Sample records for learning concept related

  1. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane


    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  2. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  3. The Motivational Effects of Types of Computer Feedback on Children's Learning and Retention of Relational Concepts. (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor; And Others

    The effects of different types of feedback in computer assisted instruction (CAI) on relational concept learning by young children were compared in this study. Subjects were 89 kindergarten students whose primary language was English, and whose performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts was within the average range chosen from classes in a…

  4. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool for the Employment Relations Degree (United States)

    Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo


    Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…

  5. Teachers' Self-Concept and Valuing of Learning: Relations with Teaching Approaches and Beliefs about Students (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander S.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Kaur, Gurvinder


    One's self-concept and value perceptions can significantly influence one's behaviours and beliefs. Australian teachers from urban and rural areas of the state of New South Wales were asked to respond to survey items on two predictors (teacher self-concept, valuing of learning) and three outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis established the five…

  6. On the Role of Discipline-Related Self-Concept in Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning among University Students (United States)

    Platow, Michael J.; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Grace, Diana M.


    The current research examined the role that students' discipline-related self-concepts may play in their deep and surface approaches to learning, their overall learning outcomes, and continued engagement in the discipline itself. Using a cross-lagged panel design of first-year university psychology students, a causal path was observed in which…

  7. Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts? (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda


    Definitions of related concepts (e.g., genotype - phenotype ) are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy, called example elaboration. This outcome occurred even though example elaboration was administered in a naturalistic way (Experiment 1) and students spent more time in the example elaboration condition learning (Experiments 1, 2, 3), and generating pieces of information about the concepts (Experiments 2 and 3). Further, with unrelated concepts ( morpheme-fluid intelligence ), performance was similar regardless if students used differential-associative processing or example elaboration (Experiment 3). Taken as a whole, these results suggest that differential-associative processing is better than example elaboration for learning definitions of related concepts and is as good as example elaboration for learning definitions of unrelated concepts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г О Дуйсеева


    Full Text Available This article deals with the definition and the description of mobile learning. Ten years’ experience of the latest mobile technologies use and devices in educational process abroad is analyzed. Prospects and the possibilities of application of these technologies are considered. The basic concepts and development of mobile learning which proposed by scientists for the last years have been given.

  9. Relational Analysis of College Chemistry-Major Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Chemistry (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…

  10. Phonological Concept Learning. (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya


    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS (Gradual Maximum Entropy with a Conjunctive Constraint Schema), an implementation of the Configural Cue Model (Gluck & Bower, ) in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework (Goldwater & Johnson, ; Hayes & Wilson, ) with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners seek featurally simple algebraic rules ("rule-seeking"). We study the full typology of patterns introduced by Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins () ("SHJ"), instantiated as both phonotactic patterns and visual analogs, using unsupervised training. Unlike SHJ, Experiments 1 and 2 found that both phonotactic and visual patterns that depended on fewer features could be more difficult than those that depended on more features, as predicted by GMECCS but not by rule-seeking. GMECCS also correctly predicted performance differences between stimulus subclasses within each pattern. A third experiment tried supervised training (which can facilitate rule-seeking in visual learning) to elicit simple rule-seeking phonotactic learning, but cue-based behavior persisted. We conclude that similar cue-based cognitive processes are available for phonological and visual concept learning, and hence that studying either kind of learning can lead to significant insights about the other. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.


    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  12. Intentional learning: A concept analysis. (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori


    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metacognitive Reading Strategies in Learning Disability: Relations between Usage Level, Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept (United States)

    Girli, Alev; Öztürk, Halil


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD), academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD) peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the…

  14. A concept model for learning: An attempt to define a proper relations scheme between instruction, learning and to establish the dynamics of learning in relation to modern political concepts as study-fairness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, F.B.M.; Vos, Henk; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; van Dijkum, C.; van Dijkum, C.


    For years, it has been attempted within educational science to establish the process of learning. A lot is known about instruction, but as to learning and acquiring knowledge and insight, we still know very little. A lot of research is conducted on methods of instruction, but very little on learning

  15. Absolute versus Relative Environmental Sustainability: What can the Cradle-to-Cradle and Eco-efficiency Concepts Learn from Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    The cradle-to-cradle (C2C) concept has emerged as an alternative to the more established eco-efficiency concept based on life cycle assessment (LCA). The two concepts differ fundamentally in that eco-efficiency aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities while C2C...... attempts to increase the positive footprint. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each concept and suggests how they may learn from each other. The eco-efficiency concept involves no long-term vision or strategy, the links between resource consumption and waste emissions are not well...... related to the sustainability state, and increases in eco-efficiency may lead to increases in consumption levels and hence overall impact. The C2C concept's disregard for energy efficiency means that many current C2C products will likely not perform well in an LCA. Inherent drawbacks are restrictions...

  16. Relations between teacher's perception of nature - nurture question, neuromyths, and metaphorical conception of teaching students with learning disorders


    Tancig, Simona; Vernik, Teja


    Misunderstanding about brain function and development also relates to teacher's opinions on issues such as learning disorders and so, in turn may influence outcome of students with these disorders" (Howard-Jones, 2014, p. 817). To more fully examine this issue we investigated mentioned relations using quantitative and qualitative study design. 98 primary school teacher in inclusive education participated in the study.

  17. Re-framing the characteristics of concepts and their relation to learning and cognition in artificial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olier Jauregui, J.S.; Barakova, E.I.; Regazzoni, C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.


    In this work, the problems of knowledge acquisition and information processing are explored in relation to the definitions of concepts and conceptual processing, and their implications for artificial agents. The discussion focuses on views of cognition as a dynamic property in which the world is

  18. Metacognitive reading strategies in learning disability: Relations between usage level, academic self-efficacy and self-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Girli


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD, academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, the Academic Self-efficacy Scale, the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-concept Scale and the Demographics Information Form. The study was conducted among a total of 119 students in the fifth,sixth, seventh and eighth grades in İzmir Province, including 59 students diagnosed with SLD and 60 TD students. Considering the results of the study, in comparison to TD students, students diagnosed with SLD were significantly inadequate in terms of the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies, levels of academic self-efficacy, and the intelligence/school subdimensions of the concept of self.

  19. Learning concepts of cinenurducation: an integrative review. (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Kang, Jeongae; De Gagne, Jennie C


    Cinenurducation is the use of films in both didactic and clinical nursing education. Although films are already used as instructional aids in nursing education, few studies have been made that demonstrate the learning concepts that can be attributed to this particular teaching strategy. The purpose of this paper is to describe the learning concepts of cinenurducation and its conceptual metaphor based on a review of literature. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, ERIC, EBSCO, ProQuest Library Journal, and Scopus databases were searched for articles. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles were selected through title and abstract screening from "films in nursing" related articles found in internationally published articles in English from the past 20 years. Four common concepts emerged that relate to cinenurducation: (a) student-centered, (b) experiential, (c) reflective, and (d) problem-solving learning. Current literature corroborates cinenurducation as an effective teaching strategy with its learning activities in nursing education. Future studies may include instructional guides of sample films that could be practically used in various domains to teach nursing competencies, as well as in the development of evaluation criteria and standards to assess students' learning outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne


    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  1. Concept mapping to promote meaningful learning, help relate theory to practice and improve learning self-efficacy in Asian mental health nursing students: A mixed-methods pilot study. (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel T; Wong, Wai-Kit; Lam, Kar Kei Claire; Chien, Wai Tong


    Student nurses are provided with a great deal of knowledge within university, but they can find it difficult to relate theory to nursing practice. This study aimed to test the appropriateness and feasibility of assessing Novak's concept mapping as an educational strategy to strengthen the theory-practice link, encourage meaningful learning and enhance learning self-efficacy in nursing students. This pilot study utilised a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design. The study was conducted in a University school of Nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 40 third-year pre-registration Asian mental health nursing students completed the study; 12 in the concept mapping (CM) group and 28 in the usual teaching methods (UTM) group. The impact of concept mapping was evaluated thorough analysis of quantitative changes in students' learning self-efficacy, analysis of the structure and contents of the concept maps (CM group), a quantitative measure of students' opinions about their reflective learning activities and content analysis of qualitative data from reflective written accounts (CM group). There were no significant differences in self-reported learning self-efficacy between the two groups (p=0.38). The concept mapping helped students identify their current level of understanding, but the increased awareness may cause an initial drop in learning self-efficacy. The results highlight that most CM students were able to demonstrate meaningful learning and perceived that concept mapping was a useful reflective learning strategy to help them to link theory and practice. The results provide preliminary evidence that the concept mapping approach can be useful to help mental health nursing students visualise their learning progress and encourage the integration of theoretical knowledge with clinical knowledge. Combining concept mapping data with quantitative measures and qualitative reflective journal data appears to be a useful way of assessing and understanding the effectiveness of



    岡, 直樹; 今永, 久美子


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of concept map completion tasks on concept learning in the primary schoolchildren. The participants were to insert some of the suitable concepts (concept group) or link labeles (link label group) or both of them (concept/link label group) into the blanks to make up the map wholly. It was revealed that the results of the concept group and the concept/link label group were better than the link label group. These results were discussed in te...

  3. Object recognition and concept learning with Confucius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B; Sammut, C


    A learning program produces, as its output, a Boolean function which describes a concept. The function returns true if and only if the argument is an object which satisfies the logical expression in the body of the function. The learning program's input is a set of objects which are instances of the concept to be learnt. The paper describes an algorithm devised to learn concept descriptions in this form. 15 references.

  4. Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Drachsler, Hendrik


    Stoyanov, S., & Drachsler, H. (2013, 5 July). Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics. Presentation given at Learning Analytics Summer School Institute (LASI) to kickoff the national GCM study on LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  5. Teaching and Learning the Concept of Chemical Bonding (United States)

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.


    Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…

  6. Using the Typewriter for Learning: Concepts (United States)

    Clayton, Dean


    Research studies conducted with typewriting students have consistently shown that concepts can be learned in typewriting classes with no appreciable loss of typewriting skill by students. This article discusses three stages of typewriting instruction and how concept learning can be incorporated into each stage. (HD)

  7. Learning Situations in Nursing Education: A Concept Analysis. (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Zare, Zahra; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Griffiths, Pauline; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba


    The nursing student requires opportunities to learn within authentic contexts so as to enable safe and competent practice. One strategy to facilitate such learning is the creation of learning situations. A lack of studies on the learning situation in nursing and other health care fields has resulted in insufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the learning situation, its antecedents, and consequences. Nurse educators need to have comprehensive and practical knowledge of the definition and characteristics of the learning situation so as to enable their students to achieve enhanced learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of the learning situation as it relates to the education of nurses and improve understanding of its characteristics, antecedents, and consequences. The Bonis method of concept analysis, as derived from the Rodgers' evolutionary method, provided the framework for analysis. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in two phases: "interdisciplinary" and "intra-disciplinary." The data source was a search of the literature, encompassing nursing and allied health care professions, published from 1975 to 2016. No agreement on the conceptual phenomenon was discovered in the international literature. The concept of a learning situation was used generally in two ways and thus classified into the themes of: "formal/informal learning situation" and "biologic/nonbiologic learning situation." Antecedents to the creation of a learning situation included personal and environmental factors. The characteristics of a learning situation were described in terms of being complex, dynamic, and offering potential and effective learning opportunities. Consequences of the learning situation included enhancement of the students' learning, professionalization, and socialization into the professional role. The nurse educator, when considering the application of the concept of a learning situation in their educational planning, must

  8. A Bayesian concept learning approach to crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.; Zilles, S.; Hamilton, H.J.


    techniques, inference methods, and query selection strategies to assist a user charged with choosing a configuration that satisfies some (partially known) concept. Our model is able to simultaneously learn the concept definition and the types of the experts. We evaluate our model with simulations, showing......We develop a Bayesian approach to concept learning for crowdsourcing applications. A probabilistic belief over possible concept definitions is maintained and updated according to (noisy) observations from experts, whose behaviors are modeled using discrete types. We propose recommendation...

  9. Teaching’s concept of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering

    This paper discusses and exemplifies how teaching’s concept of learning can be understood. The theoretical framework for the construction and discussion of teaching’s concept of learning is found insecond-order systems theory as described by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995...... both produce and are products of the curricula, and for describing the taught curriculum as an emerging and contingent form in its own right (Keiding & Qvortrup, 2014)....

  10. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools (United States)

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.


    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  11. How Do Korsakoff Patients Learn New Concepts? (United States)

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Helene; Guillery-Girard, Berengere; Witkowski, Thomas; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis


    The goal of the present investigation was to assess semantic learning in Korsakoff patients (KS), compared with uncomplicated alcoholics (AL) and control subjects (CS), taking the nature of the information to-be-learned and the episodic memory profiles of the three groups into account. Ten new complex concepts, each illustrated by a photo and…

  12. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos


    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  13. Analysis of strategies for teaching and learning of concepts related to Astronomy in the Elementary School II (United States)

    de Moraes E Poffo, Roberta Izabella


    The curricular proposed of the State of Sao Paulo, in the discipline of physical and biological sciences, has a content related to Earth and Universe, that are approached by Astronomy, in Elementary Education I, II and high school. Despite the importance of Astronomy and the public acceptance, it is notable that they have difficulties in this discipline. During the school year 2010 in a public school in Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, 89 students of three different classes in a sixth year of an elementary school II, responded to a questionnaire prepared and applied by the teacher based on the required contents of the curricular proposed by the State of Sao Paulo with ten essay questions related to Astronomy, with the propose to examine the previous knowledge. Only 19% of students hit 50% or more of the issues, the required content considered as the last satisfactory note. During the same year it was presented, but in each class a different strategy as applied. In the first class, an expositive class with audiovisual aids atrategy was used, in the second class an expositive class dialoged strategy and in the third class a textbook research. It was observed that after applying the same questionnaire, there was an improvement on the questions hit. The class where the expositive class dialoged strategy was used improved from 3% to 63% of hits, the class with audiovisual aids improved from 23% to 80% of hits and the class that used research on textbooks strategy improved from 31% to 76%. Thus, it was considered that after the application of the strategies there was a significant improvement in the student performance comparing to the required content. The expositive class dialoged strategy was considered as the most effective.

  14. Students’ Conceptions of Constructivist Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie)


    textabstractConstructivism is currently an influential view on learning. It advocates a student-centred perspective: Students are active learners who construct their own understanding (e.g., Slavin, 2006). Different types of constructivism can be distinguished (e.g., Phillips, 1995) that all

  15. Towards an agential realist concept of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Helle


    Drawing on agential realism, this article explores how learning can be understood. An agential realist way of thinking about learning is sensitive to the complexity that characterises learning as a phenomenon. Thus, learning is seen as a dynamic and emergent phenomenon, constantly undergoing...... processes of becoming and expanding the range of components involved in such constitutive processes. With inspiration from Barad’s theorisation of spatiality, temporality and the interdependence of discourse and materiality, this article focuses on timespacemattering and material-discursivity. Concepts...

  16. Measuring the Computer-Related Self-Concept (United States)

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Schönfelder, Mona; Bogner, Franz X.


    A positive self-concept supposedly affects a student's well-being as well as his or her perception of individual competence at school. As computer-based learning is becoming increasingly important in school, a positive computer-related self-concept (CSC) might help to enhance cognitive achievement. Consequently, we focused on establishing a short,…

  17. Investigating alternative conceptions in learning disabled students (United States)

    Cole, Terry Stokes

    Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.

  18. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results (United States)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.


    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  19. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton


    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  20. Concept mapping as learning tool in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.


    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new

  1. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming


    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  2. Joint Concept Correlation and Feature-Concept Relevance Learning for Multilabel Classification. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Ma, Zhigang; Li, Zhi; Li, Zhihui


    In recent years, multilabel classification has attracted significant attention in multimedia annotation. However, most of the multilabel classification methods focus only on the inherent correlations existing among multiple labels and concepts and ignore the relevance between features and the target concepts. To obtain more robust multilabel classification results, we propose a new multilabel classification method aiming to capture the correlations among multiple concepts by leveraging hypergraph that is proved to be beneficial for relational learning. Moreover, we consider mining feature-concept relevance, which is often overlooked by many multilabel learning algorithms. To better show the feature-concept relevance, we impose a sparsity constraint on the proposed method. We compare the proposed method with several other multilabel classification methods and evaluate the classification performance by mean average precision on several data sets. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  3. E-Learning Concepts in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Mathiasen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Christian

    The main aim of the symposium is to investigate, at both a theoretical and practical level, the quality and sustainability of a variety of models and key concepts of how communication and collaborative e-learning communities may be successfully developed, implemented and supported in higher educa...... education contexts....

  4. Learning drifting concepts with neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Schwarze, Holm


    The learning of time-dependent concepts with a neural network is studied analytically and numerically. The linearly separable target rule is represented by an N-vector, whose time dependence is modelled by a random or deterministic drift process. A single-layer network is trained online using

  5. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values. (United States)

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir


    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiru Rakhman Abidin


    Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so  human gets  knowledge of language through learning.

  7. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels (United States)

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.


    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  8. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn


    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  9. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Ju


    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  10. Anxiety and Self-Concept of Learning Disabled Children. (United States)

    Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai


    One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)

  11. The effects of a concept map-based support tool on simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemans, M.G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.


    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations,

  12. Learning Outcomes as a Key Concept in Policy Documents throughout Policy Changes (United States)

    Prøitz, Tine Sophie


    Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…

  13. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  14. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy. (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P


    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  15. Investigating Students’ Development of Learning Integer Concept and Integer Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Octavarulia Shanty


    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating students’ development of learning integer concept and integer addition. The investigation was based on analyzing students’ works in solving the given mathematical problems in each instructional activity designed based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME levels. Design research was chosen to achieve and to contribute in developing a local instruction theory for teaching and learning of integer concept and integer addition. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT plays important role as a design and research instrument. It was designed in the phase of preliminary design and tested to three students of grade six OASIS International School, Ankara – Turkey. The result of the experiments showed that temperature in the thermometer context could stimulate students’ informal knowledge of integer concept. Furthermore, strategies and tools used by the students in comparing and relating two temperatures were gradually be developed into a more formal mathematics. The representation of line inside thermometer which then called the number line could bring the students to the last activity levels, namely rules for adding integer, and became the model for more formal reasoning. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that students’ learning integer concept and integer addition developed through RME levels.Keywords: integer concept, integer addition, Realistic Mathematics Education DOI:

  16. Concept formation knowledge and experience in unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Douglas H; Langley, Pat


    Concept Formation: Knowledge and Experience in Unsupervised Learning presents the interdisciplinary interaction between machine learning and cognitive psychology on unsupervised incremental methods. This book focuses on measures of similarity, strategies for robust incremental learning, and the psychological consistency of various approaches.Organized into three parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of inductive concept learning in machine learning and psychology, with emphasis on issues that distinguish concept formation from more prevalent supervised methods and f

  17. Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of "same or different". (United States)

    Martinho, Antone; Kacelnik, Alex


    The ability to identify and retain logical relations between stimuli and apply them to novel stimuli is known as relational concept learning. This has been demonstrated in a few animal species after extensive reinforcement training, and it reveals the brain's ability to deal with abstract properties. Here we describe relational concept learning in newborn ducklings without reinforced training. Newly hatched domesticated mallards that were briefly exposed to a pair of objects that were either the same or different in shape or color later preferred to follow pairs of new objects exhibiting the imprinted relation. Thus, even in a seemingly rigid and very rapid form of learning such as filial imprinting, the brain operates with abstract conceptual reasoning, a faculty often assumed to be reserved to highly intelligent organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development (United States)

    Shallcross, David C.


    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  19. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry. (United States)

    Surapaneni, Krishna M; Tekian, Ara


    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  20. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry. (United States)

    Surapaneni, KrishnaM; Tekian, Ara


    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  1. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy


    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  2. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Aslanides


    Full Text Available We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  3. Recommender System for E-Learning Based on Semantic Relatedness of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye


    Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.

  4. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts? (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John


    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  5. Lessons learned related to packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, C.


    The use of lessons learned as a tool for learning from past experiences is well established, especially by many organizations within the nuclear industry. Every person has, at some time, used the principles of lessons learned to adopt good work practices based on their own experiences or the experiences of others. Lessons learned can also help to avoid the recurrence of adverse practices, which is often an area that most lessons-learned programs tend to focus on. This paper will discuss how lessons learned relate to packaging and transportation issues and events experienced at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It will also discuss the role performed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety's Office of Operating Experience Analysis and Feedback in disseminating lessons learned and operating experience feedback to the DOE complex. The central concept of lessons learned is that any organization should be able to learn from its own experiences and events. In addition, organizations should implement methodologies to scan external environments for lessons learned, to analyze and determine the relevance of lessons learned, and to bring about the necessary changes learned from these experiences. With increased concerns toward facility safety, the importance of utilizing the lessons-learned principles and the establishment of lessons-learned programs can not be overstated

  6. Historical survey of new concepts of lifelong learning during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.


    Full Text Available Learning and education gradually occupy an important place in human life. Therefore, continuing socio-political and economic changes, rapid scientific and technological development, the expansion of knowledge, formed the phenomenon of the learning society. Its theoretical basis can be found in the concept of learning in the course of a lifetime, example: permanent learning and education in the aging process. On the other hand, the rapid changes taking place in the world, seeking to know the day is increasing. In the center of a thriving economy and a developed society are knowledge and ability, and education and learning become the instrument that. key socio-economic progress. Nevertheless, shorter working hours and longer life expectancy retirement also increases the amount of time available for other activities. In all areas, there are more opportunities for learning outside the school, and qualifications, in the traditional sense of getting out in front of new trends competence and adaptability. Adults who are constantly in the process of aging, the process of continuing education and learning are significantly different quality in relation to children, therefore it is necessary and a different approach to the children, and a different approach to teaching adults in the era of change, due to life and work experience, educational level, psychological and physical characteristics but also because of their social status. This paper will be an attempt, which will show the theoretical analysis of many aspects of learning, types, shapes, possibilities and limits of learning, the basic needs of adults in the aging process, as well as provide answers to the question why a grown man in the aging process learns who the person in the learning process and learning how to function in a process of aging.

  7. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela


    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  8. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya


    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  9. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  10. Pregnancy-related anxiety: A concept analysis. (United States)

    Bayrampour, Hamideh; Ali, Elena; McNeil, Deborah A; Benzies, Karen; MacQueen, Glenda; Tough, Suzanne


    Evidence suggests that pregnancy-related anxiety is more strongly associated with maternal and child outcomes than general anxiety and depression are and that pregnancy-related anxiety may constitute a distinct concept. However, because of its poor conceptualization, the measurement and assessment of pregnancy-related anxiety have been limited. Efforts to analyze this concept can significantly contribute to its theoretical development. The first objective of this paper was to clarify the concept of pregnancy-related anxiety and identify its characteristics and dimensions. The second aim was to examine the items of current pregnancy-related anxiety measures to determine the dimensions and attributes that each scale addresses, noting any gaps between the current assessment and the construct of the concept. A concept analysis was conducted to examine the concept of pregnancy-related anxiety. To obtain the relevant evidence, several databases were searched including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO's SocINDEX, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE. A modified approach based on Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing. 5th ed; 2011) was used. Qualitative or quantitative studies published in English that explored or examined anxiety during pregnancy or its dimensions prospectively or retrospectively were included. Thirty eight studies provided data for the concept analysis. Three critical attributes (i.e., affective responses, cognitions, and somatic symptoms), three antecedents (i.e., a real or anticipated threat to pregnancy or its outcomes, low perceived control, and excessive cognitive activity, and four consequences (i.e., negative attitudes, difficulty concentrating, excessive reassurance-seeking behavior, and avoidance behaviors) were identified. Nine dimensions for pregnancy-related anxiety were determined, and a definition of the concept was proposed. The most frequently reported dimensions included anxiety

  11. Investigating the Interrelationships among Conceptions of, Approaches to, and Self-Efficacy in Learning Science (United States)

    Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science,…

  12. Vibronic coupling density and related concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tohru; Uejima, Motoyuki; Iwahara, Naoya; Haruta, Naoki; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi


    Vibronic coupling density is derived from a general point of view as a one-electron property density. Related concepts as well as their applications are presented. Linear and nonlinear vibronic coupling density and related concepts, orbital vibronic coupling density, reduced vibronic coupling density, atomic vibronic coupling constant, and effective vibronic coupling density, illustrate the origin of vibronic couplings and enable us to design novel functional molecules or to elucidate chemical reactions. Transition dipole moment density is defined as an example of the one-electron property density. Vibronic coupling density and transition dipole moment density open a way to design light-emitting molecules with high efficiency.

  13. Procedural Content Generation: Concepts and Related Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIÑO, J. R. H.


    Full Text Available The digital games market is growing every year and game development is becoming increasingly complex. Thus, scalability in content generation may require the work of a team with hundreds of people. Procedural Content Generation (PCG comes as an alternative to decrease costs and accelerate the process of game production by creating content automatically or semi-automatically. This article presents some concepts and reviews works developed in PCG, aiming to provide a starting point for those interested in learning and going deeper in the subject of PCG for digital games.

  14. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel


    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  15. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning (United States)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  16. Changing University Students’ Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalkida Hadžibegović


    Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.

  17. Instilling Service Learning to Undergraduate Business Students: A Case Study Approach to Understanding Business-Related Concepts with the Use of Kiva (United States)

    Grotrian-Ryan, Sheri; Ryan, Kyle; Jackson, Alan


    Higher education continues to place an emphasis on service-learning, specifically within business and management sciences (Kenworthy-U'Ren & Peterson, 2005). A local academic business organization at a small institution chose to embark on a service-learning endeavor. The purpose of this study was for business majors, active in Phi Beta Lambda…

  18. A concept analysis of relational aggression. (United States)

    Gomes, M M


    The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.

  19. Analysis of Learning Conceptions Based on Three Modules. (United States)

    Haygood, E. Langston; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

    Three learning modules are described and investigated as they reflect different students' conceptions of and approaches to learning. The Schoolwork Module (SWM) focuses on task performance and involves a passive, incremental, piecemeal, and rote memory method of learning, parallel to what might be implied by the Information Processing model of…

  20. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz


    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  1. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments (United States)

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian


    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  2. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda


    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  3. Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results


    von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard


    Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.

  4. Deep Learning through Concept-Based Inquiry (United States)

    Donham, Jean


    Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…

  5. The Context-Specific Conceptions of Learning in Case-Based Accounting Assignments, Students' Characteristics and Performance (United States)

    Moilanen, Sinikka


    The present study contributes to accounting education literature by describing context-specific conceptions of learning related to case assignments, and by exploring the associations between the conceptions of learning, students' characteristics and performance. The data analysed consist of 1320 learning diaries of 336 students, connected with…

  6. The Conceptions of Learning Science by Laboratory among University Science-Major Students: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…

  7. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference. (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang


    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conceptions of How a Learning or Teaching Curriculum, Workplace Culture and Agency of Individuals Shape Medical Student Learning and Supervisory Practices in the Clinical Workplace (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E.


    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the…

  9. The clinical learning environment in nursing education: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Flott, Elizabeth A; Linden, Lois


    The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the clinical learning environment concept. Nursing students are evaluated in clinical learning environments where skills and knowledge are applied to patient care. These environments affect achievement of learning outcomes, and have an impact on preparation for practice and student satisfaction with the nursing profession. Providing clarity of this concept for nursing education will assist in identifying antecedents, attributes and consequences affecting student transition to practice. The clinical learning environment was investigated using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A literature search was conducted using WorldCat, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the keywords clinical learning environment, clinical environment and clinical education. Articles reviewed were written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals between 1995-2014. All data were analysed for recurring themes and terms to determine possible antecedents, attributes and consequences of this concept. The clinical learning environment contains four attribute characteristics affecting student learning experiences. These include: (1) the physical space; (2) psychosocial and interaction factors; (3) the organizational culture and (4) teaching and learning components. These attributes often determine achievement of learning outcomes and student self-confidence. With better understanding of attributes comprising the clinical learning environment, nursing education programmes and healthcare agencies can collaborate to create meaningful clinical experiences and enhance student preparation for the professional nurse role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang


    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  11. Difficulties of learning probability concepts, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and suggestions for solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sezgin MEMNUN


    Full Text Available Probability holds the first place among the subjects that both teachers and students have difficulty in handling. Although probability has an important role in many professions and a great many decisions we make for our daily lives, the understanding of the probability concepts is not an easy ability to gain for many students. Most of the students develop perception about lots of probability concepts and they have difficulty finding a reason for probability events. Thus, in the present study, the difficulties faced while learning probability concepts and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned well are investigated, these reasons are tried to be put forward, and some suggestions for solutions regarding these concepts are presented. In this study, cross-hatching model was used. National and international studies on the subject of probability are investigated, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were categorized in the light of findings obtained, and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and taught are tried to be discovered. The categorization was displayed with Ishikawa diagram. In the diagram, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were noted as six categories. These categories were age, the insufficiency of advanced information, the deficiency of argumentation ability, teacher, error in concept, and students’ negative attitudes.

  12. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA. (United States)

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe


    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  13. Developing user-centered concepts for language learning video games


    Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik


    This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...

  14. Judeo-Christian concepts related to psychiatry (United States)

    Ponnudurai, R.


    The behavioral manifestations of psychotic disorders that are attributed to evil spirits in the Judeo-Christian scriptures as demonstrated by Jesus Christ have been narrated. The descriptions of false beliefs and the perceptual experiences that are consistent with the psychiatric terminologies “delusions and hallucinations” are briefly discussed. Attempt has been made to analyze the patterns of suicidal behaviors, guilt feelings, and, expressions of depressive symptoms in the Jewish culture. Of interest is the mass suicide by the Jews in the 1st century AD at the Fort Masada, perhaps the first of its kind recorded in the history. Noteworthy are alcohol and related mental health problems prevalent in the Jewish culture. While highlighting the descriptions of dreams and their revelations recorded in the Bible, it is suggested that such concepts about dreams might have influenced Sigmund Freud's classical works on dreams. The biblical messages and teachings that could be applied for psychotherapy and behavior modification strategies have been outlined. The mental concepts of Jewish culture and their relevance to Indian culture have also been discussed from a cross-cultural perspective. PMID:23858255

  15. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  16. Lifelong Learning: Concept, Policy, Instruments and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin TOPRAK


    Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.

  17. Using enriched skeleton concept mapping to support meaningful learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maree, A.J.; Bruggen, van J.M.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhear, J.


    Abstract. There has been significant interest among researchers in the instructional use of concept maps and collaboration scripts. Some studies focus on students' collaboration on concept mapping tasks; others focus on scripts to structure learning tasks and guide interactions. Little is known

  18. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts (United States)

    Alvarez, Marino C.


    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  19. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Penrod


    Full Text Available Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal investigation into the meaning of the concept. Through concept analysis, the concept was deconstructed to identify conceptual components and gaps in understanding. Using this skeletal framework of the concept identified through concept analysis, subsequent studies were carried out to add ‘flesh’ to the concept. First, a concept refinement using the literature as data was completed. Findings revealed that the current state of the concept of uncertainty failed to incorporate what was known of the lived experience. Therefore, using interview techniques as the primary data source, a phenomenological study of uncertainty among caregivers was conducted. Incorporating the findings of the phenomenology, the skeletal framework of the concept was further fleshed out using techniques of concept correction to produce a more mature conceptualization of uncertainty. In this section, I describe the flow of this qualitative project investigating the concept of uncertainty, with special emphasis on a particular threat to validity (called conceptual tunnel vision that was identified and addressed during the phases of concept correction. Though in this article I employ a study of uncertainty for illustration, limited substantive findings regarding uncertainty are presented to retain a clear focus on the methodological issues.

  20. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts


    Janice Penrod


    Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal in...

  1. An Innovative Improvement of Engineering Learning System Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Concept (United States)

    Hung, T. C.; Wang, S. K.; Tai, S. W.; Hung, C. T.


    An innovative concept of an electronic learning system has been established in an attempt to achieve a technology that provides engineering students with an instructive and affordable framework for learning engineering-related courses. This system utilizes an existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, Active Server Pages programming,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kruglyk


    Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.

  3. Students' conceptions of learning: using the ASSIST instrument ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the study has been on students' conceptions of learning in three South African Technikons amidst the changing circumstances of teaching and learning from subject-based to outcomes-based education. First-year students face a particular measure of unpreparedness as they graduate from a conventional high ...

  4. Learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...

  5. Learning Essential Terms and Concepts in Statistics and Accounting (United States)

    Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Middledorp, Jenny; Karpin, Anne; Sin, Samantha; Kilgore, Alan


    This paper describes a terminological approach to the teaching and learning of fundamental concepts in foundation tertiary units in Statistics and Accounting, using an online dictionary-style resource (TermFinder) with customised "termbanks" for each discipline. Designed for independent learning, the termbanks support inquiring students…

  6. Applying Andragogical Concepts in Creating a Sustainable Lifelong Learning Society (United States)

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.


    Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…

  7. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning (United States)

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris


    Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple…

  8. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning. (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M


    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  9. Learning concept mappings from instance similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Englebienne, G.; Schlobach, S.


    Finding mappings between compatible ontologies is an important but difficult open problem. Instance-based methods for solving this problem have the advantage of focusing on the most active parts of the ontologies and reflect concept semantics as they are actually being used. However such methods

  10. Integrating collaborative concept mapping in case based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tifi


    Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.

  11. Action Learning as Relational Practice (United States)

    Boydell, Tom; Blantern, Chris


    In this paper we propose that all knowledge is made through social processes and is political (of the people involved). If one invests in a relational or historical ontology (a philosophical choice) there are implications for the way action learning is practiced. We illuminate some of these "relational practices". We purport that action learning…

  12. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments. (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi


    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction. (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony


    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction. (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony


    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing learning apparatus to promote twelfth grade students’ understanding of digital technology concept: A preliminary studies (United States)

    Marlius; Kaniawati, I.; Feranie, S.


    A preliminary learning design using relay to promote twelfth grade student’s understanding of logic gates concept is implemented to see how well it’s to adopted by six high school students, three male students and three female students of twelfth grade. This learning design is considered for next learning of digital technology concept i.e. data digital transmition and analog. This work is a preliminary study to design the learning for large class. So far just a few researches designing learning design related to digital technology with relay. It may due to this concept inserted in Indonesian twelfth grade curriculum recently. This analysis is focus on student difficulties trough video analysis to learn the concept. Based on our analysis, the recommended thing for redesigning learning is: students understand first about symbols and electrical circuits; the Student Worksheet is made in more detail on the assembly steps to the project board; mark with symbols at points in certain places in the circuit for easy assembly; assembly using relays by students is enough until is the NOT’s logic gates and the others that have been assembled so that effective time. The design of learning using relays can make the relay a liaison between the abstract on the digital with the real thing of it, especially in the circuit of symbols and real circuits. Besides it is expected to also enrich the ability of teachers in classroom learning about digital technology.

  16. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  17. The Concept of General Relativity is not Related to Reality (United States)

    Kotas, Ronald


    The concept of general relativity is not related to reality. It is not real or factual Science. GR cannot account for objects falling to earth or for the weight of objects sitting on the earth. The Cavendish demonstration showing the attraction between two masses at right angles to earth's gravity, is not explained by GR. No one can prove the existence of ``space fabric.'' The concept of ``space time'' effects causing gravitational attraction between masses is wrong. Conservation law of energy - momentum does not exist in GR. LIGO fails in detecting ``gravity waves'' because there is no ``space fabric'' to transmit them. The Gravity B Probe data manipulated to show some effects, is not proof of ``space fabric.'' It is Nuclear Quantum Gravitation that provides clear definitive explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 clear, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics, by Paul Marmet

  18. A dynamic learning concept in early years’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig


    -historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces four generally accepted play criteria that form the basis for the construction of a dynamic and play-based learning concept that has the three following cornerstones as focal points: (1) learning happens in activities where the child is an active participant...... and interacts and communicates with other people; (2) meaningful activities pave the way for children’s learning; these are activities where the child’s motive aligns with the goal of the activity; and (3) learning is seen as a productive and creative activity characterised by imagination....

  19. Action Relations. Basic Design Concepts for Behaviour Modelling and Refinement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick

    This thesis presents basic design concepts, design methods and a basic design language for distributed system behaviours. This language is based on two basic concepts: the action concept and the causality relation concept. Our methods focus on behaviour refinement, which consists of replacing an

  20. The Analysis of High School Students' Conceptions of Learning in Different Domains (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem


    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not conceptions of learning diverge in different science domains by identifying high school students' conceptions of learning in physics, chemistry and biology. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire was adapted for physics (Conceptions of Learning Physics, COLP), chemistry…

  1. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning. (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann


    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Building the Concept of Acceleration - A Proposal for Promoting the Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ledur


    Full Text Available This work aims to present a sequence of activities to help the students concept of acceleration. It was developed with a group of eighth grade elementary school sutdents in a state school of Bom Princípio, RS. The physical quantities of kinematics are presents on the day-a-day but in classroom is perceived that students, in general, have difficulties in developing and understanding of concepts related to that topic. Previous experiences that the student experiences in their daily lives led him to build their own conceptions to explain the phenomena observed, and in school, are faced with the scientifically accepted concepts. These preconceptions are strongly rooted in the cognitive structure of the learner, are not easily replaced and added to the lack of contextualization of content taught, unattractive learning resources and teaching that emphasizes rote learning are factors that contribute to failure of learning. The activities are based on the principles of meaningful learning and focused on active student participation. A pre test for identifying knowledge and preconceptions was applied as well as the post-test assessment of knowledge building. Figures with strobe photographs and video were used as prerequisites for the development of the new concept organizers. Later, the students elaborated and executed projects using resources of shooting and sequential shots to apply the concepts involved in this study. The results observed during the didatical sequence indicate that the occurrence of learning of the concepts of kinematics.

  3. Freed to Learn: Five Fundamental Concepts of Democratic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. FAHEY


    Full Text Available Children are natural learners each with distinct interests, abilities and rates of cognitive, emotional and social growth. Democratic Education institutionalizes five key concepts to free these natural instincts and individual differences to drive community self-governance and individual self-directed learning within a formal schooling environment. This paper summarizes the five concepts fundamental to Democratic Education and suggests how they can be applied within a school setting.

  4. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...

  5. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan (United States)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen


    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  6. Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning (United States)

    Mok, On Nei Annie


    The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

  7. On the Concepts of Usability and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sicilia


    Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.

  8. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Duan


    Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  9. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghong


    Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  10. Text conception(s in context of semi-present Distance Learning (DL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Komesu


    Full Text Available By following the example proposed by Corrêa (2011 in the investigation of texts produced by undergraduate and pre-undergraduate students in two different assessment, this work aims to approach “hidden” aspects in the teaching of writing at the university (Street, 2009, to reflections produced in the language field, in particular the ones referred as “socially assumed”, proposed by Voloshinov/Bakhtin (s/d: 1926. It is particularly important to investigate the conception of text in digital context, by means of the study of updated semiotic resources in the production of undergraduate students using a computer with internet access in the process of semi-present Distance Learning (DL. The collected material comprises 29 (twenty nine texts which were produced by students of the semi-present Pedagogy Course from Univesp (Universidade Virtual do Estado de São Paulo – Virtual University from the state of São Paulo, who were studying “Education and Language”, in 2010. This qualitative analysis aims to show that regarding the institution there is a prevalence of structural and procedural aspects for the accomplishment of the proposed activity and, regarding the undergraduate student it is noticed that the production is characterized by a traditional conception of text, mainly recognized by written verbal text, although the proposal prioritized the relation between verbal and non verbal language. Regarding discursive-linguistic studies, it is important to reflect about a text conception that privileges the integration of multiple semiosis by taking into account the socio-historical interlocution character established within utterances of others.

  11. Conceptions of how a learning or teaching curriculum, workplace culture and agency of individuals shape medical student learning and supervisory practices in the clinical workplace. (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E


    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.

  12. Conception of comics dedicated to optics learning (United States)

    Machemy, Jacques; Bousquet, Bruno


    Optics' teaching is commonly based on the use of lessons including several mathematical tools. For example, ray tracing can be described through matrix algebra, and interference and polarization can be supported by the use of complex numbers. Thus, the numerous mathematical descriptions included in the optics' lessons represent a real difficulty for students having insufficient skills in mathematics. Moreover, despite of very impressive optical effects one can observe in real life, e.g. rainbows, their description in optics' courses is often considered as too academic and boring, and finally not really exciting. In this context, we have invented a new type of comics dedicated to optics' learning. Based on a dialogue between two imaginary characters, one considered as the young student and the other one as the old teacher, we have chosen to reduce the role of mathematics and to mix realistic and unrealistic elements in the drawing to complete the explanations faster. Starting from reflection and refraction, the Snell's laws then allow for describing natural phenomena such as mirage and rainbow as well as technical points such as light propagation into an optical fiber and the measurement of the refraction index. The first volume presented here will be evaluated during the fall semester 2015 in different high schools and at university through a linked survey and the students will also get access to an online version while the following parts are in preparation.

  13. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah


    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  14. Cueing and Anxiety in a Visual Concept Learning Task. (United States)

    Turner, Philip M.

    This study investigated the relationship of two anxiety measures (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form and the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness-Exam Form) to performance on a visual concept-learning task with embedded criterial information. The effect on anxiety reduction of cueing criterial information was also examined, and two levels of…

  15. Engineering students' conceptions of entrepreneurial learning as part of their education (United States)

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso


    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group interviews (N = 48) and individual in-depth interviews (N = 16). As a result of the phenomenographic analysis, four qualitatively distinctive conceptions of entrepreneurial learning were discerned. Entrepreneurial learning was seen to involve (1) applying entrepreneurial ideas to engineering, (2) understanding entrepreneurial issues in a new way, (3) action-oriented personal development, and (4) self-realising through collective effort. These qualitatively distinct categories differed from each other in four dimensions of variation: nature of learning, response to pedagogy, relation to teamwork, and learning outcomes.

  16. Evaluating learning and teaching using the Force Concept Inventory (United States)

    Zitzewitz, Paul


    Teaching methods used in the calculus-based mechanics course for engineers and scientists (P150) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn were markedly changed in September, 1996. Lectures emphasize active learning with Mazur's ConcepTests, Sokoloff's Interactive Demonstrations, and Van Heuvelen's ALPS Kit worksheets. Students solve context-rich problems using Van Heuvelen's multiple representation format in cooperative groups in discussion sections. Labs were changed to use MBL emphasizing concepts and Experiment Problems to learn lab-based problem solving. Pre- and post-testing of 400 students with the Force Concept Inventory has demonstrated considerable success. The average increase in score has been 35-45methods as defined by Hake. The methods and results will be discussed. Detailed analyses of the FCI results will look at success in teaching specific concepts and the effect of student preparation in mathematics and high school physics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of cloud oriented learning environment (COLE of secondary school. It is examined the concept of "cloud oriented learning environment", "mobility training", the requirements for COLE, the goal of creating, the structural components, model deployment, maintenance. Four cloud storages are compared; the subjects and objects of COLE are described; the meaning of spatial and semantic, content and methodical, communication and organizational components are clarified; the benefits and features of cloud computing are defined. It is found that COLE creates conditions for active cooperation, provides mobility of learning process participants, and objects’ virtualization. It is available anywhere and at any time, ensures the development of creativity and innovation, critical thinking, ability to solve problems, to develop communicative, cooperative, life and career skills, to work with data, media, to develop ICT competence either of students and teachers.

  18. Virtual learning object and environment: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Bezerril, Manacés Dos Santos; Mariz, Camila Maria Santos; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira


    To analyze the concept of virtual learning object and environment according to Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Descriptive study with a mixed approach, based on the stages proposed by Rodgers in his concept analysis method. Data collection occurred in August 2015 with the search of dissertations and theses in the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. Quantitative data were analyzed based on simple descriptive statistics and the concepts through lexicographic analysis with support of the IRAMUTEQ software. The sample was made up of 161 studies. The concept of "virtual learning environment" was presented in 99 (61.5%) studies, whereas the concept of "virtual learning object" was presented in only 15 (9.3%) studies. A virtual learning environment includes several and different types of virtual learning objects in a common pedagogical context. Analisar o conceito de objeto e de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem na perspectiva evolucionária de Rodgers. Estudo descritivo, de abordagem mista, realizado a partir das etapas propostas por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. A coleta de dados ocorreu em agosto de 2015 com a busca de dissertações e teses no Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados a partir de estatística descritiva simples e os conceitos pela análise lexicográfica com suporte do IRAMUTEQ. A amostra é constituída de 161 estudos. O conceito de "ambiente virtual de aprendizagem" foi apresentado em 99 (61,5%) estudos, enquanto o de "objeto virtual de aprendizagem" em apenas 15 (9,3%). Concluiu-se que um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem reúne vários e diferentes tipos de objetos virtuais de aprendizagem em um contexto pedagógico comum.

  19. Action Relations. Basic Design Concepts for Behaviour Modelling and Refinement.


    Quartel, Dick


    This thesis presents basic design concepts, design methods and a basic design language for distributed system behaviours. This language is based on two basic concepts: the action concept and the causality relation concept. Our methods focus on behaviour refinement, which consists of replacing an abstract behaviour by a more concrete behaviour, such that the concrete behaviour conforms to the abstract behaviour. An important idea underlying this thesis is that an effective design methodology s...

  20. Concept maps and the meaningful learning of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio C. S. Valadares


    Full Text Available The foundations of the Meaningful Learning Theory (MLT were laid by David Ausubel. The MLT was highly valued by the contributions of Joseph Novak and D. B. Gowin. Unlike other learning theories, the MLT has an operational component, since there are some instruments based on it and with the meaningful learning facilitation as aim. These tools were designated graphic organizers by John Trowbridge and James Wandersee (2000, pp. 100-129. One of them is the concept map created by Novak to extract meanings from an amalgam of information, having currently many applications. The other one is the Vee diagram or knowledge Vee, also called epistemological Vee or heuristic Vee. It was created by Gowin, and is an excellent organizer, for example to unpack and make transparent the unclear information from an information source. Both instruments help us in processing and becoming conceptually transparent the information, to facilitate the cognitive process of new meanings construction. In this work, after a brief introduction, it will be developed the epistemological and psychological grounds of MLT, followed by a reference to constructivist learning environments facilitators of the meaningful learning, the characterization of concept maps and exemplification of its use in various applications that have proved to be very effective from the standpoint of meaningful learning.

  1. The MTO concept and organisational learning at Forsmark NPP, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl


    The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)

  2. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopes de Menezes


    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  3. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories


    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda


    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  4. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping (United States)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  5. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis (United States)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.


    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  6. Possible Major Influences of Children Learning Social Studies on Academic Self Concept and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Kaluge


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.

  7. Concept mapping and text writing as learning tools in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Dekker, R.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhaer, J.


    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing better support students while learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new information, and to

  8. The clinical popularity of object relations concepts. (United States)

    Friedman, L


    Object relations theory has the effect of supporting the psychoanalyst when he feels that the patient's effort is strongly opposed to his own. The current popularity of object relations theory may be related to the gradual disappearance from Freudian theory of a simple, clear image of an obligatory insistence by the patient that is useful even though it is unreflective. Object relations theory offers the practitioner a way of fortifying himself against blind demand, while newer Freudian theorists cope with the problem by orienting themselves more stringently toward the original paradigm of optional choice.

  9. The Effectiveness of Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning to Reduce Alternative Conceptions in Secondary Chemistry (United States)

    Barthlow, Michelle J.; Watson, Scott B.


    A nonequivalent, control group design was used to investigate student achievement in secondary chemistry. This study investigated the effect of process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in high school chemistry to reduce alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter versus traditional lecture pedagogy. Data were…

  10. Millennial Students' Preferred Methods for Learning Concepts in Psychiatric Nursing. (United States)

    Garwood, Janet K


    The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. A Study on Contingency Learning in Introductory Physics Concepts (United States)

    Scaife, Thomas M.

    Instructors of physics often use examples to illustrate new or complex physical concepts to students. For any particular concept, there are an infinite number of examples, thus presenting instructors with a difficult question whenever they wish to use one in their teaching: which example will most effectively illustrate the concept so that student learning is maximized? The choice is typically made by an intuitive assumption about which exact example will result in the most lucid illustration and the greatest student improvement. By questioning 583 students in four experiments, I examined a more principled approach to example selection. By controlling the manner in which physical dimensions vary, the parameter space of each concept can be divided into a discrete number of example categories. The effects of training with members of each of category was explored in two different physical contexts: projectile motion and torque. In the first context, students were shown two trajectories and asked to determine which represented the longer time of flight. Height, range, and time of flight were the physical dimensions that were used to categorize the examples. In the second context, students were shown a balance-scale with loads of differing masses placed at differing positions along either side of the balance-arm. Mass, lever-arm length, and torque were the physical dimensions used to categorize these examples. For both contexts, examples were chosen so that one or two independent dimensions were varied. After receiving training with examples from specific categories, students were tested with questions from all question categories. Successful training or instruction can be measured either as producing correct, expert-like behavior (as observed through answers to the questions) or as explicitly instilling an understanding of the underlying rule that governs a physical phenomenon. A student's behavior might not be consistent with their explicit rule, so following the

  12. Learning Illustrated: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Drawing Analysis of Students' Conceptions of Learning (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Using the draw-a-picture technique, the authors explored the learning conceptions held by students across grade levels. A total of 1,067 Taiwanese students in Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 participated in this study. Participants were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualize learning. A coding checklist was developed to analyze…

  13. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes. (United States)

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren


    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  14. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ganesan


    Full Text Available The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  15. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience. (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley


    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  16. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material


    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto


    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  17. Auditing the multiply-related concepts within the UMLS. (United States)

    Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia


    This work focuses on multiply-related Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, that is, concepts associated through multiple relations. The relations involved in such situations are audited to determine whether they are provided by source vocabularies or result from the integration of these vocabularies within the UMLS. We study the compatibility of the multiple relations which associate the concepts under investigation and try to explain the reason why they co-occur. Towards this end, we analyze the relations both at the concept and term levels. In addition, we randomly select 288 concepts associated through contradictory relations and manually analyze them. At the UMLS scale, only 0.7% of combinations of relations are contradictory, while homogeneous combinations are observed in one-third of situations. At the scale of source vocabularies, one-third do not contain more than one relation between the concepts under investigation. Among the remaining source vocabularies, seven of them mainly present multiple non-homogeneous relations between terms. Analysis at the term level also shows that only in a quarter of cases are the source vocabularies responsible for the presence of multiply-related concepts in the UMLS. These results are available at: Manual analysis was useful to explain the conceptualization difference in relations between terms across source vocabularies. The exploitation of source relations was helpful for understanding why some source vocabularies describe multiple relations between a given pair of terms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. A Theoretical Model for Meaning Construction through Constructivist Concept Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    The central focus of this Ph.D. research is on ‘Logic and Cognition’ and, more specifically, this research covers the quintuple (Logic and Logical Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Computer Science). The most significant contributions of this Ph.D. di...... of ‘learning’, ‘mentoring’, and ‘knowledge’ within learning and knowledge acquisition systems. Constructivism as an epistemology and as a model of knowing and, respectively as a theoretical model of learning builds up the central framework of this research........D. dissertation are conceptual, logical, terminological, and semantic analysis of Constructivist Concept Learning (specifically, in the context of humans’ interactions with their environment and with other agents). This dissertation is concerned with the specification of the conceptualisation of the phenomena...

  19. The impact of project-based learning on improving student learning outcomes of sustainability concepts in transportation engineering courses (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher


    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on students' learning outcomes. To evaluate and compare students' learning as a result of the intervention, the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education survey instrument was used. The survey instrument includes five constructs: higher-order cognitive skills, self-efficacy, ease of learning subject matter, teamwork, and communication skills. Pre- and post-intervention surveys of student learning outcomes were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on enhancing students' learning outcomes. The results show that the implementation of the intervention significantly improved higher-order cognitive skills, self-efficacy, teamwork, and communication skills. Involving students in brainstorming activities related to sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation proved to be an effective teaching and learning strategy.

  20. Training in robotics: The learning curve and contemporary concepts in training. (United States)

    Bach, Christian; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Schönthaler, Martin


    To define the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for prostatectomy (RALP) and upper tract procedures, and show the differences between the classical approach to training and the new concept of parallel learning. This mini-review is based on the results of a Medline search using the keywords 'da Vinci', 'robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery', 'training', 'teaching' and 'learning curve'. For RALP and robot-assisted upper tract surgery, a learning curve of 8-150 procedures is quoted, with most articles proposing that 30-40 cases are needed to carry out the procedure safely. There is no consensus about which endpoints should be measured. In the traditional proctored training model, the surgeon learns the procedure linearly, following the sequential order of the surgical steps. A more recent approach is to specify the relative difficulty of each step and to train the surgeon simultaneously in several steps of equal difficulty. The entire procedure is only performed after all the steps are mastered in a timely manner. Recently, a 'warm-up' before robotic surgery has been shown to be beneficial for successful surgery in the operating room. There is no clear definition of the duration of the effective learning curve for RALP and robotic upper tract surgery. The concept of stepwise, parallel learning has the potential to accelerate the learning process and to make sure that initial cases are not too long. It can also be assumed that a preoperative 'warm up' could help significantly to improve the progress of the trainee.

  1. Autoconceito e dificuldades de aprendizagem na escrita Self-concept and learning disabilities of writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto


    Full Text Available O autoconceito vem sendo considerado na literatura como um constructo multidimensional e um dos aspectos afetivo-emocionais relacionados às dificuldades de aprendizagem. Considerando a importância desse constructo, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se haveria diferenças significativas entre níveis de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e o autoconceito geral, escolar, social, familiar e pessoal de crianças do ensino fundamental. Utilizou-se uma escala para avaliar a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e outra para avaliação do autoconceito. A amostra foi composta por 277 estudantes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 9 e 10 anos, da 3ª série do ensino fundamental. Os resultados evidenciaram que a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita está significativamente relacionada com o autoconceito geral e com o escolar, verificando-se que conforme aumenta o nível de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita diminui o autoconceito.The self-concept as the individual's perception of himself has been considered in the literature as a multidimensional construct and as one of the most influential emotional aspect in learning disabilities. So, the aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences between the levels of learning disabilities related to writing and general, school, social, family and personal self-concepts. Two scales were used, the first assessing the level of learning disabilities of writing and the other assessing self-concept. The sample was composed by 277 9-10 years old students, of both genders, from the third grade of elementary school. The results showed that the learning disabilities of writing are significantly related with general self-concept and with school self-concept, suggesting that the increase of learning disabilities levels means decrease of general and school self-concepts.

  2. Relations between representational consistency, conceptual understanding of the force concept, and scientific reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Nieminen


    Full Text Available Previous physics education research has raised the question of “hidden variables” behind students’ success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students’ reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students’ preinstruction scores for reasoning ability (measured by Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and their learning of forces [measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI] have been reported in high school and university introductory courses. However, there is no published research concerning the relation between students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency and their learning of forces. To investigate this, we collected 131 high school students’ pre- and post-test data of the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (for representational consistency and the FCI. The students’ Lawson pretest data were also collected. We found that the preinstruction level of students’ representational consistency correlated strongly with student learning gain of forces. The correlation (0.51 was almost equal to the correlation between Lawson prescore and learning gain of forces (0.52. Our results support earlier findings which suggest that scientific reasoning ability is a hidden variable behind the learning of forces. In addition, we suggest that students’ representational consistency may also be such a factor, and that this should be recognized in physics teaching.

  3. Open Integrated Personal Learning Environment: Towards a New Conception of the ICT-Based Learning Processes (United States)

    Conde, Miguel Ángel; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Casany, Marià José; Alier Forment, Marc

    Learning processes are changing related to technological and sociological evolution, taking this in to account, a new learning strategy must be considered. Specifically what is needed is to give an effective step towards the eLearning 2.0 environments consolidation. This must imply the fusion of the advantages of the traditional LMS (Learning Management System) - more formative program control and planning oriented - with the social learning and the flexibility of the web 2.0 educative applications.

  4. Concept relation discovery and innovation enabling technology (CORDIET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Neznanov, A.; Viaene, S.; Kuznetsov, S.O.; Ignatov, D.; Dedene, G.


    Concept Relation Discovery and Innovation Enabling Technology (CORDIET), is a toolbox for gaining new knowledge from unstructured text data. At the core of CORDIET is the C-K theory which captures the essential elements of innovation. The tool uses Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Emergent Self

  5. Using "Monopoly" to Introduce Concepts of Race and Ethnic Relations (United States)

    Waren, Warren


    In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…

  6. Evolutionary understanding of the concept "Public relations"


    Кам’янецька, О.В.


    The considered approaches to determination of notion of «public relations» different research and practical workers. The analyzed stages of development of communications with public and described their signs. Розглянуті підходи до визначення поняття «паблік рілейшнз» різних науковців та практиків. Проаналізовані етапи розвитку підходів до зв’язків з громадськістю та охарактеризовані їх ознаки....

  7. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning (United States)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  8. Self-regulated learning and conceptions of students in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Gutiérrez Braojos


    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to analyze the relationship between conceptions and self-regulation learning in the cooperative learning. The participants were 71 students enrolled in higher education. We used a survey method and transversal design to analyze the relationship between the study variables. We use two questionnaires: a questionnaire about self-regulation learning in group cooperative learning; b questionnaire about interdependence social conceptions. Thus, we have followed classic validation procedures accepted by the scientific community (expert point of view and stadistical tests. The results showed on one hand a relationship between conceptions, self-regulation learning, and other hand, two type of student´s profiles respect to conceptions: a cooperative learners and individualist learners. Solely, cooperative learners obtained benefits of the didactic strategy to facilitate cooperative learning. Thus, results were significantly higher in the cooperative students than individualist students respect to use of selfregulation strategies and communicative skills to generate shared knowledge.

  9. Integrating Concept Mapping into Information Systems Education for Meaningful Learning and Assessment (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yue, Kwok-Bun


    Concept map (CM) is a theoretically sound yet easy to learn tool and can be effectively used to represent knowledge. Even though many disciplines have adopted CM as a teaching and learning tool to improve learning effectiveness, its application in IS curriculum is sparse. Meaningful learning happens when one iteratively integrates new concepts and…

  10. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students (United States)

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  11. Current Concepts in Sports-Related Concussion. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipal; Frumberg, David B; Mulchandani, Neil B; Eldib, Ahmed M; Xavier, Fred; Barbash, Scott E; Saha, Subrata; Urban, William P


    Traumatic brain injury, specifically concussion, is prevalent in contact sports. In the United States (US) each year, 170 million adults participate in physical recreational activities, and 38 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in this group ~1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occur annually. Recent class-action lawsuits in the US filed by professional athletes against their respective leagues allege negligence in protecting them from concussions, and this has contributed to the attention received in the popular media. In response, concussion-related publications have increased exponentially during the past several years. Recent studies have challenged earlier assumptions that the effects of concussion are transient. Stronger links between concussion and neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease-like conditions, depression, and heightened risk for suicide are being elucidated. In this article, we explore the current knowledge on concussion, including pathophysiology, management, and long-term effects. We conclude that more evidence-based results regarding guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and return to play (RTP) are needed and should be the focus of future investigations. Attributing the etiology of certain neurodegenerative conditions to a history of concussion has been suggested in the current literature, but additional quantitative data regarding the pathophysiology and causality are needed as well. Bioengineers can have an important role in measuring the dynamic forces encountered during head impacts and their effects on the brain. These results can be effective in designing better helmets as well as improved playing surfaces to reduce the impact of such injuries. At this time, we believe that groups of people with heightened risk for concussion should be followed closely during longer periods of time and compared to matched controls. Such long-term studies are urgently

  12. Why First Language Learning Is Not Second Language Learning--Wittgenstein's Rejection of St. Augustine's Conception of Learning. (United States)

    Erneling, Christina


    Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Based on three key psychological concepts: learning, culture and meaning, the present essay proposes a conceptualbase frame, oriented toward the understanding of development in organizations into current milieu ofcompetitiveness and temporality, of the relationships among people working into them. The organizations whichare typically embedded in a context of values, needs and symbols that made up their cultures, must evolve in orderto face the demands for new developments and change, to which they are forced to. The concept of “meaning of theculture”, is presented as the base over which is build and rooted the organizational learning - in a technical and socialsense. The different types of learning are the ways in which the organizations satisfy the requirements coming fromtheir environments, in front of which must generate knowledge and consequently, new products and services,based on the people that form such organizations. The people that belong and constitutes the organization, incircumstances of temporal cohesion and within temporary working networks, must achieve results and to beadjusted to these new working and organizational facts, developing self-management and autonomy, in order tosignify and get adapted into the cultural tissue.

  14. Astrobiology Learning Progressions: Linking Astrobiology Concepts with the 3D Learning Paradigm of NGSS (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Davis, H. B.; Leach, D.; Chambers, N.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) introduce a Framework for teaching and learning with three interconnected "dimensions:" Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI's), Cross-cutting Concepts (CCC's), and Science and Engineering Practices (SEP's). This "3D" Framework outlines progressions of learning from K-12 based on the DCI's, detailing which parts of a concept should be taught at each grade band. We used these discipline-based progressions to synthesize interdisciplinary progressions for core concepts in astrobiology, such as the origins of life, what makes a world habitable, biosignatures, and searching for life on other worlds. The final product is an organizing tool for lesson plans, learning media, and other educational materials in astrobiology, as well as a fundamental resource in astrobiology education that serves both educators and scientists as they plan and carry out their programs for learners.

  15. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...

  16. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  17. The Use of Instructional Animations in a College Algebra Course: Can It Facilitate Learning of Concepts and Skill Development? (United States)

    Serfaty de Markus, Alicia


    This quasi-treatment study, using a non-equivalent group design, explored how a set of animations related to various concepts in algebra impacted students' ability to learn as measured by changes in quiz and test scores. The concepts that were investigated were addition and subtraction of rational expressions, solving equations involving rational…

  18. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors. (United States)

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher


    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  19. Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957 Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana Ilieva


    Full Text Available Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions of learning. The aim of the research paper is to presents his ideas about particular methods of teaching Physics for high school. Geraskov assumes direct correlation between didactics and methodology. This paper focuses on his ideas about design, technology and methodological requirements for lessons of Physics. He believes that the appropriate methods are determined by the curriculum, set of educational goals and age characteristics, and capabilities of adolescents. In his methodical recommendations he focuses on teaching methods and forms that provoke students’ activity. Comparative analysis with publications on the issues set for development of the Bulgarian pedagogic science and the actuality in the modern education system.

  20. Online testable concept maps: benefits for learning about the pathogenesis of disease. (United States)

    Ho, Veronica; Kumar, Rakesh K; Velan, Gary


    Concept maps have been used to promote meaningful learning and critical thinking. Although these are crucially important in all disciplines, evidence for the benefits of concept mapping for learning in medicine is limited. We performed a randomised crossover study to assess the benefits of online testable concept maps for learning in pathology by volunteer junior medical students. Participants (n = 65) were randomly allocated to either of two groups with equivalent mean prior academic performance, in which they were given access to either online maps or existing online resources for a 2-week block on renal disease. Groups then crossed over for a 2-week block on hepatic disease. Outcomes were assessed using timed online quizzes, which included questions unrelated to topics in the pathogenesis maps as an internal control. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate students' acceptance of the maps. In both blocks, the group with access to pathogenesis maps achieved significantly higher average scores than the control group on quiz questions related to topics covered by the maps (Block 1: p online testable pathogenesis maps are well accepted and can improve learning of concepts in pathology by medical students. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction]. (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu


    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  2. Learning to Play: A "Hedgehog Concept" for Physical Education (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler


    What is physical education and why does it exist? Despite its relatively long and storied history, consensus about the main purpose of physical education remains minimal. This article explores three questions, developed by Jim Collins in his best-selling book Good to Great, to help organizations identify a hedgehog concept, or primary reason for…

  3. Reconsidering relations between nuclear energy and security concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo


    Relations between nuclear energy and security concepts can be clarified through investigation into the multivocal nature of security concepts. While military uses of nuclear energy significantly influence national security, peaceful uses of nuclear energy contribute energy security, which is an expanded concept of national security. Military and peaceful uses of nuclear energy have reciprocal actions, thus influencing national security and energy security, respectively. Nuclear security, which means security of nuclear systems themselves, recently attracts the attention of the international society. Nuclear security directly influences national security issues. On the other hand, along with nuclear safety, nuclear security becomes a prerequisite for energy security through peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In investigating into relations between nuclear energy and security concepts, the difficulty of translating the English word of 'nuclear security' into Japanese as well as other languages is found. (author)

  4. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics. (United States)

    Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde


    Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.

  5. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science (United States)

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul


    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  6. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea


    of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning......Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...

  7. Culture of Honour and Emotional Intelligence: Incompatible or related concepts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther López-Zafra


    Full Text Available In this study we relate two concepts, Emotional Intelligence and Culture of Honour; in both cases the emotional aspect is very important and we believe they may have a role in couple relations. We propose that both concepts would relate in reverse, so that an individual with a high level of Emotional Intelligence would give less importance to the Culture of Honor and vice versa. A sample of 203 heterosexual couples completed a questionnaire. Our results show that the dimension Attention to emotions is associated with the culture of honor. Among our fi ndings we propose that the two concepts are related in some way and that congruency in the valuation of the Culture of Honor between the two partners will also deal with a level of Emotional Intelligence higher than in couples where there is not this congruence.

  8. Transformative Learning and Concepts of the Self: Insights from Immigrant and Intercultural Journeys (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth


    This article examines Canadian immigrant and intercultural learning as an insightful context for examining transformative learning. Theories of intercultural communication are explored, particularly the concept of transculturality and Bhabha's concept of "Third Space". Various concepts of the self are also compared, particularly two…

  9. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor (United States)

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.


    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  10. Using concept similarity in cross ontology for adaptive e-Learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleena


    Full Text Available e-Learning is one of the most preferred media of learning by the learners. The learners search the web to gather knowledge about a particular topic from the information in the repositories. Retrieval of relevant materials from a domain can be easily implemented if the information is organized and related in some way. Ontologies are a key concept that helps us to relate information for providing the more relevant lessons to the learner. This paper proposes an adaptive e-Learning system, which generates a user specific e-Learning content by comparing the concepts with more than one system using similarity measures. A cross ontology measure is defined, which consists of fuzzy domain ontology as the primary ontology and the domain expert’s ontology as the secondary ontology, for the comparison process. A personalized document is provided to the user with a user profile, which includes the data obtained from the processing of the proposed method under a User score, which is obtained through the user evaluation. The results of the proposed e-Learning system under the designed cross ontology similarity measure show a significant increase in performance and accuracy under different conditions. The assessment of the comparative analysis, showed the difference in performance of our proposed method over other methods. Based on the assessment results it is proved that the proposed approach is effective over other methods.

  11. Scoping literature review on the Learning Organisation concept as applied to the health system. (United States)

    Akhnif, E; Macq, J; Idrissi Fakhreddine, M O; Meessen, B


    ᅟ: There is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a 'learning organisation'. The objective of this review is to explore work undertaken towards the application of this concept to the health sector in general and to reach the goal of universal health coverage in particular. Of interest are the exploration of evaluation frameworks and their application in health. We used a scoping literature review based on the York methodology. We conducted an online search using selected keywords on some of the main databases on health science, selected websites and main reference books on learning organisations. We restricted the focus of our search on sources in the English language only. Inclusive and exclusive criteria were applied to arrive at a final list of articles, from which information was extracted and then selected and inserted in a chart. We identified 263 articles and other documents from our search. From these, 50 articles were selected for a full analysis and 27 articles were used for the summary. The majority of the articles concerned hospital settings (15 articles, 55%). Seven articles (25%) were related to the application of the concept to the health centre setting. Four articles discussed the application of the concept to the health system (14%). Most of the applications involved high-income countries (21 articles, 78%), with only one article being related to a low-income country. We found 13 different frameworks that were applied to different health organisations. The scoping review allowed us to assess applications of the learning organisation concept to the health sector to date. Such applications are still rare, but are increasingly being used. There is no uniform framework thus far, but convergence as for the dimensions that matter is increasing. Many methodological questions remain unanswered. We also identified a gap in terms of the use of this concept in low- and middle-income countries and to the health system as a whole.

  12. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts. (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M


    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  13. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barca


    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012, the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016. Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6 children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between

  14. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping


    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  15. On the learning difficulty of visual and auditory modal concepts: Evidence for a single processing system. (United States)

    Vigo, Ronaldo; Doan, Karina-Mikayla C; Doan, Charles A; Pinegar, Shannon


    The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli. We report results from two categorization experiments that suggest the acquisition of acoustic and visual modal concepts is achieved by the same general cognitive mechanism. Additionally, we attempt to account for these results with two models of concept learning difficulty: the generalized invariance structure theory model (Vigo in Cognition 129(1):138-162, 2013, Mathematical principles of human conceptual behavior, Routledge, New York, 2014) and the generalized context model (Nosofsky in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 10(1):104-114, 1984, J Exp Psychol 115(1):39-57, 1986).

  16. Gender differences in the causal relation between adolescents' maths self-concept and scholastic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antunes


    Full Text Available Mathematics is a core subject in every school curriculum and it is strongly correlated with maths self-concept, which is defined as the subjective feelings and beliefs about one's competence in maths. In general, boys tend to report higher maths self-concept than girls, but the difference between boys and girls' maths scholastic performance is low or even inexistent. Some authors maintain that academic self-concept can play an important role as a motivational variable, promoting self-confidence and investment in the learning process. This study examined the causal relations between maths self-concept and maths scholastic performance in four cohorts of boys and girls within a three-wave longitudinal study. The first two cohorts were composed of 187 girls and 139 boys attending grades 7 and 8 at Time 1 and the third and fourth cohorts were composed of 167 girls and 123 boys attending grades 9 and 10 at Time 1. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the fit of several models of causal relations. The results revealed that for the first two cohorts the best models were reciprocal and skill-development for both boys and girls. However, for the older students, a reciprocal model gave a best fit for the boys, but for the girls there was only one significant effect from maths self-concept to maths scholastic performance. Results are discussed on the basis of gender-related differential learning expectancies.

  17. Women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination: concept analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Kefang; Palmer, Mary H


    This paper is a report of analysis of the concept of women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination. Behaviours related to emptying urine from the bladder can contribute to bladder health problems. Evidence exists that clinical interventions focusing on specific behaviours that promote urine storage and controlled emptying are effective in reducing lower urinary tract symptoms. The concept of women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination has not been well-developed to guide nursing research and intervention. The CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo and ISI Citation databases were searched for publications between January, 1960 and May, 2009, using combinations of keywords related to women's toileting behaviour. Additional publications were identified by examining the reference lists in the papers identified. Johnson's behavioural system model provided the conceptual framework to identify the concept. Walker and Avant's method was used for this concept analysis. Women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination can be defined as voluntary actions related to the physiological event of emptying the bladder, which is comprised of specific attributes including voiding place, voiding time, voiding position and voiding style. This behaviour is also influenced by the physical and social environments. An explicit definition of women's toileting behaviour can offer a basis for nurses to understand the factors involved in women's toileting behaviour. It also facilitates the development of an instrument to assess women's toileting behaviour better, and to facilitate development of behavioural interventions designed to prevent, eliminate, reduce and manage female lower urinary tract symptoms.

  18. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science


    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  19. Effect of learning disabilities on academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and on their quality of life. (United States)

    Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel


    Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers

  20. Learning to Learn: towards a Relational and Transformational Model of Learning for Improved Integrated Care Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Diamond


    Full Text Available Health and social care systems are implementing fundamental changes to organizational structures and work practices in an effort to achieve integrated care. While some integration initiatives have produced positive outcomes, many have not. We reframe the concept of integration as a learning process fueled by knowledge exchange across diverse professional and organizational communities. We thus focus on the cognitive and social dynamics of learning in complex adaptive systems, and on learning behaviours and conditions that foster collective learning and improved collaboration. We suggest that the capacity to learn how to learn shapes the extent to which diverse professional groups effectively exchange knowledge and self-organize for integrated care delivery.

  1. Peer Relations in Peer Learning (United States)

    Riese, Hanne; Samara, Akylina; Lillejord, Solvi


    Over the last decades, much research on peer learning practices has been conducted. Quantitative, experimental designs focusing on problems of cause and effect dominate. Consequently, effects on achievement are well documented, as is the influence of different conditions on the effect rate. In spite of the general acknowledgment of the importance…

  2. Insights from Classifying Visual Concepts with Multiple Kernel Learning (United States)

    Binder, Alexander; Nakajima, Shinichi; Kloft, Marius; Müller, Christina; Samek, Wojciech; Brefeld, Ulf; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Kawanabe, Motoaki


    Combining information from various image features has become a standard technique in concept recognition tasks. However, the optimal way of fusing the resulting kernel functions is usually unknown in practical applications. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) techniques allow to determine an optimal linear combination of such similarity matrices. Classical approaches to MKL promote sparse mixtures. Unfortunately, 1-norm regularized MKL variants are often observed to be outperformed by an unweighted sum kernel. The main contributions of this paper are the following: we apply a recently developed non-sparse MKL variant to state-of-the-art concept recognition tasks from the application domain of computer vision. We provide insights on benefits and limits of non-sparse MKL and compare it against its direct competitors, the sum-kernel SVM and sparse MKL. We report empirical results for the PASCAL VOC 2009 Classification and ImageCLEF2010 Photo Annotation challenge data sets. Data sets (kernel matrices) as well as further information are available at 2012 Jun 25). PMID:22936970

  3. On Logical Characterisation of Human Concept Learning based on Terminological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems and ...... and analysis of actual human inductive reasoning (and learning). This research connects with the topics 'logic & learning', 'cognitive modelling' and 'terminological knowledge representation'.......The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems...

  4. The effectiveness of concept mapping and retrieval practice as learning strategies in an undergraduate physiology course. (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura


    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving information that was previously coded into memory. The relative benefits of these two methods have never been tested against each other in a classroom setting. Our study was designed to investigate whether or not concept mapping or retrieval practice produced a significant learning benefit in an undergraduate physiology course as measured by exam performance and, if so, was the benefit of one method significantly greater than the other. We found that there was a trend toward increased exam scores for the retrieval practice group compared with both the control group and concept mapping group, and that trend achieved statistical significance for one of the four module exams in the course. We also found that women performed statistically better than men on the module exam that contained a substantial amount of material relating to female reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  5. 'This stroke was sent…': Stroke-related illness concepts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though there is evidence that stroke incidence is increasing even in low and middle income countries, there is no study of stroke-related illness concepts and HSB in Nigerians. Data from 960 educated Nigerians were analysed. Eight hundred and fifty four respondents (431 aged 20-40 years and 423 aged 41 years or ...

  6. Hot Brakes and Energy-Related Concepts: Is Energy Lost? (United States)

    Lopez, V.; Pinto, R.


    This paper describes a secondary school experience which is intended to help students to think profoundly about some energy-related concepts. It is quite different to other experiences of mechanics because the focus is not on the quantitative calculation of energy conservation but on the qualitative understanding of energy degradation. We first…

  7. The Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Mathematics Concept Learning in High School (United States)

    Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Chun-Yen


    The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning environment on learner's learning achievement and motivation, as well as to investigate the effects of flipped classrooms on learners with different achievement levels in learning mathematics concepts. The learning achievement and motivation were measured by the…

  8. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities. (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna


    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum


    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  10. Work related learning, Identities, and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


    which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...... of individuals’ subjective relation to work and work related learning have revealed a close connection between gender relations and societal work organisation. This observation has become particularly pointed in studies of a number of professions dealing with traditional ‘women’s work’, in which the close links...... of individual and collective learning and identity processes....

  11. From user-producer relations to the learning economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn


    This paper deals with three issues. First, the conceptual and theoretical development in Lundvall’s writing from user–producer relations to the learning economy is discussed with a focus on his main contributions to innovation theory. Second, Lundvall’s description of the learning economy...... the learning economy is placed as a central concept in the quest for a general theory of innovation, which for many years has characterized Lundvall’s writings....... is extended in that it is argued that it is driven by its internal contradictions, and by the institutional responses to these contradictions. This approach is not in conflict with Lundvall’s views, but he has not pursued it and it may give new insights into the dynamics of the learning economy. Finally...

  12. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning. (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D


    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between self-concept and students alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Fernandes


    Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.

  14. Relation between self-concept and students alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo


    Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.

  15. Learning Quantum Chemical Model with Learning Media Concept Map and Power Point Viewed from Memory and Creativity Skills Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahidi


    Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.

  16. Sociocultural context as a facilitator of student learning of function concepts in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Díaz Obando


    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, many secondary students have serious difficulties to establish relationships between mathematics and real-life contexts. They question the utilitarian role of the school mathematics. This fact motivated the research object of this report which evidences the need to overcome methodologies unrelated to students’ reality, toward new didactical options that help students to value mathematics, reasoning and its  applications, connecting it with their socio-cultural context. The research used a case study as a qualitative methodology and the social constructivism as an educational paradigm in which the knowledge is built by the student; as a product of his social interactions. A collection of learning situations was designed, validated, and implemented. It allowed establishing relationships between mathematical concepts and the socio-cultural context of participants. It analyzed the impact of students’socio-cultural context in their mathematics learning of basic concepts of real variable functions, consistent with the Ministry of Education (MEP Official Program.  Among the results, it was found that using students’sociocultural context improved their motivational processes, mathematics sense making, and promoted cooperative social interactions. It was evidenced that contextualized learning situations favored concepts comprehension that allow students to see mathematics as a discipline closely related with their every-day life.

  17. The "proactive" model of learning: Integrative framework for model-free and model-based reinforcement learning utilizing the associative learning-based proactive brain concept. (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Papp, Csaba; Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf


    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS). Based on the functional connectivity of VS, model-free and model based RL systems center on the VS that by integrating model-free signals (received as reward prediction error) and model-based reward related input computes value. Using the concept of reinforcement learning agent we propose that the VS serves as the value function component of the RL agent. Regarding the model utilized for model-based computations we turned to the proactive brain concept, which offers an ubiquitous function for the default network based on its great functional overlap with contextual associative areas. Hence, by means of the default network the brain continuously organizes its environment into context frames enabling the formulation of analogy-based association that are turned into predictions of what to expect. The OFC integrates reward-related information into context frames upon computing reward expectation by compiling stimulus-reward and context-reward information offered by the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore we suggest that the integration of model-based expectations regarding reward into the value signal is further supported by the efferent of the OFC that reach structures canonical for model-free learning (e.g., the PPTgN, VTA, and VS). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Comparing cognition by integrating concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory. (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M; Katz, Jeffrey S


    This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets. A similar task using the 1,024-picture set plus delays was used to test proactive interference on occasional trials. Pigeons revealed greater interference with 10-s than with 1-s delays, whereas delay time had no effect on rhesus monkeys, suggesting that the monkeys' interference was event based. This same single-item same/different task was expanded to a 4-item list memory task to test animal list memory. Humans were tested similarly with lists of kaleidoscope pictures. Delays between the list and test were manipulated, resulting in strong initial recency effects (i.e., strong 4th-item memory) at short delays and changing to a strong primacy effect (i.e., strong 1st-item memory) at long delays (pigeons 0-s to 10-s delays; monkeys 0-s to 30-s delays; humans 0-s to 100-s delays). Results and findings are discussed in terms of these species' cognition and memory comparisons, evolutionary implications, and future directions for testing other species in these synergistically related tasks.

  19. Learning-Ability Relations in Adulthood (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others


    Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)

  20. High School Students' Approaches to Learning Physics with Relationship to Epistemic Views on Physics and Conceptions of Learning Physics (United States)

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background and purpose: Knowing how students learn physics is a central goal of physics education. The major purpose of this study is to examine the strength of the predictive power of students' epistemic views and conceptions of learning in terms of their approaches to learning in physics. Sample, design and method: A total of 279 Taiwanese high…

  1. Teaching strategies to promote concept learning by design challenges (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc


    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD).

  2. Concept mapping as an empowering method to promote learning, thinking, teaching and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Kalervo Åhlberg


    Full Text Available Results and underpinning of over twenty years of research and development program of concept mapping is presented. Different graphical knowledge presentation tools, especially concept mapping and mind mapping, are compared. There are two main dimensions that differentiate graphical knowledge presentation methods: The first dimension is conceptual explicitness: from mere concepts to flexibly named links and clear propositions in concept maps. The second dimension in the classification system I am suggesting is whether there are pictures or not. Åhlbergʼs and his research groupʼs applications and developments of Novakian concept maps are compared to traditional Novakian concept maps. The main innovations include always using arrowheads to show direction of reading the concept map. Centrality of each concept is estimated from number of links to other concepts. In our empirical research over two decades, number of relevant concepts, and number of relevant propositions in studentsʼ concept maps, have been found to be the best indicators and predictors of meaningful learning. This is used in assessment of learning. Improved concept mapping is presented as a tool to analyze texts. The main innovation is numbering the links to show order of reading the concept map and to make it possible to transform concept map back to the original prose text as closely as possible. In Åhlberg and his research groupʼs research, concept mapping has been tested in all main phases of research, teaching and learning.

  3. Conceptions and Practices in teaching and learning: implications for the evaluation of teaching quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerihun, Z.; Beishuizen, J.J.; van Os, W


    This study was conducted in two public universities in Ethiopia to assess the impact of conceptions of teaching and learning on the evaluation of teaching quality. Students' and teachers' approaches to teaching and learning and their conceptions of the meaning of teaching have been examined. Results

  4. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy


    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  5. Improving Self-Concept and Learning Skills of Marginal Black Students: A Seminar Approach. (United States)

    Parker, Woodroe M.; And Others


    Presents an eight-session seminar designed to increase participants' study skills and to redefine participants' self-concepts from those characterized by feelings of inadequacy and frustration to concepts of selves as competent and capable. Learning strategies, two-way communication, learning styles, note making, test taking, vocational planning,…

  6. Five teacher profiles in student-centred curricula based on their conceptions of learning and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.; Luijk, S.J. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    BACKGROUND: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.

  7. Five teacher profiles in student-centred curricula based on their conceptions of learning and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.G.; van Luijk, S.J.; Galindo Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; van der Vleuten, C.P.M.; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    Background: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.

  8. Concept Development in Learning Physics: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Huttunen, Laura


    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the development and differentiation of concepts in the learning process. An important part of this development process is the re-organisation or re-structuring process in which students' conceptual knowledge and concepts change. This study proposes a new view of concept…

  9. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin


    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  10. Towards a Relation Extraction Framework for Cyber-Security Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Corinne L [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL; Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL


    In order to assist security analysts in obtaining information pertaining to their network, such as novel vulnerabilities, exploits, or patches, information retrieval methods tailored to the security domain are needed. As labeled text data is scarce and expensive, we follow developments in semi-supervised NLP and implement a bootstrapping algorithm for extracting security entities and their relationships from text. The algorithm requires little input data, specifically, a few relations or patterns (heuristics for identifying relations), and incorporates an active learning component which queries the user on the most important decisions to prevent drifting the desired relations. Preliminary testing on a small corpus shows promising results, obtaining precision of .82.

  11. Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations (United States)

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J.


    A key property of relational representations is their "generativity": From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from…

  12. The effectiveness of process oriented guided inquiry learning to reduce alternate conceptions in secondary chemistry (United States)

    Barthlow, Michelle J.


    A nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design was used to investigate student achievement in secondary chemistry. This study investigated the effect of process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in high school chemistry to reduce alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter versus traditional lecture pedagogy. Data were collected from chemistry students in four large high schools and analyzed using ANCOVA. The results show that POGIL pedagogy, as opposed to traditional lecture pedagogy, resulted in fewer alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter. Male and female students in the POGIL group posted better posttest scores than their traditional group peers. African-American and Hispanic students in the POGIL group exhibited achievement gains consistent with Caucasian and Asian students. Further studies are needed to determine the value of POGIL to address achievement gap concerns in chemistry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Vilasboas Calixto


    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the concept of learning in the internationalization studies. Considering the relationship between learning and internationalization had its groundwork at the Uppsala University, we believe its relevant outlining the path from the main publications regarding the Uppsala School as well as the internationalization process model developed by them in order to comprehend the evolution of the concept of learning from this perspective. In addition, owing to the extension of the relationship between learning and internationalization, this paper analyzes some relevant organizational learning studies and their contributions in order to construe the internationalization process development. Therefore, the contribution of this study is the critical review on the concept of learning from the Uppsala School and also indicating contributions of this concept from the latest developments of this idea.

  14. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc


    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  15. The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orozco


    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.

  16. Which Technique Is Most Effective for Learning Declarative Concepts--Provided Examples, Generated Examples, or Both? (United States)

    Zamary, Amanda; Rawson, Katherine A.


    Students in many courses are commonly expected to learn declarative concepts, which are abstract concepts denoted by key terms with short definitions that can be applied to a variety of scenarios as reported by Rawson et al. ("Educational Psychology Review" 27:483-504, 2015). Given that declarative concepts are common and foundational in…

  17. Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang


    A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

  18. Non-Technical Skills Bingo-a game to facilitate the learning of complex concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Jepsen, Rikke Malene Hartvigsen Grønholm


    Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and sim....... NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct....

  19. Relationship between mathematical abstraction in learning parallel coordinates concept and performance in learning analytic geometry of pre-service mathematics teachers: an investigation (United States)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.


    As one of the non-conventional mathematics concepts, Parallel Coordinates is potential to be learned by pre-service mathematics teachers in order to give them experiences in constructing richer schemes and doing abstraction process. Unfortunately, the study related to this issue is still limited. This study wants to answer a research question “to what extent the abstraction process of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning concept of Parallel Coordinates could indicate their performance in learning Analytic Geometry”. This is a case study that part of a larger study in examining mathematical abstraction of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning non-conventional mathematics concept. Descriptive statistics method is used in this study to analyze the scores from three different tests: Cartesian Coordinate, Parallel Coordinates, and Analytic Geometry. The participants in this study consist of 45 pre-service mathematics teachers. The result shows that there is a linear association between the score on Cartesian Coordinate and Parallel Coordinates. There also found that the higher levels of the abstraction process in learning Parallel Coordinates are linearly associated with higher student achievement in Analytic Geometry. The result of this study shows that the concept of Parallel Coordinates has a significant role for pre-service mathematics teachers in learning Analytic Geometry.

  20. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis (United States)

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.


    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  1. The Use of Engineering Design Concept for Computer Programming Course: A Model of Blended Learning Environment (United States)

    Tritrakan, Kasame; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Asanok, Manit


    The aim of this research is to develop a learning model which blends factors from learning environment and engineering design concept for learning in computer programming course. The usage of the model was also analyzed. This study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of the model. The research methodology is divided into three…

  2. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot


    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  3. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet


    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  4. Machine learning with quantum relative entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Koji [Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstr. 38, Tuebingen, 72076 (Germany)], E-mail:


    Density matrices are a central tool in quantum physics, but it is also used in machine learning. A positive definite matrix called kernel matrix is used to represent the similarities between examples. Positive definiteness assures that the examples are embedded in an Euclidean space. When a positive definite matrix is learned from data, one has to design an update rule that maintains the positive definiteness. Our update rule, called matrix exponentiated gradient update, is motivated by the quantum relative entropy. Notably, the relative entropy is an instance of Bregman divergences, which are asymmetric distance measures specifying theoretical properties of machine learning algorithms. Using the calculus commonly used in quantum physics, we prove an upperbound of the generalization error of online learning.

  5. Machine learning with quantum relative entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji


    Density matrices are a central tool in quantum physics, but it is also used in machine learning. A positive definite matrix called kernel matrix is used to represent the similarities between examples. Positive definiteness assures that the examples are embedded in an Euclidean space. When a positive definite matrix is learned from data, one has to design an update rule that maintains the positive definiteness. Our update rule, called matrix exponentiated gradient update, is motivated by the quantum relative entropy. Notably, the relative entropy is an instance of Bregman divergences, which are asymmetric distance measures specifying theoretical properties of machine learning algorithms. Using the calculus commonly used in quantum physics, we prove an upperbound of the generalization error of online learning.

  6. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  7. Assessing Student Knowledge of Chemistry and Climate Science Concepts Associated with Climate Change: Resources to Inform Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley; Zabih, Adam; Holme, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Lallie; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian; Towns, Marcy


    Climate change is one of the most critical problems facing citizens today. Chemistry faculty are presented with the problem of making general chemistry content simultaneously relevant and interesting. Using climate science to teach chemistry allows faculty to help students learn chemistry content in a rich context. Concepts related to…

  8. Capturing the Integration of Practice-Based Learning with Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes using Modified Concept Mapping. (United States)

    Mcnaughton, Susan; Barrow, Mark; Bagg, Warwick; Frielick, Stanley


    Practice-based learning integrates the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains and is influenced by students' beliefs, values, and attitudes. Concept mapping has been shown to effectively demonstrate students' changing concepts and knowledge structures. This article discusses how concept mapping was modified to capture students' perceptions of the connections between the domains of thinking and knowing, emotions, behavior, attitudes, values, and beliefs and the specific experiences related to these, over a period of eight months of practice-based clinical learning. The findings demonstrate that while some limitations exist, modified concept mapping is a manageable way to gather rich data about students' perceptions of their clinical practice experiences. These findings also highlight the strong integrating influence of beliefs and values on other areas of practice, suggesting that these need to be attended to as part of a student's educational program.

  9. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved With and Without Concept Maps (United States)

    Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.


    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a measuring instrument. The sample included 114 university students from the School of Industrial Engineering who were divided into two equivalent homogeneous groups of 57 students each. The amount of learning attained by the students in each group was compared, with the independent variable being the teaching method; the experimental group (E.G.) used concept maps, while the control group (C.G.) did not. We performed a crossover study with the two groups of students, with one group acting as the E.G. for the topic of optical fibers and as the C.G. for the topic of the fundamental particles of matter and vice versa for the other group. For each of the two topics studied, the evaluation instrument was a test of 100 dichotomous items. The resulting data were subjected to a comparative statistical analysis, which revealed a significant difference in the amount of learning attained by the E.G. students as compared with the C.G. students. The results allow us to state that for the use of concept maps, the average increment in the E.G. students' learning was greater than 19 percentage points.

  10. Transformative Learning Approaches for Public Relations Pedagogy (United States)

    Motion, Judy; Burgess, Lois


    Public relations educators are frequently challenged by students' flawed perceptions of public relations. Two contrasting case studies are presented in this paper to illustrate how socially-oriented paradigms may be applied to a real-client project to deliver a transformative learning experience. A discourse-analytic approach is applied within the…

  11. Integrated learning of mathematics, science and technology concepts through LEGO/Logo projects (United States)

    Wu, Lina

    This dissertation examined integrated learning in the domains of mathematics, science and technology based on Piaget's constructivism, Papert's constructionism, and project-based approach to education. Ten fifth grade students were involved in a two-month long after school program where they designed and built their own computer-controlled LEGO/Logo projects that required the use of gears, ratios and motion concepts. The design of this study centered on three notions of integrated learning: (1) integration in terms of what educational materials/settings provide, (2) integration in terms of students' use of those materials, and (3) integration in the psychological sense. In terms of the first notion, the results generally showed that the LEGO/Logo environment supported the integrated learning of math, science and technology concepts. Regarding the second notion, the students all completed impressive projects of their own design. They successfully combined gears, motors, and LEGO parts together to create motion and writing control commands to manipulate the motion. But contrary to my initial expectations, their successful designs did not require numerical reasoning about ratios in designing effective gear systems. When they did reason about gear relationships, they worked with "qualitative" ratios, e.g., "a larger driver gear with a smaller driven gear increases the speed." In terms of the third notion of integrated learning, there was evidence in all four case study students of the psychological processes involved in linking mathematical, scientific, and/or technological concepts together to achieve new conceptual units. The students not only made connections between ideas and experiences, but also recognized decisive patterns and relationships in their project work. The students with stronger overall project performances showed more evidence of synthesis than the students with relatively weaker performances did. The findings support the conclusion that all three

  12. [A Study on the Cognitive Learning Effectiveness of Scenario-Based Concept Mapping in a Neurological Nursing Course]. (United States)

    Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling


    The multiple levels of knowledge related to the neurological system deter many students from pursuing studies on this topic. Thus, in facing complicated and uncertain medical circumstances, nursing students have diffi-culty adjusting and using basic neurological-nursing knowledge and skills. Scenario-based concept-mapping teaching has been shown to promote the integration of complicated data, clarify related concepts, and increase the effectiveness of cognitive learning. To investigate the effect on the neurological-nursing cognition and learning attitude of nursing students of a scenario-based concept-mapping strategy that was integrated into the neurological nursing unit of a medical and surgical nursing course. This quasi-experimental study used experimental and control groups and a pre-test / post-test design. Sopho-more (2nd year) students in a four-year program at a university of science and technology in Taiwan were convenience sampled using cluster randomization that was run under SPSS 17.0. Concept-mapping lessons were used as the intervention for the experimental group. The control group followed traditional lesson plans only. The cognitive learning outcome was measured using the neurological nursing-learning examination. Both concept-mapping and traditional lessons significantly improved post-test neurological nursing learning scores (p learning attitude with regard to the teaching material. Furthermore, a significant number in the experimental group expressed the desire to add more lessons on anatomy, physiology, and pathology. These results indicate that this intervention strategy may help change the widespread fear and refusal of nursing students with regard to neurological lessons and may facilitate interest and positively affect learning in this important subject area. Integrating the concept-mapping strategy and traditional clinical-case lessons into neurological nursing lessons holds the potential to increase post-test scores significantly

  13. Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning (United States)

    Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip


    Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…

  14. Overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity


    Latruffe, Laure


    This is a brief overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity: concept of competitiveness, measurement of competitiveness, determinants of competitiveness.

  15. New developments and concepts related to biomarker application to vaccines (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Sohail; Black, Steve; Ulmer, Jeffrey


    Summary This minireview will provide a perspective on new developments and concepts related to biomarker applications for vaccines. In the context of preventive vaccines, biomarkers have the potential to predict adverse events in select subjects due to differences in genetic make‐up/underlying medical conditions or to predict effectiveness (good versus poor response). When expanding them to therapeutic vaccines, their utility in identification of patients most likely to respond favourably (or avoid potentially negative effects of treatment) becomes self‐explanatory. Despite the progress made so far on dissection of various pathways of biological significance in humans, there is still plenty to unravel about the mysteries related to the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the human host response. This review will provide a focused overview of new concepts and developments in the field of vaccine biomarkers including (i) vaccine‐dependent signatures predicting subject response and safety, (ii) predicting therapeutic vaccine efficacy in chronic diseases, (iii) exploring the genetic make‐up of the host that may modulate subject‐specific adverse events or affect the quality of immune responses, and (iv) the topic of volunteer stratification as a result of biomarker screening (e.g. for therapeutic vaccines but also potentially for preventive vaccines) or as a reflection of an effort to compare select groups (e.g. vaccinated subjects versus patients recovering from infection) to enable the discovery of clinically relevant biomarkers for preventive vaccines. PMID:21895991

  16. Conceptual Blending Monitoring Students' Use of Metaphorical Concepts to Further the Learning of Science (United States)

    Fredriksson, Alexandra; Pelger, Susanne


    The aim of this study is to explore how tertiary science students' use of metaphors in their popular science article writing may influence their understanding of subject matter. For this purpose, six popular articles written by students in physics or geology were analysed by means of a close textual analysis and a metaphor analysis. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. The articles showed variation regarding the occurrence of active (non-conventional) metaphors, and metaphorical concepts, i.e. metaphors relating to a common theme. In addition, the interviews indicated that students using active metaphors and metaphorical concepts reflected more actively upon their use of metaphors. These students also discussed the possible relationship between subject understanding and creation of metaphors in terms of conceptual blending. The study suggests that students' process of creating metaphorical concepts could be described and visualised through integrated networks of conceptual blending. Altogether, the study argues for using conceptual blending as a tool for monitoring and encouraging the use of adequate metaphorical concepts, thereby facilitating students' opportunities of understanding and influencing the learning of science.

  17. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi


    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  18. Towards a concept of food-related life style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Life style has become popular in explaining food choice. In this paper the way life style studies are usually conducted is criticized based on a) that the methods lack a theoretical foundation, b) that the statistical methods are questionable, and c)that the explanatory power with regard to food...... choice remains to be demonstrated. A cognitive deductive approach is presented as a theoretically more well-founded alternative. It defines life style as the system of cognitive categories, scripts, and their associations, which relate a set of products to a set of values. A concept of food-related life...... style should hence contain elements like shopping scripts, meal preparation scripts, desired higher-order food attributes, food usage situations, and desired consequences of food products....

  19. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan


    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  20. Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology


    Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  1. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eColombo


    Full Text Available An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  2. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been...... of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first...... positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menzies’ theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques...

  3. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami


    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  4. Blended Learning in Vocational Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Blended Learning and Their Approaches to Teaching and Design (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Casey, Grant; Bachfischer, Agnieszka; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.


    This paper presents research exploring teachers' experiences of using blended learning in vocational education. Teachers involved in designing and teaching using blended learning from a major Australian vocational education provider participated in the study. They received open-ended questionnaires asking to describe their conceptions of blended…

  5. The effect of multiple intelligence-based learning towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter (United States)

    Pratiwi, W. N.; Rochintaniawati, D.; Agustin, R. R.


    This research was focused on investigating the effect of multiple intelligence -based learning as a learning approach towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter. The one-group pre-test - post-test design was used in this research towards a sample which was according to the suitable situation of the research sample, n = 13 students of the 7th grade in a private school in Bandar Seri Begawan. The students’ concept mastery was measured using achievement test and given at the pre-test and post-test, meanwhile the students’ interest level was measured using a Likert Scale for interest. Based on the analysis of the data, the result shows that the normalized gain was .61, which was considered as a medium improvement. in other words, students’ concept mastery in matter increased after being taught using multiple intelligence-based learning. The Likert scale of interest shows that most students have a high interest in learning matter after being taught by multiple intelligence-based learning. Therefore, it is concluded that multiple intelligence – based learning helped in improving students’ concept mastery and gain students’ interest in learning matter.

  6. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry


    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…

  7. Concepts and Relations in Neurally Inspired In Situ Concept-Based Computing. (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank


    In situ concept-based computing is based on the notion that conceptual representations in the human brain are "in situ." In this way, they are grounded in perception and action. Examples are neuronal assemblies, whose connection structures develop over time and are distributed over different brain areas. In situ concepts representations cannot be copied or duplicated because that will disrupt their connection structure, and thus the meaning of these concepts. Higher-level cognitive processes, as found in language and reasoning, can be performed with in situ concepts by embedding them in specialized neurally inspired "blackboards." The interactions between the in situ concepts and the blackboards form the basis for in situ concept computing architectures. In these architectures, memory (concepts) and processing are interwoven, in contrast with the separation between memory and processing found in Von Neumann architectures. Because the further development of Von Neumann computing (more, faster, yet power limited) is questionable, in situ concept computing might be an alternative for concept-based computing. In situ concept computing will be illustrated with a recently developed BABI reasoning task. Neurorobotics can play an important role in the development of in situ concept computing because of the development of in situ concept representations derived in scenarios as needed for reasoning tasks. Neurorobotics would also benefit from power limited and in situ concept computing.

  8. Middle school students' learning of mechanics concepts through engagement in different sequences of physical and virtual experiments (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Gnesdilow, Dana; Puntambekar, Sadhana; Kim, Jee-Seon


    Physical and virtual experimentation are thought to have different affordances for supporting students' learning. Research investigating the use of physical and virtual experiments to support students' learning has identified a variety of, sometimes conflicting, outcomes. Unanswered questions remain about how physical and virtual experiments may impact students' learning and for which contexts and content areas they may be most effective. Using a quasi-experimental design, we examined eighth grade students' (N = 100) learning of physics concepts related to pulleys depending on the sequence of physical and virtual labs they engaged in. Five classes of students were assigned to either the: physical first condition (PF) (n = 55), where students performed a physical pulley experiment and then performed the same experiment virtually, or virtual first condition (VF) (n = 45), with the opposite sequence. Repeated measures ANOVA's were conducted to examine how physical and virtual labs impacted students' learning of specific physics concepts. While we did not find clear-cut support that one sequence was better, we did find evidence that participating in virtual experiments may be more beneficial for learning certain physics concepts, such as work and mechanical advantage. Our findings support the idea that if time or physical materials are limited, using virtual experiments may help students understand work and mechanical advantage.

  9. The concept of entropy. Relation between action and entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Boltzmann expression for entropy represents the traditional link between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. New theoretical developments like the Unruh effect or the black hole theory suggest a new definition of entropy. In this paper we consider the thermodynamics of black holes as seriously founded and we try to see what we can learn from it in the case of ordinary systems for which a pre-relativistic description is sufficient. We introduce a space-time model and a new definition of entropy considering the thermal equilibrium from a dynamic point of view. Then we show that for black hole and ordinary systems we have the same relation relating a change of entropy to a change of action.

  10. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth


    their implications for understanding learning. Brief comments are made about the notions of internalization and zone of proximal development. Subsequent theoretical developments are mentioned, with a special focus on the idea of learning activity and developmental teaching. The chapter concludes with three issues......A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses...

  11. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science (United States)

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary


    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  12. Learning mathematics concepts in a traditional socio-culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper argues that each culture has its unique applications of mathematical concepts. It presents this argument by showing how the Great Zimbabwe Monument that was built between the 12th and 14th century applied some geometrical concepts that some secondary school students in Zimbabwe find difficult ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani


    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  14. Comparability of Self-Concept among Learning Disabled, Normal, and Gifted Students. (United States)

    Winne, Phillip H.; And Others


    Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)

  15. Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences (United States)

    Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi


    This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.

  16. An Educational Data Mining Approach to Concept Map Construction for Web based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anal ACHARYA


    Full Text Available This aim of this article is to study the use of Educational Data Mining (EDM techniques in constructing concept maps for organizing knowledge in web based learning systems whereby studying their synergistic effects in enhancing learning. This article first provides a tutorial based introduction to EDM. The applicability of web based learning systems in enhancing the efficiency of EDM techniques in real time environment is investigated. Web based learning systems often use a tool for organizing knowledge. This article explores the use of one such tool called concept map for this purpose. The pioneering works by various researchers who proposed web based learning systems in personalized and collaborative environment in this arena are next presented. A set of parameters are proposed based on which personalized and collaborative learning applications may be generalized and their performances compared. It is found that personalized learning environment uses EDM techniques more exhaustively compared to collaborative learning for concept map construction in web based environment. This article can be used as a starting point for freshers who would like to use EDM techniques for concept map construction for web based learning purposes.

  17. The Learning Journal Bridge: From Classroom Concepts to Leadership Practices (United States)

    Maellaro, Rosemary


    The value of reflective writing assignments as learning tools for business students has been well-established. While the management education literature includes numerous examples of such assignments that are based on Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model, many of them engage only the first two phases of the model. When students do not move…

  18. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  19. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEd Dave van Breukelen; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries; MEd Frank Schure


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), that aims to improve student learning,

  20. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, D.H.J.; de Vries, M.J.; Schure, Frank A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  1. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin


    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks


    Barbara eColombo; Alessandro eAntonietti


    An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experiment...



    Ibrahim Rajab Abbas Ibrahim


    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of cooperative learning in improving mathematical concepts among students with mild intellectual disability (SMID). The sample of the study consisted of 8 SMID at Najran in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample of the study was divided randomly into two equal groups control and experimental. The students in the experimental group have studied the mathematical concepts by using cooperative learning; however the students in the contr...

  4. Self-Concept in Student Learning and Motivation Truant : Descriptive-Correlational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Harahap


    Full Text Available This research is aimed describ the learning motivation and self-concept of students who truant. This study used a descriptive quantitative method. The research conducted by the students of SMAN 5 Padangsidimpuan in the period of 2015/2016 with the total of the population was 420 students. Amount of research sample was 36 students and had been chosen by using purposive sampling technique. An instrument employed in this study was a Likert-scaled questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using percentage technique and the relationship between the two variables was analyzed by using nonparametric statistic, that is Spearman’s Coefficient of Rank Correlation. Results of this research are just like the following: 1 participants’ level of achievement on self-concept of students who truant is about 69,8%, 2 participants’ level of achievement on learning motivation of students who truant is about 69,2%, and 3 correlation coefficient of self-concept and learning motivation of students who truant is about 0,581. Therefore, it can be concluded that students who truancy have very low self-concept and learning motivation, and there is a significant relationship between self-concept and learning motivation. The implication in guidance counseling services is to create a service program which can increase self-concept and be learning motivation of students who truant

  5. Students' Conceptions on White Light and Implications for Teaching and Learning about Colour (United States)

    Haagen-Schützenhöfer, Claudia


    The quality of learning processes is mainly determined by the extent to which students' conceptions are addressed and thus conceptual change is triggered. Colour phenomena are a topic within initial instruction of optics which is challenging. A physically adequate concept of white light is crucial for being able to grasp the processes underlying…

  6. A Teaching Sequence for Learning the Concept of Chemical Equilibrium in Secondary School Education (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio


    A novel didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. This teaching sequence takes into account the historical and epistemological evolution of the concept, the alternative conceptions and learning difficulties highlighted by teaching science and research in education, and the need to focus on both the students'…

  7. Best Practices for Learning Video Concept Detectors from Social Media Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.


    Learning video concept detectors from social media sources, such as Flickr images and YouTube videos, has the potential to address a wide variety of concept queries for video search. While the potential has been recognized by many, and progress on the topic has been impressive, we argue that key

  8. Incorporating Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in Mathematical Communicative Ability (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Waminton


    This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…

  9. Concept Mapping in the Humanities to Facilitate Reflection: Externalizing the Relationship between Public and Personal Learning (United States)

    Kandiko, Camille; Hay, David; Weller, Saranne


    This article discusses how mapping techniques were used in university teaching in a humanities subject. The use of concept mapping was expanded as a pedagogical tool, with a focus on reflective learning processes. Data were collected through a longitudinal study of concept mapping in a university-level Classics course. This was used to explore how…

  10. Study on Correlation of English Pronunciation Self-Concept to English Learning (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang


    English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…

  11. Joined up Thinking? Evaluating the Use of Concept-Mapping to Develop Complex System Learning (United States)

    Stewart, Martyn


    In the physical and natural sciences, the complexity of natural systems and their interactions is becoming better understood. With increased emphasis on learning about complex systems, students will be encountering concepts that are dynamic, ill-structured and interconnected. Concept-mapping is a method considered particularly valuable for…

  12. Direct-to-consumer DNA testing: the fallout for individuals and their families unexpectedly learning of their donor conception origins. (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn


    Increasing numbers of donor-conceived individuals (and/or parents) are seeking individuals genetically related through donor conception. One route is through 'direct-to-consumer' (DTC) DNA testing, prompting calls for fertility services to alert donors and prospective parents to the increasing unsustainability of anonymity and secrecy. The complexity of interpreting DNA results in this context has also been discussed, including their lack of absolute certainty, as has the need for professional and peer support. This commentary highlights a different 'threat', from individuals learning of their donor-conception origins through the use of such tests by themselves or relatives for such purposes as genealogy or health checks. It illustrates the personal complexities faced by three older women and their families on learning not only of their genetic relationship to each other but also to 15 more donor-related siblings. DTC DNA services are a growing feature of modern life. This commentary raises ethical questions about their responsibilities towards those inadvertently learning of donor conception origins and the responsibilities of fertility services to inform prospective parents and donors of this new phenomenon. Considerations of how and when parents should tell their children of their donor-conception origins here instead become how and when children should inform their parents.

  13. Unpacking Socio-Economic Risks for Reading and Academic Self-Concept in Primary School: Differential Effects and the Role of the Preschool Home Learning Environment (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James


    Background: Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and…

  14. Conceptions of learning and approaches to studying among White and ethnic minority students in distance education. (United States)

    Richardson, John T E


    The attainment of White students at UK institutions of higher education tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups, but the causes of this are unclear. This study compared White students and students from other ethnic groups in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and their academic attainment. A stratified sample of 1,146 White students and 1,146 students from other ethnic groups taking courses by distance learning with the UK Open University. The Mental Models section of the Inventory of Learning Styles and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory were administered in a postal survey. The students' questionnaire scores were contaminated by response bias, which varied across different ethnic groups. When adjusted to control for response bias, the scores on the two questionnaires shared 37.2% of their variance and made a significant contribution to predicting the students' attainment. White students were more likely to exhibit a meaning-directed learning pattern, whereas Asian and Black students were more likely to exhibit a reproduction-directed learning pattern. However, the variation in attainment across different ethnic groups remained significant when their questionnaire scores and prior qualifications were taken into account. There is a strong relationship between students' conceptions of learning and their approaches to studying, and variations in conceptions of learning in different ethnic groups give rise to variations in approaches to studying. However, factors other than prior qualifications and conceptions of learning are responsible for variation in attainment across different ethnic groups.

  15. The effect of a pretest in an interactive, multimodal pretraining system for learning science concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Floor/Floris; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, Albert


    In line with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning by Moreno and Mayer (2007), an interactive, multimodal learning environment was designed for the pretraining of science concepts in the joint area of physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics, and computer sciences. In the experimental

  16. Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney


    Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of

  17. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Pestana, Claudio


    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  18. Structuring Cooperative Learning for Motivation and Conceptual Change in the Concepts of Mixtures (United States)

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan


    This study investigates the effect of structuring cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach on grade 9 students' understanding the concepts of mixtures and their motivation, compared with traditional instruction. Among six classes of a high school, two of them were randomly assigned to cooperative learning group where students were…

  19. Lifelong Learning as a Chameleonic Concept and Versatile Practice: Y2K Perspectives and Trends (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.


    This essay focuses on contemporary lifelong-learning discourse as it was reflected in deliberations during three events held in Australia, Canada and the UK during 2000-01. Through the dialogical lenses of these Y2K events that brought together an array of international participants, it examines lifelong learning as a chameleonic concept and…

  20. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.


    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  1. The Role of Flipped Learning in Managing the Cognitive Load of a Threshold Concept in Physiology (United States)

    Akkaraju, Shylaja


    To help students master challenging, threshold concepts in physiology, I used the flipped learning model in a human anatomy and physiology course with very encouraging results in terms of student motivation, preparedness, engagement, and performance. The flipped learning model was enhanced by pre-training and formative assessments that provided…

  2. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  3. The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development, Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior. (United States)

    Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.


    Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…

  4. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  5. A Phenomenographic Study of Students' Conceptions of Quality in Learning in Higher Education in Rwanda (United States)

    Mbabazi Bamwesiga, Penelope; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlgren, Lars-Owe


    The aim of this study is to understand the different ways that university students conceptualise quality in learning by drawing on a phenomenographic approach. A total of 20 students in higher education in Rwanda were interviewed and analysis of the interviews generated an outcome space of conceptions of quality in learning as transformation,…

  6. Naïve conceptions about multimedia learning: a study on primary school textbooks. (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro


    HIGHLIGHTSThis interview study explores beliefs about the instructional role of illustrationsWe compared illustrators', teachers', students' and common people's ideasParticipants' responses were internally coherent and close to multimedia learning theoryWe propose and discuss an integrated multimedia learning model An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators', teachers', students', and common people's beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants' responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer's pessimistic claim that laypersons' conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  7. Machine learning concepts in coherent optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.


    Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA.......Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA....

  8. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan


    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  9. A Research and Study Course for learning the concept of discrete randomvariable using Monte Carlo methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente D. Estruch


    Full Text Available The concept of random variable is a mathematical construct that presents some theoretical complexity. However, learning  this  concept  can  be  facilitated  if  it  is  presented  as  the  end  of  a  sequential  process  of  modeling  of  a  real event. More specifically, to learn the concept of discrete random variable, the Monte Carlo simulation can provide an extremely useful tool because in the process of modeling / simulation one can approach the theoretical concept of random variable, while the random variable is observed \\in action". This paper presents a Research and Study Course  (RSC  based  on  series  of  activities  related  to  random  variables  such  as  training  and  introduction  of  simulation  elements,  then  the  construction  of  the  model  is  presented,  which  is  the  substantial  part  of  the  activity, generating a random variable and its probability function. Starting from a simple situation related to reproduction and  survival  of  the  litter  of  a  rodent,  with  random  components,  step  by  step,  the  model  that  represents  the  real raised situation is built obtaining an \\original" random variable. In the intermediate stages of the construction of the model have a fundamental role the uniform discrete and binomial distributions. The trajectory of these stages allows reinforcing the concept of random variable while exploring the possibilities offered by Monte Carlo methods to  simulate  real  cases  and  the  simplicity  of  implementing  these  methods  by  means  of  the  Matlab© programming language.

  10. The Effect of Using Concept Maps in Elementary Linear Algebra Course on Students’ Learning (United States)

    Syarifuddin, H.


    This paper presents the results of a classroom action research that was done in Elementary Linear Algebra course at Universitas Negeri Padang. The focus of the research want to see the effect of using concept maps in the course on students’ learning. Data in this study were collected through classroom observation, students’ reflective journal and concept maps that were created by students. The result of the study was the using of concept maps in Elementary Linera Algebra course gave positive effect on students’ learning.

  11. Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova


    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

  12. Distributed learning enhances relational memory consolidation. (United States)

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila


    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of forgetting relative to ML. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this savings in forgetting is specific to relational, but not item, memory. In the context of extant theories and knowledge of memory consolidation, these results suggest that an important mechanism underlying the mnemonic benefit of DL is enhanced memory consolidation. We speculate that synaptic strengthening mechanisms supporting long-term memory consolidation may be differentially mediated by the spacing of memory reactivation. These findings have broad implications for the scientific study of episodic memory consolidation and, more generally, for educational curriculum development and policy.

  13. Linear time relational prototype based learning. (United States)

    Gisbrecht, Andrej; Mokbel, Bassam; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Zhu, Xibin; Hammer, Barbara


    Prototype based learning offers an intuitive interface to inspect large quantities of electronic data in supervised or unsupervised settings. Recently, many techniques have been extended to data described by general dissimilarities rather than Euclidean vectors, so-called relational data settings. Unlike the Euclidean counterparts, the techniques have quadratic time complexity due to the underlying quadratic dissimilarity matrix. Thus, they are infeasible already for medium sized data sets. The contribution of this article is twofold: On the one hand we propose a novel supervised prototype based classification technique for dissimilarity data based on popular learning vector quantization (LVQ), on the other hand we transfer a linear time approximation technique, the Nyström approximation, to this algorithm and an unsupervised counterpart, the relational generative topographic mapping (GTM). This way, linear time and space methods result. We evaluate the techniques on three examples from the biomedical domain.

  14. Is case-based learning an effective teaching strategy to challenge students' alternative conceptions regarding chemical kinetics? (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Taştan-Kırık, Özgecan; Boz, Yezdan; Yıldıran, Demet


    Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is simply teaching the concept to the students based on the cases. CBL involves a case, which is a scenario based on daily life, and study questions related to the case, which allows students to discuss their ideas. Chemical kinetics is one of the most difficult concepts for students in chemistry. Students have generally low levels of conceptual understanding and many alternative conceptions regarding it. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the effect of CBL on dealing with students' alternative conceptions about chemical kinetics. Sample: The sample consists of 53 high school students from one public high school in Turkey. Design and methods : Nonequivalent pre-test and post-test control group design was used. Reaction Rate Concept Test and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Convenience sampling technique was followed. For data analysis, the independent samples t-test and ANOVA was performed. Results : Both concept test and interview results showed that students instructed with cases had better understanding of core concepts of chemical kinetics and had less alternative conceptions related to the subject matter compared to the control group students, despite the fact that it was impossible to challenge all the alternative conceptions in the experimental group. Conclusions: CBL is an effective teaching method for challenging students' alternative conceptions in the context of chemical kinetics. Since using cases in small groups and whole class discussions has been found to be an effective way to cope with the alternative conceptions, it can be applied to other subjects and grade levels in high schools with a higher sample size. Furthermore, the effect of this method on academic achievement, motivation and critical thinking skills are other variables that can be investigated for future studies in the subject area of chemistry.

  15. Collaborative and Multilingual Approach to Learn Database Topics Using Concept Maps (United States)

    Calvo, Iñaki


    Authors report on a study using the concept mapping technique in computer engineering education for learning theoretical introductory database topics. In addition, the learning of multilingual technical terminology by means of the collaborative drawing of a concept map is also pursued in this experiment. The main characteristics of a study carried out in the database subject at the University of the Basque Country during the 2011/2012 course are described. This study contributes to the field of concept mapping as these kinds of cognitive tools have proved to be valid to support learning in computer engineering education. It contributes to the field of computer engineering education, providing a technique that can be incorporated with several educational purposes within the discipline. Results reveal the potential that a collaborative concept map editor offers to fulfil the above mentioned objectives. PMID:25538957

  16. Improving students’ creativity using cooperative learning with virtual media on static fluida concept (United States)

    Gunawan; Harjono, A.; Sahidu, H.; Nisrina


    Creativity is an important component of global competition in the 21st century. Therefore, learning innovation is needed to make students more creative. This research was conducted to improve students' creativity through cooperative learning using virtual media for the static fluid concept. This study was a quasi-experiment through a pre-test post-test design. The samples were chosen using cluster random sampling technique to obtain two groups, namely experimental group and control group. Data were collected using a creativity test in the form of an essay consisting of verbal and figural tests. The data were analyzed using t-test and N-gain test to determine the improvement of creativity in both groups. The results showed that the improvement of students' creativity in the experimental group was higher than the control group. The difference in the improvement of students’ creativity in both group is significant. Students become more creative especially related to indicators of fluency and elaboration. We conclude that the application of cooperative learning model using virtual media has a positive effect on students’ creativity.

  17. Children's Self-Concepts as Related to Family Structure and Family Concept. (United States)

    Parish, Joycelyn G.; Parish, Thomas S.


    Surveyed 426 children from intact, divorced, and reconstituted families, who responded to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children to evaluate their families and themselves. Results showed a significant association between children's self-concepts and both their family structure and family concepts. (JAC)

  18. A Semantic Representation Of Adult Learners' Developing Conceptions Of Self Realisation Through Learning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    based on educational informatics. I shall draw your attention to the fact that in information sciences an ontology is described as an explicit (and formal) specification of a shared conceptualisation on the domain of interest. Ontologies of a thing/phenomenon support different researchers in providing......Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning....... This research will conceptually focus on multiple categories through the adult learners’ developing conceptions of learning. The focus will be on different categories from the basic conceptions to excellent ones. I will take an appropriate model of students’ developing conceptions of learning into my...

  19. Challenges and weaknesses in the use of concept maps as a learning strategy in undergraduate health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enios Carlos Duarte


    Full Text Available This paper considers the analysis of concept maps utilized as a learning tool in disciplines dealing with immunological responses in two undergraduate Health programs. In total, 48 concept maps were assessed regarding their propositions and structure. The clarity of the propositions was analyzed by using the Propositional Clarity Table and they were classified as adequate propositions (AP and inadequate propositions (IP. In 48 concept maps, 648 propositions were analyzed in order to determine semantic clarity and conceptual mistakes. Assessments revealed that 69 % of the propositions were classified as adequate and 31 % as inadequate. All the maps analyzed were categorized as showing a network structure. However, when correlating the connections established among the several types of response by the immune system, it was found that despite being structured as a network, only 31.2 % of the concept maps indicated conceptual relationships between the modes of immune response. 27% of the concept maps were made with a high rate of proficiency. Upon the results of our analysis, we realized that there is still a long way in developing the mapping strategy. For us, this low percentage is related to the way undergraduates assimilate the mapping processes. This is a challenge which also reveals limits and weaknesses that may be addressed in future studies. It was noted that results bring into focus that the undergraduates’ learning of concepts associated with the bases of the immunological responses occurred in a meaningful way.

  20. Effects of using presentation formats that accommodate the learner's multiple intelligences on the learning of freshman college chemistry concepts (United States)

    Brown Wright, Gloria Aileen

    Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences identifies linguistic, spatial and logical-mathematical intelligences as necessary for learning in the physical sciences. He has identified nine intelligences which all persons possess to varying degrees, and says that learning is most effective when learners receive information in formats that correspond to their intelligence strengths. This research investigated the importance of the multiple intelligences of students in first-year college chemistry to the learning of chemistry concepts. At three pre-selected intervals during the first-semester course each participant received a tutorial on a chemistry topic, each time in a format corresponding to a different one of the three intelligences, just before the concept was introduced by the class lecturer. At the end of the experiment all subjects had experienced each of the three topics once and each format once, after which they were administered a validated instrument to measure their relative strengths in these three intelligences. The difference between a pre- and post-tutorial quiz administered on each occasion was used as a measure of learning. Most subjects were found to have similar strengths in the three intelligences and to benefit from the tutorials regardless of format. Where a difference in the extent of benefit occurred the difference was related to the chemistry concept. Data which indicate that students' preferences support these findings are also included and recommendations for extending this research to other intelligences are made.

  1. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods (United States)

    Deslauriers, Louis; Wieman, Carl


    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that was taught using interactive engagement methods. However, the amount of retention was very high for both cohorts, showing only a few percent decrease in scores when retested 6 and 18 months after completion of the course and with no exposure to the material in the interim period. This high level of retention is in striking contrast to the retention measured for more factual learning from university courses and argues for the value of emphasizing conceptual learning.

  2. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner. (United States)

    Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith


    Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.

  3. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto


    During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

  4. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference? (United States)

    Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles


    Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)

  5. Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957): Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics (United States)

    Ilieva, Mariyana


    Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions…

  6. Superior cognitive mapping through single landmark-related learning than through boundary-related learning. (United States)

    Zhou, Ruojing; Mou, Weimin


    Cognitive mapping is assumed to be through hippocampus-dependent place learning rather than striatum-dependent response learning. However, we proposed that either type of spatial learning, as long as it involves encoding metric relations between locations and reference points, could lead to a cognitive map. Furthermore, the fewer reference points to specify individual locations, the more accurate a cognitive map of these locations will be. We demonstrated that participants have more accurate representations of vectors between 2 locations and of configurations among 3 locations when locations are individually encoded in terms of a single landmark than when locations are encoded in terms of a boundary. Previous findings have shown that learning locations relative to a boundary involve stronger place learning and higher hippocampal activation whereas learning relative to a single landmark involves stronger response learning and higher striatal activation. Recognizing this, we have provided evidence challenging the cognitive map theory but favoring our proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Active Metric Learning from Relative Comparisons


    Xiong, Sicheng; Rosales, Rómer; Pei, Yuanli; Fern, Xiaoli Z.


    This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful ...

  8. Factors relating to professional self-concept among nurse managers. (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Şimşek, Belkıs


    To investigate the self-concept in nurse managers in Turkey and the effects of certain variables on professional self-concept. Professional self-concept plays a significant role in improving certain professional behaviours. Nursing managers have the potential to influence other members of the profession with their attitudes and behaviours. The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was conducted with 159 nurse managers in nine different hospitals. The study data were collected with a Personal Information Form and Professional Self-concept Nursing Inventory, and the data analysis was accomplished with descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector analyses. The professional self-concept score of nurse managers was 3·33 (SD = 0·308). Professional competence subdimension had the highest scores, while professional satisfaction subdimension had the lowest. The types of hospital were found to be influential on professional self-concept. The types of hospital were reported to influence the professional self-concept of nurses. Nursing managers are visionaries who can potentially influence nursing practices and decisions. Nursing leaders must monitor and administer strategies to improve their professional self-concept. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A concept of customer–provider relation monitoring system solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naděžda Chalupová


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with design of customer–provider relationship monitoring system solution with regard to needs of business managers and analytics and to possibilities of contemporaneous information and communication technologies.The attention is followed to targeted modelling, what brings possibilities of acquisition of bigger overview about things taking place in the relation. In consequence it describes the functionality of analytical systems producing these very strategically valuable models – to so-called business intelligence tools. Onward it deals with modern technologies conductive to above mentioned system implementation – with Ajax concept and with some XML applications: PMML for analytical models manipulation, XSLT for XML data transformations to various formats, SVG for representing pictures of statistical graphs etc. and MathML for description of mathematical formulas created in analytical systems.Following these basis it suggests technological solution of some parts of client–provider relationship watching and evaluating system and it discusses its potential advantages and problems, which can occur.

  10. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.


    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  11. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet


    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  12. Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts. (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M


    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Development of Problem-Based Learning Oriented Teaching Learning Materials to Facilitate Students’ Mastery of Concept and Critical Thinking Skill (United States)

    Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.


    This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.

  14. The architecture of Virtual Learning Environments under the conceptions of Bakhtinian studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Tanzi Neto


    Full Text Available Grounded on the conceptual framework of Bakhtin's architectonic form, we seek to demonstrate that the dimensions of a genre practiced in a virtual learning environment (VLE are directly related to its design (conception, idealization, and form, that is, to its architectonic form as the design of a VLE, which can foster (new multiliteracies, provide flexibility or not for multisemiotic genre practices in the contemporary world. To achieve this aim, we observed the design of two tools from two distinct VLEs; in one of them we found the influence of traditional school relationships of time and space (and power, generating an architectonic form of the traditional school characterized by its genres and literacies. In the other VLE, considering its architectonic form, we concluded that the design tends to favor the use of different modes of language - textual, graphic, sound, with static and dynamic images with easy communication/interaction in the contemporary technological media.

  15. [Learning from errors: applying aviation safety concepts to medicine]. (United States)

    Sommer, K-J


    Health care safety levels range below other complex industries. Civil aviation has throughout its history developed methods and concepts that have made the airplane into one of the safest means of mass transport. Key elements are accident investigations that focus on cause instead of blame, human-centered design of machinery and processes, continuous training of all personnel and a shared safety culture. These methods and concepts can basically be applied to medicine which has successfully been achieved in certain areas, however, a comprehensive implementation remains to be completed. This applies particularly to including the topic of safety into relevant curricula. Physicians are obliged by the oath"primum nil nocere" to act, but economic as well as political pressure will eventually confine professional freedom if initiative is not taken soon.

  16. Relations between Representational Consistency, Conceptual Understanding of the Force Concept, and Scientific Reasoning (United States)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni


    Previous physics education research has raised the question of "hidden variables" behind students' success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students' reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students' preinstruction scores for reasoning…

  17. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  18. Same/Different Concept Learning by Capuchin Monkeys in Matching-to-Sample Tasks (United States)

    Truppa, Valentina; Piano Mortari, Eva; Garofoli, Duilio; Privitera, Sara; Visalberghi, Elisabetta


    The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i) the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii) the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions. PMID:21858225

  19. The use of concept maps as an indicator of significant learning in Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíma Soltau Ferrão


    Full Text Available This paper contains reflections and results of a research that aimed to apply and analyze the use of concept maps in Higher Education as an indicator of significant learning concerning derivative as mathematical object with students that finished Differential and Integral Calculus. This is a qualitative approach, situated in the area of mathematics education, based on Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning and on technique of Novak's Concept Mapping. As data acquisition instruments, use of classroom observations, questionnaire, brainstorming and digital conceptual mapping, made by an undergraduate physics course. To analyze we defined four aspects to be observed in the maps constructed by students: (i validity of propositions formed with concepts, (ii hierarchization, (iii cross-links between the propositions, and (vi the presence of applications. The identification of these elements, taken as reference to analyze the maps, allowed the collection of information about how each student has structured and correlated the set of concepts learned on the derivative of a function along their course. Based on the results, we have identified in the digital conceptual maps effective tools to evaluate the students in terms of meaningful learning about specific contents of Differential and Integral Calculus by the hierarchy of concepts, progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as defined in the Theory of Meaningful Learning.

  20. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray


    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  1. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna


    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  2. Theorizing Space-Time Relations in Education: The Concept of Chronotope (United States)

    Ritella, Giuseppe; Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; Hakkarainen, Kai


    Due to ongoing cultural-historical transformations, the space-time of learning is radically changing, and theoretical conceptualizations are needed to investigate how such evolving space-time frames can function as a ground for learning. In this article, we argue that the concept of chronotope--from Greek chronos and topos, meaning time and…

  3. A New Concept Map Model for E-Learning Environments (United States)

    Dattolo, Antonina; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    Web-based education enables learners and teachers to access a wide quantity of continuously updated educational sources. In order to support the learning process, a system has to provide some fundamental features, such as simple mechanisms for the identification of the collection of “interesting” documents, adequate structures for storing, organizing and visualizing these documents, and appropriate mechanisms for creating personalized adaptive paths and views for learners.

  4. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.


    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just


    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine


    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Learning style and concept acquisition of community college students in introductory biology (United States)

    Bobick, Sandra Burin

    This study investigated the influence of learning style on concept acquisition within a sample of community college students in a general biology course. There are two subproblems within the larger problem: (1) the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to scientific information) on learning style, and (2) the correlations between prior scientific knowledge, learning style and student understanding of the concept of the gene. The sample included all students enrolled in an introductory general biology course during two consecutive semesters at an urban community college. Initial data was gathered during the first week of the semester, at which time students filled in a short questionnaire (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to science information either through reading/visual sources or a prior biology course). Subjects were then given the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised (ILP-R) which measures general preferences in five learning styles; Deep Learning; Elaborative Learning, Agentic Learning, Methodical Learning and Literal Memorization. Subjects were then given the Gene Conceptual Knowledge pretest: a 15 question objective section and an essay section. Subjects were exposed to specific concepts during lecture and laboratory exercises. At the last lab, students were given the Genetics Conceptual Knowledge Posttest. Pretest/posttest gains were correlated with demographic variables and learning styles were analyzed for significant correlations. Learning styles, as the independent variable in a simultaneous multiple regression, were significant predictors of results on the gene assessment tests, including pretest, posttest and gain. Of the learning styles, Deep Learning accounted for the greatest positive predictive value of pretest essay and pretest objective results. Literal Memorization was a significant negative predictor for posttest essay, essay gain and objective gain. Simultaneous

  7. Students' Conception of Learning Environment and Their Approach to Learning and Its Implication on Quality Education (United States)

    Belaineh, Matheas Shemelis


    Quality of education in higher institutions can be affected by different factors. It partly rests on the learning environment created by teachers and the learning approach students are employing during their learning. The main purpose of this study is to examine the learning environment at Mizan Tepi University from students' perspective and their…

  8. Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure (United States)

    Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.


    This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.

  9. Talking and learning physics: Predicting future grades from network measures and Force Concept Inventory pretest scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bruun


    Full Text Available The role of student interactions in learning situations is a foundation of sociocultural learning theory, and social network analysis can be used to quantify student relations. We discuss how self-reported student interactions can be viewed as processes of meaning making and use this to understand how quantitative measures that describe the position in a network, called centrality measures, can be understood in terms of interactions that happen in the context of a university physics course. We apply this discussion to an empirical data set of self-reported student interactions. In a weekly administered survey, first year university students enrolled in an introductory physics course at a Danish university indicated with whom they remembered having communicated within different interaction categories. For three categories pertaining to (1 communication about how to solve physics problems in the course (called the PS category, (2 communications about the nature of physics concepts (called the CD category, and (3 social interactions that are not strictly related to the content of the physics classes (called the ICS category in the introductory mechanics course, we use the survey data to create networks of student interaction. For each of these networks, we calculate centrality measures for each student and correlate these measures with grades from the introductory course, grades from two subsequent courses, and the pretest Force Concept Inventory (FCI scores. We find highly significant correlations (p<0.001 between network centrality measures and grades in all networks. We find the highest correlations between network centrality measures and future grades. In the network composed of interactions regarding problem solving (the PS network, the centrality measures hide and PageRank show the highest correlations (r=-0.32 and r=0.33, respectively with future grades. In the CD network, the network measure target entropy shows the highest correlation

  10. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  11. The Impact of Project-Based Learning on Improving Student Learning Outcomes of Sustainability Concepts in Transportation Engineering Courses (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher


    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on…

  12. Learning, Action and Solutions in Action Learning: Investigation of Facilitation Practice Using the Concept of Living Theories (United States)

    Sanyal, Chandana


    This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…

  13. Conceptions of E-Learning and Professional Development for E-Learning Held by Tertiary Educators in New Zealand (United States)

    Stein, Sarah J.; Shephard, Kerry; Harris, Irene


    The conceptions an individual holds about a phenomenon can influence and determine associated behaviours and perspectives. Consequently, they have a bearing upon how learning about a phenomenon is undertaken and how that phenomenon is experienced and applied in context. A phenomenographic research approach was used to gather the expressed…

  14. Use of concept maps to promote electrocardiogram diagnosis learning in undergraduate medical students (United States)

    Dong, Ruimin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, Bangrong; Zou, Zihao; Zheng, Zhenda; Xie, Xujing; Zhu, Jieming; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Hanjian


    Concept mapping is an effective method in teaching and learning, however this strategy has not been evaluated among electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis learning. This study explored the use of concept maps to assist ECG study, and sought to analyze whether this method could improve undergraduate students’ ECG interpretation skills. There were 126 undergraduate medical students who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, group A (n = 63) and group B (n = 63). Group A was taught to use concept maps to learn ECG diagnosis, while group B was taught by traditional methods. After the course, all of the students were assessed by having an ECG diagnostic test. Quantitative data which comprised test score and ECG features completion index was compared by using the unpaired Student’s t-test between the two groups. Further, a feedback questionnaire on concept maps used was also completed by group A, comments were evaluated by a five-point Likert scale. The test scores of ECGs interpretation was 7.36 ± 1.23 in Group A and 6.12 ± 1.39 in Group B. A significant advantage (P = 0.018) of concept maps was observed in ECG interpretation accuracy. No difference in the average ECG features completion index was observed between Group A (66.75 ± 15.35%) and Group B (62.93 ± 13.17%). According qualitative analysis, majority of students accepted concept maps as a helpful tool. Difficult to learn at the beginning and time consuming are the two problems in using this method, nevertheless most of the students indicated to continue using it. Concept maps could be a useful pedagogical tool in enhancing undergraduate medical students’ ECG interpretation skills. Furthermore, students indicated a positive attitude to it, and perceived it as a resource for learning. PMID:26221331

  15. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology. (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  16. Disability, technology and e-learning: challenging conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale


    Full Text Available In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them (Abascal et al., 2004; Chisholm & Brewer, 2005; Gunderson & May, 2005; Paolucci, 2004; Reed et al., 2004; Slatin, 2005. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not (Seale, 2006. The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working. In thinking about how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, practitioners will need to develop their own tools. These tools might be user case studies, evaluation methodologies or conceptualizations:

  17. Towards design guidelines for work related learning arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Lappia


    Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of

  18. A Conceptual Framework over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning within Human-Machine Interplays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    This research provides a contextual description concerning existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (ii......) a well-structured machine concept learning framework. Accordingly, I will, semantically and epistemologically, focus on linking those two frameworks for logical analysis of concept learning in the context of human-machine interrelationships. It will be demonstrated that the proposed framework provides...

  19. Effects of tutor-related behaviours on the process of problem-based learning. (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G


    Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the behavioural effects of tutors in terms of subject-matter expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence on students' learning process and on their final achievement. The extent of students' learning at each PBL phase was estimated by tracking the number of relevant concepts recalled at the end of each learning phase, while student achievement was based on students' ability to describe and elaborate upon the relationship between relevant concepts learned. By using Analysis of Covariance, social congruence of the tutor was found to have a significant influence on learning in each PBL phase while all of the tutor-related behaviours had a significant impact on student achievement. The results suggest that the ability of tutors to communicate informally with students and hence create a less threatening learning environment that promotes a free flow exchange of ideas, has a greater impact on learning at each of the PBL phases as compared to tutors' subject-matter expertise and their ability to explain concepts in a way that is easily understood by students. The data presented indicates that these tutor-related behaviours are determinants of learning in a PBL curriculum, with social congruence having a greater influence on learning in the different PBL phases.

  20. Machine learning methods to predict child posttraumatic stress: a proof of concept study. (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Ma, Sisi; Ren, Jiwen; Aliferis, Constantin


    The care of traumatized children would benefit significantly from accurate predictive models for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), using information available around the time of trauma. Machine Learning (ML) computational methods have yielded strong results in recent applications across many diseases and data types, yet they have not been previously applied to childhood PTSD. Since these methods have not been applied to this complex and debilitating disorder, there is a great deal that remains to be learned about their application. The first step is to prove the concept: Can ML methods - as applied in other fields - produce predictive classification models for childhood PTSD? Additionally, we seek to determine if specific variables can be identified - from the aforementioned predictive classification models - with putative causal relations to PTSD. ML predictive classification methods - with causal discovery feature selection - were applied to a data set of 163 children hospitalized with an injury and PTSD was determined three months after hospital discharge. At the time of hospitalization, 105 risk factor variables were collected spanning a range of biopsychosocial domains. Seven percent of subjects had a high level of PTSD symptoms. A predictive classification model was discovered with significant predictive accuracy. A predictive model constructed based on subsets of potentially causally relevant features achieves similar predictivity compared to the best predictive model constructed with all variables. Causal Discovery feature selection methods identified 58 variables of which 10 were identified as most stable. In this first proof-of-concept application of ML methods to predict childhood Posttraumatic Stress we were able to determine both predictive classification models for childhood PTSD and identify several causal variables. This set of techniques has great potential for enhancing the methodological toolkit in the field and future studies should seek to

  1. Concepts and Relations in Neurally Inspired In Situ Concept-Based Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank


    In situ concept-based computing is based on the notion that conceptual representations in the human brain are “in situ.” In this way, they are grounded in perception and action. Examples are neuronal assemblies, whose connection structures develop over time and are distributed over different brain

  2. Mapping of Students’ Learning Progression Based on Mental Model in Magnetic Induction Concepts (United States)

    Hamid, R.; Pabunga, D. B.


    The progress of student learning in a learning process has not been fully optimally observed by the teacher. The concept being taught is judged only at the end of learning as a product of thinking, and does not assess the mental processes that occur in students’ thinking. Facilitating students’ thinking through new phenomena can reveal students’ variation in thinking as a mental model of a concept, so that students who are assimilative and or accommodative can be identified in achieving their equilibrium of thought as well as an indicator of progressiveness in the students’ thinking stages. This research data is obtained from the written documents and interviews of students who were learned about the concept of magnetic induction through Constructivist Teaching Sequences (CTS) models. The results of this study indicate that facilitating the students’ thinking processes on the concept of magnetic induction contributes to increasing the number of students thinking within the "progressive change" category, and it can be said that the progress of student learning is more progressive after their mental models were facilitated through a new phenomena by teacher.

  3. Army Learning Concept 2015: These Are Not the Droids You Are Looking For (United States)


    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974. 4 programs, which value andragogy , rather than pedagogy and technology, must...accommodate several fundamental aspects in order to be effective. According to Malcolm Knowles, andragogy identifies adult learning principles as: (1...the topic and this is done by showing Soldiers how they can apply learning. ALC 2015 provides a reference to Malcolm Knowles concept of andragogy

  4. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning. (United States)

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael


    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task , related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

  5. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning intervention for nuclear medicine technology students in a distance learning radiation protection and biology course. (United States)

    Passmore, Gregory G; Owen, Mary Anne; Prabakaran, Krishnan


    Metacognitive learning strategies are based on instructional learning theory, which promotes deep, meaningful learning. Educators in a baccalaureate-level nuclear medicine technology program demonstrated that students enrolled in an online, distance learning section of an introductory radiation protection and radiobiology course performed better when traditional instruction was supplemented with nontraditional metacognitive learning strategies. The metacognitive learning strategy that was used is best known as concept mapping. The concept map, in addition to the standard homework problem assignment and opportunity for question-answer sessions, became the template for misconception identification and remediation interactions between the instructor and the student. The control group relied on traditional homework problems and question-answer sessions alone. Because students in both the "treatment" groups (i.e., students who used concept mapping) and the control group were distance learning students, all personal communications were conducted via e-mail or telephone. The final examination of the course was used to facilitate a quantitative comparison of the performance of students who used concept mapping and the performance of students who did not use concept mapping. The results demonstrated a significantly higher median final examination score for the concept mapping group than for the non-concept mapping group (z = -2.0381, P = 0.0415), with an appropriately large effect size (2.65). Concept mapping is a cognitive learning intervention that effectively enables meaningful learning and is suitable for use in the independent learner-oriented distance learning environments used by some nuclear medicine technology programs.

  6. Concept Maps as a strategy to asses learning in biochemistry using educational softwares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. P. Azevedo


    Full Text Available This abstract reports  the  use of concept  maps applied  to the evaluation of concepts  learned  through the use of an educational software to study  metabolic  pathways called Diagrama Metabolico Dinamico Virtual  do Ciclo de Krebs (DMDV.  Experience  with the use of this method  was carried  through  with two distinct groups  of students.  The  first  group  was composed  by 24 students (in  2003 who used DMDV during  the  classes (computer room.  The second group was formed by 36 students (in 2004 who could access DMDV software anytime  through  the intranet. The construction of the conceptual map by the student permits  the representation of knowledge, the mental  processes that were absorved and the adaptation during the study,  building new mental schemes that could be related to the concept of reflexioning  abstraction (Piaget, 1995 during  the  process of operation  with  these  concepts.   The evaluation of knowlegde was made by the analysis  of three conceptual  maps constructed by each one of them:   (a  one map  before initiating the  study  with  DMDV,  (b  the  second just  after  the  study and (c the third  one two months  later.  We used the following criteria  for the analysis:  predominance of associative  over classificatory  character; correct concepts  and  relationships; coherence;  number  of relationships;  creativity and  logic.   The  initial  maps  showed  that all  students had  some  previous mental scheme  about  the proposed  concept.    All final  concept maps  showed  an  expansion  of the concepts  as compared  to the initial  maps, something  which can be seen even by a mere glance at the size of graphics.  A purely visual comparison  between the maps indicated  that new elements have been added.   The  associative  character has been shown to predominate as compared  to the  classificatory one.  The

  7. A study of Taiwanese children's conceptions of and relation to nature: Curricular and policy implications (United States)

    Dai, Amy Hsin-I.

    The present study investigated children's conceptions of and relations to nature. Understanding the factors that influence them was the goal. The study used the Contextual Model of Learning as the theoretical framework to structure the research questions and data analysis to understand children's nature learning in the personal, sociocultural, and physical contexts that change over time. Twelve children aged 5 and 6 were prompted to draw a picture of themselves in nature. They were interviewed about the sources of those ideas and living experiences, and if they thought photographs of scenery were nature. These twelve children's parents also participated in a survey to study the family influence. I used interpretational analysis to seek for common patterns and themes. Scoring rubrics, coaxial comparison, constant comparison, and the theoretical framework were used to triangulate and investigate influential factors of children's ideas of nature. The study showed that children at this age already had developed a basic conception of what is nature, but also need to learn about the role of human beings in nature and the interrelations of nature in order to develop environmental education ideas. Most children also had a positive feeling toward nature. Children's definitions of nature were developed mainly from what parents and grandparents had told them and their firsthand exposure to nature. Only during the weekend did the children's families have time to visit nature. It was found that most parents in this study stated that they were inspired by nature and were very willing to take their children to nature settings. The most visited natural places that were reported visited were parks in the city and the mountains surrounding the city. However, very often parents missed teachable opportunities to make the experiences with nature meaningful to children. Implications of the study apply to curriculum designers, educators, urban planners, and parents. It is recommended

  8. Students’ conceptions on white light and implications for teaching and learning about colour (United States)

    Haagen-Schützenhöfer, Claudia


    The quality of learning processes is mainly determined by the extent to which students’ conceptions are addressed and thus conceptual change is triggered. Colour phenomena are a topic within initial instruction of optics which is challenging. A physically adequate concept of white light is crucial for being able to grasp the processes underlying colour formation. Our previous research suggests that misconceptions on white light may influence the conceptual understanding of colour phenomena. For the design of a learning environment on light and colours, the literature was reviewed. Then an explorative interview study with participants (N  =  32), with and without instruction in introductory optics, was carried out. In addition, the representations used for white light in Austrian physics schoolbooks were analysed. Based on the results of the literature review, the interview study and the schoolbook analysis, a learning environment was designed and tested in teaching experiments. The results indicate that learners often lack an adequate concept of white light even after instruction in introductory optics. This seems to cause learning difficulties concerning colour phenomena. On the other hand, the evaluation of our learning environment showed that students are able to gain a good conceptual understanding of colour phenomena if instruction takes these content specific learning difficulties into account.

  9. Implementation of Simulation Based-Concept Attainment Method to Increase Interest Learning of Engineering Mechanics Topic (United States)

    Sultan, A. Z.; Hamzah, N.; Rusdi, M.


    The implementation of concept attainment method based on simulation was used to increase student’s interest in the subjects Engineering of Mechanics in second semester of academic year 2016/2017 in Manufacturing Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical PNUP. The result of the implementation of this learning method shows that there is an increase in the students’ learning interest towards the lecture material which is summarized in the form of interactive simulation CDs and teaching materials in the form of printed books and electronic books. From the implementation of achievement method of this simulation based concept, it is noted that the increase of student participation in the presentation and discussion as well as the deposit of individual assignment of significant student. With the implementation of this method of learning the average student participation reached 89%, which before the application of this learning method only reaches an average of 76%. And also with previous learning method, for exam achievement of A-grade under 5% and D-grade above 8%. After the implementation of the new learning method (simulation based-concept attainment method) the achievement of Agrade has reached more than 30% and D-grade below 1%.

  10. Broadening conceptions of learning in medical education: the message from teamworking. (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan


    There is a mismatch between the broad range of learning theories offered in the wider education literature and a relatively narrow range of theories privileged in the medical education literature. The latter are usually described under the heading of 'adult learning theory'. This paper critically addresses the limitations of the current dominant learning theories informing medical education. An argument is made that such theories, which address how an individual learns, fail to explain how learning occurs in dynamic, complex and unstable systems such as fluid clinical teams. Models of learning that take into account distributed knowing, learning through time as well as space, and the complexity of a learning environment including relationships between persons and artefacts, are more powerful in explaining and predicting how learning occurs in clinical teams. Learning theories may be privileged for ideological reasons, such as medicine's concern with autonomy. Where an increasing amount of medical education occurs in workplace contexts, sociocultural learning theories offer a best-fit exploration and explanation of such learning. We need to continue to develop testable models of learning that inform safe work practice. One type of learning theory will not inform all practice contexts and we need to think about a range of fit-for-purpose theories that are testable in practice. Exciting current developments include dynamicist models of learning drawing on complexity theory.

  11. Concepts of Kinship Relations and Inheritance in Childhood and Adolescence (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.; Smith, Lesley A.


    This paper examines the development and consistency of children's (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) naive concepts of inheritance using three tasks. A modified adoption task asked participants to distinguish between biological and social parentage in their predictions and explanations of the origins of different feature types (physical characteristics,…

  12. Two relational conceptions of individuals: teams and neuroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.


    Recent work on the theory of teams and team reasoning in game interactive settings is due principally to the late Michael Bacharach (Bacharach, 2006), who offers a conception of the individual as a team member, and also to Martin Hollis (1998) and Robert Sugden and Natalie Gold (Sugden, 2000; Gold &

  13. Climacteric symptoms and their relation to feminine self-concept. (United States)

    Quiroga, A; Larroy, C; González-Castro, P


    To investigate women's subjective experiences in the climacteric transition, especially the impact of self-concept, quality of life and depression on the severity of climacteric symptoms. Non-experimental, cross-sectional study, purpose sampling. To analyze the results, we proposed a three-way interaction, in which the direct effect of depression on the severity of climacteric symptoms would be buffered by perceived sexual quality of life, and mediated by self-concept. As hypothesized, depression significantly predicted self-concept, which in turn mediated the severity of climacteric symptoms. In a second stage of the model, sexual quality of life moderated the direct effect of depression on climacteric symptoms, such that women with a better sexual quality of life would perceive less severity of climacteric symptoms than those with a less favorable sexual quality of life. Physical quality of life did not significantly buffer the direct effect of depression on climacteric symptoms, nor did vasomotor or psychosocial quality of life. Our study confirmed the impact of subjective factors such as satisfaction, self-concept, and quality of life on climacteric symptoms; specifically, we observed the moderating effect of the sexual quality of life on the previously established correlation between depression and aggravation of climacteric symptoms.

  14. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Concept Mastery and the Challenges of Game Development on Physics Learning (United States)

    Saprudin, S.; Liliasari, L.; Prihatmanto, A. S.


    This study is a survey that aims to describe pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery at a university in Ternate. Data were collected through test standard instrument for physics which used in the teacher certification program. Data were analyzed by using quantitative descriptive technique. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that generally pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery can be categorized on low category (25.4%). The map of concept mastery will be used as a reference to developing game design in the physics learning context for pre-service physics teachers.

  15. Concepts of Intellect in Relation to Learning and Development. (United States)

    Horn, John L.


    This article summarizes results from studies of the organization and development of cognitive abilities in adults aged 20 to 60 years old. Theories of intelligence stipulating a hierarchy of intellectual functions, with fluid and crystallized intelligence at the top, are supported. Six conclusions on age differences are offered. (Author/RD)

  16. Pengaruh Learning Climate Terhadap Job Performance Melalui Career Related Continuous Learning


    Anggiani, Sarfilianty


    This research objective is to identify and to analyze the relatioship of Learning climatehas an influence on Job Performance through the Career Related Continuous Learning. The result of the study showed that Learning climate influenced Job Performance through the career related continuous learning. Managerial implication and the recommendation for future study are provided.

  17. Towards clarification of convergent concepts: sense of coherence, will to meaning, locus of control, learned helplessness and hardiness. (United States)

    Sullivan, G C


    The multidisciplinary field of stress and stress-related health outcomes has generated theoretical and practical knowledge which is of interest to nurses. Theoretical developments which have assumed a prominent role in the study of stress, health and coping include the identification of various 'stress buffers' several of which bear a strong conceptual resemblance to one another. Antonovsky has developed a Salutogenic Model of stress and resistance, which is presented in this paper. The model's central concept, the sense of coherence, is described and analysed. The sense of coherence, with its three components (meaningfulness, comprehensibility and manageability), is then compared and contrasted with similar concepts. The convergent theoretical notions which are distinguished from Antonovsky's coherence are: will to meaning, locus of control, learned helplessness and hardiness. It is hoped that this analysis will provide greater conceptual clarity for nurses who study and use these concepts in education, practice or research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand.  Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand.Keywords: Perceived Understanding, Probability Concepts, Rasch Measurement Model DOI:

  19. An updated review of the concept of eLearning. Tenth anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO


    Full Text Available The continuous advances in technology cause innovation-acceptation-consolidationobsolescence flows regarding the knowledge and technology management strategies, both ad hoc and planned, of the corporations and also, in a different scale, of the individuals. Teaching and learning processes are not obviously unaware of this situation. The irruption of Information and Communication Technologies as educational tools mean both a conceptual and a methodological turning point in the way that institutions, educational or not, face training processes and learning management, especially with regard to the concept of distance education, which evolves, in a more or less significant way, when it adopts Internet as media; that is how the eLearning concept rises. However, from the first eLearning experiences, too much settled on the concept of platform or Learning Management System, up to the present times, there have been significant changes, again in both technological and methodological levels. It is important to underline, among others, the influence of social media in the daily habits of users. This way, an increased demand of learning personalization it is shown, as so as a complete connectivity with other peers, an unlimited access to resources and information sources, a complete flexibility in the way, place and time they access, and a natural and necessary coexistence of both formal and informal learning flows. Thus, the “traditional” eLearning platforms, despite their large penetration and consolidation, need to evolve and open themselves to support this rich fan of possibilities demanded by the users, ceasing to be the centre technological attention to become another component into a complex digital ecosystem oriented to the learning and knowledge management, both at institutional and personal levels. It is therefore necessary to make an updated review of the eLearning concept and its definitions that have been provided from the experience and

  20. Examining the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Students' Self-Concept of Learning Science in Taiwan Based on the TIMSS Databases (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan


    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student self-concept and achievement in science in Taiwan based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 and 2007 databases. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effects of the student-level and school-level science achievement on student self-concept of learning science. The results indicated that student science achievement was positively associated with individual self-concept of learning science in both TIMSS 2003 and 2007. On the contrary, while school-average science achievement was negatively related to student self-concept in TIMSS 2003, it had no statistically significant relationship with student self-concept in TIMSS 2007. The findings of this study shed light on possible explanations for the existence of BFLPE and also lead to an international discussion on the generalization of BFLPE.

  1. Learning-related human brain activations reflecting individual finances. (United States)

    Tobler, Philippe N; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Schultz, Wolfram


    A basic tenet of microeconomics suggests that the subjective value of financial gains decreases with increasing assets of individuals ("marginal utility"). Using concepts from learning theory and microeconomics, we assessed the capacity of financial rewards to elicit behavioral and neuronal changes during reward-predictive learning in participants with different financial backgrounds. Behavioral learning speed during both acquisition and extinction correlated negatively with the assets of the participants, irrespective of education and age. Correspondingly, response changes in midbrain and striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging were slower during both acquisition and extinction with increasing assets and income of the participants. By contrast, asymptotic magnitudes of behavioral and neuronal responses after learning were unrelated to personal finances. The inverse relationship of behavioral and neuronal learning speed with personal finances is compatible with the general concept of decreasing marginal utility with increasing wealth.

  2. Three conceptions of the changing relations between education and work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms


    the organization of work and draw special attention to the problems of reductionism and determinism in each of these approaches. As conclusion a conceptual framework is outlined that combines the three conceptions and opens up for understanding the complex interplay between the various types of dynamics at play......Education and training is the key to transform the organization of work into more knowing work. This is a common assumption in a number of political discourses about the demise of Fordist, Taylorist and bureaucratic ways of organizing work. It is though not very clear what the relationship...... is between education and training and the organization of work. In this chapter I will describe three different conceptions of the interaction between education and training and work and of the different dynamics of this interaction. I explore the scope for education and training policy in changing...

  3. Self-concept and academic achievement: a meta-analysis of longitudinal relations. (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung


    The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from .20 to .27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and from .19 to .25 between prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. Globality/specificity of self-concept was the only significant moderating factor in the relation between (a) prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and (b) prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. As high self-concept is related to high academic performance and vice-versa, intervention programs that combine self-enhancement and skill development should be integrated. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning physics concepts as a function of colloquial language usage (United States)

    Maier, Steven J.

    Data from two sections of college introductory, algebra-based physics courses (n1 = 139, n2 = 91) were collected using three separate instruments to investigate the relationships between reasoning ability, conceptual gain and colloquial language usage. To obtain a measure of reasoning ability, Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability (TSR) was administered once near mid-term for each sample. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term for pre- and post-test measures. Pre- and post-test data from the Mechanics Language Usage instrument were also collected in conjunction with FCI data collection at the beginning and end of the term. The MLU was developed specifically for this study prior to data collection, and results of a pilot test to establish validity and reliability are reported. T-tests were performed on the data collected to compare the means from each sample. In addition, correlations among the measures were investigated between the samples separately and combined. Results from these investigations served as justification for combining the samples into a single sample of 230 for performing further statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scientific reasoning ability (a function of developmental stage) and conceptual gains in Newtonian mechanics predict students' usages of "force" as measured by the MLU. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate these mediated relationships among TSR and FCI performance as a predictor of MLU performance. Statistically significant correlations and relationships existed among several of the measures, which are discussed at length in the body of the narrative. The findings of this research are that although there exists a discernable relationship between reasoning ability and conceptual change, more work needs to be done to establish improved quantitative measures of the role language usage has in developing understandings

  5. Intuitionistic fuzzy 2-normed space and some related concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursaleen, M.; Danish Lohani, Q.M.


    Motivated by the notion of 2-norm due to Gaehler [Gaehler S. Lineare 2-normietre Raeume. Math Nachr 28;1965:1-43], in this paper we define the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy 2-normed space which is a generalization of the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy normed space due to Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH, On the intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44]. Further we establish some topological results in this new set up.

  6. Engineering Students' Conceptions of Entrepreneurial Learning as Part of Their Education (United States)

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso


    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group…

  7. Teachers' Conceptions and Their Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Reality and Simulation-Based Learning Environments (United States)

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki


    This research article focuses on virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based training, with a special focus on the pedagogical use of the Virtual Centre of Wellness Campus known as ENVI (Rovaniemi, Finland). In order to clearly understand how teachers perceive teaching and learning in such environments, this research examines the concepts of…

  8. Between Product Development and Mass Production: Tensions as Triggers for Concept-Level Learning (United States)

    Jalonen, Meri; Ristimäki, Päivi; Toiviainen, Hanna; Pulkkis, Anneli; Lohtander, Mika


    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze learning in organizational transformations by focusing on concept-level tensions faced in two young companies, which were searching for a reorientation of activity with a production network between innovative product development and efficient mass production. Design/methodology/approach: An intervention-based…

  9. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea


    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  10. The Concept of Magnitude and What It Tells Us about How Struggling Students Learn Fractions (United States)

    Woodward, John


    This commentary summarizes emerging research into fractions instruction for students who are at risk for failure. Each of the three articles emphasizes a measure conception of fractions. Teaching fractions as measurement helps students learn the magnitude of rational numbers. However, measurement is only part of the way that students should…

  11. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Learning of Musical Concepts. (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Johnson, Ann


    Presents results of a study of the effects of advance organizer instruction on preschool children's learning of the musical concepts of dynamics, pitch, tempo, and rhythm. Reports that three modes and three methods of presentation were evaluated. Concludes that, although results did vary with mode, the method of presentation had no significant…

  12. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  13. Improving Operations Management Concept Recollection via the Zarco Experiential Learning Activity (United States)

    Polito, Tony; Kros, John; Watson, Kevin


    In this study, the authors investigated the effect of Zarco, an operations management "mock factory" experiential learning activity, on student recollection of operations management concepts. Using a number of single-factor and multiple-factor analyses of variance, the authors compared the recollection of students treated with the Zarco activity…

  14. Teachers' Conceptions of Student Engagement in Learning: The Case of Three Urban Schools (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Samaroo, Julia; Dahya, Negin; Alidina, Shahnaaz; James, Carl


    Although student engagement plays a central role in the education process, defining it is challenging. This study examines teachers' conceptions of the social and cultural dimensions of student engagement in learning at three low-achieving schools located in a low socioeconomic status (SES) urban area. Sixteen teachers and administrators from the…

  15. Online Video Tutorials Increase Learning of Difficult Concepts in an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course (United States)

    He, Yi; Swenson, Sandra; Lents, Nathan


    Educational technology has enhanced, even revolutionized, pedagogy in many areas of higher education. This study examines the incorporation of video tutorials as a supplement to learning in an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. The concepts and problems in which students faced difficulty were first identified by assessing students'…

  16. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan


    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  17. Connecting Knowledge Domains : An Approach to Concept Learning in Primary Science and Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, M.


    In order to understand our dependency on technology and the possible loss of control that comes with it, it is necessary for people to understand the nature of technology as well as its roots in science. Learning basic science and technology concepts should be a part of primary education since it

  18. Semantic Features, Perceptual Expectations, and Frequency as Factors in the Learning of Polar Spatial Adjective Concepts. (United States)

    Dunckley, Candida J. Lutes; Radtke, Robert C.

    Two semantic theories of word learning, a perceptual complexity hypothesis (H. Clark, 1970) and a quantitative complexity hypothesis (E. Clark, 1972) were tested by teaching 24 preschoolers and 16 college students CVC labels for five polar spatial adjective concepts having single word representations in English, and for three having no direct…

  19. A Phenomenographic Study of Lecturers' Conceptions of Using Learning Technology in a Pakistani Context (United States)

    Hodgson, Vivien; Shah, Uzair


    While there are many studies exploring the phenomenon of lecturers' use of learning technology within teaching practices in western higher education contexts, currently we know little about this phenomenon within less developed countries. In the paper, we discuss the findings from a phenomenographic study of lecturers' conceptions of using…

  20. Inculcating Positive Thinking in the Self-Concept of Children with Learning Difficulties (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi


    Inculcating positive thinking can act as a valuable tool in enhancing the overall self-concept of children with learning disabilities. The value of positive psychology is recognized as the basis for recent research conducted in the field of strength development. Positive psychology is centered on the view that individual lives can be improved by…

  1. A Video Lecture and Lab-Based Approach for Learning of Image Processing Concepts (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Fang; Lee, Greg C.


    The current practice of traditional in-class lecture for learning computer science (CS) in the high schools of Taiwan is in need of revamping. Teachers instruct on the use of commercial software instead of teaching CS concepts to students. The lack of more suitable teaching materials and limited classroom time are the main reasons for the…

  2. Student Perceptions of and Confidence in Self-Care Course Concepts Using Team-based Learning. (United States)

    Frame, Tracy R; Gryka, Rebecca; Kiersma, Mary E; Todt, Abby L; Cailor, Stephanie M; Chen, Aleda M H


    Objective. To evaluate changes in student perceptions of and confidence in self-care concepts after completing a team-based learning (TBL) self-care course. Methods. Team-based learning was used at two universities in first professional year, semester-long self-care courses. Two instruments were created and administered before and after the semester. The instruments were designed to assess changes in student perceptions of self-care using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains and confidence in learning self-care concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate pre/post changes, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to evaluate university differences. Results. Fifty-three Cedarville University and 58 Manchester University students completed both instruments (100% and 92% response rates, respectively). Student self-care perceptions with TPB decreased significantly on nine of 13 items for Cedarville and decreased for one of 13 items for Manchester. Student confidence in self-care concepts improved significantly on all questions for both universities. Conclusion. Data indicate TBL self-care courses were effective in improving student confidence about self-care concepts. Establishing students' skill sets prior to entering the profession is beneficial because pharmacists will use self-directed learning to expand their knowledge and adapt to problem-solving situations.

  3. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap


    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  4. Effects of Computer Graphics Types and Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Learning of Mathematical Concepts. (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hui


    Describes a study that determined the implications of computer graphics types and epistemological beliefs with regard to the design of computer-based mathematical concept learning with elementary school students in Taiwan. Discusses the factor structure of the epistemological belief questionnaire, student performance, and students' attitudes…

  5. Learning Ontology from Object-Relational Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulins Andrejs


    Full Text Available This article describes a method of transformation of object-relational model into ontology. The offered method uses learning rules for such complex data types as object tables and collections – arrays of a variable size, as well as nested tables. Object types and their transformation into ontologies are insufficiently considered in scientific literature. This fact served as motivation for the authors to investigate this issue and to write the article on this matter. In the beginning, we acquaint the reader with complex data types and object-oriented databases. Then we describe an algorithm of transformation of complex data types into ontologies. At the end of the article, some examples of ontologies described in the OWL language are given.

  6. The Nemesis E-Learning 4-Sectors-Model - A Concept to Enhance the Reusability of E-Learning Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Hendricks


    Full Text Available The 4-Sectors-Model has been developed by the TU Berlin and is intended to facilitate providing customized e-learning products to different target learner groups, while keeping the same basic content. This is made possible by the independent development of user interface and content. The different components are assembled at the end to produce the final e-learning product. Software development is based on the Generative Learning Objects concept (UCeL. Further improvements based on results of the ongoing test phase will make the 4-Sectors-Model better adapted to fit user needs. Finally, this project is dedicated to establishing a high standard of didactic quality for the future development of e-learning software at the TU Berlin.

  7. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit (United States)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton


    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  8. Feedback of safety - related operational experience: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, D [Commonwealth Edison Co. (United States)


    The presentation considers the following aspects of feedback of safety-related operational experience: lessons learned program, objectives, personnel characteristics; three types of documents for transmitting lessons learned issues.

  9. Feedback of safety - related operational experience: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, D.


    The presentation considers the following aspects of feedback of safety-related operational experience: lessons learned program, objectives, personnel characteristics; three types of documents for transmitting lessons learned issues

  10. Applying Active Learning to Assertion Classification of Concepts in Clinical Text (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Mani, Subramani; Xu, Hua


    Supervised machine learning methods for clinical natural language processing (NLP) research require a large number of annotated samples, which are very expensive to build because of the involvement of physicians. Active learning, an approach that actively samples from a large pool, provides an alternative solution. Its major goal in classification is to reduce the annotation effort while maintaining the quality of the predictive model. However, few studies have investigated its uses in clinical NLP. This paper reports an application of active learning to a clinical text classification task: to determine the assertion status of clinical concepts. The annotated corpus for the assertion classification task in the 2010 i2b2/VA Clinical NLP Challenge was used in this study. We implemented several existing and newly developed active learning algorithms and assessed their uses. The outcome is reported in the global ALC score, based on the Area under the average Learning Curve of the AUC (Area Under the Curve) score. Results showed that when the same number of annotated samples was used, active learning strategies could generate better classification models (best ALC – 0.7715) than the passive learning method (random sampling) (ALC – 0.7411). Moreover, to achieve the same classification performance, active learning strategies required fewer samples than the random sampling method. For example, to achieve an AUC of 0.79, the random sampling method used 32 samples, while our best active learning algorithm required only 12 samples, a reduction of 62.5% in manual annotation effort. PMID:22127105

  11. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music. (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio


    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. [Case-based interactive PACS learning: introduction of a new concept for radiological education of students]. (United States)

    Scherer, A; Kröpil, P; Heusch, P; Buchbender, C; Sewerin, P; Blondin, D; Lanzman, R S; Miese, F; Ostendorf, B; Bölke, E; Mödder, U; Antoch, G


    Medical curricula are currently being reformed in order to establish superordinated learning objectives, including, e.g., diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive competences. This requires a shifting from traditional teaching methods towards interactive and case-based teaching concepts. Conceptions, initial experiences and student evaluations of a novel radiological course Co-operative Learning In Clinical Radiology (CLICR) are presented in this article. A novel radiological teaching course (CLICR course), which combines different innovative teaching elements, was established and integrated into the medical curriculum. Radiological case vignettes were created for three clinical teaching modules. By using a PC with PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) access, web-based databases and the CASUS platform, a problem-oriented, case-based and independent way of learning was supported as an adjunct to the well established radiological courses and lectures. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course and the radiological block course were compared. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course were significantly better compared to the conventional radiological block course. Of the participating students 52% gave the highest rating for the novel CLICR course concerning the endpoint overall satisfaction as compared to 3% of students for the conventional block course. The innovative interactive concept of the course and the opportunity to use a web-based database were favorably accepted by the students. Of the students 95% rated the novel course concept as a substantial gain for the medical curriculum and 95% also commented that interactive working with the PACS and a web-based database (82%) promoted learning and understanding. Interactive, case-based teaching concepts such as the presented CLICR course are considered by both students and teachers as useful extensions to the radiological course program. These concepts fit well into competence-oriented curricula.

  13. The role of picture of process (pp) on senior high school students’ collision concept learning activities and multirepresentation ability (United States)

    Sutarto; Indrawati; Wicaksono, I.


    The objectives of the study are to describe the effect of PP collision concepts to high school students’ learning activities and multirepresentation abilities. This study was a quasi experimental with non- equivalent post-test only control group design. The population of this study were students who will learn the concept of collision in three state Senior High Schools in Indonesia, with a sample of each school 70 students, 35 students as an experimental group and 35 students as a control group. Technique of data collection were observation and test. The data were analized by descriptive and inferensial statistic. Student learning activities were: group discussions, describing vectors of collision events, and formulating problem-related issues of impact. Multirepresentation capabilities were student ability on image representation, verbal, mathematics, and graph. The results showed that the learning activities in the three aspects for the three high school average categorized good. The impact of using PP on students’ ability on image and graph representation were a significant impact, but for verbal and mathematical skills there are differences but not significant.

  14. Using whiteboards to support college students' learning of complex physiological concepts. (United States)

    Inouye, Caron Y; Bae, Christine L; Hayes, Kathryn N


    Research underscores the importance of retrieval-based practice and application of knowledge for meaningful learning. However, the didactic lecture format continues to persist in traditional university physiology courses. A strategy called whiteboarding, where students use handheld dry erase boards and work in small groups to actively retrieve, discuss, and apply concepts presented in the lecture, has the potential to address challenges associated with actively engaging students in science courses for greater learning. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the potential benefits of whiteboarding for increasing students' understanding of animal physiology concepts. Student performance on physiology questions assessing concepts taught using lecture only vs. concepts taught using lecture and whiteboarding were compared within the term that whiteboarding was used, as well as across whiteboard and lecture-only terms taught by the same instructor. Results showed that when whiteboarding was incorporated in the course, student performance on items that assessed concepts corresponding to the whiteboarding activities were significantly higher compared with performance on items that assessed concepts taught through lecture only. These patterns in student performance were found within and across terms. Taken together, findings point to whiteboarding as an effective tool that can be integrated in traditional lecture courses to promote students' understanding of physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The Effect of Visual Variability on the Learning of Academic Concepts. (United States)

    Bourgoyne, Ashley; Alt, Mary


    The purpose of this study was to identify effects of variability of visual input on development of conceptual representations of academic concepts for college-age students with normal language (NL) and those with language-learning disabilities (LLD). Students with NL (n = 11) and LLD (n = 11) participated in a computer-based training for introductory biology course concepts. Participants were trained on half the concepts under a low-variability condition and half under a high-variability condition. Participants completed a posttest in which they were asked to identify and rate the accuracy of novel and trained visual representations of the concepts. We performed separate repeated measures analyses of variance to examine the accuracy of identification and ratings. Participants were equally accurate on trained and novel items in the high-variability condition, but were less accurate on novel items only in the low-variability condition. The LLD group showed the same pattern as the NL group; they were just less accurate. Results indicated that high-variability visual input may facilitate the acquisition of academic concepts in college students with NL and LLD. High-variability visual input may be especially beneficial for generalization to novel representations of concepts. Implicit learning methods may be harnessed by college courses to provide students with basic conceptual knowledge when they are entering courses or beginning new units.

  16. Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in primary school: Differential effects and the role of the preschool home learning environment. (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James


    Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. n = 3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families. A secondary analysis of the nationally representative UK EPPE database. Multilevel structural equation modelling calculated the direct, indirect, and total impacts of early socio-economic risks (0-3 years) and preschool home learning environments (3-5 years) upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. Early socio-economic risk had different effects upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept. Early socio-economic risks affected children's reading at ages 7 and 10 both directly and indirectly via effects upon preschool home learning environments. By contrast, early socio-economic risks had only indirect effects upon children's academic self-concept via less stimulating home learning environments in the preschool period and by limiting reading abilities early on in primary school. Although the impacts of early socio-economic risks are larger and more easily observed upon reading than upon academic self-concept, they can impact both by making it less likely that children will experience enriching home learning environments during the preschool period. This has implications for social policymakers, early educators, and interventionists. Intervening early and improving preschool home learning environments can do more than raise children's reading abilities; secondary benefits may also be achievable upon children's self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Validating Proposed Learning Progressions on Force and Motion Using the Force Concept Inventory: Findings from Singapore Secondary Schools (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.


    This study examines the validity of 2 proposed learning progressions on the force concept when tested using items from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This is the first study to compare students' performance with respect to learning progressions both for force and motion and for Newton's third law in parallel. It is also among the first studies…

  18. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria (United States)

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah


    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  19. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  20. Concept Maps for Assessing Change in Learning: A Study of Undergraduate Business Students in First-Year Marketing in China (United States)

    von der Heidt, Tania


    This paper explains the application of concept mapping to help foster a learning-centred approach. It investigates how concept maps are used to measure the change in learning following a two-week intensive undergraduate Marketing Principles course delivered to 162 Chinese students undertaking a Bachelor of Business Administration programme in…

  1. Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Improving Learning of Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (United States)

    Shin, Shin-Shing


    Students attending object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from requirements analysis to logical design and then to physical design. Concept maps have been widely used in studies of user learning. The study reported here, based on the relationship of concept maps to learning theory and…

  2. Hallucinations and related concepts – their conceptual background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo eTelles-Correia


    Full Text Available Prior to the 17th century, the experiences we now name hallucinations or others alike were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-17th to 18th centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the 18th-19th centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favours the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination.By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey, while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish. A more integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes.The terms pseudohallucination, illusion and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were ‘lack of objectivity’ and ‘presence of insight’ (differing from hallucinations. Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved.These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper.

  3. Science Shops - a concept for community based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hende, Merete


    Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. The paper is based on an investigation of the impact of science shops on university curricula and research through a questionnaire...... sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university based science shops. These science shops had in the questionnaire indicated that the science shop in one way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. This paper focuses...... on the impact on university curricula. The case studies have been supplemented with articles and reports. The analysis has focused on the kind of impact, which the science shops have reported, and has tried to relate the impact to the local history of the science shop. One direct impact on the curricula...

  4. Prelinguistic Relational Concepts: Investigating Analogical Processing in Infants (United States)

    Ferry, Alissa L.; Hespos, Susan J.; Gentner, Dedre


    This research asks whether analogical processing ability is present in human infants, using the simplest and most basic relation--the "same-different" relation. Experiment 1 (N = 26) tested whether 7- and 9-month-olds spontaneously detect and generalize these relations from a single example, as previous research has suggested. The…

  5. Relational Aggression, Victimization and Self-Concept: Testing Pathways from Middle Childhood to Adolescence. (United States)

    Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M


    When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand. Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand

  7. Using Rasch Analysis To Explore What Students Learn About Probability Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand. Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand.

  8. · Concept Learning in the Undergraduate Classroom: A Case Study in Religious Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jones


    Full Text Available Popularized by the work of Jerome Bruner in the mid-1990’s, the “Concept Attainment Model” is a process of structured inquiry that requires students to make generalizations and draw conclusions from examples (and non-examples of a particular concept toward developing new insights, hypotheses, and associations regarding what they have previously learned (Bruner, 1977. In order to broaden some of the typical assumptions about the manners and conditions in which it can be effectively employed in the undergraduate classroom, this qualitative research study offers an example of the Concept Attainment Model in action in the teaching of traditional just war theory in an undergraduate religion class. Data was collected and analysed according to Spradley’s qualitative research methodologies (Spradley, 1980. Among the most important findings of this study is that in a religion or similar humanities course, the Concept Attainment Model is most likely to find success when highly scaffolded by the instructor.

  9. Collaborative Game-based Learning - Automatized Adaptation Mechanics for Game-based Collaborative Learning using Game Mastering Concepts


    Wendel, Viktor Matthias


    Learning and playing represent two core aspects of the information and communication society nowadays. Both issues are subsumed in Digital Education Games, one major field of Serious Games. Serious Games combine concepts of gaming with a broad range of application fields: among others, educational sectors and training or health and sports, but also marketing, advertisement, political education, and other societally relevant areas such as climate, energy, and safety. This work focuses on colla...

  10. Relating Gestures and Speech: An analysis of students' conceptions about geological sedimentary processes (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Sebastian; Riggs, Eric M.


    Advances in cognitive science and educational research indicate that a significant part of spatial cognition is facilitated by gesture (e.g. giving directions, or describing objects or landscape features). We aligned the analysis of gestures with conceptual metaphor theory to probe the use of mental image schemas as a source of concept representations for students' learning of sedimentary processes. A hermeneutical approach enabled us to access student meaning-making from students' verbal reports and gestures about four core geological ideas that involve sea-level change and sediment deposition. The study included 25 students from three US universities. Participants were enrolled in upper-level undergraduate courses on sedimentology and stratigraphy. We used semi-structured interviews for data collection. Our gesture coding focused on three types of gestures: deictic, iconic, and metaphoric. From analysis of video recorded interviews, we interpreted image schemas in gestures and verbal reports. Results suggested that students attempted to make more iconic and metaphoric gestures when dealing with abstract concepts, such as relative sea level, base level, and unconformities. Based on the analysis of gestures that recreated certain patterns including time, strata, and sea-level fluctuations, we reasoned that proper representational gestures may indicate completeness in conceptual understanding. We concluded that students rely on image schemas to develop ideas about complex sedimentary systems. Our research also supports the hypothesis that gestures provide an independent and non-linguistic indicator of image schemas that shape conceptual development, and also play a role in the construction and communication of complex spatial and temporal concepts in the geosciences.

  11. Triangular Norms, Triangular Conorms, and Some Related Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido


    Full Text Available Abstract. Mathematically considered, a Triangular Norm is a kind of binary operation frequently used in the context of Probabilistic Metric Spaces, but also in other very interesting fields, as may be Fuzzy Logic, or in general, in Multi-Valued Logic (MVL. The T-conorm, or S-norm, is a dual concept. Both ideas allow us to generalize the intersection and the union in a Lattice, or disjunction and conjunction in Logic. Also may be very interesting to introduce a special class of real monotone operations. We refer to the so-called Copulas, very useful in many fields. So, we offer now a comprehensive analysis of all these aggregation operators.

  12. Learning against the Clock: Examining Learning and Development Concepts in "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" (United States)

    Koenig, Allison L.; Smith, Amber R.


    Media and popular culture reach broad audiences and have the potential to be an invaluable teaching resource in terms of promoting adult education and learning. Human resource development instructors can use media artifacts (e.g., films, television, novels, and cartoons) as useful methods to demonstrate learning theory and adult development…

  13. The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions (United States)

    Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio


    Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

  14. Professional Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Vision in the Constructivist Conception of Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.


    With the constructivist view of learning as a conceptual lens, this paper examines student teachers' professional learning in initial teacher education (ITE). A mixed-method study was conducted with student teachers of a Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. The quantitative element of the study reveals that student teachers held a…

  15. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.


    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.

  16. Age and gender differences in the relation between self-concept facets and self-esteem


    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus


    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...

  17. The Concept of L2 User and the goals of Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Juanggo


    Full Text Available It is generally considered that knowing one language is not enough in this era. People need to learn a second language in addition to their mother tongue to meet the demand of today’s life as many of them are becoming a part of multilingual society as well as to face the globalisation. This paper aims to demonstrate the reasons of people learning a second by looking at the several goals they want to achieve in current situation and link it to the second language learning in education context. Subsequently, it also provides some criticism against the majority of English language teachings that set native speaker’s competence as the ultimate goal and highlights the concept of L2 user as a new paradigm and its implication to second language learning.

  18. Making clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine visible: analysis of collaborative concept-mapping processes and reflections. (United States)

    Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R


    The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.

  19. The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Combined with Peer Tutoring towards Learning Achievement on Human Digestive System Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abadiyah


    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept. This research was conducted at one of State Senior High School in South Tangerang in the academic year of 2016/2017. The research method was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-postest control group design. The sample was taken by simple random sampling. The total of the sampels were 86 students which consisted of 44 students as a controlled group and 42 students as an experimental group. The research instrument was objective test which consisted of 25 multiple choice items of each pretest and posttest. The research also used observation sheets for teacher and students activity. The result of data analysis using t-test on the two groups show that the value of tcount was 2.40 and ttable was 1.99 on significant level α = 0,05, so that tcount > ttable.. This result indicated that there was influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept.

  20. Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in primary school: differential effects and the role of the preschool home learning environment


    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James


    Background: uncertainty remains concerning how children’s reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: to contrast the impacts of early socioeconomic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children’s reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7-10 years.Sample: n=3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families.Methods: a secondary analysis of the nati...

  1. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jo


    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  2. Learning Styles of Medical Students Change in Relation to Time (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat


    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…

  3. Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Level of Relating Mathematical Concepts in Daily Life Contexts (United States)

    Akkus, Oylum


    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary mathematics teachers' ability of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context. Two research questions were set; what is the preservice elementary mathematics teachers' level of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context regarding to their education year and…

  4. Dissociating the Representation of Action- and Sound-Related Concepts in Middle Temporal Cortex (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Trumpp, Natalie; Herrnberger, Barbel; Sim, Eun-Jin; Hoenig, Klaus; Pulvermuller, Friedemann


    Modality-specific models of conceptual memory propose close links between concepts and the sensory-motor systems. Neuroimaging studies found, in different subject groups, that action-related and sound-related concepts activated different parts of posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), suggesting a modality-specific representation of conceptual…

  5. Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Relations (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung


    The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic…

  6. Classification of Cancer-related Death Certificates using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Butt


    Full Text Available BackgroundCancer monitoring and prevention relies on the critical aspect of timely notification of cancer cases. However, the abstraction and classification of cancer from the free-text of pathology reports and other relevant documents, such as death certificates, exist as complex and time-consuming activities.AimsIn this paper, approaches for the automatic detection of notifiable cancer cases as the cause of death from free-text death certificates supplied to Cancer Registries are investigated.Method A number of machine learning classifiers were studied. Features were extracted using natural language techniques and the Medtex toolkit. The numerous features encompassed stemmed words, bi-grams, and concepts from the SNOMED CT medical terminology. The baseline consisted of a keyword spotter using keywords extracted from the long description of ICD-10 cancer related codes.ResultsDeath certificates with notifiable cancer listed as the cause of death can be effectively identified with the methods studied in this paper. A Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier achieved best performance with an overall F-measure of 0.9866 when evaluated on a set of 5,000 free-text death certificates using the token stem feature set. The SNOMED CT concept plus token stem feature set reached the lowest variance (0.0032 and false negative rate (0.0297 while achieving an F-measure of 0.9864. The SVM classifier accounts for the first 18 of the top 40 evaluated runs, and entails the most robust classifier with a variance of 0.001141, half the variance of the other classifiers.ConclusionThe selection of features significantly produced the most influences on the performance of the classifiers, although the type of classifier employed also affects performance. In contrast, the feature weighting schema created a negligible effect on performance. Specifically, it is found that stemmed tokens with or without SNOMED CT concepts create the most effective feature when combined with

  7. [Current concepts in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration]. (United States)

    Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Karska-Basta, Izabella; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena


    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of central blindness in elderly population of the western world. The pathogenesis of this disease, likely multifactorial, is not well known, although a number of theories have been put forward, including oxidative stress, genetic interactions, hemodynamic imbalance, immune and inflammatory processes. The understanding of age-related macular degeneration pathogenesis will give rise to new approaches in prevention and treatment of the early and late stages of both atrophic and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  8. How Are Students' Attitudes Related to Learning Outcomes? (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne


    This article is a part of a research project aimed to find out how different background variables are related to learning outcomes in technology education related to the school subject Sloyd (craft). The research question of this article is: "How are ninth grade students' attitudes towards the subject related to their learning outcomes?"…

  9. Blended learning concept for the support of know-how transfer in a nuclear company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Nina


    AREVA is the largest growing nuclear company. Development and construction of new power plants, sustainment and maintenance of existing installations require many professionally trained personnel, more than 800 new appointments per year trigger the in-plant training and education. The AREVA NP Training Center is in charge of the education and training of the personnel. The contribution deals with the applied blended learning concept and the know-how transfer within AREVA NP. Web-based training and the virtual class room are part of the concept.

  10. Concept Mapping as an Innovative Tool for the Assessment of Learning: An Experimental Experience among Business Management Degree Students (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Martinez-Canas, Ricardo


    In the search to improve the quality of education at the university level, the use of concept mapping is becoming an important instructional technique for enhancing the teaching-learning process. This educational tool is based on cognitive theories by making a distinction between learning by rote (memorizing) and learning by meaning, where…

  11. Iconic gestures prime related concepts: an ERP study. (United States)

    Wu, Ying Croon; Coulson, Seana


    To assess priming by iconic gestures, we recorded EEG (at 29 scalp sites) in two experiments while adults watched short, soundless videos of spontaneously produced, cospeech iconic gestures followed by related or unrelated probe words. In Experiment 1, participants classified the relatedness between gestures and words. In Experiment 2, they attended to stimuli, and performed an incidental recognition memory test on words presented during the EEG recording session. Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the onset of probe words were measured, along with response latencies and word recognition rates. Although word relatedness did not affect reaction times or recognition rates, contextually related probe words elicited less-negative ERPs than did unrelated ones between 300 and 500 msec after stimulus onset (N400) in both experiments. These findings demonstrate sensitivity to semantic relations between iconic gestures and words in brain activity engendered during word comprehension.

  12. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory (United States)

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal


    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  13. Innovative learning model for improving students’ argumentation skill and concept understanding on science (United States)

    Nafsiati Astuti, Rini


    Argumentation skill is the ability to compose and maintain arguments consisting of claims, supports for evidence, and strengthened-reasons. Argumentation is an important skill student needs to face the challenges of globalization in the 21st century. It is not an ability that can be developed by itself along with the physical development of human, but it must be developed under nerve like process, giving stimulus so as to require a person to be able to argue. Therefore, teachers should develop students’ skill of arguing in science learning in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to obtain an innovative learning model that are valid in terms of content and construct in improving the skills of argumentation and concept understanding of junior high school students. The assessment of content validity and construct validity was done through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), using the content and construct validation sheet, book model, learning video, and a set of learning aids for one meeting. Assessment results from 3 (three) experts showed that the learning model developed in the category was valid. The validity itself shows that the developed learning model has met the content requirement, the student needs, state of the art, strong theoretical and empirical foundation and construct validity, which has a connection of syntax stages and components of learning model so that it can be applied in the classroom activities

  14. Relating Cortical Wave Dynamics to Learning and Remembering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mercado III


    Full Text Available Electrical waves propagate across sensory and motor cortices in stereotypical patterns. These waves have been described as potentially facilitating sensory processing when they travel through sensory cortex, as guiding movement preparation and performance when they travel across motor cortex, and as possibly promoting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of memory traces, especially during sleep. Here, an alternative theoretical framework is suggested that integrates Pavlovian hypotheses about learning and cortical function with concepts from contemporary proceduralist theories of memory. The proposed framework postulates that sensory-evoked cortical waves are gradually modified across repeated experiences such that the waves more effectively differentiate sensory events, and so that the waves are more likely to reverberate. It is argued that the qualities of cortical waves—their origins, form, intensity, speed, periodicity, extent, and trajectories —are a function of both the structural organization of neural circuits and ongoing reverberations resulting from previously experienced events. It is hypothesized that experience-dependent cortical plasticity, both in the short- and long-term, modulates the qualities of cortical waves, thereby enabling individuals to make progressively more precise distinctions between complex sensory events, and to reconstruct components of previously experienced events. Unlike most current neurobiological theories of learning and memory mechanisms, this hypothesis does not assume that synaptic plasticity, or any other form of neural plasticity, serves to store physical records of previously experienced events for later reactivation. Rather, the reorganization of cortical circuits may alter the potential for certain wave patterns to arise and persist. Understanding what factors determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical waves, how structural changes affect their qualities, and how wave dynamics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Starichenko


    Full Text Available The research objective is the classification and conventional interpretations of the concepts of «e-learning», «distance learning» and «blended learning»; its interconnection and correlation of the didactic system of modern education. The authors note that the deficiency of general data theories in pedagogical literature, - on the one hand, and active development of learning types essentially complicate framing and contents of modern education didactic system. Methods. The authors give the key feature of the generic difference betweenthe traditional and e-learning on the basis of the analysis and correlation made by various researchers’ viewpoints; the key feature - the information resources’ usage in educational process (i.e. devices for data processing, storage, transmission, and the information is presented in digital format. The authors single out that blended learning means implementation of traditional types and methods of specific educational tasks including the e-learning elements. Distance learning is proposed to be electronic itself; it’s supposed to be the final variation of e-learning.Scientific novelty and practical significance. The presented approach based on the digital resources’ level application permits to determine all-existing higher education learning types; to establish connection and show differences between them. The authors draw the conclusion that recommended approach can be usedfor further methodology development of modeling the specialists’ training variants in higher school. It is specially noted that this very training is considered as the collaboration of teachers and students focused on knowledge acquisition, work methods and communication features that correspond the future profession requirements. A mention should be made that it is necessary to use educational information material supplement and needed electronic devices or equipment.

  16. Learning Science through Writing: Associations with Prior Conceptions of Writing and Perceptions of a Writing Program (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen


    Students in a large undergraduate biology course were expected to write a scientific report as a key part of their course design. This study investigates the quality of learning arising from the writing experience and how it relates to the quality of students' preconceptions of learning through writing and their perceptions of their writing…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosliana Siregar


    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aims to determine the effect of self-concepts on mathematics learning achievement of students of class X at State Senior High School 14 Medan. The population in this study is all students of class X State Senior High School 14 Medan which amounted to 304 students. Technique of sampling using technique of Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling counted 40 student for research sample. Data collection using questionnaire method and documentation method. Data analysis technique used is regression analysis, correlation analysis and t test with significance level of 5%. Testing data in this study using the help of SPSS 15 for Windows program for each test result. The results showed that there is a significant influence between self-concept and mathematics learning achievement obtained from the t count (3,572> t table (1.68, with a probability significance of 0.01 <0.05. The magnitude of the determination coefficient of 25.1%

  18. Surface blemish detection from passive imagery using learned fuzzy set concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, S.; Carver, A.; Schalkoff, R.


    An image analysis method for real-time surface blemish detection using passive imagery and fuzzy set concepts is described. The method develops an internal knowledge representation for surface blemish characteristics on the basis of experience, thus facilitating autonomous learning based upon positive and negative exemplars. The method incorporates fuzzy set concepts in the learning subsystem and image segmentation algorithms, thereby mimicking human visual perception. This enables a generic solution for color image segmentation. This method has been applied in the development of ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), designed to inspect DOE warehouse waste storage drums for rust. In this project, the ARIES vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform visual inspection leading to the classification of the drum as acceptable or suspect

  19. The early emergence and puzzling decline of relational reasoning: Effects of knowledge and search on inferring abstract concepts. (United States)

    Walker, Caren M; Bridgers, Sophie; Gopnik, Alison


    We explore the developmental trajectory and underlying mechanisms of abstract relational reasoning. We describe a surprising developmental pattern: Younger learners are better than older ones at inferring abstract causal relations. Walker and Gopnik (2014) demonstrated that toddlers are able to infer that an effect was caused by a relation between two objects (whether they are the same or different), rather than by individual kinds of objects. While these findings are consistent with evidence that infants recognize same-different relations, they contrast with a large literature suggesting that older children tend to have difficulty inferring these relations. Why might this be? In Experiment 1a, we demonstrate that while younger children (18-30-month-olds) have no difficulty learning these relational concepts, older children (36-48-month-olds) fail to draw this abstract inference. Experiment 1b replicates the finding with 18-30-month-olds using a more demanding intervention task. Experiment 2 tests whether this difference in performance might be because older children have developed the general hypothesis that individual kinds of objects are causal - the high initial probability of this alternative hypothesis might override the data that favors the relational hypothesis. Providing additional information falsifying the alternative hypothesis improves older children's performance. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrates that prompting for explanations during learning also improves performance, even without any additional information. These findings are discussed in light of recent computational and algorithmic theories of learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander Daniel


    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  1. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory. (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A


    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry on solubility equilibrium concept to improve the student’s scientific processing skills (United States)

    Wardani, K. U.; Mulyani, S.; Wiji


    The aim of this study was to develop intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry on solubility equilibrium concept to enhance student’s scientific processing skills. This study was conducted with consideration of some various studies which found that lack of student’s process skills in learning chemistry was caused by learning chemistry is just a concept. The method used in this study is a Research and Development to generate the intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry. The instruments used in the form of sheets validation are used to determine the congruence of learning activities by step guided inquiry learning and scientific processing skills with aspects of learning activities. Validation results obtained that the learning activities conducted in line with aspects of indicators of the scientific processing skills.

  3. Comparing deep learning and concept extraction based methods for patient phenotyping from clinical narratives. (United States)

    Gehrmann, Sebastian; Dernoncourt, Franck; Li, Yeran; Carlson, Eric T; Wu, Joy T; Welt, Jonathan; Foote, John; Moseley, Edward T; Grant, David W; Tyler, Patrick D; Celi, Leo A


    In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition. However, recent advances in deep learning and NLP enable models to learn a rich representation of (medical) language. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) for text classification can augment the existing techniques by leveraging the representation of language to learn which phrases in a text are relevant for a given medical condition. In this work, we compare concept extraction based methods with CNNs and other commonly used models in NLP in ten phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries from the MIMIC-III database. We show that CNNs outperform concept extraction based methods in almost all of the tasks, with an improvement in F1-score of up to 26 and up to 7 percentage points in area under the ROC curve (AUC). We additionally assess the interpretability of both approaches by presenting and evaluating methods that calculate and extract the most salient phrases for a prediction. The results indicate that CNNs are a valid alternative to existing approaches in patient phenotyping and cohort identification, and should be further investigated. Moreover, the deep learning approach presented in this paper can be used to assist clinicians during chart review or support the extraction of billing codes from text by identifying and highlighting relevant phrases for various medical conditions.

  4. Resolution of a cosmological paradox using concepts from general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, A.N.


    According to the big bang theory, the universe began about 15 billion years ago and has been continually expanding ever since. If certain elementary physical concepts are naively applied to this cosmological theory, it can lead to a paradox in which distant astronomical objects seem to have lain at distances from the Earth larger than the possible size of the universe. The paradox is resolved by using concepts from general relativity theory. These concepts may appear startling to some readers

  5. The concept Conduct of Everyday Life in relation to toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  6. Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.


    It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references

  7. Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.


    It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references.

  8. Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.


    The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

  9. Learning and Processing Abstract Words and Concepts: Insights From Typical and Atypical Development. (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay


    The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states. Each hypothesis makes specific predictions with regards to when and which abstract words are more likely to be learned; also they make different predictions concerning the impact of developmental disorders. We start by providing a review of work characterizing how abstract words and concepts are learned in development, especially between the ages of 6 and 12. Second, we review some work from our group that tests the two hypotheses above. This work investigates typically developing (TD) children and children with atypical development (developmental language disorders [DLD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD] with and without language deficits). We conclude that the use of strategies based on emotional information, or on co-occurrences in language, may play a role at different developmental stages. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society Inc.

  10. The Concept Maps as a Didactic Resource Tool of Meaningful Learning in Astronomy Themes (United States)

    Silveira, Felipa Pacífico Ribeiro de Assis; Mendonça, Conceição Aparecida Soares


    This article presents the results of an investigation that sought to understand the performance of the conceptual map (MC) as a teaching resource facilitator of meaningful learning of scientific concepts on astronomical themes, developed with elementary school students. The methodology employed to obtain and process the data was based on a quantitative and qualitative approach. On the quantitative level we designed a quasi-experimental research with a control group that did not use the MC and an experimental group that used the MC, both being evaluated in the beginning and end of the process. In this case, the performance of both groups is displayed in a descriptive and analytical study. In the qualitative approach, the MCs were interpreted using the structuring and assigned meanings shared by the student during his/her presentation. The results demonstrated through the improvement of qualifications that the MC made a difference in conceptual learning and in certain skills revealed by learning indicators.

  11. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette


    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  12. Bell's inequalities from the field concept in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.


    A nonlinear field theory of matter, based axiomatically on general relativity, has an asymptotic, low-energy limit that predicts the outcome of experimental tests of Bell's inequalities. The inequalities should follow if spin-correlated, spin-1/2 particles, observed in coincidence, were a spacelike distance apart; they should be violated if they were separated by timelike distances. The experiment at timelike separations, for scattered protons observed in coincidence, was carried out by Lahemi-Rachti and Mittig and, thus far, agrees with this theory. Extension of the low-energy pp scattering experiment to observations at spacelike distances is suggested, with the prediction that agreement should be obtained with Bell's inequalities there. (author)

  13. Effects of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning approach on learning achievement and creative thinking of higher education students (United States)

    Autapao, Kanyarat; Minwong, Panthul


    Creative thinking was an important learning skill in the 21st Century via learning and innovation to promote students' creative thinking and working with others and to construct innovation. This is one of the important skills that determine the readiness of the participants to step into the complex society. The purposes of this research were 1) to compare the learning achievement of students after using basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning and 2) to make a comparison students' creative thinking between pretest and posttest. The populations were 29 students in Multimedia Technology program at Thepsatri Rajabhat University in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2016. The experimental instruments were lesson plans of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project based learning. The data collecting instrument was creative thinking test. The data were analyzed by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. The results of this research were 1) the learning achievement of students were statistically significance of .01 level and 2) the mean score of student's creativity assessment were statistically significance of .05 level. When considering all of 11 KPIs, showed that respondents' post-test mean scores higher than pre-test. And 5 KPIs were statistically significance of .05 level, consist of Originality, Fluency, Elaboration, Resistance to Premature Closure, and Intrinsic Motivation. It's were statistically significance of .042, .004, .049, .024 and .015 respectively. And 6 KPIs were non-statistically significant, include of Flexibility, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Risk Taking, and Extrinsic Motivation. The findings revealed that the flipped learning and project based learning provided students the freedom to simply learn on their own aptitude. When working together with project

  14. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru; Okada, Moritami


    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  15. Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van Trigt


    Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.

  16. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Identify Mistakes Related to Angle Concept of Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Arslan, Cigdem; Erbay, Hatice Nur; Guner, Pinar


    In the present study we try to highlight prospective mathematics teachers' ability to identify mistakes of sixth grade students related to angle concept. And also we examined prospective mathematics teachers' knowledge of angle concept. Study was carried out with 30 sixth-grade students and 38 prospective mathematics teachers. Sixth grade students…

  17. Are digital games perceived as fun or danger? Supporting and suppressing different game-related concepts. (United States)

    Kneer, Julia; Glock, Sabine; Beskes, Sara; Bente, Gary


    Violent digital game play has repeatedly been discussed to be strongly related to aggression and emotional instability. Thus, digital game players have to defend against these prejudices through emphasizing positive game-related concepts such as achievement, social interaction, and immersion. We experimentally investigated which positive- and negative-concept players and nonplayers activate when being primed with digital games. Participants were either exposed to violent or nonviolent game content and were required to work on a lexical decision task. Results showed that response latencies for the concept aggression and emotional instability were faster than for neutral concepts (not associated with digital games), but slower than for the positive concepts sociality and competition. Both players and nonplayers felt the need to defend against prejudices and emphasized positive concepts. Neither their own gaming experience nor the game content influenced the results. Being a part of the net generation is sufficient to suppress negative game-related concepts and to support positive game-related concepts to protect digital games as common leisure activity among peers.

  18. Preservice Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Its Relation to Academic Self-Concept (United States)

    Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens


    We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…

  19. Current Concept of IgG4-Related Disease. (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Umehara, Hisanori


    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by a tendency to form tumefactive lesions, increased serum levels of IgG4, and massive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells with storiform fibrosis and/or obliterative phlebitis. Patients with IgG4-RD have frequently multiorgan involvements such as the pancreas, biliary tree, salivary glands, periorbital tissues, kidneys, lungs, lymph nodes, and retroperitoneum. IgG4-RD mainly affects middle-aged to elderly men except for involvement in lachrymal and salivary glands, so-called Mikulicz's disease. The clinical manifestations of IgG4-RD depend on individually involved organs and respond well to steroid, but the prognosis still remains unclear. Some patients develop serious complications such as obstructive jaundice due to hepatic, gallbladder, or pancreatic lesions; hydronephrosis due to retroperitoneal fibrosis; or respiratory symptoms due to pulmonary lesions. Nomenclatures of individual organ manifestation of IgG4-RD have been internationally consented.

  20. How unique is continuity of care? A review of continuity and related concepts. (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A; Schers, Henk J; Schellevis, François G; van den Bosch, Wil J H M


    The concept of 'continuity of care' has changed over time and seems to be entangled with other care concepts, for example coordination and integration of care. These concepts may overlap, and differences between them often remain unclear. In order to clarify the confusion of tongues and to identify core values of these patient-centred concepts, we provide a historical overview of continuity of care and four related concepts: coordination of care, integration of care, patient-centred care and case management. We identified and reviewed articles including a definition of one of these concepts by performing an extensive literature search in PubMed. In addition, we checked the definition of these concepts in the Oxford English Dictionary. Definitions of continuity, coordination, integration, patient-centred care and case management vary over time. These concepts show both great entanglement and also demonstrate differences. Three major common themes could be identified within these concepts: personal relationship between patient and care provider, communication between providers and cooperation between providers. Most definitions of the concepts are formulated from the patient's perspective. The identified themes appear to be core elements of care to patients. Thus, it may be valuable to develop an instrument to measure these three common themes universally. In the patient-centred medical home, such an instrument might turn out to be an important quality measure, which will enable researchers and policy makers to compare care settings and practices and to evaluate new care interventions from the patient perspective.

  1. Longitudinal relations between symptoms, neurocognition, and self-concept in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Hesse, Klaus; Kriston, Levente; Wittorf, Andreas; Herrlich, Jutta; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Klingberg, Stefan


    Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms, and self-concepts were assessed at two time points 12 months apart. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model) or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model). Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts 12 months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of 1 year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Longitudinal relations between symptoms, neurocognition and self-concept in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eHesse


    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. Method: We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms and self-concepts were assessed at two time points twelve months apart. Structural equation modelling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model. Results: Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts twelve months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. Conclusion: The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of one year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed

  3. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus


    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  4. Professional development in sport psychology : relating learning experiences to learning outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R. I. (Vana); Oldenhof-Veldman, Tanja; Pijpers, J. R. (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.


    To enhance the training of sport psychology consultants, it is important to know which learning experiences are useful for which components of professional development. We interviewed 15 novice consultants on their learning experiences related to 13 different topics. Traditional learning experiences

  5. Non-Technical Skills Bingo-a game to facilitate the learning of complex concepts. (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Hartvigsen Grønholm Jepsen, Rikke Malene; Krage, Ralf


    Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and simulation as a complex technique. The combination of all three aspects might overwhelm learners. To facilitate the deeper comprehension of NTS concepts, we describe an innovative video-based game, the Non-Technical Skills (NTS) Bingo. Participants get NTS Bingo cards that show five NTS elements each. While observing (non-medical) video clips, they try to find examples for the elements on their cards, typically observable behaviours that match a given element. After the video, participants "defend" their solution in a discussion with the game leader and other players. This discussion and the reflection aim to deepen the processing of the NTS concepts. We provide practical guidance for the conduct of NTS Bingo, including a selection of usable video clips and tips for the facilitated discussion after a clip. We use NTS in anaesthesia as example and provide guidance on how to adapt NTS Bingo to other disciplines. NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct.

  6. Conceptual Elements: A Detailed Framework to Support and Assess Student Learning of Biology Core Concepts (United States)

    Cary, Tawnya; Branchaw, Janet


    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. The CE Framework was developed using a grassroots approach of iterative revision and incorporates feedback from more than 60 biologists and undergraduate biology educators from across the United States. The final validation step resulted in strong national consensus, with greater than 92% of responders agreeing that each core concept list was ready for use by the biological sciences community, as determined by scientific accuracy and completeness. In addition, we describe in detail how educators and departments can use the CE Framework to guide and document reformation of individual courses as well as entire curricula. PMID:28450444

  7. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study. (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel


    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  8. Combination of inquiry learning model and computer simulation to improve mastery concept and the correlation with critical thinking skills (CTS) (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhamad Gina; Kaniawati, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kirana, Kartika Hajar


    Among the purposes of physics learning at high school is to master the physics concepts and cultivate scientific attitude (including critical attitude), develop inductive and deductive reasoning skills. According to Ennis et al., inductive and deductive reasoning skills are part of critical thinking. Based on preliminary studies, both of the competence are lack achieved, it is seen from student learning outcomes is low and learning processes that are not conducive to cultivate critical thinking (teacher-centered learning). One of learning model that predicted can increase mastery concepts and train CTS is inquiry learning model aided computer simulations. In this model, students were given the opportunity to be actively involved in the experiment and also get a good explanation with the computer simulations. From research with randomized control group pretest-posttest design, we found that the inquiry learning model aided computer simulations can significantly improve students' mastery concepts than the conventional (teacher-centered) method. With inquiry learning model aided computer simulations, 20% of students have high CTS, 63.3% were medium and 16.7% were low. CTS greatly contribute to the students' mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.697 and quite contribute to the enhancement mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.603.

  9. Self-concept mediates the relation between achievement and emotions in mathematics. (United States)

    Van der Beek, Jojanneke P J; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Leseman, Paul P M


    Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. The aims were (1) to investigate the mediating role of mathematical self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and the achievement emotions of enjoyment and anxiety in a comprehensive model, and (2) to test possible differences in this mediating role between low-, average-, and high-achieving students. Participants were ninth-grade students (n = 1,014) from eight secondary schools in the Netherlands. Through an online survey including mathematical problems, students were asked to indicate their levels of mathematics enjoyment, anxiety, and self-concept. Structural equation modelling was used to test the mediating role of self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. Multigroup analyses were performed to compare these relations across the three achievement groups. Results confirmed full mediation of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions by mathematical self-concept. Furthermore, we found higher self-concepts, more enjoyment and less math anxiety in high-achieving students compared to their average and low-achieving peers. No differences across these achievement groups were found in the relations in the mediational model. Mathematical self-concept plays a pivotal role in students' appraisal of mathematics. Mathematics achievement is only one factor explaining students' self-concept. Likely also classroom instruction and teachers' feedback strategies help to shape students' self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Relating R and D and investment policies to CCS market diffusion through two-factor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohwasser, Richard; Madlener, Reinhard


    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to play a major role in the stabilization of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. To develop the capture technology from its current demonstration phase towards commercial maturity, significant funding is directed to CCS, such as the EU’s €4.5 bn NER300 fund. However, we know little about how this funding relates to market diffusion of CCS. This paper addresses that question. We initially review past learning effects from both capacity installations and R and D efforts for a similar technology using the concept of two-factor learning. We apply the obtained learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching rates to CCS in the electricity market model HECTOR, which simulates 19 European countries hourly until 2040, to understand the impact of learning and associated policies on CCS market diffusion. We evaluate the effectiveness of policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching by relating the policy budget to the realized CCS capacity and find that, at lower policy cost, both methods are about equally effective. At higher spending levels, policies promoting learning-by-doing are more effective. Overall, policy effectiveness increases in low CO 2 price scenarios, but the CO 2 price still remains the key prerequisite for the economic competitiveness, even with major policy support. - Highlights: ► Identified two-factor learning rates for CCS through empirical data from flue gas desulphurization. ► Evaluated effectiveness of CCS stimulation policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-researching. ► Both policy types are about equally effective with small policy budgets. ► Policies addressing learning-by-doing, e.g., subsidies to CCS projects, are more effective with large policy budgets. ► Analysis deployed HECTOR power market model that simulates 19 European countries on hourly granularity until 2040.

  11. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept. (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E


    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.

  12. Development and analysis of spectroscopic learning tools and the light and spectroscopy concept inventory for introductory college astronomy (United States)

    Bardar, Erin M.

    Electromagnetic radiation is the fundamental carrier of astronomical information. Spectral features serve as the fingerprints of the universe, revealing many important properties of objects in the cosmos such as temperature, elemental compositions, and relative motion. Because of its importance to astronomical research, the nature of light and the electromagnetic spectrum is by far the most universally covered topic in astronomy education. Yet, to the surprise and disappointment of instructors, many students struggle to understand underlying fundamental concepts related to light and spectroscopic phenomena. This dissertation describes research into introductory college astronomy students' understanding of light and spectroscopy concepts, through the development and analysis of both instructional materials and an assessment instrument. The purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to develop a novel suite of spectroscopic learning tools that enhance student understanding of light and spectroscopy and (2) to design and validate a Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) with the sensitivity to distinguish the relative effectiveness of various teaching interventions within the context of introductory college astronomy. Through a systematic investigation that included multiple rounds of clinical interviews, open-ended written surveys, and multiple-choice testing, introductory college astronomy students' commonly held misconceptions and reasoning difficulties were explored for concepts relating to: (1) The nature of the electromagnetic spectrum, including the interrelationships of wavelength, frequency, energy, and speed; (2) interpretation of Doppler shift; (3) properties of blackbody radiation; and (4) the connection between spectral features and underlying physical processes. These difficulties guided the development of instructional materials including six unique "homelab" exercises, a binocular spectrometer, a spectral analysis software tool, and the 26

  13. Designing Of Lectures through Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning, a Model for (SATL) MethodologyConcepts play a vital role in enabling chemist to deliver. The recently developing concept based teaching methods are likely to play a pivotal role towards the efforts for promoting understanding of chemical concepts and assimilation of vital theoretical foundations of chemistry. A. F. M. Fahmy and J. J. Lagowski are the leading figures in a worldwide derive towards concept building of young generation through this novel mode of teaching and learning. However, their efforts, till recently have been mostly organic chemistry specific. Nevertheless, SALTC teaching methods are equally applicable to various other disciplines in chemistry. SATLC methodology can also be thus used to overcome the problems faced by students in understanding the efficacy of any chemical entity for a specific and desired chemical action. This presentation outlines possible applications of SATLC technique to the concepts related to a number of aspects of Physical Chemistry that are to be put together in one unit for facilitating a chemical compound’s application in any chemical change desired by any researcher.


    *M. Nazir; I. I. Naqvi


    Concepts play a vital role in enabling chemist to deliver. The recently developing concept based teaching methods are likely to play a pivotal role towards the efforts for promoting understanding of chemical concepts and assimilation of vital theoretical foundations of chemistry. A. F. M. Fahmy and J. J. Lagowski are the leading figures in a worldwide derive towards concept building of young generation through this novel mode of teaching and learning. However, their efforts, till recently hav...

  14. Job-demand for Learning, Job-related Learning and Need for Achievement


    Loon, Mark; Casimir, G.


    Individual learning is important, as it is both a precursor and an outcome of learning in organisations. Job-related learning is driven by external factors (e.g., the demands of the job) and internal factors (i.e., the personality of the individual). The study examined whether need for achievement moderates the relationship between job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 153 full-time, white-collar employees from a range of industries. Hierarchical regression...

  15. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui


    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  16. Citizenship education in Lebanon: An introduction into students’ concepts and learning experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Akar


    Full Text Available Lebanon continues to use citizenship education as a tool for social cohesion in its post-conflict sectarian society. Recently, teachers from previous studies (Akar, 2006 have raised certain issues concerning the challenges of teaching citizenship in Lebanon’s National and Civic Education classrooms. This initial study in Lebanon explores some of the challenges that students face when learning citizenship within their classroom by investigating their concepts of citizenship in addition to their learning experiences. Thirty-one students from two year-11 classrooms in different schools participated. During a 45-minute class lesson, I administered a survey pack collecting quantitative and qualitative data. This pack included a diamond ranking exercise, open-ended questions and a 15-minute class discussion at the end of class. Evidence showed that these students value active and dynamic behaviours based on humanistic and democratic principles. They also demonstrated a strong sense of national identity with little or no reference to a global one. Finally, the findings showed that traditional methods of learning such as memorization and the paradoxical climate of learning democratic civic behaviours in a society of internal conflicts further challenged their learning experiences.

  17. Tugboats and tennis games: Preservice conceptions of teaching and learning revealed through metaphors (United States)

    Gurney, Bruce F.

    Black (1979) writes about the inextricable interrelationships among language, perception, knowledge, experience and metaphor. An extension of this, grounded in Wittgenstein's (1953) notion of the symbolic, experiential basis of first language, is the view that metaphors are windows into this primitive, personal framework. The purpose of this paper is to take an exploratory look at preservice teachers' metaphors of teaching and learning and to examine some components of student teachers' own intuitions in this area. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty-one science education students at the beginning of their preservice training on which they were challenged to generate a personal metaphor for teaching and learning. Descriptive elements within the responses were differentiated and applied to the development of a classification scheme. Both the technique and the categorization are seen as useful devices for the identification of common conceptions about the teaching and learning process. The metaphors have been seen to communicate a richness of meaning which convey elements of mood, control, roles, attitudes and beliefs as they apply to teaching and learning and which, it is argued here, are grounded on more deeply rooted symbols than literal language. In the light of constructivist pedagogy, the elicitation of students' preconceptions is seen to be germane to the organization of learning experiences.Received: 27 June 1993; Revised: 2 August 1994;

  18. Normative Values in Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Belief System Approach (United States)

    Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan


    The effects of teachers' normative values and emotive reactions on teaching in higher education have received relatively little research attention. The focus is often on descriptive beliefs such as conceptions of teaching and their inter-relations with practice. In this study, which is illustrated by a heuristic model, a belief system approach is…

  19. Using concept mapping to measure changes in interdisciplinary learning during high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska


    Full Text Available How, when and what kind of learning takes place are key questions in all educational environments. School graduates are expected to have reached a development level whereby they have, among many fundamental skills, the ability to think critically, to plan their studies and their future, and to integrate knowledge across disciplines. However, it is challenging to develop these skills in schools. Following existing curricula, disciplines are often taught separately and by different teachers, making it difficult for students to connect knowledge studied and learned from one discipline to that of another discipline. The Next Generation Science Standards on teaching and learning natural science in the United States point out important crosscutting concepts in science education (NGSS, 2013. In Estonia, similar trends are leading to an emphasis on the need to further develop scientific literacy skills and interdisciplinary learning in students. The changing environment around us must be reflected in changes in our school system. In this paper, we report on research that intends to answer the questions: (a “How much do Estonian students develop an interdisciplinary understanding of science throughout their high school education?”, and (b “Is their thinking more interdisciplinary after two years of studies in an Estonian high school?” Additionally, we analyzed the results based on the type of school the students attended, and we examined the use concept mapping to assess interdisciplinary learning. This research is part of an overall study that involved students from 44 Estonian high schools taking a science test similar to the three-dimensional Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA test (hereafter called PISA-like multidimensional test as well as constructing concept maps, while in 10th and 12th grade. In this paper, we report on the analysis of the results for 182 of the students, concentrating on the analysis of the concept maps

  20. Comment on "Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of 'same or different'". (United States)

    Langbein, Jan; Puppe, Birger


    Martinho and Kacelnik (Reports, 15 July 2016, p. 286) reported that newly hatched ducklings imprinted on relational concepts. We argue that reanalyzing the data at the individual level shows that this conclusion cannot be applied for all sets of stimuli presented and that the ability to grasp relational concepts is limited to the stimulus category that is most beneficial for survival. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.