alerted to in the classroom, thereby avoiding any disturbances or delays during the lecture. Moreover, this application allows the maintenance service to efficiently manage any malfunctions of classroom electronic devices. To evaluate the CRC application, a pilot study was conducted at the College of Computer and Information Sciences, female campus of King Saud University, with 15 faculty members and students and 5 clinic members. The results showed high usability rates and generally positive attitudes towards using the app.

  4. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  5. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B; Dutta, Rina

    2017-01-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language\\ud processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand\\ud the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professio...

  6. Online adaptive learning of Left-Right Continuous HMM for bearings condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartella, F; Liu, T; Meganck, S; Lemeire, J; Sahli, H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) approaches used for condition assessment of bearings assume that all the possible system states are fixed and known a priori and that training data from all of the associated states are available. Moreover, the training procedure is performed offline, and only once at the beginning, with the available training set. These assumptions significantly impede component diagnosis applications when all of the possible states of the system are not known in advance or environmental factors or operative conditions change during the tool's usage. The method introduced in this paper overcomes the above limitations and proposes an approach to detect unknown degradation modalities using a Left-Right Continuous HMM with a variable state space. The proposed HMM is combined with Change Point Detection algorithms to (i) estimate, from historical observations, the initial number of the model's states, as well as to perform an initial guess of the parameters, and (ii) to adaptively recognize new states and, consequently, adjust the model parameters during monitoring. The approach has been tested using real monitoring data taken from the NASA benchmark repository. A comparative study with state of the art techniques shows improvements in terms of reduction of the training procedure iterations, and early detection of unknown states.

  7. Continuous mercury monitors conditioning/conversion systems : what we have learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Dunham, G.E.; Thompson, J.S. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2006-07-01

    The challenges of continuous mercury monitoring (CMM) in flue gas were discussed with reference to conditioning/conversion systems where a sample of gas of an unknown composition is conditioned to elemental mercury. Flue gas composition varies greatly depending on coal type and plant configuration. The widely used wet-chemistry systems remove interfering gas constituents by bubbling the sample gas through reactive solutions. Some concerns with the wet systems are the amount of chemicals used and the volume of the waste generated; capture of CO{sub 2} which affects the sample volume; mercury hang-up; condensation of flue gas constituents; and, potential for unidentified chemical reactions. The advantages of dry systems were discussed, such as the ability to convert all of the mercury present in the flue gas to elemental mercury. Some of the main concerns with dry systems are that some systems will require a correction for moisture, which means installing a moisture monitor. Dry systems can also be prone to mercury hang-up and calibration of some of the dilution systems remains a concern. The systems can also be susceptible a significant decrease in catalyst life. figs.

  8. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  9. Graph-based semi-supervised learning with genomic data integration using condition-responsive genes applied to phenotype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doostparast Torshizi, Abolfazl; Petzold, Linda R

    2018-01-01

    Data integration methods that combine data from different molecular levels such as genome, epigenome, transcriptome, etc., have received a great deal of interest in the past few years. It has been demonstrated that the synergistic effects of different biological data types can boost learning capabilities and lead to a better understanding of the underlying interactions among molecular levels. In this paper we present a graph-based semi-supervised classification algorithm that incorporates latent biological knowledge in the form of biological pathways with gene expression and DNA methylation data. The process of graph construction from biological pathways is based on detecting condition-responsive genes, where 3 sets of genes are finally extracted: all condition responsive genes, high-frequency condition-responsive genes, and P-value-filtered genes. The proposed approach is applied to ovarian cancer data downloaded from the Human Genome Atlas. Extensive numerical experiments demonstrate superior performance of the proposed approach compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms, including the latest graph-based classification techniques. Simulation results demonstrate that integrating various data types enhances classification performance and leads to a better understanding of interrelations between diverse omics data types. The proposed approach outperforms many of the state-of-the-art data integration algorithms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Learning to Like Exercising: Evaluative Conditioning Changes Automatic Evaluations of Exercising and Influences Subsequent Exercising Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    This multistudy report used an experimental approach to alter automatic evaluations of exercise (AEE). First, we investigated the plasticity of AEE (study 1). A computerized evaluative conditioning task was developed that altered the AEE of participants in two experimental groups (acquisition of positive/negative associations involving exercising) and a control group (η2 part. = .11). Second, we examined connections between changes in AEE and subsequent exercise behavior (chosen intensity on a bike ergometer; study 2) in individuals that were placed in groups according to their baseline AEE. Group differences in exercise behavior were detected (η2 part. = .29). The effect was driven by the performance of the group with preexisting negative AEE that acquired more positive associations. This illustrates the effect of altered AEE on subsequent exercise behavior and the potential of AEE as a target for exercise intervention.

  11. The Effects of Learning Procedure, Tempo, and Performance Condition on Transfer of Rhythm Skills in Instrumental Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes study of effects of learning procedures and performance tempo on ability of 64 middle school students to perform previously learned rhythmic passages. Reviews the four learning procedures used for each rhythmic passage. Finds no evidence attributed to learning procedure but significant adverse differences if the tempo was changed from…

  12. The Role of Independent Activities in Development of Strategic Learning Competences and Increase of School Performance Level, within the Study of High School Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anca, Monica-Iuliana; Bocos, Musata

    2017-01-01

    The experimental research performed by us with the purpose of exploring the possibilities of development of strategic learning competences and improvement of school performance of 11th grade students, pedagogical profile, specialisation in primary school-kindergarten teacher, falls in the category of researches aiming to make efficient certain…

  13. Somatic Arc protein expression in hippocampal granule cells is increased in response to environmental change but independent of task-specific learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, J P; Willis, E F; Bartlett, P F; Vukovic, J

    2017-09-29

    Activated neurons express immediate-early genes, such as Arc. Expression of Arc in the hippocampal granule cell layer, an area crucial for spatial learning and memory, is increased during acquisition of spatial learning; however, it is unclear whether this effect is related to the task-specific learning process or to nonspecific aspects of the testing procedure (e.g. exposure to the testing apparatus and exploration of the environment). Herein, we show that Arc-positive cells numbers are increased to the same extent in the granule cell layer after both acquisition of a single spatial learning event in the active place avoidance task and exploration of the testing environment, as compared to naïve (i.e. caged) mice. Repeated exposure the testing apparatus and environment did not reduce Arc expression. Furthermore, Arc expression did not correlate with performance in both adult and aged animals, suggesting that exploration of the testing environment, rather than the specific acquisition of the active place avoidance task, induces Arc expression in the dentate granule cell layer. These findings thus suggest that Arc is an experience-induced immediate-early gene.

  14. Apprentissage de l'expression orale en autonomie. Implications de l'approche fonctionelle (Learning Oral Expression in Independent Study. Implications of the Functional Approach). Melanges pedagogiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, D.; And Others

    Within the CRAPEL autonomous learning scheme, modular material is being developed for communicative oral expression. The purpose of this material is twofold: (1) to enable the learner to define his or her own needs in communicative terms, that is, to analyse a situation in terms of communicative acts needed in a given situation, the relationships…

  15. Learning and extinction of conditioned hearing sensation change in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya; Estaban, Jose-Antonio; Pacini, Aude F

    2016-02-01

    Ice-dwelling beluga whales are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic loud sounds. Beluga's hearing sensitivity measured during a warning sound just preceding a loud sound was tested using pip-train stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 32 or 45 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 32 kHz and a sound pressure level of 153 dB re 1 μPa, 2 s, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB for the test frequency of 45 kHz and up to 13 dB for the test frequency of 32 kHz. These threshold increases were observed during two sessions of 36 trials each. Extinction tests revealed no change during three experimental sessions followed by a jump-like return to baseline thresholds. The low exposure level producing the hearing-dampening effect (156 dB re 1 µPa(2)s in each trial), and the manner of extinction, may be considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were a demonstration of conditioned dampening of hearing when the whale anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way demonstrated in the false killer whale and bottlenose dolphin.

  16. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  17. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  18. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  19. Farmer’s welfare in Telang’s integrated independent city: lesson learned from migrant and local farmers in tidal land, South Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, D.; Zahri, I.; Wildayana, E.; Maryadi; Hamzah, M.; Yulius

    2018-02-01

    Telang’s Independent Integrated City development is a model of tidal agricultural development through technological innovation to improve farmers’ welfare. In this area, the diversity of origin of population is also suspected to have an impact on the achievement of success. The purpose of this study is to analyze and prove the hypothesis that farmers are able to prosper in tidal land by Telang’s Independent Integrated City Program based on migrant and local farmers disaggregation. The research was conducted at Tanjung Lago District Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra. The research method is survey with stratified simple random sampling. Data is processed by mathematics and statistics. Telang’s Independent Integrated City is an area of rice production center development and rice industry. Since 2008, farmers have implemented rice cultivation innovations by the twice-cropping index. This program by utilization of tidal land proved that farmers have a great chance of success. Farmers have succeeded in breaking the myth that has been growing in the food agriculture sector, that farmers cannot prosper only with food crops. Both Farmer’s income has been above the necessities of life. Judging by the diversity of origin of population, the income of migrant is higher than local farmers.

  20. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  1. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-01

    seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding...... sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that M1/M4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests...

  2. Mediating Global Reforms Locally: A Study of the Enabling Conditions for Promoting Active Learning in a Maldivian Island School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores active learning reform in the small state of the Maldives. Acknowledging the implementation challenges of active learning approaches globally, the study explored the policy-practice intersection by examining the experiences of one island school and its approach to promoting active learning pedagogy. The school was selected for…

  3. Collaborating With Parents of Children With Chronic Conditions and Professionals to Design, Develop and Pre-pilot PLAnT (the Parent Learning Needs and Preferences Assessment Tool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Ruth; Wirz, Lucy; Cook, Wendy; Swallow, Veronica

    This study aimed to design, develop and pre-pilot an assessment tool (PLAnT) to identify parents' learning needs and preferences when carrying out home-based clinical care for their child with a chronic condition. A mixed methods, two-phased design was used. Phase 1: a total of 10 parents/carers and 13 professionals from six UK's children's kidney units participated in qualitative interviews. Interview data were used to develop the PLAnT. Eight of these participants subsequently took part in an online survey to refine the PLAnT. Phase 2: thirteen parents were paired with one of nine professionals to undertake a pre-pilot evaluation of PLAnT. Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. A key emergent theme identifying parents' learning needs and preferences was identified. The importance of professionals being aware of parents' learning needs and preferences was recognised. Participants discussed how parents' learning needs and preferences should be identified, including: the purpose for doing this, the process for doing this, and what would the outcome be of identifying parents' needs. The evidence suggests that asking parents directly about their learning needs and preferences may be the most reliable way for professionals to ascertain how to support individual parents' learning when sharing management of their child's chronic condition. With the increasing emphasis on parent-professional shared management of childhood chronic conditions, professionals can be guided by PLAnT in their assessment of parents' learning needs and preferences, based on identified barriers and facilitators to parental learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galluzzo Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT and the visual conditional associative learning task (VCALT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls. The current literature suggests deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients versus healthy controls but these studies frequently involved small samples, broad diagnostic criteria, inclusion of patients on antipsychotic medications, and were not controlled for symptom domains, severity of the disorder, etc. To overcome some of these limitations, we investigated the self-monitoring and conditional associative learning abilities of a numerically representative sample of healthy controls and a group of non-deteriorated, drug-free patients hospitalized for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with florid, mainly positive psychotic symptoms. Methods Eighty-five patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 71 or schizophreniform disorder (n = 14 and 80 healthy controls entered the study. The clinical picture was dominated by positive symptoms. The healthy control group had a negative personal and family history of schizophrenia or mood disorder and satisfied all the inclusion and exclusion criteria other than variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results Compared to controls, patients had worse performances on SOPT, VCALT and higher SOPT/VCALT ratios, not affected by demographic or clinical variables. ROC curves showed that SOPT, VCALT, and SOPT/VCALT ratio had good accuracy in discriminating patients from controls. The SOPT and VCALT scores were inter-correlated in controls but not in patients. Conclusion The

  6. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbaumer N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs of the EEG (electroencephalogram was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A, colored disks (B, and geometrical shapes (C. The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various

  7. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Ih; Ghanayim, N; Kübler, A; Neumann, N; Birbaumer, N; Kaiser, J

    2008-11-24

    Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs) of the EEG (electroencephalogram) was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A), colored disks (B), and geometrical shapes (C). The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample - comparison) matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each) and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various cognitive abilities of severely paralyzed patients, who are

  8. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  9. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  10. Multi objective large power system planning under sever loading condition using learning DE-APSO-PS strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdad, Belkacem; Srairi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient planning strategy using DE and APSO in coordination with PS algorithm is proposed. • An interactive process is proposed to balance the exploitation and exploration capability of (DE-APSO) and PS. • Fuel cost, power loss, and voltage deviation considering loading condition are optimized. • The proposed strategy (DE-APSO-PS) is validated on three large practical test systems. - Abstract: This paper introduces an efficient planning strategy using new hybrid interactive differential evolution (DE), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), and pattern search (PS) for solving the security optimal power flow (SOPF) considering multi distributed static VAR compensator (SVC). Three objective functions such as fuel cost, power loss and voltage deviation are considered and optimized considering sever loading conditions. The main idea of the proposed strategy is that variable controls are optimized based on superposition mechanism, the best solutions evaluated by DE and APSO at specified stages are communicated to PS to exploit new regions around this solution, alternatively the new solution achieved by PS is also communicated to DE and APSO, this interactive mechanism search between global and local search is to balance the exploitation and exploration capability which allows individuals from different methods to react more by learning and changing experiences. The robustness of the proposed strategy is tested and validated on large practical power system test (IEEE 118-Bus, IEEE 300-Bus, and 40 units). Comparison results with the standard global optimization methods such as DE, APSO PS and to other recent techniques showed the superiority and perspective of the proposed hybrid technique for solving practical power system problems

  11. Design of educational and ICT conditions to integrate differences in learning: Contextual learning theory and a first transformation step in early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Educational differentiation and ICT can be designed to better recognize and integrate learning differences across students particularly by assisting instructional management and the self-regulation of students. A conceptual framework for such practice is elaborated here. First, learning as an

  12. Conditions for Employee Learning and Innovation--Interweaving Competence Development Activities Provided by a Workplace Development Programme with Everyday Work Activities in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson Lundkvist, Agneta; Gustavsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how the formal competence development activities provided by the Production Leap, a workplace development programme (WPDP), were interwoven with everyday work activities and to identify the conditions that enabled learning and employee-driven innovation that contributed to production improvement, in small…

  13. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  14. Building on transformative learning and response shift theory to investigate health-related quality of life changes over time in individuals with chronic health conditions and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay-Goddard, Ruth; King, Judy; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Schwartz, Carolyn E

    2012-02-01

    A major goal of treatment for people living with chronic illness or disability is self-management leading to optimized health-related quality of life. This change process has been described in the adult education literature as transformative learning, while in health-related quality of life research, response shift has emerged as a key concept. Response shift and transformative learning literature were reviewed, and the theoretical frameworks of the 2 concepts were compared and contrasted. Response shift is described as a change in internal standards, values, or definition of a construct (eg, health-related quality of life) over time, commonly seen in individuals with chronic illness. In the context of chronic illness, transformative learning is described as a complex process of personal change including beliefs, feelings, knowledge, and values. Transformative learning is often triggered by the diagnosis of a chronic illness. This results in a critical reflection of taken-for-granted assumptions and leads to new ways of thinking, influencing personal changes in daily living. Comparing the models of response shift and transformative learning in chronic illness, the catalyst in response shift appears comparable with the trigger in transformational learning; mechanisms to process of changing; and perceived quality of life to outcomes. Both transformative learning and response shift have much to offer health care providers in understanding the learning process for the person living with chronic illness or disability to optimize their quality of life. Suggestions for future research in response shift and transformative learning in individuals with chronic health conditions and disability are proposed. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Stimulating muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. We tested whether stimulating M 1 and/or M 4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding extinguished to ≤30% of cocaine-reinforced responding. Immediately after each extinction session, mice received saline, the M 1 /M 4 receptor-preferring agonist xanomeline, the M 1 receptor-selective allosteric agonist VU0357017, the M 4 receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator VU0152100, or VU0357017 + VU0152100. In additional experiments, xanomeline was administered delayed after the session or in the home cage before extinction training began. In the latter group, reinstatement of responding by a 10-mg/kg cocaine injection was also tested. Stimulating M 1  + M 4 receptors significantly expedited extinction from 17.2 sessions to 8.3 using xanomeline or 7.8 using VU0357017 + VU0152100. VU0357017 alone and VU0152100 alone did not significantly modify rates of extinction (12.6 and 14.6 sessions). The effect of xanomeline was fully preserved when administered delayed after or unpaired from extinction sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. These findings show that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation modulated or reversed some neurochemical effects of cocaine exposure.

  16. Cerebellar Norepinephrine Modulates Learning of Delay Classical Eyeblink Conditioning: Evidence for Post-Synaptic Signaling via PKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Mathew; Bickford, Paula C.; Cartford, M. Claire; Samec, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to modulate cerebellar-dependent learning and memory. Lesions of the nucleus locus coeruleus or systemic blockade of noradrenergic receptors has been shown to delay the acquisition of several cerebellar-dependent learning tasks. To date, no studies have shown a direct involvement of…

  17. Across the Desk: Teaching Through Independent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdin, Lois; Worby, Diana

    1976-01-01

    Independent study is addressed as a creative and alternative mode of learning. Its unique advantages and strengths are examined along with its planning and structure, the student/instructor interaction, the use of learning resources, examples of disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches, the products of such study, and methods of evaluation.…

  18. Reduction of 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin uptake in MRP-expressing breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions is independent of MRP function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Li, Xiao-Feng; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Mori, Hirofumi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Naoto; Shuke, Noriyuki; Bunko, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia reduces the uptake of technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI) in human cancer cell lines. In the current investigation, we attempted to identify the relationship between hypoxia-induced alteration of 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation and expression of multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP) in the MCF7/WT breast cancer cell line and its subclonal cell line, MCF7/VP, which expresses high levels of MRP1. A second cationic compound, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (TF), was also examined. Cellular uptake of 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-TF was significantly higher in parental MCF7/WT cells than in MCF7/VP cells. Hypoxic conditions generated with a mixture of 95% N 2 and 5% CO 2 reduced cellular uptake of the two tracers in both parental MCF7/WT cells and MRP1-expressing MCF7/VP cells. Cell binding assay with iodine-125-labelled anti-MRP1 antibody demonstrated its specific binding to MCF7/VP cells. Hypoxia did not affect the amount of antibody bound to MCF7/VP cells. These results indicate that hypoxia-induced reduction of tracer uptake in tumour cells is a phenomenon independent of MRP function. (orig.)

  19. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  20. Effects of OEF/OIF-Related Physical and Emotional Co-Morbidities on Associative Learning: Concurrent Delay and Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina E. McGlinchey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of veterans and active duty personnel who served in Operation Enduring Freedom and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF on a basic associative learning task. Eighty-eight individuals participated in this study. All received a comprehensive clinical evaluation to determine the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and traumatic brain injury (TBI. The eyeblink conditioning task was composed of randomly intermixed delay and trace conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditioned stimulus (US pairs (acquisition followed by a series of CS only trials (extinction. Results revealed that those with a clinical diagnosis of PTSD or a diagnosis of PTSD with comorbid mTBI acquired delay and trace conditioned responses (CRs to levels and at rates similar to a deployed control group, thus suggesting intact basic associative learning. Differential extinction impairment was observed in the two clinical groups. Acquisition of CRs for both delay and trace conditioning, as well as extinction of trace CRs, was associated with alcoholic behavior across all participants. These findings help characterize the learning and memory function of individuals with PTSD and mTBI from OEF/OIF and raise the alarming possibility that the use of alcohol in this group may lead to more significant cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Different MK-801 administration schedules induce mild to severe learning impairments in an operant conditioning task: role of buspirone and risperidone in ameliorating these cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano

    2013-11-15

    Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801 produces behavioral abnormalities and alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. Due to the critical role of the PFC in operant conditioning task learning, we evaluated the effects of acute, repeated postnatal injections of MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) on learning performance. We injected Long-Evans rats i.p. with MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) using three different administration schedules: injection 40 min before beginning the task (during) (n=12); injection twice daily for six consecutive days prior to beginning the experimental procedures (prior) (n=12); or twice daily subcutaneous injections from postnatal day 7 to 11 (postnatal) (n=12). Next, we orally administered risperidone (serotonin receptor 2A and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist, 1mg/kg) or buspirone (serotonin receptor 1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg) to animals treated with the MK-801 schedule described above. The postnatal and prior administration schedules produced severe learning deficits, whereas injection of MK-801 just before training sessions had only mild effects on acquisition of an operant conditioning. Risperidone was able to reverse the detrimental effect of MK-801 in the animals that were treated with MK-801 during and prior training sessions. In contrast, buspirone was only effective at mitigating the cognitive deficits induced by MK-801 when administered during the training procedures. The data demonstrates that NMDA antagonism disrupts basic mechanisms of learning in a simple PFC-mediated operant conditioning task, and that buspirone and risperidone failed to attenuate the learning deficits when NMDA neurotransmission was blocked in the early stages of the postnatal period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  3. Conditions for Employee Learning and Innovation : Interweaving Competence Development Activities Provided by a Workplace Development Programme with Everyday Work Activities in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Halvarsson Lundkvist, Agneta; Maria, Gustavsson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how the formal competence development activities provided by the Production Leap, a workplace development programme (WPDP), were interwoven with everyday work activities and to identify the conditions that enabled learning and employee-driven innovation that contributed to production improvement, in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden. The study adopts a qualitative case approach and draws on evidence from research conducted in four ma...

  4. LANGUAGE LEARNING UNDER CLASSROOM CONDITIONS DURING THE TRANSITION TO HYBRID INSTRUCTION: A CASE-STUDY OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth O. Swain; Timothy D. Swain

    2017-01-01

    We examined the unmanipulated performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to assess the effect of a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach to second language, (L2) instruction on beginning and advanced Spanish language learners. This research focused on the transition period of technology implementation when the entire section of Spanish of a modern language department of a liberal arts university transitioned from traditional face-to-face instruction, to a technolo...

  5. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  6. Measuring Conditions Conducive to Knowledge Development in Virtual Learning Environments: Initial Development of a Model-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nan B.; DeVaney, Thomas A.; Sawyer, Susan G.

    2009-01-01

    The design of virtual learning environments for post-secondary instruction is rapidly increasing among public and private universities. While the quantity of online courses over the past 10 years has exponentially increased, the quality of these courses has not. As universities increase their online teaching activities, real concern about the best…

  7. Requirement of Dopamine Signaling in the Amygdala and Striatum for Learning and Maintenance of a Conditioned Avoidance Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, Martin; Fadok, Jonathan P.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-way active avoidance (2WAA) involves learning Pavlovian (association of a sound cue with a foot shock) and instrumental (shock avoidance) contingencies. To identify regions where dopamine (DA) is involved in mediating 2WAA, we restored DA signaling in specific brain areas of dopamine-deficient (DD) mice by local reactivation of conditionally…

  8. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  9. Impact of Tactile-Cued Self-Monitoring on Independent Biology Work for Secondary Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catherine; McDougall, Dennis; Black, Rhonda S.; King-Sears, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a multiple baseline with changing conditions design across high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) indicated that the students increased the percentage of independent work they completed in their general education biology class after learning tactile-cued self-monitoring. Students maintained high…

  10. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning may involve area postrema-mediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but that an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion

  11. Measurements of Chlorpyrifos Levels in Forager Bees and Comparison with Levels that Disrupt Honey Bee Odor-Mediated Learning Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Monchanin, Coline; Rivière, Coraline; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Lombardi, Christie; Michelsen-Heath, Sue; Hageman, Kimberly J; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide used around the world to protect food crops against insects and mites. Despite guidelines for chlorpyrifos usage, including precautions to protect beneficial insects, such as honeybees from spray drift, this pesticide has been detected in bees in various countries, indicating that exposure still occurs. Here, we examined chlorpyrifos levels in bees collected from 17 locations in Otago, New Zealand, and compared doses of this pesticide that cause sub-lethal effects on learning performance under laboratory conditions with amounts of chlorpyrifos detected in the bees in the field. The pesticide was detected at 17 % of the sites sampled and in 12 % of the colonies examined. Amounts detected ranged from 35 to 286 pg.bee(-1), far below the LD50 of ~100 ng.bee(-1). We detected no adverse effect of chlorpyrifos on aversive learning, but the formation and retrieval of appetitive olfactory memories was severely affected. Chlorpyrifos fed to bees in amounts several orders of magnitude lower than the LD50, and also lower than levels detected in bees, was found to slow appetitive learning and reduce the specificity of memory recall. As learning and memory play a central role in the behavioral ecology and communication of foraging bees, chlorpyrifos, even in sublethal doses, may threaten the success and survival of this important insect pollinator.

  12. Properties, promotive and obstructive conditions of multi-professional teaching and learning of health professions and non-health professions: an explorative survey from the perspective of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Daniela; Höhmann, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Care for people with dementia is considered a multi-professional challenge that requires a collaborative approach between health professionals and non-health professionals. Didactic strategies to ensure the same qualifications across these occupational groups are lacking. This article presents the joint learning of selected properties and promotive and obstructive conditions, using the example of a multi-professional Master's programme. It subsequently draws conclusions for didactic concepts. The perceptions of 12 teachers on this Master's programme, all representing different professions, were determined by using a qualitative exploratory survey on the three stated dimensions. With the aid of a summarising content analysis, their statements were condensed and abstracted so as to deduce appropriate requirements for methodical and didactic learning scenarios. In view of the fact that the students have very varied previous knowledge, the main challenge is finding a balance between expertise and tediousness. Establishing essential and common expertise, as well as sensitivity for different perspectives, is made particularly difficult by the fact that health and non-health professions differ greatly in terms of methods and approaches. For a successful outcome, the content focal points and didactic and methodical concepts for a learning group need to take into account the composition of that specific group. Recourse to didactic standard concepts is only possible to a limited extent. The aim of joint teaching and learning of health and non-health professionals is to enhance the understanding of a profession: This is done by making individuals aware of their role in the chain of care, so they can recognise and organise the mutual conditionality of their own and external professional contributions.

  13. Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed Instrumental Conditioning Task in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezhu, Wang; Pan, Xu; Cong, Lu; Liming, Dong; Beiyue, Zhang; Jingwei, Lu; Yanyan, Yang; Xinmin, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model. Our results showed that rat subjected to CRS became insensitive to the changes in outcome value, and it significantly harmed the rat's performance in conditional visual discrimination task. Moreover, the levels of BDNF, TrkB, and Erk phosphorylation were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of CRS rats. However, these changes were effectively reversed by Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, it demonstrated that Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Behavioural conditioning of immune functions: how the central nervous system controls peripheral immune responses by evoking associative learning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riether, Carsten; Doenlen, Raphaël; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Niemi, Maj-Britt; Engler, Andrea; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    During the last 30 years of psychoneuroimmunology research the intense bi-directional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system has been demonstrated in studies on the interaction between the nervous-endocrine-immune systems. One of the most intriguing examples of such interaction is the capability of the CNS to associate an immune status with specific environmental stimuli. In this review, we systematically summarize experimental evidence demonstrating the behavioural conditioning of peripheral immune functions. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the behavioural conditioning process and provide a theoretical framework that indicates the potential feasibility of behaviourally conditioned immune changes in clinical situations.

  15. Learning to Learn Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Trude Høgvold; Glad, Tone; Filstad, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate whether the formal and informal learning patterns of community health-care nurses changed in the wake of a reform that altered their work by introducing new patient groups, and to explore whether conditions in the new workplaces facilitated or impeded shifts in learning patterns. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Children's and students' independent work in the sphere of discovering and understanding the world and in science and social studies teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Zorica S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies worldwide suggest that one of the key problems in education is the training of students to independently select, combine and coordinate the use of different learning strategies in an effective manner. In order for the individual to be able to adapt learning strategies to the learning context, he or she must first master them, which requires the creation of conditions that enable children and students to independently practice certain academic skills in accordance with their experience, i.e. their previously acquired skills, and the nature of the learning content. This paper presents the results of a study which sought to examine the presence prevalence, quality and character of independent work among children in the 5 to 10 age range in the sphere of discovering and understanding the world and in science and social studies teaching. A descriptive method using the research technique of systematic observation was employed. The results suggest that there is a lack of activities that can adequately support the training of children and students for independent work and learning, that activities characterized by a higher degree of autonomy decline with children's and students' age, and that the character of children's and students' independent learning activities is not appropriate to the nature of the learning content.

  17. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  18. When and Where Learning is Taking Place: Multisynaptic Changes in Strength During Different Behaviors Related to the Acquisition of an Operant Conditioning Task by Behaving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Delgado-García, José M; Gruart, Agnès

    2018-03-01

    Although it is generally assumed that brain circuits are modified by new experiences, the question of which changes in synaptic efficacy take place in cortical and subcortical circuits across the learning process remains unanswered. Rats were trained in the acquisition of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box provided with light beams to detect animals' approaches to lever and feeder. Behaviors such as pressing the lever, eating, exploring, and grooming were also recorded. Animals were chronically implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes in hippocampal, prefrontal, and subcortical sites relevant to the task. Field synaptic potentials were evoked during the performance of the above-mentioned behaviors and before, during, and after the acquisition process. Afferent pathways to the hippocampus and the intrinsic hippocampal circuit were slightly modified in synaptic strength during the performance of those behaviors. In contrast, afferent and efferent circuits of the medial prefrontal cortex were significantly modified in synaptic strength across training sessions, mostly at the moment of the largest change in the learning curve. Performance of behaviors nondirectly related to the acquisition process (exploring, grooming) also evoked changes in synaptic strength across training. This study helps to understand when and where learning is being engraved in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Upscaling the number of learners, fragmenting the role of teachers: How do massive open online courses (MOOCs) form new conditions for learning design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch; Pushpanadham, Karanam

    2018-03-01

    The proliferation and expansion of massive open online courses (MOOCs) prompts a need to revisit classical pedagogical questions. In what ways will MOOCs facilitate and promote new e-learning pedagogies? Is current learning design adequate for the "massiveness" and "openness" of MOOCs? This article discusses the ways in which MOOCs create new conditions for designing learning processes. The authors present various theoretical approaches to learning design and discuss a combination of theoretical perspectives. They discern a fragmentation of the teacher role; where the teacher was once the main person responsible for planning, practice and reflection, those activities may now be performed by different actors with different areas of responsibility. The theoretical discussion is complemented by a review of recent studies of new practices and design formats aiming to overcome the upscaling issues of MOOCs. The authors present a multifaceted picture of MOOC methodologies, including a typology of hybrid approaches to MOOC design. Through the example of MOOC implementation in India, they address the integration of MOOCs into formal higher education systems. They conclude their article with the contention that, through upscaling, important facets of students' intellectual development and critical thinking might be left to the students themselves. This may cause problems. Adequate scaffolding from a teacher, such as adapting activities to the specific situation, might be needed to develop the skills required to be a self-directed learner. Furthermore, upscaling seems to promote a separation of the formerly unified teacher functions of planning, teaching and assessing, which necessitates increased collaboration among the many new actors in the field of pedagogy.

  20. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  1. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  2. "Learned Helplessness" or "Learned Incompetence"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Justine; Lambert, Wallace E.

    Studies in the past have shown that reinforcements independent of the subjects actions may induce a feeling of helplessness. Most experiments on learned helplessness have led researchers to believe that uncontrollability (non-contingency of feedback upon response) was the determining feature of learned helplessness, although in most studies…

  3. Cleft lip and palate in context: Learning from, and adding to, the sociological literature on long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualfaraj, Raed; Daly, Blanaid; McDonald, Fraser; Scambler, Sasha

    2018-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital anomaly affecting males and females. While there is psychological research on cleft lip and palate, there is relatively little research exploring the social context of cleft lip and palate and the experiences of living with the condition on a daily basis. Drawing on common themes emerging from sociological work which have explored the experiences of people living with long-term conditions (uncertainty, social relations, self-esteem and self-image and biomedical concerns), we argue that these themes can be used to help elucidate the experiences of people living with cleft lip and palate. Within this framework, the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of people living with cleft lip and palate are presented. The results suggest that all four themes can be found within the accounts of people living with cleft lip and palate, and there are many commonalities between the experiences of these people and those living with other long-term conditions. Conversely there are interesting areas of divergence. Unlike most long-term conditions, cleft lip and palate is not degenerative and treatment means symptoms will reduce over time. This is reflected in narratives around 'normality' as the endpoint of the care pathway. In addition, prenatal diagnosis means that the vast majority of participants within this study were born into, and grew up within, the care pathway. This has implications for the way in which cleft lip and palate is understood and the provision of information, relationships with members of the care team over time and the temporal and contextualised impact of cleft lip and palate on social relations and the self.

  4. Generalization of learning from picture books to novel test conditions by 18- and 24-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Dooley, Megan

    2007-11-01

    Researchers know little about whether very young children can recognize objects originally introduced to them in a picture book when they encounter similar looking objects in various real-world contexts. The present studies used an imitation procedure to explore young children's ability to generalize a novel action sequence from a picture book to novel test conditions. The authors found that 18-month-olds imitated the action sequence from a book only when the conditions at testing matched those at encoding; altering the test stimuli or context disrupted imitation (Experiment 1A). In contrast, the 24-month-olds imitated the action sequence with changes to both the test context and stimuli (Experiment 1B). Moreover, although the 24-month-olds exhibited deferred imitation with no changes to the test conditions, they did not defer imitation with changes to the context and stimuli (Experiment 2). Two factors may account for the pattern of results: age-related changes in children's ability to utilize novel retrieval cues as well as their emerging ability to understand the representational nature of pictures. (c) 2007 APA.

  5. Effects of prenatal triphenyl-tin exposure on the development of behavior and conditioned learning in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Szeberenyi, J M; Gonda, Z; Horkay, F; Kiss, A

    1982-01-01

    Neurotoxic effects of the fungicide triphenyl-tin acetate were examined in pups of mothers treated perorally on day 7-15 of gestation. The gait and development of motor coordination did not differ from those of control animals, in spite of the high mortality rate of control pups during the nursing period. Spontaneous locomotor activity of treated pups at the age of 23 and 36 days was increased, however by the age of 90 days activity returned to control levels. Conditioned avoidance was acquired more rapidly, but was also extinguished sooner in animals born from, the nursed by poisoned mothers than in control.

  6. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  7. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  9. Difficulties when assessing birdsong learning programmes under field conditions: a re-evaluation of song repertoire flexibility in the great tit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Hector F; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2011-01-17

    There is a remarkable diversity of song-learning strategies in songbirds. Establishing whether a species is closed- or open-ended is important to be able to interpret functional and evolutionary consequences of variation in repertoire size. Most of our knowledge regarding the timing of vocal learning is based on laboratory studies, despite the fact that these may not always replicate the complex ecological and social interactions experienced by birds in the wild. Given that field studies cannot provide the experimental control of laboratory studies, it may not be surprising that species such as the great tit that were initially assumed to be closed-ended learners have later been suggested to be open-ended learners. By using an established colour-ringed population, by following a standardized recording protocol, and by taking into account the species' song ecology (using only recordings obtained during peak of singing at dawn), we replicated two previous studies to assess song repertoire learning and flexibility in adult wild great tits elicited by social interactions. First, we performed a playback experiment to test repertoire plasticity elicited by novel versus own songs. Additionally, in a longitudinal study, we followed 30 males in two consecutive years and analysed whether new neighbours influenced any change in the repertoire. Contrary to the previous studies, song repertoire size and composition were found to be highly repeatable both between years and after confrontation with a novel song. Our results suggest that great tits are closed-ended learners and that their song repertoire probably does not change during adulthood. Methodological differences that may have led to an underestimation of the repertoires or population differences may explain the discrepancy in results with previous studies. We argue that a rigorous and standardized assessment of the repertoire is essential when studying age- or playback-induced changes in repertoire size and composition

  10. The Role of Sister Cities' Staff Exchanges in Developing "Learning Cities": Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-06-24

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building "learning cities" through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  11. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henry Buckley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  12. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. PMID:26114245

  13. AcconPred: Predicting Solvent Accessibility and Contact Number Simultaneously by a Multitask Learning Framework under the Conditional Neural Fields Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhu Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. The solvent accessibility of protein residues is one of the driving forces of protein folding, while the contact number of protein residues limits the possibilities of protein conformations. The de novo prediction of these properties from protein sequence is important for the study of protein structure and function. Although these two properties are certainly related with each other, it is challenging to exploit this dependency for the prediction. Method. We present a method AcconPred for predicting solvent accessibility and contact number simultaneously, which is based on a shared weight multitask learning framework under the CNF (conditional neural fields model. The multitask learning framework on a collection of related tasks provides more accurate prediction than the framework trained only on a single task. The CNF method not only models the complex relationship between the input features and the predicted labels, but also exploits the interdependency among adjacent labels. Results. Trained on 5729 monomeric soluble globular protein datasets, AcconPred could reach 0.68 three-state accuracy for solvent accessibility and 0.75 correlation for contact number. Tested on the 105 CASP11 domain datasets for solvent accessibility, AcconPred could reach 0.64 accuracy, which outperforms existing methods.

  14. AcconPred: Predicting Solvent Accessibility and Contact Number Simultaneously by a Multitask Learning Framework under the Conditional Neural Fields Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhu; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The solvent accessibility of protein residues is one of the driving forces of protein folding, while the contact number of protein residues limits the possibilities of protein conformations. The de novo prediction of these properties from protein sequence is important for the study of protein structure and function. Although these two properties are certainly related with each other, it is challenging to exploit this dependency for the prediction. We present a method AcconPred for predicting solvent accessibility and contact number simultaneously, which is based on a shared weight multitask learning framework under the CNF (conditional neural fields) model. The multitask learning framework on a collection of related tasks provides more accurate prediction than the framework trained only on a single task. The CNF method not only models the complex relationship between the input features and the predicted labels, but also exploits the interdependency among adjacent labels. Trained on 5729 monomeric soluble globular protein datasets, AcconPred could reach 0.68 three-state accuracy for solvent accessibility and 0.75 correlation for contact number. Tested on the 105 CASP11 domain datasets for solvent accessibility, AcconPred could reach 0.64 accuracy, which outperforms existing methods.

  15. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS-) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS- responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine.

  16. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    just contain a list of strings, one for each line, whereas the structure of models is defined by their meta models. There are tools available which are able to compute the diff between two models, e.g. RSA or EMF Compare. However, their diff is not model-independent, i.e. it refers to the models...

  17. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  18. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  19. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Weinstock, E.V.; Carew, J.F.; Cerbone, R.J.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  20. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  1. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  2. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  3. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  4. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  5. Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

    1999-08-01

    The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

  6. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  7. Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight ...

  8. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...... article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  9. Inductive Learning and Theory Testing: Applications in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities for economic research that arise from importing empirical methods from the field of machine learning. Chapter 1 applies inductive learning to cross-sectional asset pricing. Researchers have documented over three hundred variables that can explain differences in cross-sectional stock returns. But which ones contain independent information? Chapter 1 develops a framework, deep conditional portfolio sorts, that can be used to answer this question and th...

  10. From Sensory Signals to Modality-Independent Conceptual Representations: A Probabilistic Language of Thought Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goker Erdogan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available People learn modality-independent, conceptual representations from modality-specific sensory signals. Here, we hypothesize that any system that accomplishes this feat will include three components: a representational language for characterizing modality-independent representations, a set of sensory-specific forward models for mapping from modality-independent representations to sensory signals, and an inference algorithm for inverting forward models-that is, an algorithm for using sensory signals to infer modality-independent representations. To evaluate this hypothesis, we instantiate it in the form of a computational model that learns object shape representations from visual and/or haptic signals. The model uses a probabilistic grammar to characterize modality-independent representations of object shape, uses a computer graphics toolkit and a human hand simulator to map from object representations to visual and haptic features, respectively, and uses a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer modality-independent object representations from visual and/or haptic signals. Simulation results show that the model infers identical object representations when an object is viewed, grasped, or both. That is, the model's percepts are modality invariant. We also report the results of an experiment in which different subjects rated the similarity of pairs of objects in different sensory conditions, and show that the model provides a very accurate account of subjects' ratings. Conceptually, this research significantly contributes to our understanding of modality invariance, an important type of perceptual constancy, by demonstrating how modality-independent representations can be acquired and used. Methodologically, it provides an important contribution to cognitive modeling, particularly an emerging probabilistic language-of-thought approach, by showing how symbolic and statistical approaches can be combined in order to understand aspects of human perception.

  11. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  12. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  13. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  14. Conditional uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  15. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P.; Burkart, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer. PMID:21357223

  16. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P; Burkart, Judith M

    2011-04-12

    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.

  17. Investigating the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Using Google Documents in Enhancing Writing--A Study on Senior 1 Students in a Chinese Independent High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Regina Maria; Palpanathan, Shanthini

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has evolved through various stages in both technology as well as the pedagogical use of technology (Warschauer & Healey, 1998). Studies show that the CALL trend has facilitated students in their English language writing with useful tools such as computer based activities and word processing. Students…

  18. Pedagogical Conditions of Multilevel Foreign Languages Teaching in Pedagogical Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakin, Vasily V.; Shukshina, Tatiana I.; Piskunova, Svetlana I.; Babushkina, Larisa E.; Falileev, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to pedagogical conditions of multilevel foreign languages teaching in pedagogical higher education. The purpose of the study is to form the students' skills in foreign language mastering, to form the ability to operate independently and autonomously in this activity, both in the specific learning situation, and in the…

  19. Absence of verbal recall or memory for symptom acquisition in fear and trauma exposure: a conceptual case for fear conditioning and learned nonuse in assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Absence of memory or verbal recall for symptom acquisition in fear and trauma exposure, as well as absence of successful coping behavior for life events, is associated with a number of diagnoses, including traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and anxiety. The difficulty with diagnosis and treatment planning based on the absence of recall, memory, and successful coping behavior is threefold: (1) these assessments do not distinguish between disruption of behavior and lack of capacity, (2) the absence of verbal recall and memory complicates cognitive-based treatment, and (3) a confounding issue is the same absent behavior can be observed at different times and contexts. While memory of the specific details of the initial traumatic event(s) may not be available to verbal report, the existence of time- and context-dependent relationships for the initial as well as subsequent experiences is arguable. The absence of memory or lack of verbal recall does not rule out measurable physiological bodily responses for the initial trauma(s), nor does it help to establish the effects of subsequent experiences for symptom expression. Also, the absence of memory must include the prospect of fear-based learning that does not require or involve the cortex. It is posited that the literatures of fear conditioning and learned nonuse provide complementary illustrations of how the time and context of the initial trauma(s) and subsequent experiences affect behavior, which is not dependent on the effected individual being able to provide a memory-based verbal report. The replicated clinical application demonstrates that, without scientific demonstration, neither neuroanatomy nor verbal report can be assumed sufficient to predict overt behavior or physiologic responses. For example, while commonly assumed to be predictively so, autonomic nervous system innervation is insufficient to define the unique stimulus- and context-dependent physiological responses of an

  20. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  1. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  2. PPARγ-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic lung inflammation is associated with numerous important disease pathologies including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and silicosis. Lung fibroblasts are a novel and important target of anti-inflammatory therapy, as they orchestrate, respond to, and amplify inflammatory cascades and are the key cell in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ligands are small molecules that induce anti-inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues. Here, we report for the first time that PPARγ ligands have potent anti-inflammatory effects on human lung fibroblasts. 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolean-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 inhibit production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin (PGE2 in primary human lung fibroblasts stimulated with either IL-1β or silica. The anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules are not blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and thus are largely PPARγ independent. However, they are dependent on the presence of an electrophilic carbon. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2, but not rosiglitazone, inhibited NF-κB activity. These results demonstrate that CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 are potent attenuators of proinflammatory responses in lung fibroblasts and suggest that these molecules should be explored as the basis for novel, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies in the lung and other organs.

  3. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  4. Chains versus Independents: Newspaper and Market Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, F. Dennis

    A study examined the marketing differences between large chain newspapers and small chain and independent newspapers by analyzing differences in characteristics of the newspapers, patterns of circulation, economic and social conditions of the market, and competition from other print media. The 200 newspapers studied--113 large chain and 87 small…

  5. The Independent Music Teacher: Practice and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszler, Marienne

    1996-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of the working conditions and challenges faced by independent music teachers (IMT). Most IMTs function in a number of capacities, as performer, teacher, and entrepreneur. Discusses changing trends in employment, including computer technology and the move for national certification. (MJP)

  6. Prepare 2 Learn: A mathematics intervention program for students at risk in Years 3 to 6 designed to help them reach expected level and become confident, responsible, independent mathematics learners

    OpenAIRE

    BERNADETTE MARY LONG

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention, Prepare 2 Learn, designed taking into account research literature and components of other successful mathematics programs. The research targeted students approximately 6 months behind the expected mathematics level for their year. The intervention consisted of four key components: building prerequisite knowledge of mathematical language, concepts, and skills to prepare students for their classroom mathematics; increasing fluency with mental computation; ...

  7. Upscaling the Number of Learners, Fragmenting the Role of Teachers: How Do Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Form New Conditions for Learning Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch; Pushpanadham, Karanam

    2018-01-01

    The proliferation and expansion of massive open online courses (MOOCs) prompts a need to revisit classical pedagogical questions. In what ways will MOOCs facilitate and promote new e-learning pedagogies? Is current learning design adequate for the "massiveness" and "openness" of MOOCs? This article discusses the ways in which…

  8. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  9. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  10. Modulating effects in learned helplessness of dyadic dominance-submission relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Berciano, Cristina; de Vicente, Francisco; Fontecha, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, learned helplessness was studied from an ethological perspective by examining individual differences in social dominance and its influence on the effects of helplessness. Ninety animals were used, 30 randomly selected and 60 selected because of their clear dominance or submission. Each condition (dominant, submissive, and random) was distributed in three subgroups corresponding to the triadic design. The test consisted of an escape/avoidance task. The results showed that the animals in the uncontrollable condition performed worse than those in the controllable and no treatment conditions. Social submission and dominance reduced vulnerability of the subjects against learned helplessness. Submission had a facilitating effect on subsequent learning, independently of whether pretreatment was controllability or uncontrollability. Learned mastery was observed in the submissive condition, because submission benefited the subjects in the controllable condition in comparison with the untreated subjects, and dominance impaired the subjects in the controllable condition. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  12. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace.

  13. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  14. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  15. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  16. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  17. Between regulation and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2007-01-01

    This article stresses, first, on the differences between electricity and gas in terms of storability and place of production before introducing the gas sector and its reorganization and re-structuration in the framework of energy markets deregulation. Then, it presents the actions carried out by the commission of energy regulation (CRE) intended to improve the operation of the gas market: improvement of transparency, incitation to invest in transportation infrastructures, organisation of the downstream market and development of regional gas markets. Since July 1, 2007, the opening of gas market is juridically and technically complete. The role of CRE is also to inform the consumers and to warrant a non-discriminatory access to infrastructures in a context of sound competition. On this point, the new situation is satisfactory but improvements are needed to increase the offer. The future objectives of CRE is to maintain a climate favorable to investments, to implement stable and efficient conditions of access to infrastructures and, finally, to regularly work at the European scale for the building up of a domestic gas market synonymous of security of supplies, sustainable development and competitiveness. (J.S.)

  18. Beyond Markov: Accounting for independence violations in causal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2018-06-01

    Although many theories of causal cognition are based on causal graphical models, a key property of such models-the independence relations stipulated by the Markov condition-is routinely violated by human reasoners. This article presents three new accounts of those independence violations, accounts that share the assumption that people's understanding of the correlational structure of data generated from a causal graph differs from that stipulated by causal graphical model framework. To distinguish these models, experiments assessed how people reason with causal graphs that are larger than those tested in previous studies. A traditional common cause network (Y 1 ←X→Y 2 ) was extended so that the effects themselves had effects (Z 1 ←Y 1 ←X→Y 2 →Z 2 ). A traditional common effect network (Y 1 →X←Y 2 ) was extended so that the causes themselves had causes (Z 1 →Y 1 →X←Y 2 ←Z 2 ). Subjects' inferences were most consistent with the beta-Q model in which consistent states of the world-those in which variables are either mostly all present or mostly all absent-are viewed as more probable than stipulated by the causal graphical model framework. Substantial variability in subjects' inferences was also observed, with the result that substantial minorities of subjects were best fit by one of the other models (the dual prototype or a leaky gate models). The discrepancy between normative and human causal cognition stipulated by these models is foundational in the sense that they locate the error not in people's causal reasoning but rather in their causal representations. As a result, they are applicable to any cognitive theory grounded in causal graphical models, including theories of analogy, learning, explanation, categorization, decision-making, and counterfactual reasoning. Preliminary evidence that independence violations indeed generalize to other judgment types is presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ORGANIZING PROSPECTIVE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ INDEPENDENT WORK IN THE COURSE OF “FINE ARTS WITH METHODOLOGY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Plakhotskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the actual problem of modern art education - organization of independent artwork of seekers of higher education in the prospective primary school teachers’ professional training. The authors note that the independent work is one of the most important components of the educational process, which involves the integration of different types of individual and collective educational activities conducted as in the classroom, extracurricular classes, without a teacher, and under his direct leadership. The authors point out that mastering the skills of independent work intensifies future specialist’s cognitive activity, facilitates searching scientific and methodological information, makes mastering of educational material more conscious, encourages self-development and self-study. Analysing the scientific exploration of modern educators and psychologists on the organization of independent work, the author determines the optimal forms and methods of students’ independent activity in the course "Fine Arts with Teaching Methodology." Particular attention is paid to methodological support of students' independent work with thematic module "Decorative painting", which contains forms and instructional techniques of teaching Petrykivska painting. The authors emphasize that one of the important conditions for successful primary school teachers’ fine arts training, developing their artistic abilities during the tasks of independent work is the individual approach, the choice of methods, techniques, learning pace, depending on students’ individual characteristics and interests.

  20. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...