Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.
This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.
Erp, J.B. van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report).
Erp, J.B. van
The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)
Zimmermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms.
The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms
Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.; Kusnendar, J.; Rahmah, F.
The difficulty of understanding programming concept is a major problem in basic programming lessons. Based on the results of preliminary studies, 60% of students reveal the monotonous of learning process caused by the limited number of media. Children Learning in Science (CLIS) method was chosen as solution because CLIS has facilitated students’ initial knowledge to be optimized into conceptual knowledge. Technological involvement in CLIS (gamification) helped students to understand basic programming concept. This research developed a media using CLIS method with gamification elements to increase the excitement of learning process. This research declared that multimedia is considered good by students, especially regarding the mechanical aspects of multimedia, multimedia elements and aspects of multimedia information structure. Multimedia gamification learning with the CLIS model showed increased number of students’ concept understanding.
Victoria D. Chamizo
Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the spatial and the temporal domains seem to share the same or similar conditions, basic effects, and mechanisms. The blocking, unblocking and overshadowing experiments (and also those of latent inhibition and perceptual learning reviewed by Prados and Redhead in this issue show that to exclude associative learning as a basic mechanism responsible for spatial learning is quite inappropriate. All these results, especially those obtained with strictly spatial tasks, seem inconsistent with OKeefe and Nadels account of true spatial learning or locale learning. Their theory claims that this kind of learning is fundamentally different and develops with total independence from other ways of learning (like classical and instrumental conditioning -taxon learning. In fact, the results reviewed can be explained appealing on to a sophisticated guidance system, like for example the one proposed by Leonard and McNaughton (1990; see also McNaughton and cols, 1996. Such a system would allow that an animal generates new space information: given the distance and address from of A to B and from A to C, being able to infer the distance and the address from B to C, even when C is invisible from B (see Chapuis and Varlet, 1987 -the contribution by McLaren in this issue constitutes a good example of a sophisticated guidance system.
Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.
Full Text Available Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the way in which students work together, in the structure of learning tasks as well as in the degree to which cooperative efforts of students are coupled with competition among groups, some elements should be present in the structure of conditions irrespective of the type of group work in question. Potential effects of cooperation are not likely to emerge unless teachers apply five basic elements of cooperative structure: 1. structuring of the learning task and students’ positive interdependence, 2. individual responsibility, 3. upgrading of "face to face" interaction, 4. training of students’ social skills, and 5. evaluation of group processes. The paper discusses various strategies for establishing the mentioned elements and concrete examples for teaching practice are provided, which should be of assistance to teachers for as much successful cooperative learning application as possible in work with children.
The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [de
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Mortensen, Niels Henrik
This paper attempts to describe the theory and methodologies behind DFX and linking multiple DFX's together. The contribution is an articulation of basic thinking patterns and description of some working methods for handling multiple DFX.......This paper attempts to describe the theory and methodologies behind DFX and linking multiple DFX's together. The contribution is an articulation of basic thinking patterns and description of some working methods for handling multiple DFX....
Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.
This book takes a tutorial-based and user-friendly approach to covering Python design patterns. Its concise presentation means that in a short space of time, you will get a good introduction to various design patterns.If you are an intermediate level Python user, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Python programming is essential. Some knowledge of UML is also required to understand the UML diagrams which are used to describe some design patterns.
Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.
Conflicting definitions reveal the diversity of motives and goals in the back-to-basics movement. Dealing with the problem must include consideration of the impact of television, the realization that basic and nonbasic education are complementary, and the need for coordination of K-12 and postsecondary education. (JMF)
Adzly Anuar; Maryam Huda Ahmad Phesal; Azrul Abidin Zakaria; Goh Chin Hock; Sivadass Thiruchelvam; Dickson Neoh Tze How; Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Ghani; Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari
In recent years, technologies related to mechatronics and robotics is available even to elementary level students. It is now common to see schools in Malaysia using Lego Mindstorm as a tool for active learning on mechatronics and robotics. A new yet interesting way of learning mechatronics and robotics is introduced by Dr. Dan Barry, a former astronaut and his son Andrew Barry during their visit to Malaysia. The kits used are based on a 4-channel RC helicopter, Arduino Uno microcontroller, IR...
Collet, C; Vernet-Maury, E; Delhomme, G; Dittmar, A
The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the autonomic nervous system responses to emotional stimuli are specific. A series of six slides was randomly presented to the subjects while six autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters were recorded: skin conductance, skin potential, skin resistance, skin blood flow, skin temperature and instantaneous respiratory frequency. Each slide induced a basic emotion: happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Results have been first considered with reference to electrodermal responses (EDR) and secondly through thermo-vascular and respiratory variations. Classical as well as original indices were used to quantify autonomic responses. The six basic emotions were distinguished by Friedman variance analysis. Thus, ANS values corresponding to each emotion were compared two-by-two. EDR distinguished 13 emotion-pairs out of 15. 10 emotion-pairs were separated by skin resistance as well as skin conductance ohmic perturbation duration indices whereas conductance amplitude was only capable of distinguishing 7 emotion-pairs. Skin potential responses distinguished surprise and fear from sadness, and fear from disgust, according to their elementary pattern analysis in form and sign. Two-by-two comparisons of skin temperature, skin blood flow (estimated by the new non-oscillary duration index) and instantaneous respiratory frequency, enabled the distinction of 14 emotion-pairs out of 15. 9 emotion-pairs were distinguished by the non-oscillatory duration index values. Skin temperature was demonstrated to be different i.e. positive versus negative in response to anger and fear. The instantaneous respiratory frequency perturbation duration index was the only one capable of separating sadness from disgust. From the six ANS parameters study, different autonomic patterns were identified, each characterizing one of the six basic emotion used as inducing signals. No index alone, nor group of parameters (EDR and thermovascular
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a set of Hebbian learning rules firmly based on biological evidence. It has been demonstrated that one of the STDP learning rules is suited for learning spatiotemporal patterns. When multiple neurons are organized in a simple competitive spiking neural network, this network is capable of learning multiple distinct patterns. If patterns overlap significantly (i.e., patterns are mutually inclusive), however, competition would not preclude trained neuron's responding to a new pattern and adjusting synaptic weights accordingly. This letter presents a simple neural network that combines vertical inhibition and Euclidean distance-dependent synaptic strength factor. This approach helps to solve the problem of pattern size-dependent parameter optimality and significantly reduces the probability of a neuron's forgetting an already learned pattern. For demonstration purposes, the network was trained for the first ten letters of the Braille alphabet.
Mylopoulos, Maria; Woods, Nicole
The construct of 'preparation for future learning' (PFL) is understood as the ability to learn new information from available resources, relate new learning to past experiences and demonstrate innovation and flexibility in problem solving. Preparation for future learning has been proposed as a key competence of adaptive expertise. There is a need for educators to ensure that opportunities are provided for students to develop PFL ability and that assessments accurately measure the development of this form of competence. The objective of this research was to compare the relative impacts of basic science instruction and clinically focused instruction on performance on a PFL assessment (PFLA). This study employed a 'double transfer' design. Fifty-one pre-clerkship students were randomly assigned to either basic science instruction or clinically focused instruction to learn four categories of disease. After completing an initial assessment on the learned material, all participants received clinically focused instruction for four novel diseases and completed a PFLA. The data from the initial assessment and the PFLA were submitted to independent-sample t-tests. Mean ± standard deviation [SD] scores on the diagnostic cases in the initial assessment were similar for participants in the basic science (0.65 ± 0.11) and clinical learning (0.62 ± 0.11) conditions. The difference was not significant (t = 0.90, p = 0.37, d = 0.27). Analysis of the diagnostic cases on the PFLA revealed significantly higher mean ± SD scores for participants in the basic science learning condition (0.72 ± 0.14) compared with those in the clinical learning condition (0.63 ± 0.15) (t = 2.02, p = 0.05, d = 0.62). Our results show that the inclusion of basic science instruction enhanced the learning of novel related content. We discuss this finding within the broader context of research on basic science instruction, development of adaptive expertise and assessment
Daw, N.D.; Tobler, P.N.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.
This chapter provides an overview of reinforcement learning and temporal difference learning and relates these topics to the firing properties of midbrain dopamine neurons. First, we review the RescorlaWagner learning rule and basic learning phenomena, such as blocking, which the rule explains. Then
Marlowe, Mike; And Others
Competency-based training workshops based on Kolb's experiential learning theory were held for North Carolina adult basic education teachers; 251 attended 1-day sessions and 91 a week-long summer institute. Topics included interpersonal communication, reading, numeracy, language arts, math, assessment, and program evaluation. (SK)
Terry, Alice W.; Bohnenberger, Jann E.
Citing the need for a basic, K-12 developmental framework for service learning, this article describes such a model. This model, an inclusive typology of service learning, distinguishes three levels of service learning: Community Service, Community Exploration, and Community Action. The authors correlate this typology to Piaget's cognitive…
de Aquino Leal, Alexis Vinícius; Ferreira, Deller James
There is still no pedagogy to teach programming that stands out significantly from others and no consensus on what is the best way for learning programming. There is still a need to develop new teaching methods for learning in introductory programming courses. This paper presents a pedagogic approach in support of creativity in programming and the…
McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas
.... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...
Egro, Francesco M
Burns teaching is organized only in a few medical schools in the United Kingdom. An e-learning tutorial was developed with the objective of incorporating burns teaching within the medical school curriculum. A 33-webpage e-learning was created, covering topics such as local and general response to burns, assessment of burns, first aid, primary and secondary survey, and referral guidelines. Medical student satisfaction was then evaluated using a 12-question feedback survey rated based on a Likert scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good). The 12-question survey was completed by a total of 18 medical students ranging from second to fourth years (second = 17%, third = 22%, fourth = 61%). While only a couple of students had received prior burns teaching, 50% of the cohort had an interest to pursue surgery as a career. The majority of students (72%) would be interested to have an e-learning module on basic burns management in their medical curriculum. The means of all domains specific to the e-learning were rated as "good" or "very good." Students' rating for ease of use was 87%, usefulness was 88%, relevance to the medical curriculum was 90%, clarity and quality of content were 78% and 83%, respectively, design was 79%, and the overall satisfaction with this e-learning was 87%. The "Basic Burns Management" e-learning tutorial can provide an efficient and effective means of information delivery to medical students and junior doctors, allowing easy and fast incorporation of burns teaching within the medical curriculum and in other medical teaching settings.
Hu, Weiming; Xiao, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhouyu; Xie, Dan; Tan, Tieniu; Maybank, Steve
Analysis of motion patterns is an effective approach for anomaly detection and behavior prediction. Current approaches for the analysis of motion patterns depend on known scenes, where objects move in predefined ways. It is highly desirable to automatically construct object motion patterns which reflect the knowledge of the scene. In this paper, we present a system for automatically learning motion patterns for anomaly detection and behavior prediction based on a proposed algorithm for robustly tracking multiple objects. In the tracking algorithm, foreground pixels are clustered using a fast accurate fuzzy K-means algorithm. Growing and prediction of the cluster centroids of foreground pixels ensure that each cluster centroid is associated with a moving object in the scene. In the algorithm for learning motion patterns, trajectories are clustered hierarchically using spatial and temporal information and then each motion pattern is represented with a chain of Gaussian distributions. Based on the learned statistical motion patterns, statistical methods are used to detect anomalies and predict behaviors. Our system is tested using image sequences acquired, respectively, from a crowded real traffic scene and a model traffic scene. Experimental results show the robustness of the tracking algorithm, the efficiency of the algorithm for learning motion patterns, and the encouraging performance of algorithms for anomaly detection and behavior prediction.
Projecte realitzat en el marc d’un programa de mobilitat amb la Technische Universität München (TUM) In recent years, deep learning has opened a new research line in pattern recognition tasks. It has been hypothesized that this kind of learning would capture more abstract patterns concealed in data. It is motivated by the new findings both in biological aspects of the brain and hardware developments which have made the parallel processing possible. Deep learning methods come along with ...
Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance.
Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance.
Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance
Rosmiati, Rosmiati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Talib, Syamsul B.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the basic education learning model with character-based through learning in the Universitas Muslim Indonesia. In addition, the research specifically examines the character of discipline, curiosity and responsibility. The specific target is to produce a basic education learning model…
The aim of the research is to explore the possibilities and methodological solutions of using kinaesthetic teaching style in the teaching/learning process in basic school and its impact on pupil involvement in learning activities and attainment of goals. Qualitative and quantitative methods - experienced teacher’s survey and student-trainee survey after observation and analysys of lessons at school are used during the study. It is concluded that: 1)the kinesthetic style of learning involve...
Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…
Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru
This chapter presents an overview of the topics and major ideas of supervised learning for visual pattern classification. Two prevalent algorithms, i.e., the support vector machine (SVM) and the boosting algorithm, are briefly introduced. SVMs and boosting algorithms are two hot topics of recent research in supervised learning. SVMs improve the generalization of the learning machine by implementing the rule of structural risk minimization (SRM). It exhibits good generalization even when little training data are available for machine training. The boosting algorithm can boost a weak classifier to a strong classifier by means of the so-called classifier combination. This algorithm provides a general way for producing a classifier with high generalization capability from a great number of weak classifiers.
Shen, Yuanxia; Wei, Linna; Zeng, Chuanhua; Chen, Jian
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an effective tool in solving optimization problems. However, PSO usually suffers from the premature convergence due to the quick losing of the swarm diversity. In this paper, we first analyze the motion behavior of the swarm based on the probability characteristic of learning parameters. Then a PSO with double learning patterns (PSO-DLP) is developed, which employs the master swarm and the slave swarm with different learning patterns to achieve a trade-off between the convergence speed and the swarm diversity. The particles in the master swarm and the slave swarm are encouraged to explore search for keeping the swarm diversity and to learn from the global best particle for refining a promising solution, respectively. When the evolutionary states of two swarms interact, an interaction mechanism is enabled. This mechanism can help the slave swarm in jumping out of the local optima and improve the convergence precision of the master swarm. The proposed PSO-DLP is evaluated on 20 benchmark functions, including rotated multimodal and complex shifted problems. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that PSO-DLP obtains a promising performance and outperforms eight PSO variants.
Shen, Yuanxia; Wei, Linna; Zeng, Chuanhua; Chen, Jian
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an effective tool in solving optimization problems. However, PSO usually suffers from the premature convergence due to the quick losing of the swarm diversity. In this paper, we first analyze the motion behavior of the swarm based on the probability characteristic of learning parameters. Then a PSO with double learning patterns (PSO-DLP) is developed, which employs the master swarm and the slave swarm with different learning patterns to achieve a trade-off between the convergence speed and the swarm diversity. The particles in the master swarm and the slave swarm are encouraged to explore search for keeping the swarm diversity and to learn from the global best particle for refining a promising solution, respectively. When the evolutionary states of two swarms interact, an interaction mechanism is enabled. This mechanism can help the slave swarm in jumping out of the local optima and improve the convergence precision of the master swarm. The proposed PSO-DLP is evaluated on 20 benchmark functions, including rotated multimodal and complex shifted problems. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that PSO-DLP obtains a promising performance and outperforms eight PSO variants. PMID:26858747
J.G. Bagi; N.K. Hashilkar
Background: Blended learning includes an integration of face to face classroom learning with technology enhanced online material. It provides the convenience, speed and cost effectiveness of e-learning with the personal touch of traditional learning. Objective: The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a combination of e-learning module and traditional teaching (Blended learning) as compared to traditional teaching alone to teach acid base homeostasis to Phase I MB...
HIDAYAH, ULFA NURUL
Learning styles are the important factors to help students to learn a second or foreign language. A learning habit of every individual is needed to support the student's learning to be more effective, for example by taking an English course. Learning styles can be classified into: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, group, and individual. This study is conducted to examine the language learning styles applied by the students of Basic English Course (BEC) in Pare, Kediri. This study applie...
Lehmann, Manja; Barnes, Josephine; Ridgway, Gerard R; Wattam-Bell, John; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Fox, Nick C; Crutch, Sebastian J
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by a progressive decline in higher-visual object and space processing, but the extent to which these deficits are underpinned by basic visual impairments is unknown. This study aimed to assess basic and higher-order visual deficits in 21 PCA patients. Basic visual skills including form detection and discrimination, color discrimination, motion coherence, and point localization were measured, and associations and dissociations between specific basic visual functions and measures of higher-order object and space perception were identified. All participants showed impairment in at least one aspect of basic visual processing. However, a number of dissociations between basic visual skills indicated a heterogeneous pattern of visual impairment among the PCA patients. Furthermore, basic visual impairments were associated with particular higher-order object and space perception deficits, but not with nonvisual parietal tasks, suggesting the specific involvement of visual networks in PCA. Cortical thickness analysis revealed trends toward lower cortical thickness in occipitotemporal (ventral) and occipitoparietal (dorsal) regions in patients with visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, respectively. However, there was also a lot of overlap in their patterns of cortical thinning. These findings suggest that different presentations of PCA represent points in a continuum of phenotypical variation.
Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten
De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...
Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lee, C.
This paper presents on-going research to define the basic models and architecture patterns for federated access control in heterogeneous (multi-provider) multi-cloud and inter-cloud environment. The proposed research contributes to the further definition of Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF)
Psychophysiologic Response and Technology -Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leigh W. Jerome, Ph.D...NUMBER Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology - Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER...project entitled “Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response in Technology Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems.” The
Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid
Practical skills are an essential part of physicians' daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates' performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students' learning of these skills. Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students' performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills.
Mavin, Timothy John; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Purpose: This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern. Design/methodology/approach: Over a period of three years, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on pilot learning in the workplace. The instructional modes…
Sardo, Pedro Miguel Garcez; Dal Sasso, Grace Terezinha Marcon
Descriptive and exploratory study, aimed to develop an educational practice of Problem-Based Learning in CPR/BLS with 24 students in the third stage of the Nursing Undergraduate Course in a University in the Southern region of Brazil. The study used the PBL methodology, focused on problem situations of cardiopulmonary arrest, and was approved by the CONEP. The methodological strategies for data collection, such as participative observation and questionnaires to evaluate the learning, the educational practices and their methodology, allowed for grouping the results in: students' expectations; group activities; individual activities; practical activities; evaluation of the meetings and their methodology. The study showed that PBL allows the educator to evaluate the academic learning process in several dimensions, functioning as a motivating factor for both the educator and the student, because it allows the theoretical-practical integration in an integrated learning process.
Marjanovic, Olivera; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal; Godart, Claude
Collaborative Learning Flow Patterns (CLFPs) have recently emerged as a new method to formulate best practices in structuring the flow of activities within various collaborative learning scenarios. The term "learning flow" is used to describe coordination and sequencing of learning tasks. This paper adopts the existing concept of CLFP and argues…
Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Alberto, Anael Viana Pinto; Bonavita, André Gustavo Calvano; Bezerra, Rômulo José Soares; Berçot, Felipe Faria; Lopes, Renato Matos; Alves, Luiz Anastacio
Information and communication technologies have become important tools for teaching scientific subjects such as anatomy and histology as well as other, nondescriptive subjects like physiology and pharmacology. Software has been used to facilitate the learning of specific concepts at the cellular and molecular levels in the biological and health…
Lunenberg, Mieke L.; Volman, Monique
This article discusses how teachers and adult, female, immigrant students in basic education deal with active learning. The study orientations, mental models of learning and images of ideal students of the two groups are compared both with each other and with actual educational practice, in order to
Loima, Jyrki; Vibulphol, Jutarat
This qualitative research studied regional motivation and learning of the basic education 9th graders in Thailand. Second topic was the school size and its possible effect on motivation. Furthermore, the data gave an opportunity to discuss, whether international research on motivation and learning was valid in Thai classrooms. The informants were…
Vernet-Maury, E; Alaoui-Ismaïli, O; Dittmar, A; Delhomme, G; Chanel, J
The aim of this study was to link the effects of odorants with the emotional process, through autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. Taking Ekman's data and our previous results into account, we tried to verify a possible evocation by odorants of some basic emotions, i.e. anger, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust and happiness. The question investigated was: would it be possible to associate any of these emotions with a pattern of autonomic responses? A total of 15 subjects inhaled five odorants: lavender, ethyl aceto acetate, camphor, acetic acid and butyric acid acting as olfactory stimuli. After inhaling the odorant, subjects were requested to fill out an 11-point hedonic scale to rate its 'pleasantness' vs. 'unpleasantness'. ANS parameters monitored were skin potential and resistance, skin blood flow and temperature, instantaneous respiratory frequency and instantaneous heart rate. Simultaneous recording of these six autonomic parameters permitted the analysis of phasic responses through specific ANS patterns. An analysis of variance made it possible to differentiate among the five odorants. Two-by-two odorant comparisons for autonomic responses using Tukey's HSD multiple comparison test only permitted differentiation between 'pleasant' and 'unpleasant' odors. Camphor was differentiated from both types. For instance, long duration responses were associated with 'unpleasant' odors whereas camphor elicited intermediate responses. Taking into account each subject's preferential channel, it was possible to associate each ANS pattern with a basic emotion by means of a decision tree. The computation of subjects' responses made it possible to associate an odorant with a basic emotion, over the whole group: lavender elicited mostly 'happiness', as did, to a lesser degree ethyl aceto acetate; camphor induced either 'happiness', 'surprise' or 'sadness' according to subjects' past histories; butyric and acetic acids mainly induced negative emotions: 'anger' and 'disgust
Richardson, John T. E.
This article concludes the special issue of "Studies in Educational Evaluation" concerned with "Evaluating learning pattern development in higher education" by discussing research issues that have emerged from the previous contributions. The article considers in turn: stability versus variability in learning patterns; old versus new analytic…
ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available Based on three key psychological concepts: learning, culture and meaning, the present essay proposes a conceptualbase frame, oriented toward the understanding of development in organizations into current milieu ofcompetitiveness and temporality, of the relationships among people working into them. The organizations whichare typically embedded in a context of values, needs and symbols that made up their cultures, must evolve in orderto face the demands for new developments and change, to which they are forced to. The concept of “meaning of theculture”, is presented as the base over which is build and rooted the organizational learning - in a technical and socialsense. The different types of learning are the ways in which the organizations satisfy the requirements coming fromtheir environments, in front of which must generate knowledge and consequently, new products and services,based on the people that form such organizations. The people that belong and constitutes the organization, incircumstances of temporal cohesion and within temporary working networks, must achieve results and to beadjusted to these new working and organizational facts, developing self-management and autonomy, in order tosignify and get adapted into the cultural tissue.
Rahayu, D. V.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Darhim
This study examined to see the improvement of prospective teachers’ basic skills of teaching mathematics through search-solve-create-share learning strategy based on overall and Mathematical Prior Knowledge (MPK) and interaction of both. Quasi experiments with the design of this experimental-non-equivalent control group design involved 67 students at the mathematics program of STKIP Garut. The instrument used in this study included pre-test and post-test. The result of this study showed that: (1) The improvement and achievement of the basic skills of teaching mathematics of the prospective teachers who get the learning of search-solve-create-share strategy is better than the improvement and achievement of the prospective teachers who get the conventional learning as a whole and based on MPK; (2) There is no interaction between the learning used and MPK on improving and achieving basic skills of teaching mathematics.
Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid
Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills. Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills. PMID:27579364
Ellman, Matthew S; Schwartz, Michael L
Undergraduate medical educators are increasingly incorporating online learning tools into basic and clinical science curricula. In this paper, we explore the diversity of online learning tools and consider the range of applications for these tools in classroom and bedside learning. Particular advantages of these tools are highlighted, such as delivering foundational knowledge as part of the "flipped classroom" pedagogy and for depicting unusual physical examination findings and advanced clinical communication skills. With accelerated use of online learning, educators and administrators need to consider pedagogic and practical challenges posed by integrating online learning into individual learning activities, courses, and curricula as a whole. We discuss strategies for faculty development and the role of school-wide resources for supporting and using online learning. Finally, we consider the role of online learning in interprofessional, integrated, and competency-based applications among other contemporary trends in medical education are considered.
Matthew S. Ellman
Full Text Available Undergraduate medical educators are increasingly incorporating online learning tools into basic and clinical science curricula. In this paper, we explore the diversity of online learning tools and consider the range of applications for these tools in classroom and bedside learning. Particular advantages of these tools are highlighted, such as delivering foundational knowledge as part of the “flipped classroom” pedagogy and for depicting unusual physical examination findings and advanced clinical communication skills. With accelerated use of online learning, educators and administrators need to consider pedagogic and practical challenges posed by integrating online learning into individual learning activities, courses, and curricula as a whole. We discuss strategies for faculty development and the role of school-wide resources for supporting and using online learning. Finally, we consider the role of online learning in interprofessional, integrated, and competency-based applications among other contemporary trends in medical education are considered.
Pamungkas, Bian Dwi
This study aims to examine the contribution of learning methods on learning output, the contribution of facilities and infrastructure on output learning, the contribution of learning resources on learning output, and the contribution of learning methods, the facilities and infrastructure, and learning resources on learning output. The research design is descriptive causative, using a goal-oriented assessment approach in which the assessment focuses on assessing the achievement of a goal. The ...
Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi
Doctoral studies are about learning to create new knowledge and to become a researcher. Yet surprisingly little is known about the individual learning patterns of doctoral students. The study aims to explore learning patterns among natural science doctoral students. The participants included 19 doctoral students from a top-level natural science…
Cash, Stefan; Shinnick-Page, Andrea
Nurses and other carers of people with learning disabilities must be able to manage choking events and perform basic life support effectively. UK guidelines for assessment of airway obstruction and for resuscitation do not take account of the specific needs of people with profound multiple learning disability. For example, they fail to account for inhibited gag and coughing reflexes, limited body movements or chest deformity. There are no national guidelines to assist in clinical decisions and training for nurses and carers. Basic life support training for students of learning disability nursing at Birmingham City University is supplemented to address these issues. The authors ask whether such training should be provided for all nurses including those caring for children and young people. They also invite comment and discussion on questions related to chest compression and training in basic life support for a person in a seated position.
Suarta, I Made; Suwintana, I Ketut
In this paper, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is extent with two external stimulus namely e-learning characteristics and basic ICT (Information and Communication Technology) competencies. The purpose of this study are (1) finding relationship between e-learning characteristics and lecturers' basic ICT competencies with the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of e-learning; and (2) determining the effect of e-learning characteristics and lecturer basic ICT competencies to the...
Full Text Available Diagnostics and assessment of the functional skills of children with disabilities and autism spectrum disorders are to be conducted to develop comprehensive remedial educational programmes. The described Methodology of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills — Revisited (ABLLS-R allows to simplify and make the diagnostics more efficient, to conduct a comprehensive examination of the child in different areas of development, detect the formed and deficit skills. The second and final part of the description of the methodology offers recommendations on the filling of the Table of the Results of Initial and Repeated Testing and on the choice of goals of correctional work with a child on the basis of performance of individual test scales. The pattern of the table filled after the initial and repeated testing is given. In drawing up of the programme of individual development the willingness of the child to the development of that skill should be considered. Regular practice of selected skills in various situations and the preventive measures against the regression of skills are also important. Conclusive part. Beginning in № 3 (48, 2015
Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming
A person's living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term "pseudo-settlement" (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people's way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.
Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papasalouros, Andreas
Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people.
Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Scherr, Claudia; Bodrova, Natalia Borisovna; Baumgartner, Stephan
Methods based on phase-transition-induced pattern formation (PTPF) are increasingly used in medical research. Frequent application fields are medical diagnosis and basic research in homeopathy. Here, we present a systematic review of experimental studies concerning PTPF-based methods applied to homeopathy research. We also aimed at categorizing the PTPF methods included in this review. Experimental studies were collected from scientific databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Russian eLibrary) and from experts in the research field in question, following the PRISMA guidelines. The studies were rated according to pre-defined scientific criteria. The review included 15 experimental studies. We identified seven different PTPF methods applied in 12 experimental models. Among these methods, phase-transition was triggered through evaporation, freezing, or solution, and in most cases led to the formation of crystals. First experimental studies concerning the application of PTPF methods in homeopathic research were performed in the first half of the 20th century; however, they were not continued in the following years. Only in the last decade, different research groups re-launched the idea, introducing new experimental approaches and computerized pattern evaluation techniques. The here-identified PTPF methods are for the first time proposed to be classified as one group of methods based on the same basic physical phenomenon. Although the number of experimental studies in the area is still rather limited, the long tradition in the application of PTPF methods and the dynamics of the present developments point out the high potential of these methods and indicate that they might meet the demand for scientific methods to study potentized preparations. The Faculty of Homeopathy.
Man, Thomas Wing Yan
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the behavioural patterns involved in entrepreneurial learning through a conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning as a "competency". Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews to 12 entrepreneurs were conducted with a focus on the critical incidents in which…
From the assumption that matching a student's learning style with the learning method best suited for the student, it follows that developing courses that correlate learning method with learning style would be more successful for students. Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute (TVI) in New Mexico has attempted to provide students with more…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari
Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…
Richards, David F.; Williams, W. Larry; Follette, William C.
Scores on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Wechsler Intelligences Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) were obtained for 30 adults with mental retardation. Correlations between the Vineland domains and ABLA were all significant. No participants performing below ABLA Level 6 were testable on the…
A simple interface between VPython and Microsoft (MS) Office products such as Word and Excel, controlled by Visual Basic for Applications, is described. The interface allows the preparation of content-rich, interactive learning environments by taking advantage of the three-dimensional (3D) visualization capabilities of VPython and the GUI…
Moghnieh, Ayman; Blat, Josep
Moghnieh, A., & Blat, J. (2009). A basic framework for integrating social and collaborative applications into learning environments. Proceedings of the first conference on Research, Reflection, and Innovations in Integrating ICT in Education: Vol. 2 (pp. 1057-1061). April, 22-24, 2009, Lisbon,
Bu, Huabai; Bu, Shizhen
Gradual integration of synergetic technology, P2P technology and online learning community furnishes a new research field for innovation of teacher training model in a knowledge economy era. This article proposes the innovative model of "whole of three lines" in teacher training in basic education from the perspective of "blended…
Somprach, Kanokorn; Tang, Keow Ngang; Popoonsak, Pongtorn
This study aimed to explore the role of essential leadership styles of school principals in encouraging teachers' participation in professional learning communities (PLCs) in basic education schools in northeastern Thailand. It aimed to identify the nine leadership styles practiced by school principals and teachers' participation in PLCs, and to…
Bernard, Jean-Marc; Amelewonou, Kokou; Bonnet, Gabrielle; Rubiano-Matulevich, Eliana; Soman, Kouassi; Sonnenberg, Krystyna
The 2014/2015 Results for Learning Report: Basic Education at Risk examines the progress achieved by Global Partnership for Education (GPE) partner developing countries over the period 2008-2012. Universal primary education has never been so close, yet there are still 58 million children of primary school age who do not go to school around the…
Markelic, Irene; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Pauwels, Karl
We present a system that learns basic vision based driving skills from a human teacher. In contrast to much other work in this area which is based on simulation, or data obtained from simulation, our system is implemented as a multi-threaded, parallel CPU/GPU architecture in a real car and traine...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Open Distance Learning (ODL) on the female access to basic education. The population of the study consists of all lecturers/teachers of ODL centres in Benin City, Edo State. Five ODL/Community Resource Study centres were identified and used for the study.
Taskin Ekici, Fatma; Kara, Izzet; Ekici, Erhan
In this study we present an overview of the undergraduate blended Physics course that has been supported by the Moodle platform. The course that has been applied is a basic physics course for primary student teachers. The aim of Moodle is to create an online learning environment which helps students to have a virtual space where they can share…
Accommodating adult basic education (ABE) learners with learning disabilities (LD) is common practice across many instructional, testing, and work settings. However, the results from this literature search indicate that very few empirically based studies are available to support or reject the effectiveness of a great deal of accommodation…
Full Text Available Standard medical curricula in the United Kingdom (UK typically provide basic surgical-skills teaching before medical students are introduced into the clinical environment. However, these sessions are often led by clinical teaching fellows and/or consultants. Depending on the roles undertaken (e.g., session organizers, peer tutors, a peer-assisted learning (PAL approach may afford many benefits to teaching surgical skills. At the University of Keele's School of Medicine, informal PAL is used by the Surgical Society to teach basic surgical skills to pre-clinical students. As medical students who assumed different roles within this peer-assisted model, we present our experiences and discuss the possible implications of incorporating such sessions into UK medical curricula. Our anecdotal evidence suggests that a combination of PAL sessions – used as an adjunct to faculty-led sessions – may provide optimal learning opportunities in delivering a basic surgical skills session for pre-clinical students.
Anne D Souza
Full Text Available Background: Out of hospital deaths due to cardiac arrest would commonly occur because of the lack of awareness about the quick and right action to be taken. In this context the healthcare students undergo training in basic life support. However the lay persons are not exposed to such training. The present study was intended to train the auto drivers, the basic skills of basic life support by the medical and nursing students. Students got an opportunity to learn and teach the skills under the supervision of faculty. Methods: A total of fourteen students, 20 auto drivers of Manipal were included in the study population. The session on one and two rescuer cardio pulmonary resuscitation and relieving foreign body airway obstruction was conducted by the trained students for the auto drivers under the observation of the faculty. Prior knowledge of the study population was assessed by the pre-session questionnaire followed by a post-session questionnaire at the end of the session. The skill evaluation was carried out using a checklist. Results: The auto drivers participated in the session, gained required skills of providing basic life support. The students who trained the study population opined that they got an opportunity to teach basic life support which would help them build their teaching skills and confidence. Conclusion: The lay persons attaining basic life support skills have a high impact on the management of out of hospital cardiac arrest victims. Involving the healthcare students as instructors makes an innovation in learning.
Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming
A person’s living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term “pseudo-settlement” (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people’s way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian. PMID:26805859
Full Text Available A person’s living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term “pseudo-settlement” (PS refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people’s way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.
Kostrubiec, Viviane; Dumas, Guillaume; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Kelso, J A Scott
The Virtual Teacher paradigm, a version of the Human Dynamic Clamp (HDC), is introduced into studies of learning patterns of inter-personal coordination. Combining mathematical modeling and experimentation, we investigate how the HDC may be used as a Virtual Teacher (VT) to help humans co-produce and internalize new inter-personal coordination pattern(s). Human learners produced rhythmic finger movements whilst observing a computer-driven avatar, animated by dynamic equations stemming from the well-established Haken-Kelso-Bunz (1985) and Schöner-Kelso (1988) models of coordination. We demonstrate that the VT is successful in shifting the pattern co-produced by the VT-human system toward any value (Experiment 1) and that the VT can help humans learn unstable relative phasing patterns (Experiment 2). Using transfer entropy, we find that information flow from one partner to the other increases when VT-human coordination loses stability. This suggests that variable joint performance may actually facilitate interaction, and in the long run learning. VT appears to be a promising tool for exploring basic learning processes involved in social interaction, unraveling the dynamics of information flow between interacting partners, and providing possible rehabilitation opportunities.
Cristina Lavareda Baixinho
Full Text Available Objective To identify the perception of the students about the use of art as a pedagogical strategy in learning the patterns of knowing in nursing; to identify the dimensions of each pattern valued in the analysis of pieces of art. Method Descriptive mixed study. Data collection used a questionnaire applied to 31 nursing students. Results In the analysis of the students’ discourse, it was explicit that empirical knowledge includes scientific knowledge, tradition and nature of care. The aesthetic knowledge implies expressiveness, subjectivity and sensitivity. Self-knowledge, experience, reflective attitude and relationships with others are the subcategories of personal knowledge and the moral and ethics support ethical knowledge. Conclusion It is possible to learn patterns of knowledge through art, especially the aesthetic, ethical and personal. It is necessary to investigate further pedagogical strategies that contribute to the learning patterns of nursing knowledge.
Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis
Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through the use of appropriate, authentic scenarios. However, an iterative pattern process is proposed that takes advantage of multiple data sources, thus emphasizing a holistic view of the teaching learning processes. The proposed schema of pattern mining has been extensively validated for Asynchronous Network Supported Collaborative Learning (ANSCL) systems, as well as for other types of tools in a variety of scenarios, with promising results.
Cong, Lin-Juan; Wang, Ru-Jie; Yu, Cong; Zhang, Jun-Yun
Visual perceptual learning is known to be specific to the trained retinal location, feature, and task. However, location and feature specificity can be eliminated by double-training or TPE training protocols, in which observers receive additional exposure to the transfer location or feature dimension via an irrelevant task besides the primary learning task Here we tested whether these new training protocols could even make learning transfer across different tasks involving discrimination of basic visual features (e.g., orientation and contrast). Observers practiced a near-threshold orientation (or contrast) discrimination task. Following a TPE training protocol, they also received exposure to the transfer task via performing suprathreshold contrast (or orientation) discrimination in alternating blocks of trials in the same sessions. The results showed no evidence for significant learning transfer to the untrained near-threshold contrast (or orientation) discrimination task after discounting the pretest effects and the suprathreshold practice effects. These results thus do not support a hypothetical task-independent component in perceptual learning of basic visual features. They also set the boundary of the new training protocols in their capability to enable learning transfer.
Genís, Carme Torras
While the ability of animals to learn rhythms is an unquestionable fact, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still no more than conjectures. This monograph explores the requirements of such mechanisms, reviews those previously proposed and postulates a new one based on a direct electric coding of stimulation frequencies. Experi mental support for the option taken is provided both at the single neuron and neural network levels. More specifically, the material presented divides naturally into four parts: a description of the experimental and theoretical framework where this work becomes meaningful (Chapter 2), a detailed specifica tion of the pacemaker neuron model proposed together with its valida tion through simulation (Chapter 3), an analytic study of the behavior of this model when submitted to rhythmic stimulation (Chapter 4) and a description of the neural network model proposed for learning, together with an analysis of the simulation results obtained when varying seve ral factors r...
The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…
Krogh, Lise Qvirin; Bjørnshave, Katrine; Vestergaard, Lone Due; Sharma, Maja Bendtsen; Rasmussen, Stinne Eika; Nielsen, Henrik Vendelbo; Thim, Troels; Løfgren, Bo
Dissemination of pediatric basic life support (PBLS) skills is recommended. E-learning is accessible and cost-effective, but it is currently unknown whether laypersons can learn PBLS through e-learning. The hypothesis of this study was to investigate whether e-learning PBLS is non-inferior to instructor-led training. Participants were recruited among child-minders and parents of children aged 0-6 years. Participants were randomized to either 2-h instructor-led training or e-learning using an e-learning program (duration 17 min) including an inflatable manikin. After training, participants were assessed in a simulated pediatric cardiac arrest scenario. Tests were video recorded and PBLS skills were assessed independently by two assessors blinded to training method. Primary outcome was the pass rate of the PBLS test (≥8 of 15 skills adequately performed) with a pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 20%. In total 160 participants were randomized 1:1. E-learning was non-inferior to instructor-led training (difference in pass rate -4%; 95% CI -9:0.5). Pass rates were 100% among instructor-led trained (n=67) and 96% among e-learned (n=71). E-learners median time spent on the e-learning program was 30 min (range: 15-120 min) and the median number of log-ons was 2 (range: 1-5). After the study, all participants felt that their skills had improved. E-learning PBLS is non-inferior to instructor-led training among child-minders and parents with children aged 0-6 years, although the pass rate was 4% (95% CI -9:0.5) lower with e-learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rita Yani Iyan
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution pattern stabilization of the availability of basic needs of rural communities based on oil palm commodities in Riau Province. The analytical method used is descriptive analysis. The data obtained is processed and tabulated into the frequency distribution which is then presented in the form of tables graphs and charts to explain the behavior of the variables studied. The results show that the pattern of distribution of basic needs in rural areas based on oil palm commodities in Riau Province is generally taken by land with the road surface conditions are relatively good and can be passed throughout the year. Distribution of basic necessities used in the form of shops grocery stores shopping groups to minimarket and permanent and non permanent markets. The prices of basic commodities are relatively fluctuating and tend to increase but they are still in a stable category. The availability of basic needs sources is seen from the area of land harvest and production decreased while consumption as the population increase. So that the supply of basic needs from outside the region is the road taken to ensure the availability of sufficient stock of basic needs.
Li, Yang; Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xiaoping; He, Guoguang; Aihara, Kazuyuki
In this Letter, we propose a Hebbian learning rule with passive forgetting (HLRPF) for use in a chaotic neural network (CNN). We then define the indices based on the Euclidean distance to investigate the evolution of the weights in a simplified way. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, under suitable external stimulations, the CNN with the proposed HLRPF acts as a fuzzy-like pattern classifier that performs much better than an ordinary CNN. The results imply relationship between learning and recognition. -- Highlights: ► Proposing a Hebbian learning rule with passive forgetting (HLRPF). ► Defining indices to investigate the evolution of the weights simply. ► The chaotic neural network with HLRPF acts as a fuzzy-like pattern classifier. ► The pattern classifier ability of the network is improved much.
Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.
Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Teodoro, Simone Valentim; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi
to evaluate students' learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immediate feedback devices was used. there were 62 participants, 87% female, 90% in the first and second year of college, with a mean age of 21.47 (standard deviation 2.39). With a 95% confidence level, the mean scores in the pre-test were 6.4 (standard deviation 1.61), and 9.3 in the post-test (standard deviation 0.82, p basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to the feedback device; 43.7 (standard deviation 26.86) mean duration of the compression cycle by second of 20.5 (standard deviation 9.47); number of compressions 167.2 (standard deviation 57.06); depth of compressions of 48.1 millimeter (standard deviation 10.49); volume of ventilation 742.7 (standard deviation 301.12); flow fraction percentage of 40.3 (standard deviation 10.03). the online course contributed to learning of basic life support. In view of the need for technological innovations in teaching and systematization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simulation and feedback devices are resources that favor learning and performance awareness in performing the maneuvers.
Leadbeatter, Delyse; Gao, Jinlong
Learning basic science forms an essential foundation for oral health therapy and dentistry, but frequently students perceive it as difficult, dry, and disconnected from clinical practice. This perception is encouraged by assessment methods that reward fact memorization, such as objective examinations. This study evaluated use of a learner-centered assessment portfolio designed to increase student engagement with basic science in an oral health therapy program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The aim of this qualitative study based on focus groups was to investigate students' engagement with basic science courses following introduction of the portfolio. Three assessments were conducted in three subsequent semesters: one based on students' interest in everyday phenomena (one student, for example, explored why she had red hair); the second focussed on scientific evidence and understanding of systemic diseases; and the third explored relations between oral and general health. Students were encouraged to begin with issues from their personal experience or patient care, to focus on what they were curious about, and to ask questions they really cared about. Each student prepared a written report and gave an oral presentation to the entire cohort. After the portfolios were completed, the authors held focus groups with two cohorts of students (N=21) in 2016 and analyzed the results using Zepke's framework for student engagement research. The results showed that the students successfully interweaved personal experience into their studies and that it provided significant motivation for learning. The students described their learning in terms of connection to themselves, their peer community, and their profession. Many additional benefits were identified, from increased student engagement in all courses to appreciation of the relevance of basic science. The findings should encourage dental and allied dental educators to reconsider the effects of assessments and seek
Ferrández Berrueco, María Reina; Kekale, Tauno; Devins, David
Purpose – European policy is placing an increasing emphasis on involving employers and labour market institutions in the design and delivery of higher education (HE) programmes that match curricula to current and future needs of the economy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the curriculum development process for work-based learning (WBL) programmes and to connect it to the basic pillars, organizational and pedagogical strategies and key stages that enable higher education instit...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate students’ learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. Method: a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immediate feedback devices was used. Results: there were 62 participants, 87% female, 90% in the first and second year of college, with a mean age of 21.47 (standard deviation 2.39. With a 95% confidence level, the mean scores in the pre-test were 6.4 (standard deviation 1.61, and 9.3 in the post-test (standard deviation 0.82, p <0.001; in practice, 9.1 (standard deviation 0.95 with performance equivalent to basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to the feedback device; 43.7 (standard deviation 26.86 mean duration of the compression cycle by second of 20.5 (standard deviation 9.47; number of compressions 167.2 (standard deviation 57.06; depth of compressions of 48.1 millimeter (standard deviation 10.49; volume of ventilation 742.7 (standard deviation 301.12; flow fraction percentage of 40.3 (standard deviation 10.03. Conclusion: the online course contributed to learning of basic life support. In view of the need for technological innovations in teaching and systematization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simulation and feedback devices are resources that favor learning and performance awareness in performing the maneuvers.
Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.
The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employed a recently introduced machine learning technique, Support Vector Regression (SVR), which has a strong theoretical background in statistical learning theory. Superior empirical performance of the method has been reported on difficult regression problems in different fields of science and technology. SVR is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modelling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modelling. The starting set of experimental data for training and testing of the machine learning algorithm was obtained using a two-dimensional diffusion theory reactor physics computer code. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, i.e., complexity, speed and accuracy, with a projection to a more realistic scenario involving machine learning from the results of more accurate and time consuming three-dimensional core modelling code. (author)
Gerholz, Karl-Heinz; Liszt, Verena; Klingsieck, Katrin B.
Students participate during service learning courses in a service project, which fits to a community need and has a link to curricular content. Students have a chance while engaged in the service project to apply curricular content in community practice, where they gain insights into civic engagement activities. Empirical studies revealed the…
Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.
This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.
Full Text Available The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm, and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employ a recently introduced machine learning technique, support vector regression (SVR, which is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modeling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modeling. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, that is, complexity, speed, and accuracy.
Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.
The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm, and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employ a recently introduced machine learning technique, support vector regression (SVR), which is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modeling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modeling. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, that is, complexity, speed, and accuracy
Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Kasper, Nina; Roman, Hari; Egloff, Mike; Marx, David; Abegglen, Sandra; Greif, Robert
To investigate whether pure self-learning without instructor support, resulted in the same BLS-competencies as facilitator-led learning, when using the same commercially available video BLS teaching kit. First-year medical students were randomised to either BLS self-learning without supervision or facilitator-led BLS-teaching. Both groups used the MiniAnne kit (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) in the students' local language. Directly after the teaching and three months later, all participants were tested on their BLS-competencies in a simulated scenario, using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter™ (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). The primary outcome was percentage of correct cardiac compressions three months after the teaching. Secondary outcomes were all other BLS parameters recorded by the SkillReporter and parameters from a BLS-competence rating form. 240 students were assessed at baseline and 152 students participated in the 3-month follow-up. For our primary outcome, the percentage of correct compressions, we found a median of 48% (interquartile range (IQR) 10-83) for facilitator-led learning vs. 42% (IQR 14-81) for self-learning (p = 0.770) directly after the teaching. In the 3-month follow-up, the rate of correct compressions dropped to 28% (IQR 6-59) for facilitator-led learning (p = 0.043) and did not change significantly in the self-learning group (47% (IQR 12-78), p = 0.729). Self-learning is not inferior to facilitator-led learning in the short term. Self-learning resulted in a better retention of BLS-skills three months after training compared to facilitator-led training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Brian; Sporea, Ioana; Grüning, André
Information encoding in the nervous system is supported through the precise spike timings of neurons; however, an understanding of the underlying processes by which such representations are formed in the first place remains an open question. Here we examine how multilayered networks of spiking neurons can learn to encode for input patterns using a fully temporal coding scheme. To this end, we introduce a new supervised learning rule, MultilayerSpiker, that can train spiking networks containing hidden layer neurons to perform transformations between spatiotemporal input and output spike patterns. The performance of the proposed learning rule is demonstrated in terms of the number of pattern mappings it can learn, the complexity of network structures it can be used on, and its classification accuracy when using multispike-based encodings. In particular, the learning rule displays robustness against input noise and can generalize well on an example data set. Our approach contributes to both a systematic understanding of how computations might take place in the nervous system and a learning rule that displays strong technical capability.
Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q
Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hampshire, John B., II; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula
We describe a new theory of differential learning by which a broad family of pattern classifiers (including many well-known neural network paradigms) can learn stochastic concepts efficiently. We describe the relationship between a classifier's ability to generate well to unseen test examples and the efficiency of the strategy by which it learns. We list a series of proofs that differential learning is efficient in its information and computational resource requirements, whereas traditional probabilistic learning strategies are not. The proofs are illustrated by a simple example that lends itself to closed-form analysis. We conclude with an optical character recognition task for which three different types of differentially generated classifiers generalize significantly better than their probabilistically generated counterparts.
Lou, Zheng; Yan, Fei-Hu; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wei; Shui, Xian-Qi; Liu, Jia; Zhuo, Dong-Lan; Li, Li; Yu, En-da
Very little is known of sex-related differences among medical students in the acquisition of basic surgical skills at an undergraduate level. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex differences in basic surgical skills learning and the possible explanations for sex disparities within basic surgical skills education. A didactic description of 10 surgical skills was performed, including knot tying, basic suture I, basic suture II, sterile technique, preoperative preparation, phlebotomy, debridement, laparotomy, cecectomy, and small bowel resection with hand-sewn anastomosis. The students were rated on a 100-point scale for each basic surgical skill. Later during the same semester all the students took the final theoretical examination. A total of 342 (male = 317 and female = 25) medical students participated in a single skills laboratory as part of their third-year medical student clerkship. The mean scores for each of the 10 surgical skills were higher in female group. The difference in sterile technique, preoperative preparation, cecectomy, and small bowel resection with hand-sewn anastomosis reached the significant level. Compared with male medical students, the mean theory examination score was significantly higher in female medical students. Approximately 76% of the (19 of 25) female students expressed their interest in pursuing a surgical career, whereas only 65.5% (207 of 317) male students wanted to be surgical professionals (p = 0.381). Female medical students completed basic surgical skills training more efficiently and passed the theoretical examination with significantly higher scores than male medical students. In the future, studies should be done in other classes in our institution and perhaps other schools to see if these findings are reliable or valid or just a reflection of this 1 sample. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nicola J. Pitchford
Full Text Available Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils. We report the first observational study of a group of 33 pupils with SEND from two primary schools in Malawi that are implementing a new digital technology intervention which uses touch-screen tablets to deliver interactive apps designed to teach basic mathematical skills. The apps contain topics that align to the national curriculum. To assess learning gains, rate of progress (minutes per topic for each pupil was determined by calculating the average time taken to complete a topic. Progress rate was then correlated with teacher ratings of extent of disability and independent ratings of pupil engagement with the apps. Results showed SEND pupils could interact with the apps and all pupils passed at least one topic. Average progress rate for SEND pupils was twice as long as mainstream peers. Stepwise regression revealed extent of disability significantly predicted progress rate. Further exploratory correlations revealed pupils with moderate to severe difficulties with hearing and/or language made slower progress through the apps than those with greater functionality in these two domains because the use of verbal instructions within the apps limited their capacity to learn. This original quantitative analysis demonstrates that interactive apps can raise learning standards in pupils with SEND but may have limited utility for pupils with severe difficulties. Software modifications are needed to
Pitchford, Nicola J; Kamchedzera, Elizabeth; Hubber, Paula J; Chigeda, Antonie L
Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils. We report the first observational study of a group of 33 pupils with SEND from two primary schools in Malawi that are implementing a new digital technology intervention which uses touch-screen tablets to deliver interactive apps designed to teach basic mathematical skills. The apps contain topics that align to the national curriculum. To assess learning gains, rate of progress (minutes per topic) for each pupil was determined by calculating the average time taken to complete a topic. Progress rate was then correlated with teacher ratings of extent of disability and independent ratings of pupil engagement with the apps. Results showed SEND pupils could interact with the apps and all pupils passed at least one topic. Average progress rate for SEND pupils was twice as long as mainstream peers. Stepwise regression revealed extent of disability significantly predicted progress rate. Further exploratory correlations revealed pupils with moderate to severe difficulties with hearing and/or language made slower progress through the apps than those with greater functionality in these two domains because the use of verbal instructions within the apps limited their capacity to learn. This original quantitative analysis demonstrates that interactive apps can raise learning standards in pupils with SEND but may have limited utility for pupils with severe difficulties. Software modifications are needed to address specific
Suryadi, D.; Supriatna, N.
The establishment of Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (later to be referred as UPI) Statute as a State-Owned State University (PTN-BH) has implications for UPI requirements. One of them is the need for UPI to generate an Income Generating Unit (IGU) of at least IDR 100 Billion (one hundred billion rupiah). This requirement is considered difficult since UPI is one of the universities whose focus is on the world of education and not the business and industry. Surely this becomes the thinking of the entire academic community to make a breakthrough by optimizing their potential. This study aims to find the pattern of learning practice that produces economic value products as one indicator of IGU value achievement as an effort to support UPI as PTN-BH. Learning strategy is done by designing and implementing the production base learning (PBL) approach as the basis strategy for the development of production units capable of becoming IGU in UPI. The research method used refers to research and development methods with adjustments taking into account the effectiveness in validating and conducting field model trials. The result of this research is the basic design of PBL model as the development strategy of production unit in the achievement of IGU UPI PTN-BH.
Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian
Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference
Acknowledgement of the value of a basic freehand sketch by the information and communication community of researchers and developers brought about the advanced developments for the use of sketches as free input to complicated processes of computerized visualization, so as to make them more widely accessible. However, a sharp reduction and even exclusion of this and other basic visual disciplines from education in sciences, technology, engineering and architecture dramatically reduces the number of future users of such applications. The unique needs of conservation of cultural heritage pose specific challenges as well as encourage the formulation of innovative development tasks in related areas of information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper claims that the introduction of basic visual disciplines to both communities is essential to the effectiveness of integration of heritage conservation needs and the advanced ICT development of conservation value, and beyond. It provides an insight into the challenges and advantages of introducing these subjects in a relevant educational context, presents some examples of their teaching and learning in the modern environment, including e-learning, and sketches perspectives to their application.
El-Moneim Doaa Abd
Full Text Available Computer technology has become an integral part of physical education, yet there have been few studies exploring the use of multimedia technology in the instruction of Physical Education. The purpose of this study was to investigate if multimedia technology affected the learning of basic ballet skills. A total of 32 female students, mean age 18.1 years, studying at the Faculty of Physical Education Zagazig university were divided into two groups. The experimental group comprised 16 students. Participants in this group participated in a ballet class with multimedia technology for six weeks. Group two participated in the ballet class with the traditional method as the control group. Parameters assessed height, weight, age, and academic level. All participants were free of any disorders known to affect performance, such as bone fractures, osteoporosis, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Participants reported no use of anti-seizure drugs or alcohol. In addition, all participants were fully informed of the aims of the study, and gave their voluntary consent prior to participation. The measurement procedures were in accordance with ethical human experimentation. All statistical analyses were calculated with the SPSS statistical package. Results indicated significant differences between the two groups in learning the basic skills and levels of knowledge of ballet. Applying the proposed educational program meant using multimedia to teach basic ballet skills to second-year female students enrolled in the Faculty of Physical Education
Rasmussen, Lene Kofoed; Nielsen, Charlotte Hahn; Willaa, Katrine Cecilie Weiland
school years when outlining a career path of each pupil. In addition, a subject named “Education and job” are to be taught from preschool till 9th grade, spanning three fields of competencies “Personal choice”, “From education to job” and “Worklife”, where “personal choice” has been given more weight...... and for the professional work with that issue. We ask, in a Bourdieu fashion, how do early carrier learning and evaluation of readiness structure opportunities for various pupils? Are differences and inequality reproduced, or are new patterns of in- and exclusion evolving? How do the career learning tasks fit...
McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel
This study investigated whether second language (L2) speakers' morphosyntactic pattern learning was predicted by their statistical learning and working memory abilities. Across three experiments, Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students (N = 140) were exposed to either the transitive construction in Esperanto (e.g., "tauro…
Maria Sylvia Cardoso Carneiro
Full Text Available This text reflects on special education student's accomplishment at basic education level, focusing on issues concerning the assessment of learning. Educational policies from an inclusive perspective have guided education systems to develop strategies with the purpose to include these students in school life. This means recognizing them as subjects of learning, taking into account their limitations, but also their possibilities and especially their peculiarities and the different ways of learning and teaching resulting from that. For special education to be effective as an inclusive perspective, pedagogical practices in school at basic education level should be organized collectively in school, always preserving the role of the coordinating teacher in conducting the schooling processes for all students. However, this is not the dynamics found in most schools. The presence of students with disabilities in regular education schools further tightens discussions on the evaluation of learning, which will always be a task assigned to the coordinating teacher, the one who planned the teaching/learning process. Without ignoring the importance of specific accessibility resources to physical space and communication, as well as of adapting teaching materials to the needs of each student, it is important to consider that the education process for these subjects cannot be limited to the elimination of barriers, whether physical, communicational, informational or attitudinal. It is essential that the priorities of school pedagogical practices include the ownership of the historically produced knowledge on behalf of all students. For such empowerment to materialize, it is necessary to perform a teaching work articulated among different school professionals.
Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Mattos, Sandra; Coimbra, Miguel
Early detection of congenital heart disease is a worldwide problem. This is more critical in developing countries, where shortage of professional specialists and structural health care problems are a constant. E-learning has the potential to improve capacity, by overcoming distance barriers and by its ability to adapt to the reduced time of health professionals. The study aimed to develop an e-learning pediatric cardiology basics course and evaluate its pedagogical impact and user satisfaction. The sample consisted of 62 health professionals, including doctors, nurses, and medical students, from 20 hospitals linked via a telemedicine network in Northeast Brazil. The course was developed using Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment; Moodle Pty Ltd, Perth, Australia) and contents adapted from a book on this topic. Pedagogical impact evaluation used a pre and posttest approach. User satisfaction was evaluated using Wang's questionnaire. Pedagogical impact results revealed differences in knowledge assessment before and after the course (Z=-4.788; Pe-learning course on Moodle and the evaluation of its impact, confirming that e-learning is a viable tool to improve training in neonatal congenital heart diseases. ©Ana Cristina Oliveira, Sandra Mattos, Miguel Coimbra. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 10.05.2017.
Kurniawan, D. T.; Suhandi, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Rusdiana, D.
Learning motivation revealed as a whole intrinsic factor that created, maintained and supported students to achieve the goal of learning. As the bigger motivation came with bigger success, motivation was considered as the main key to reach what students have planned. There were intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence both the students and lecturers’ motivation. The factors in one hand, were essential to be defined by the lecturers in order to maintain and enhance the students’ enthusiasm. On the other hand, they also encouraged and thrilled the students to learn. The study aimed to expose and describe the motivational tendency and to knowledge and analyze learning obstacles faced by the students in basic physics class on students of prospective math teachers in FKIP Unswagati Cirebon. In addition, the study focused on the description of the six motivational components stated by Glyn and Koballa. The six were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, the relevance of studying physics for subjective purposes, willpower, self assessment and anxiety. Class responses were determined through questionnaire with four main indicators; the causes of being less popular subject, the cause of being disfavored subject, the description of the way the students draw the examination on basic physics subject and the academic background of the students. The results showed that 54% students stated that physics was disfavored because the subject was difficult to understand, 49% stated that the cause of being disfavored of the subject was because physics required complicated mathematics. Most of the students preferred to have game based activities that boosted thinking skill. According to the analysis of the students’ motivation, the findings revealed that the students’ had high level of anxiety in learning the subject. They mostly expressed their anxiety appeared from the material density and text book based assignments.
Vermunt, Jan D.; Donche, Vincent
The aim of this article is to review the state of the art of research and theory development on student learning patterns in higher education and beyond. First, the learning patterns perspective and the theoretical framework are introduced. Second, research published since 2004 on student learning patterns is systematically identified and…
Vermunt, Jan D.; Endedijk, Maaike D.
This paper reviews recent research on learning patterns of student teachers and experienced teachers, mostly in the context of educational innovation and teachers' professional development. The discussion is structured along a model of teacher learning patterns comprising learning activities, regulation of learning, beliefs on own learning about…
Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S
Auditory neurophysiology has demonstrated how basic acoustic features are mapped in the brain, but it is still not clear how multiple sound components are integrated over time and recognized as an object. We investigated the role of statistical learning in encoding the sequential features of complex sounds by recording neuronal responses bilaterally in the auditory forebrain of awake songbirds that were passively exposed to long sound streams. These streams contained sequential regularities, and were similar to streams used in human infants to demonstrate statistical learning for speech sounds. For stimulus patterns with contiguous transitions and with nonadjacent elements, single and multiunit responses reflected neuronal discrimination of the familiar patterns from novel patterns. In addition, discrimination of nonadjacent patterns was stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and may reflect an effect of top-down modulation that is lateralized. Responses to recurring patterns showed stimulus-specific adaptation, a sparsening of neural activity that may contribute to encoding invariants in the sound stream and that appears to increase coding efficiency for the familiar stimuli across the population of neurons recorded. As auditory information about the world must be received serially over time, recognition of complex auditory objects may depend on this type of mnemonic process to create and differentiate representations of recently heard sounds.
Full Text Available One of the most fascinating problems in comparative psychology is how learning contributes to solving specific functional problems in animal life, and which forms of learning our species shares with non-human animals. Simulating a natural situation of territorial conflicts between predatory carabids and red wood ants in field and laboratory experiments, we have revealed a relatively simple and quite natural form of learning that has been overlooked. We call it catalog learning, the name we give to the ability of animals to establish associations between stimuli and coherent behavioral patterns (patterns consist of elementary motor acts that have a fixed order. Instead of budgeting their motor acts gradually, from chaotic to rational sequences in order to learn something new, which is characteristic for a conditioning response, animals seem to be “cataloguing” their repertoire of innate coherent behavioral patterns in order to optimize their response to a certain repetitive event. This form of learning can be described as “stimulus-pattern” learning. In our experiments four “wild” carabid species, whose cognitive abilities have never been studied before, modified their behavior in a rather natural manner in order to avoid damage from aggressive ants. Beetles learned to select the relevant coherent behavioral patterns from the set of seven patterns, which are common to all four species and apparently innate. We suggest that this form of learning differs from the known forms of associative learning, and speculate that it is quite universal and can be present in a wide variety of species, both invertebrate and vertebrate. This study suggests a new link between the concepts of cognition and innateness.
Bombaerts, G.; Nickel, P.J.
We inquire how peer and tutor feedback influences students' optimal rigor, basic needs and motivation. We analyze questionnaires from two courses in two subsequent years. We conclude that feedback in blended learning can contribute to rigor and basic needs, but it is not clear from our data what
Bakri, F.; Muliyati, D.
This research aims to design e-learning resources with multiple representations based on a contextual approach for the Basic Physics Course. The research uses the research and development methods accordance Dick & Carey strategy. The development carried out in the digital laboratory of Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result of the process of product development with Dick & Carey strategy, have produced e-learning design of the Basic Physics Course is presented in multiple representations in contextual learning syntax. The appropriate of representation used in the design of learning basic physics include: concept map, video, figures, data tables of experiment results, charts of data tables, the verbal explanations, mathematical equations, problem and solutions example, and exercise. Multiple representations are presented in the form of contextual learning by stages: relating, experiencing, applying, transferring, and cooperating.
Johansen, Benjamin; Petersen, Michael Kai; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik
users to remotely enhance auditory focus and attenuate background noise to improve speech intelligibility. N=5, participants changed program settings and adjusted volume on their hearing instruments using their smartphones. We found that individual behavioral patterns affected the usage of the devices....... A significant difference between program usage, and weekdays versus weekends, were found. Users not only changed programs to modify aspects of directionality and noise reduction, but also continuously adjusted the volume. Rethinking hearing instruments as devices that adaptively learn behavioral patterns based...
The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima
To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.
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Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti
The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…
Loima, Jyrki; Vibulphol, Jutarat
This qualitative research was the first academic attempt to study and discuss the internal and external motivation in learning of students in basic education schools in Thailand. The study addressed two research questions to analyze similarities and differences in learning motivation or interest and teachers' enhancement or discouragement. 1) What…
Prakasha, Veda; And Others
This digest focuses on problems encountered in the expansion of facilities for universal primary education and responses being developed to overcome these problems. The central message of the document is that nonformal structures of learning and community involvement play a key role in the expansion of basic learning opportunities in the…
de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.
Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and
Schneider, Michael K.; Alford, Mark; Babko-Malaya, Olga; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Lingji; Crespi, Valentino; HandUber, Jason; Haney, Phil; Nagy, Jim; Richman, Mike; Von Pless, Gregory; Zhu, Howie; Rhodes, Bradley J.
Our Multi-INT Data Association Tool (MIDAT) learns patterns of life (POL) of a geographical area from video analyst observations called out in textual reporting. Typical approaches to learning POLs from video make use of computer vision algorithms to extract locations in space and time of various activities. Such approaches are subject to the detection and tracking performance of the video processing algorithms. Numerous examples of human analysts monitoring live video streams annotating or "calling out" relevant entities and activities exist, such as security analysis, crime-scene forensics, news reports, and sports commentary. This user description typically corresponds with textual capture, such as chat. Although the purpose of these text products is primarily to describe events as they happen, organizations typically archive the reports for extended periods. This archive provides a basis to build POLs. Such POLs are useful for diagnosis to assess activities in an area based on historical context, and for consumers of products, who gain an understanding of historical patterns. MIDAT combines natural language processing, multi-hypothesis tracking, and Multi-INT Activity Pattern Learning and Exploitation (MAPLE) technologies in an end-to-end lab prototype that processes textual products produced by video analysts, infers POLs, and highlights anomalies relative to those POLs with links to "tracks" of related activities performed by the same entity. MIDAT technologies perform well, achieving, for example, a 90% F1-value on extracting activities from the textual reports.
Lilin Guo; Zhenzhong Wang; Adjouadi, Malek
This study introduces a novel supervised algorithm for spiking neurons that take into consideration synapse delays and axonal delays associated with weights. It can be utilized for both classification and association and uses several biologically influenced properties, such as axonal and synaptic delays. This algorithm also takes into consideration spike-timing-dependent plasticity as in Remote Supervised Method (ReSuMe). This paper focuses on the classification aspect alone. Spiked neurons trained according to this proposed learning rule are capable of classifying different categories by the associated sequences of precisely timed spikes. Simulation results have shown that the proposed learning method greatly improves classification accuracy when compared to the Spike Pattern Association Neuron (SPAN) and the Tempotron learning rule.
Xu, Zhenhui; Chen, Hanlin
Facing the increasingly fierce international competition, it has been the core of higher education to explore how to cultivate college students with innovative ability. College students' innovative ability is mainly composed of basic ability, innovative thinking and innovative actions. In conformity to the above composition, the cultivation…
Autapao, Kanyarat; Minwong, Panthul
Creative thinking was an important learning skill in the 21st Century via learning and innovation to promote students' creative thinking and working with others and to construct innovation. This is one of the important skills that determine the readiness of the participants to step into the complex society. The purposes of this research were 1) to compare the learning achievement of students after using basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning and 2) to make a comparison students' creative thinking between pretest and posttest. The populations were 29 students in Multimedia Technology program at Thepsatri Rajabhat University in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2016. The experimental instruments were lesson plans of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project based learning. The data collecting instrument was creative thinking test. The data were analyzed by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. The results of this research were 1) the learning achievement of students were statistically significance of .01 level and 2) the mean score of student's creativity assessment were statistically significance of .05 level. When considering all of 11 KPIs, showed that respondents' post-test mean scores higher than pre-test. And 5 KPIs were statistically significance of .05 level, consist of Originality, Fluency, Elaboration, Resistance to Premature Closure, and Intrinsic Motivation. It's were statistically significance of .042, .004, .049, .024 and .015 respectively. And 6 KPIs were non-statistically significant, include of Flexibility, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Risk Taking, and Extrinsic Motivation. The findings revealed that the flipped learning and project based learning provided students the freedom to simply learn on their own aptitude. When working together with project
Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa H C; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Smith, Nicole; Polastri, Thatiane F; Timerman, Sergio
To describe learning outcomes of undergraduate nursing students following an online basic life support course (BLS). An online BLS course was developed and administered to 94 nursing students. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess theoretical learning. Checklist simulations and feedback devices were used to assess the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills of the 62 students who completed the course. A paired t-test revealed a significant increase in learning [pre-test (6.4 ± 1.61), post-test (9.3 ± 0.82), p online course was significant (plearning differences (p=0.475) had been observed between 1st and 2nd year (9.20 ± 1.60), and between 3rd and 4th year (9.67 ± 0.61) students. A CPR simulation was performed after completing the course: students checked for a response (90%), exposed the chest (98%), checked for breathing (97%), called emergency services (76%), requested for a defibrillator (92%), checked for a pulse (77%), positioned their hands properly (87%), performed 30 compressions/cycle (95%), performed compressions of at least 5 cm depth (89%), released the chest (90%), applied two breaths (97%), used the automated external defibrillator (97%), and positioned the pads (100%). The online course was an effective method for teaching and learning key BLS skills wherein students were able to accurately apply BLS procedures during the CPR simulation. This short-term online training, which likely improves learning and self-efficacy in BLS providers, can be used for the continuing education of health professionals.
William L. Anderson
Full Text Available Although published reports describe benefits to students of learning in a problem-based, student-centered environment, questions have persisted about the excessive faculty time commitments associated with the implementation of PBL pedagogy. The argument has been put forward that the excessive faculty costs of such a curriculum cannot be justified based upon the potential benefits to students. However, the magnitude of the faculty time commitment to a PBL curriculum to support the aforementioned argument is not clear to us and we suspect that it is also equally unclear to individuals charged with making resource decisions supporting the educational efforts of the institution. Therefore, to evaluate this cost - benefit question, we analyzed the actual basic science faculty time commitment in a hybrid PBL curriculum during the first phase 18 months of undergraduate medical education. The results of this analysis do demonstrate an increase in faculty time commitments but do not support the argument that PBL pedagogy is excessively costly in terms of faculty time. For the year analyzed in this report, basic science faculty members contributed on average of 27.4 hours to the instruction of medical students. The results of the analysis did show significant contributions (57% of instructional time by the clinical faculty during the initial 18 months of medical school. In addition, the data revealed a four-fold difference between time commitments of the four basic science departments. We conclude that a PBL curriculum does not place unreasonable demands on the time of basic science faculty. The demands on clinical faculty, in the context of their other commitments, could not be evaluated. Moreover, this type of analysis provides a tool that can be used to make faculty resource allocation decisions fairly.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDES LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT OF INTEREST LEARNING WITH LEARNING THE BASICS OF COST OF DISCUSSION AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT OF CLASS X SMK PIRI SLEMAN EVEN SEMESTER OF STUDY 2013/2014
Deril Gusa Wijaya
Based on the analysis of the results obtained the following results: (1 There is a positive and significant relationship between the attitude of Learning (X1 with Achievement Automotive Basics (Y; (2 There is a positive and significant relationship between Interests Learning (X2 with Achievement Automotive Basics (Y; (3 There is a positive and significant relationship Attitude Study (X1 and Interest in Learning (X2 with Achievement Automotive Basics (Y.
Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael
The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.
Dubois, Eline Agnès; Franson, Kari Lanette
Basic sciences can be integrated into the medical school curriculum via e-learning. The process of integrating a basic science in this manner resembles a curricular change. The change usually begins with an idea for using e-learning to teach a basic science and establishing the need for the innovation. In the planning phase, learning outcomes are formulated and a prototype of the program is developed based on the desired requirements. A realistic concept is formed after considering the limitations of the current institute. Next, a project team is assembled to develop the program and plan its integration. Incorporation of the e-learning program is facilitated by a well-developed and communicated integration plan. Various course coordinators are contacted to determine content of the e-learning program as well as establish assessment. Linking the e-learning program to existing course activities and thereby applying the basic science into the clinical context enhances the degree of integration. The success of the integration is demonstrated by a positive assessment of the program including favourable cost-benefit analysis and improved student performance. Lastly, when the program becomes institutionalised, continuously updating content and technology (when appropriate), and evaluating the integration contribute to the prolonged survival of the e-learning program.
Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Denomme, Amber; Ranganathan, Rajiv
One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules. Participants performed a virtual reaching task, where they moved a cursor to different targets positioned on the screen. Our goal was to make participants use a coordination pattern with greater trunk motion, and to this end, we provided reinforcement by making the cursor disappear if the trunk motion during the reach did not cross a specified threshold value. In Experiment 1, we compared two reinforcement schedules in two groups of participants-an abrupt group, where the threshold was introduced immediately at the beginning of practice; and a gradual group, where the threshold was introduced gradually with practice. Results showed that both abrupt and gradual groups were effective in shifting their coordination patterns to involve greater trunk motion, but the abrupt group showed greater retention when the reinforcement was removed. In Experiment 2, we examined the basis of this advantage in the abrupt group using two additional control groups. Results showed that the advantage of the abrupt group was because of a greater number of practice trials with the desired coordination pattern. Overall, these results show that reinforcement can be successfully used to shift coordination patterns, which has potential in the rehabilitation of movement disorders.
Putzar, L.; Gondan, Matthias; Röder, B.
People treated for bilateral congenital cataracts offer a model to study the influence of visual deprivation in early infancy on visual and multisensory development. We investigated cross-modal integration capabilities in cataract patients using a simple detection task that provided redundant...... information to two different senses. In both patients and controls, redundancy gains were consistent with coactivation models, indicating an integrated processing of modality-specific information. This finding is in contrast with recent studies showing impaired higher-level multisensory interactions...... in cataract patients. The present results suggest that basic cross-modal integrative processes for simple short stimuli do not depend on visual and/or crossmodal input since birth....
Putzar, Lisa; Gondan, Matthias; Röder, Brigitte
People treated for bilateral congenital cataracts offer a model to study the influence of visual deprivation in early infancy on visual and multisensory development. We investigated cross-modal integration capabilities in cataract patients using a simple detection task that provided redundant information to two different senses. In both patients and controls, redundancy gains were consistent with coactivation models, indicating an integrated processing of modality-specific information. This finding is in contrast with recent studies showing impaired higher-level multisensory interactions in cataract patients. The present results suggest that basic cross-modal integrative processes for simple short stimuli do not depend on visual and/or crossmodal input since birth.
Skoruppa, Katrin; Cristià, Alejandrina; Peperkamp, Sharon; Seidl, Amanda
Adult speakers of different free stress languages (e.g., English, Spanish) differ both in their sensitivity to lexical stress and in their processing of suprasegmental and vowel quality cues to stress. In a head-turn preference experiment with a familiarization phase, both 8-month-old and 12-month-old English-learning infants discriminated between initial stress and final stress among lists of Spanish-spoken disyllabic nonwords that were segmentally varied (e.g. ['nila, 'tuli] vs [lu'ta, pu'ki]). This is evidence that English-learning infants are sensitive to lexical stress patterns, instantiated primarily by suprasegmental cues, during the second half of the first year of life. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K
It is well established that patients with semantic memory impairment show a relative sparing of general superordinate information as compared with more detailed item-specific information. The objective of the current study was to examine whether or not this superordinate superiority effect is also reliably observed in individuals with stroke. The participants were 3 patients with a diagnosis of semantic dementia (SD) and 4 left middle cerebral artery stroke patients. In the first experiment, participants were administered a series of spoken-word-picture matching tasks, in which picture identity was probed under two conditions: item name (e.g., goose, beetle, shark, hedgehog) and superordinate name (e.g., bird, insect, fish, mammal). The SD patients showed the predicted pattern of performance, identifying stimuli significantly more accurately by their superordinate term than by their specific name. By contrast, the stroke patients showed the reverse pattern of inferior performance in the superordinate condition in all versions of the experimental task. In a second experiment comparing comprehension ofbasic-level names (e.g., dog, bird, fish) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Dalmatian, sparrow, trout), stroke patients also showed a reversal of the normal basic-level effect, showing less accurate comprehension of basic-level names. The pattern of results documented among the stroke patients cannot be accommodated obviously or readily by existing models of conceptual knowledge. These contrasting abilities of SD patients, stroke patients, and normal healthy participants to process subordinate, basic-level, and superordinate names are considered in relation to disorders of executive processing and taxonomic categorization.
Lee, Chih-Yih; Sparks, Paul
Technology has greatly impacted educational systems around the world, even in the most geographically isolated places. This study utilizes an ethnographic approach to examine the patterns of learning in a kindergarten in Mana, Fiji. Data comprised of interviews, observations and examination of related artifacts. The results provide baseline data…
Full Text Available This work presents the analysis of the final shaping process of the patterns aimed at determining the influence of the pressure and the time of sintering on the resistance to bending. The analysis of the research results proved that when the pressure of the sintering rises and reaches Ps=2.1 bar the resistance to bending increases, above this level of the pressure the resistance value starts decreasing. The time of styrofoam sintering at which the highest bending resistance values were obtained is ts=90 s. When the sintering pressure is less than 2 bar prolongation of the time of sintering over 90 s causes a slight increase in the resistance, however, at higher pressures prolongation of the time of sintering causes submelting of the styrofoam pattern.
Full Text Available This work presents the analysis of the final shaping process of the patterns aimed at determining the influence of the pressure and the time of sintering on the resistance to bending. The analysis of the research results proved that when the pressure of the sintering rises and reaches Ps=2.1 bar the resistance to bending increases, above this level of the pressure the resistance value starts decreasing. The time of styrofoam sintering at which the highest bending resistance values were obtained is ts=90s. When the sintering pressure is less than 2 bar prolongation of the time of sintering over 90 s causes a slight increase in the resistance, however, at higher pressures prolongation of the time of sintering causes submelting of the styrofoam pattern.
Choi, Hyung Soo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Oh, Je Hyeok
The inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in formal education has been a useful approach to providing basic life support (BLS) services. However, because not all students have been able to learn directly from certified instructors, we studied the educational efficacy of the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) to train high-school students to perform BLS services. This study consisted of 187 high-school students: 68 participants served as a control group and received a 1-hour BLS training from a school nurse, and 119 were included in a PAL group and received a 1-hour CPR training from a PAL leader. Participants' BLS training was preceded by the completion of questionnaires regarding their background. Three months after the training, the participants were asked to respond to questionnaires about their willingness to perform CPR on bystander CPR and their retention of knowledge of BLS. We found no statistically significant difference between the control and PAL groups in their willingness to perform CPR on bystanders (control: 55.2%, PAL: 64.7%, P=0.202). The PAL group was not significantly different from the control group (control: 60.78±39.77, PAL: 61.76±17.80, P=0.848) in retention of knowledge about BLS services. In educating high school students about BLS, there was no significant difference between PAL and traditional education in increasing the willingness to provide CPR to bystanders or the ability to retain knowledge about BLS.
Obermeier, O.P. [Gerling Akademie fuer Risikoforschung AG, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Gerling Akademie fuer Risikoforschung AG, Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Augsburg Univ. (Germany)
The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [Deutsch] Die nahezu philosophischen Ueberlegungen zum Thema Risiko belegen, dass alle Risikodiskussionen von den Besitzindividualisten, Buerokraten, Betroffenheitsaktivisten und Fundamentalisten dominiert werden. Jede risikorelevante Gruppierung versucht ihre Gruppenegoismen durchzusetzen. Risikokommunikation wird als Prozess des sozialen Aushandelns aufgefasst. (HP)
Firdausiah Mansur, Andi Besse; Yusof, Norazah
Clustering on Social Learning Network still not explored widely, especially when the network focuses on e-learning system. Any conventional methods are not really suitable for the e-learning data. SNA requires content analysis, which involves human intervention and need to be carried out manually. Some of the previous clustering techniques need…
Kundey, Shannon M. A.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Rowan, James D.; Lee, Bern; Delise, Justin; Molina, Sabrina; Cogdill, Lindsay
When learning highly organized sequential patterns of information, humans and nonhuman animals learn rules regarding the hierarchical structures of these sequences. In three experiments, we explored the role of working memory in college students' sequential pattern learning and performance in a computerized task involving a sequential…
Full Text Available Introduction: Learning style is an individual’s preferred method of encountering information in specific situations in order to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes through study or experience. Students and Planers’ awareness of learning styles facilitate the teaching process, increases satisfaction and makes the future choices easier. This study aimed to examine different learning styles and their relation to academic achievement in medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive – analytical study, the sample consisted of all medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2012. The data was collected through a questionnaire which included respondents’ demographic information and overall grade point average (GPA as well as Kolb standard questions on learning styles. Results: 4.3%, 47.8%, 44.9% and 2.9% of students preferred diverger, assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles, respectively. Mean overall GPA of students who preferred diverger learning styles was 14.990.39±. Students who prefer assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles had mean overall GPAs of 14.940.56±, 15.080.58± and 14.830.29± respectively. The findings showed no significant relationship between students’ learning academic achievement and their learning styles (p = 0.689. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between Students’ academic achievement and their learning styles. Furthermore, the majorit of the students preferred accommodator and converger learning styles. Consequently, adopting interactive teaching methods, using tutorials, running simulation programs, launching laboratory activities and encouraging students to think and analyze problems and issues can be greatly effective in prolonging their learning lifecycle.
Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.
The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510
García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M
Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77
Theodoulou, Iakovos; Nicolaides, Marios; Athanasiou, Thanos; Papalois, Apostolos; Sideris, Michail
We aimed to identify and critically appraise all literature surrounding simulation-based learning (SBL) courses, to assess their relevance as tools for undergraduate surgical education, and create a design framework targeted at standardizing future SBL. We performed a systematic review of the literature using a specific keyword strategy to search at MEDLINE database. Of the 2371 potentially eligible titles, 472 were shortlisted and only 40 explored active interventions in undergraduate medical education. Of those, 20 were conducted in the United States, 9 in Europe and 11 in the rest of the world. Nineteen studies assessed the effectiveness of SBL by comparing students' attributes before and after interventions, 1 study assessed a new tool of surgical assessment and 16 studies evaluated SBL courses from the students' perspectives. Of those 40 studies, 12 used dry laboratory, 7 wet laboratory, 12 mixed, and 9 cadaveric SBL interventions. The extent to which positive results were obtained from dry, wet, mixed, and cadaveric laboratories were 75%, 57%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Consequently, the SBL design framework was devised, providing a foundation upon which future SBL interventions can be designed such that learning outcomes are optimized. SBL is an important step in surgical education, investing in a safer and more efficient generation of surgeons. Standardization of these efforts can be accelerated with SBL design framework, a comprehensive guide to designing future interventions for basic surgical training at the undergraduate level. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogers, P L; Jacob, H; Thomas, E A; Harwell, M; Willenkin, R L; Pinsky, M R
To determine whether fourth-year medical students can learn the basic analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills needed to initially manage a critically ill patient. Student learning was evaluated using a performance examination, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students were randomly assigned to one of two clinical scenarios before the elective. After the elective, students completed the other scenario, using a crossover design. Five surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Forty fourth-year medical students enrolled in the critical care medicine (CCM) elective. All students evaluated a live "simulated critically ill" patient, requested physiologic data from a nurse, ordered laboratory tests, received data in real time, and intervened as they deemed appropriate. Student performance of specific behavioral objectives was evaluated at five stations. They were expected to a) assess airway, breathing, and circulation in appropriate sequence; b) prepare a manikin for intubation, obtain an acceptable airway on the manikin, demonstrate bag-mouth ventilation, and perform acceptable laryngoscopy and intubation; c) provide appropriate mechanical ventilator settings; d) manage hypotension; and e) request and interpret pulmonary artery data and initiate appropriate therapy. OSCEs were videotaped and reviewed by two faculty members masked to time of examination. A checklist of key behaviors was used to evaluate performance. The primary outcome measure was the difference in examination score before and after the rotation. Secondary outcomes included the difference in scores at each rotation. The mean preelective score was 57.0%+/-8.3% compared with 85.9%+/-7.4% (ppsychomotor skills necessary to initially manage critically ill patients. After an appropriate 1-month CCM elective, students' thinking and application skills required to initially manage critically ill patients improved markedly, as demonstrated by an OSCE
Please refer to: Koper, R. (2004). Use of the Semantic Web to Solve Some Basic Problems in Education: Increase Flexible, Distributed Lifelong Learning, Decrease Teacher's Workload. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2004 (6). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. ISSN:1365-893X [
Al Musawi, Ali; Amer, Talal
This study attempts to investigate the stakeholders' perceptions of quality and prospective improvements in the learning resources centres (LRC) at Omani basic education schools. It focuses on different aspects of the LRCs: organisation, human resources, technological, and educational aspects along with the difficulties faced by these LRCs and…
This research considers the problem of generating compact vector representations of physical design patterns for analytics purposes in semiconductor patterning domain. PatterNet uses a deep artificial neural network to learn mapping of physical design patterns to a compact Euclidean hyperspace. Distances among mapped patterns in this space correspond to dissimilarities among patterns defined at the time of the network training. Once the mapping network has been trained, PatterNet embeddings can be used as feature vectors with standard machine learning algorithms, and pattern search, comparison, and clustering become trivial problems. PatterNet is inspired by the concepts developed within the framework of generative adversarial networks as well as the FaceNet. Our method facilitates a deep neural network (DNN) to learn directly the compact representation by supplying it with pairs of design patterns and dissimilarity among these patterns defined by a user. In the simplest case, the dissimilarity is represented by an area of the XOR of two patterns. Important to realize that our PatterNet approach is very different to the methods developed for deep learning on image data. In contrast to "conventional" pictures, the patterns in the CAD world are the lists of polygon vertex coordinates. The method solely relies on the promise of deep learning to discover internal structure of the incoming data and learn its hierarchical representations. Artificial intelligence arising from the combination of PatterNet and clustering analysis very precisely follows intuition of patterning/optical proximity correction experts paving the way toward human-like and human-friendly engineering tools.
Sánchez-Peralta, L F; Sánchez-Margallo, F M; Moyano-Cuevas, J L; Pagador, J B; Enciso, S; Gómez-Aguilera, E J; Usón-Gargallo, J
Surgical simulators are currently essential within any laparoscopic training program because they provide a low-stakes, reproducible and reliable environment to acquire basic skills. The purpose of this study is to determine the training learning curve based on different metrics corresponding to five tasks included in SINERGIA laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. Thirty medical students without surgical experience participated in the study. Five tasks of SINERGIA were included: Coordination, Navigation, Navigation and touch, Accurate grasping and Coordinated pulling. Each participant was trained in SINERGIA. This training consisted of eight sessions (R1-R8) of the five mentioned tasks and was carried out in two consecutive days with four sessions per day. A statistical analysis was made, and the results of R1, R4 and R8 were pair-wise compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Significance is considered at P value psychomotor skills that can be trained in SINERGIA. Therefore, and based on these results together with previous works, SINERGIA could be used as training tool with a properly designed training program.
Malmberg, Jonna; Järvenoja, Hanna; Järvelä, Sanna
This study uses log file traces to examine differences between high-and low-achieving students' strategic actions in varying learning situations. In addition, this study illustrates, in detail, what strategic and self-regulated learning constitutes in practice. The study investigates the learning patterns that emerge in learning situations…
Bornholdt, S. [Heidelberg Univ., (Germany). Inst., fuer Theoretische Physik; Graudenz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback.
Schmitz, Birgit; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2012). Effects of mobile gaming patterns on learning outcomes: A literature review. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(5-6), 345-358. doi:10.1504/IJTEL.2012.051817
A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback
Mandigo Anggana Raras, Gustav
This research aims to produce a product in the form of flash based interactive learning media on a basic electronic engineering subject that reliable to be used and to know students’ responses about the media. The target of this research is X-TEI 1 class at SMK Negeri 1 Driyorejo – Gresik. The method used in this study is R&D that has been limited into seven stages only (1) potential and problems, (2) data collection, (3) product design, (4) product validation, (5) product revision, (6) field test, and (7) analysis and writing. The obtained result is interactive learning media named MELDASH. Validation process used to produce a valid interactive learning media. The result of media validation state that the interactive learning media has a 90.83% rating. Students’ responses to this interactive learning media is really good with 88.89% rating.
Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi
For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060
Inventado, Paul Salvador; Scupelli, Peter; Heffernan, Cristina; Heffernan, Neil
Increasingly, computer-based learning systems are used by educators to facilitate learning. Evaluations of several math learning systems show that they result in significant student learning improvements. Feedback provision is one of the key features in math learning systems that contribute to its success. We have recently been uncovering feedback…
Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Sumpter, Bobby; Kalinin, Sergei
The ability to utilize molecular assemblies as data storage devices requires capability to identify individual molecular states on a scale of thousands of molecules. We present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and apply it to self-assembled monolayer of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. From density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we assume existence of distinct polar and multiple azimuthal rotational states. We use DFT-generated templates in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler and noise modeling to create synthetic images representative of our model. We extract positional information of each molecule and use nearest neighbor criteria to construct a graph input to Markov Random Field (MRF) model to identify polar rotational states. We train a convolutional Neural Network (cNN) on a synthetic dataset and combine it with MRF model to classify molecules based on their azimuthal rotational state. We demonstrate effectiveness of such approach compared to other methods. Finally, we apply our approach to experimental images and achieve complete rotational class information extraction. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.
Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S; van der Burgt, Stéphanie; Kusurkar, Rashmi A
Insufficient professional development may lead to poor performance of healthcare professionals. Therefore, continuing education (CE) and continuing professional development (CPD) are needed to secure safe and good quality healthcare. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesized associations and their directions between pharmacists' basic psychological needs in CE, their academic motivation, well-being, learning outcomes. Self-determination theory was used as a theoretical framework for this study. Data were collected through four questionnaires measuring: academic motivation, basic psychological needs (BPN), vitality and lifelong learning adaptability of pharmacists in the CE/CPD learning context. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data. Demographic factors like gender and working environment influenced the observed scores for frustration of BPN and factors like training status and working experience influenced the observed scores for academic motivation. A good model fit could be found only for a part of the hypothesized pathway. Frustration of BPN is positively directly related to the less desirable type of academic motivation, controlled motivation (0.88) and negatively directly related to vitality (- 1.61) and negatively indirectly related to learning outcomes in CE. Fulfillment or frustration of BPN are important predictors for well-being and learning outcomes. Further research should be conducted to discover how we can prevent these needs from being frustrated in order to design a motivating, vitalizing and sustainable CE/CPD system for pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Basic psychological needs are very important predictors for well-being and learning outcomes. Further research should be conducted to discover how we can prevent these needs from being frustrated in order to design a motivating, vitalizing and sustainable CE/CPD system for pharmacists and other healthcare professionals.
This article describes a Framework that can be used to help bridge the gap between theory and practice in adult learning. The Framework promotes practice informed by three strands important to adult literacy work: social theories of literacy, social-constructivist learning theory and principles of adult learning. The Framework shows how five key…
Steenbergen, B.; van der Kamp, J.; Verneau, M.M.N.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.
Purpose. Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.
PURPOSE: Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.W.
Purpose - Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…
Atomatofa, Rachel; Okoye, Nnamdi; Igwebuike, Thomas
The nature of classroom learning environments created by teachers had been considered very important for learning to take place effectively. This study investigated the effect of creating constructivist and transmissive learning environments on achievements of science students of different ability levels. 243 students formed the entire study…
Claflin, Dragana I; Schmidt, Kevin D; Vallandingham, Zachary D; Kraszpulski, Michal; Hennessy, Michael B
Recent interest in the lasting effects of early-life stress has expanded to include effects on cognitive performance. An increase in circulating glucocorticoids is induced by stress exposure and glucocorticoid effects on the hippocampus likely underlie many of the cognitive consequences. Here we review studies showing that corticosterone administered to young rats at the conclusion of the stress-hyporesponsiveness period affects later performance in hippocampally-mediated trace eyeblink conditioning. The nature and even direction of these effects varies with the elevation patterns (level, duration, temporal fluctuation) achieved by different administration methods. We present new time course data indicating that constant glucocorticoid elevations generally corresponded with hippocampus-mediated learning deficits, whereas acute, cyclical elevations corresponded with improved initial acquisition. Sensitivity was greater for males than for females. Further, changes in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled some but not all effects. The findings demonstrate that specific patterns of glucocorticoid elevation produced by different drug administration procedures can have markedly different, sex-specific consequences on basic cognitive performance and underlying hippocampal physiology. Implications of these findings for glucocorticoid medications prescribed in childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McIlvane, William J; Kledaras, Joanne B; Gerard, Christophe J; Wilde, Lorin; Smelson, David
A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kolluru, Srikanth; Roesch, Darren M; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha
To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students' understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises.
Charlotte L. Briggs
Full Text Available Inspired by reports of successful outcomes in health profession education literature, peer learning has progressively grown to become a fundamental characteristic of health profession curricula. Many studies, however, are anecdotal or philosophical in nature, particularly when addressing the effectiveness of assessments in the context of peer learning. This commentary provides an overview of the rationale for using group assessments in the basic sciences curriculum of health profession programs and highlights the challenges associated with implementing group assessments in this context. The dearth of appropriate means for measuring group process suggests that professional collaboration competencies need to be more clearly defined. Peer learning educators are advised to enhance their understanding of social psychological research in order to implement best practices in the development of appropriate group assessments for peer learning.
Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Villasclaras-Fernandez, Eloy D.; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.; Ruiz-Requies, Ines; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome
This paper introduces "Collage", a high-level IMS-LD compliant authoring tool that is specialized for CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning). Nowadays CSCL is a key trend in e-learning since it highlights the importance of social interactions as an essential element of learning. CSCL is an interdisciplinary domain, which…
Duncan, S. M.
Since the term "learning object" was first published, there has been either an explicit or implicit expectation of reuse. There has also been a lot of speculation about why learning objects are, or are not, reused. This study quantitatively examined the actual amount and type of learning object use, to include reuse, modification, and translation,…
Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Hope, William W; Korndorffer, James R; Markley, Sarah; Scott, Daniel J
Laparoscopic suturing is an advanced skill that is difficult to acquire. Simulator-based skills curricula have been developed that have been shown to transfer to the operating room. Currently available skills curricula need to be optimized. We hypothesized that mastering basic laparoscopic skills first would shorten the learning curve of a more complex laparoscopic task and reduce resource requirements for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing curriculum. Medical students (n = 20) with no previous simulator experience were enrolled in an IRB-approved protocol, pretested on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing model, and randomized into 2 groups. Group I (n = 10) trained (unsupervised) until proficiency levels were achieved on 5 basic tasks; Group II (n = 10) received no basic training. Both groups then trained (supervised) on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing model until previously reported proficiency levels were achieved. Two weeks later, they were retested to evaluate their retention scores, training parameters, instruction requirements, and cost between groups using t-test. Baseline characteristics and performance were similar for both groups, and 9 of 10 subjects in each group achieved the proficiency levels. The initial performance on the simulator was better for Group I after basic skills training, and their suturing learning curve was shorter compared with Group II. In addition, Group I required less active instruction. Overall time required to finish the curriculum was similar for both groups; but the Group I training strategy cost less, with a savings of $148 per trainee. Teaching novices basic laparoscopic skills before a more complex laparoscopic task produces substantial cost savings. Additional studies are needed to assess the impact of such integrated curricula on ultimate educational benefit. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Connell, Robert M.
Team-based learning (TBL) is a form of student-centered active learning in which students independently study new conceptual material before it is treated in the classroom, and then subsequently spend considerable classroom time working in groups on increasingly challenging problems and applications based on that new material. TBL provides…
Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur
The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…
Lu, Jinjin; Jiang, Han
A considerable number of studies have investigated students' learning in class and outside of class across subjects such as English, mathematics, and physical education in China and other countries. Scholars have found that students' activities in class and outside of class are closely related to their learning outcomes, self-regulated learning…
... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.
Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.
Iserbyt, Peter; Charlier, Nathalie; Mols, Liesbet
It is often assumed that animations (i.e., videos) will lead to higher learning compared to static media (i.e., pictures) because they provide a more realistic demonstration of the learning task. To investigate whether learning basic life support (BLS) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from video produce higher learning outcomes compared to pictures in reciprocal learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 128 students (mean age: 17 years) constituting eight intact classes from a secondary school learned BLS in reciprocal roles of doer and helper with tablet PCs. Student pairs in each class were randomized over a Picture and a Video group. In the Picture group, students learned BLS by means of pictures combined with written instructions. In the Video group, BLS was learned through videos with on-screen instructions. Informational equivalence was assured since instructions in both groups comprised exactly the same words. BLS assessment occurred unannounced, three weeks following intervention. Analysis of variance demonstrated no significant differences in chest compression depths between the Picture group (M=42 mm, 95% CI=40-45) and the Video group (M=39 mm, 95% CI=36-42). In the Picture group significantly higher percentages of chest compressions with correct hand placement were achieved (M=67%, CI=58-77) compared to the Video group (M=53%, CI=43-63), P=.03, η(p)(2)=.03. No other significant differences were found. Results do not support the assumption that videos are superior to pictures for learning BLS and CPR in reciprocal learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Two problems can be identified which counteract the need for further training: On the one hand the clientele of skilled workers is not necessarily keen on further training. On the other hand the time and cost pressure within the sector does not offer any room for time-consuming further training measures far away from the workplace. This is why the project “Virtual Learning on the building site – (Vila-b” was realized in cooperation with the project partners of the University of Bremen (Working group »Digital Media« of the Centre for Information Technology as well as from the economy (Arbeitskreis ökologischer Holzbau e. V. and Claus Holm, pm|c. The project team has tested a concept which facilitated learning adapted to the occupational reality and supported by the advantages of digital media. The central didactical elements for the development of this further training course are the contextual and methodological orientation to real work processes as well as the use of digital mobile media which facilitate learning directly at the workplace. The present article starts with a description of the theoretical basics for learning within the work process and discusses the didactical elements which are necessary for work process oriented learning with digital and mobile media.
Ayobami Gideon Adeleke
Full Text Available This research paper specifically examined the impact of Geographic Information System (GIS integration in a learning method and on the performance and retention of Environmental Education (EE concepts in basic social studies. Non-equivalent experimental research design was employed. 126 pupils in four intact, computer-mediated classrooms were sampled. Instruments included Envi-Geo Info System (EGIS package and Environmental Information Achievement Test (EAT. The study found no significant effect of treatment on performances of participants in EGIS integrated treatment groups. No significant effect was found across the groups on pupils retention even though, treatment groups retention mean was higher than contemporaries. The study concluded that, adaptation of EGIS into sorted EE concepts will improve learning and might boost retention even in computer-mediated social studies classroom provided the use of GIS is made feasible in Nigeria and adopted into teaching-learning process. It recommended that stakeholders in Nigerian education system should foster workable strategies to improve teaching and learning and that, the use of GIS locally must be placed in the national education objectives. It is in the best interest of the people to learn the rudiments of personal safety, spatial development, incidental natural alerts, as well as preventions and solutions
Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of problem-based learning(PBLcombined with standardized patient(SPin the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology. METHODS: Sixty-four students of Optometry in grade 2012 were randomly divided into experimental group(n=32and control group(n=32. Traditional teaching method was implemented in control group while PBL combined with SP was applied in experimental group. At the end of term students were interviewed using self-administered questionnaire to obtain their evaluation for teaching effect. Measurement data were expressed as (-overx±s and analyzed by independent samples t test. Enumeration data were analyzed by χ2 test, and PRESULTS:The mean scores of theory test(83.22±3.75and experimental test(94.28±2.20in experimental group were significantly higher than theory test(70.72±3.95and experimental test(85.44±3.52in control group(all PPPCONCLUSION:Using PBL combined with SP teaching mode in basic science of ophthalmology can highly improve learning enthusiasm of students and cultivate self-learning ability of students, practice ability and ability of clinical analysis.
Lee, Seul Gi; Shin, Yun Hee
This study was done to verify effects of a self-directed feedback practice using smartphone videos on nursing students' basic nursing skills, confidence in performance and learning satisfaction. In this study an experimental study with a post-test only control group design was used. Twenty-nine students were assigned to the experimental group and 29 to the control group. Experimental treatment was exchanging feedback on deficiencies through smartphone recorded videos of nursing practice process taken by peers during self-directed practice. Basic nursing skills scores were higher for all items in the experimental group compared to the control group, and differences were statistically significant ["Measuring vital signs" (t=-2.10, p=.039); "Wearing protective equipment when entering and exiting the quarantine room and the management of waste materials" (t=-4.74, psmartphone videos can improve basic nursing skills. The significance is that it can help nursing students gain confidence in their nursing skills for the future through improvement of basic nursing skills and performance of quality care, thus providing patients with safer care.
Full Text Available Background: Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods: A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings: Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion: The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness.
Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse
From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…
Cakiroglu, Unal; Yilmaz, Huseyin
This article draws on a one-semester study to investigate the effect of videos and 3D animations on students' conceptual understandings about basic computer units. A quasi-experimental design was carried out in two classrooms; videos and 3D animations were used in classroom activities in one group and those were used for homework in the other…
Rottmann, Thomas; Peter-Koop, Andrea
This paper introduces a revised model for the development of basic computation skills. The model draws on four key phases, which have proven to be important for the development of calculation strategies and stresses the use of gestures and the verbalisation of concrete and mental images. This seems to be of crucial importance for children with…
Mehrotra, Alka; Koul, Anjni
This article focuses on the importance of activity-based teaching in understanding the mole concept and the vital role of basic mathematical operations. It describes needs-based training for teachers in a professional development programme in India. Analysis of test results before and after the training indicates that teachers improved their…
Avgeriou, Paris; Papasalouros, Andreas; Retalis, Symeon; Skordalakis, Manolis
Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people.
Meeus, M.T.H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Hage, J.
This paper aims at developing a theoretical framework that explains levels of interactive learning. Interactive learning is defined as the exchange and sharing of knowledge resources conducive to innovation between an innovator firm, its suppliers, and/or its customers. Our research question is: Why
Wang, Wei; Yang, Yongxiao; Yin, Jianxin; Gong, Xinqi
Different types of protein-protein interactions make different protein-protein interface patterns. Different machine learning methods are suitable to deal with different types of data. Then, is it the same situation that different interface patterns are preferred for prediction by different machine learning methods? Here, four different machine learning methods were employed to predict protein-protein interface residue pairs on different interface patterns. The performances of the methods for different types of proteins are different, which suggest that different machine learning methods tend to predict different protein-protein interface patterns. We made use of ANOVA and variable selection to prove our result. Our proposed methods taking advantages of different single methods also got a good prediction result compared to single methods. In addition to the prediction of protein-protein interactions, this idea can be extended to other research areas such as protein structure prediction and design.
Tzionas, Panagiotis G.; Tsalides, Phillippos G.; Thanailakis, Adonios
Most classification techniques either adopt an approach based directly on the statistical characteristics of the pattern classes involved, or they transform the patterns in a feature space and try to separate the point clusters in this space. An alternative approach based on memory networks has been presented, its novelty being that it can be implemented in parallel and it utilizes direct features of the patterns rather than statistical characteristics. This study presents a new approach for pattern classification using pseudo 2-D binary cellular automata (CA). This approach resembles the memory network classifier in the sense that it is based on an adaptive knowledge based formed during a training phase, and also in the fact that both methods utilize pattern features that are directly available. The main advantage of this approach is that the sensitivity of the pattern classifier can be controlled. The proposed pattern classifier has been designed using 1.5 micrometers design rules for an N-well CMOS process. Layout has been achieved using SOLO 1400. Binary pseudo 2-D hybrid additive CA (HACA) is described in the second section of this paper. The third section describes the operation of the pattern classifier and the fourth section presents some possible applications. The VLSI implementation of the pattern classifier is presented in the fifth section and, finally, the sixth section draws conclusions from the results obtained.
Afrahamiryano, A.; Ariani, D.
The student task analysis is one part of the define stage in development research using the 4-D development model. Analysis of this task is useful to determine the level of understanding of students on lecture materials that have been given. The results of this task analysis serve as a measuring tool to determine the level of success of learning and as a basis in the development of lecture system. Analysis of this task is done by the method of observation and documentation study of the tasks undertaken by students. The results of this analysis are then described and after that triangulation are done to draw conclusions. The results of the analysis indicate that the students' level of understanding is high for theoretical and low material for counting material. Based on the results of this task analysis, it can be concluded that e-learning lecture system developed should be able to increase students' understanding on basic chemicals that are calculated.
Redel-Macías, María Dolores; Castillo, Carlos; Aguilar Porro, Cristina; Polo, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.
This paper presents a virtual lab for the contents of an Engineering project, for designing an agro-industrial building, which is also useful for a range of different transversal courses in Engineering sciences. The aims of this tool are to analyse the most important contents of a project-document (calculation, regulations, drawings and budgets), as well as their relationship with the activities which make up the work and the schedule. The design criteria we considered were: its online applications and their compatibility with Moodle; the inclusion of different learning approaches, such as exploratory learning and inquiry-based learning; its interactivity, and the use of multimedia elements for visualisation and direct analysis on material common to Engineering subjects. The students' perceptions of the improvements brought by the virtual lab were analysed statistically through a series of questions over two academic years. The results of the questionnaires suggested that most of those who had used the e-learning tool valued positively its overall suitability for reaching the objectives in their subject as well as the way it improved the working methodology. The practical knowledge acquired by the students was also highly valued. In addition, the lack of constraints commonly related to field trips (expenses, time and complexity) illustrates the utility of self-access learning tools in key transversal disciplines such as Engineering projects.
Full Text Available Background: Effective clinical teaching is a major objective in general practitioner’s education at medical schools. Purpose: To identify the sources of clinical skills learning that medical student experience Methods: In this cross sectional study, interns of Tehran medical university who spent at least 12 months of their internship answered a questionnaire on the sources of clinical skills training. Chi2 test was used to examine the association of source of learning and students,’ specification such as sex, score of pre –internship exam, and marital status. Results: All 250 interns who were eligible participated. Over all 46.60% interns learned their clinical skills from residents or clinical teachers, 29.61% observed others performing the procedures, 16.25 learned the skills from hospital staff or nurses, 7.54% practiced their knowledge when confronted to an emergency situation Conclusion: Our results warrant a more attentive approach to clinical skills (specially procedural skills training Key words: LEARNING RESOURCES
Berkhout, Joris J; Teunissen, Pim W; Helmich, Esther; van Exel, Job; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C
Students feel insufficiently supported in clinical environments to engage in active learning and achieve a high level of self-regulation. As a result clinical learning is highly demanding for students. Because of large differences between students, supervisors may not know how to support them in their learning process. We explored patterns in undergraduate students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, to improve tailored supervision, using Q-methodology. Q-methodology uses features of both qualitative and quantitative methods for the systematic investigation of subjective issues by having participants sort statements along a continuum to represent their opinion. We enrolled 74 students between December 2014 and April 2015 and had them characterize their learning behavior by sorting 52 statements about self-regulated learning behavior and explaining their response. The statements used for the sorting were extracted from a previous study. The data was analyzed using by-person factor analysis to identify clusters of individuals with similar sorts of the statements. The resulting factors and qualitative data were used to interpret and describe the patterns that emerged. Five resulting patterns were identified in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, which we labelled: Engaged, Critically opportunistic, Uncertain, Restrained and Effortful. The five patterns varied mostly regarding goals, metacognition, communication, effort, and dependence on external regulation for learning. These discrete patterns in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment are part of a complex interaction between student and learning context. The results suggest that developing self-regulated learning behavior might best be supported regarding individual students' needs.
Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Villasclaras-Fernández, Eloy; Jorrín-Abellán, Iván; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Ruiz-Requies, Inés; Rubia-Avi, Bartolomé
CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning) constitutes a significant field that has drawn the attention of many researchers and practitioners (Dillenbourg, 2002). This domain is characterized by the coexistence of very different expectations, requirements, knowledge and interests posed by both
Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine
Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.
Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hou, Huei-Tse
Unlike most research, which has primarily examined the players' interest in or attitude toward game-based learning through questionnaires, the purpose of this empirical study is to explore students' engagement patterns by qualitative observation and sequential analysis to visualize and better understand their game-based learning process. We…
Marambe, Kosala N.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.
The aim of this study was to compare student learning patterns in higher education across different cultures. A meta-analysis was performed on three large-scale studies that had used the same research instrument: the Inventory of learning Styles (ILS). The studies were conducted in the two Asian countries Sri Lanka and Indonesia and the European…
Mealor, David J.; Abrams, Pamela F.
Profile analysis was performed on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores of 29 learning disabled students (6-10 years old) in a Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) program, to determine whether subtest patterns for initial and re-evaluation WISC-R administrations would differ significantly. Profile analysis was applied…
Barbot, Baptiste; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Differences in learning patterns of vocabulary acquisition in children at risk (+SRD) and not at risk (-SRD) for Specific Reading Disability (SRD) were examined using a microdevelopmental paradigm applied to the multi-trial Foreign Language Learning Task (FLLT; Baddeley et al., 1995). The FLLT was administered to 905 children from rural…
Ivy, Robert J.
There is a lack of research based data in the field of learning disabilities, especially at the secondary level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate personality configuration patterns and vocational interests through the administration of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Abbreviated Version (AV) and the Self-Directed Search, Form E (EASY) for learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (NLD) students. The sample included 90 LD students and 100 Non-LD stud...
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
In this module the student will learn the rules that govern the characteristics of parallel circuits; the relationships between voltage, current, resistance and power; and the results of common troubles in parallel circuits. The module is divided into four lessons: rules of voltage and current, rules for resistance and power, variational analysis,…
Durlak, Joseph A.
This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…
In Finland, teachers' have extensive autonomy, that is freedom from control by others over their professional actions in the classroom, and it is considered a strength of Finnish education. At the same time, national assessment of learning outcomes has been constructed to examine the learner's progress and achievements in relation to the criteria…
Kuo, Feng-Yang; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Lin, Cathy S.
Today, information technology (IT) has permeated virtually every aspect of our society and the learning of software programming is becoming increasingly important to the creation and maintenance of the IT infrastructure critical to our daily life. In this article, we report the results of a study that demonstrates how the self-regulation paradigm…
learning, the author (LA) agreed to convene a meeting of individuals who could further this project and eight people met in London on 5th June 2015. The individuals included Royal College representatives as well as people who had been involved in ...
Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna
School-based sexuality education remains a key response to the HIV epidemic. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study, this study explores how young people engage with sexuality and HIV- and AIDS-related education as it is delivered through the Life Orientation (LO) learning area in South Africa, in order to understand the dynamics that…
Full Text Available South Africa's push for universal access to education and for improved teaching and learning calls for a number of appropriate measures to be put in place. This paper proposes the adoption of internet of things technologies (IoT) in improving...
Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy
The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications.
Cortez, C.; Nussbaum, M.; Woywood, G.; Aravena, R.
In today's fast-changing business environment, teams have emerged as a requirement for business success. However, in schools and universities, students are usually not taught teamwork skills. In this paper, we introduce learning to collaborate by collaborating, a process that enables collaboration and teamwork skills to be taught and measured…
González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios
Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…
Full Text Available Background According to the available evidence and experiments, problem-based learning is one of the most successful methods to achieve higher educational objectives. In this method, the discussion about the medical subjects to be learned by the students is based on a real clinical case and participation of the students. Various advantages and disadvantages of this method have been addressed in different studies. Purpose In order to evaluate the effect of this method in our educational framework, we compare two educational methods, problem-based learning and lecture-based learning, in terms of students• education and recall. Methods It is an experimental study. Two topics of basic immunology were chosen after holding discussion meetings. The students were divided randomly into two groups. Each topic was taught to the two groups of students using both methods alternately. Students' educational achievement was evaluated with pre-test and post-test exams. Four weeks after these sessions, short-assay exams were used to evaluate the students' recall. Results The difference of pre-test results between the two groups was not statistically significant, whereas the difference of post-test scores was statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in the students' recall between the two groups. Conclusion Considering the exchange of two methods between the two groups, the effect of personal differences was eliminated in this study, and since there is no significant difference in the pre-test scores, the difference of post-test results could be related to the effect of PBL. According to the results of this study and with conducting additional experiments, the problem-based learning could be adjusted with the specific educational framework in our country. Keywords: problem-based learning, lecture-based learning, education, recall
Sure, you can blurt out Merci! and Oui! Oui! and Garcon! as well as the next tourist, but in truth your French lacks a certain je ne sais quoi. That just won't do if you're touring the City of Light or sunning in Tahiti or ordering a la carte in a Montreal cafe. Whether you're traveling to a French-speaking country or learning French for business, this pocket-sized primer is your passeport to one of the world's most beautiful-and useful-languages. Learn French in a Hurry features:Common French phrases (days of the week, numbers, letters)Pronunciation and conjugation tips and tricksGrammar made
Maria Nicolasa Tonato Becerra
Full Text Available The educational computer culture in Ecuador faces new challenges through the use of new teaching and learning methodology. Based on new challenges where the information that the student handles is reﬂected in the beneﬁts of the use of technology, in this article we present an analysis based on the Strategies of Teaching - Learning towards Education and Good Living that interact in two ways. On the one hand, the right to education is an essential component of Good Living, since it allows the development of human potential, and as such, guarantees equal opportunities for all people, where the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador, Organic Law of Intercultural Education and the Code of the Childhood, adolescence on the education and the challenges of the teacher, and its strategies of current teaching, at present we count on the aid of the technology so that the teacher can impart its knowledge of a Easy and effective way.
Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.
PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…
Valéria Brumato Regina Fornazari; Ana Tiyomi Obara
Current research investigates the ideas and practices of a team of teachers of the Natural Sciences working in schools in the state of Paraná, Brazil, with regard to pedagogical workshops as teaching and learning strategies on Hydrographic Basin as theme. A continuous formation course was conducted on the theme, with data retrieved by a questionnaire applied prior to the course and after the development of workshops by the teachers. Films, recordings and descriptive memorials were analyzed ac...
of processing , the greater the retention in long term memory (see Butter- field, Wambold, & Belmont, 1968; Craik and Lockhart , 1972). Interestingly...L.S., & Craik , F.I.M. (Eds.) Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979. Chicago Board of Education. Chicago Mastery Learning...Child Psychology, 1973, 15, 169-186. Lockhart , R.S., Craik , F.I.M., & Jacoby, L. Depth of processing , recogni- tion, and recall. In J. Brown (Ed
Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.
This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.
McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard
According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.
Spiva, LeeAnna; Johnson, Kimberly; Robertson, Bethany; Barrett, Darcy T; Jarrell, Nicole M; Hunter, Donna; Mendoza, Inocencia
Historically, the instructional method of choice has been traditional lecture or face-to-face education; however, changes in the health care environment, including resource constraints, have necessitated examination of this practice. A descriptive pre-/posttest method was used to determine the effectiveness of alternative teaching modalities on nurses' knowledge and confidence in electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation. A convenience sample of 135 nurses was recruited in an integrated health care system in the Southeastern United States. Nurses attended an instructor-led course, an online learning (e-learning) platform with no study time or 1 week of study time, or an e-learning platform coupled with a 2-hour post-course instructor-facilitated debriefing with no study time or 1 week of study time. Instruments included a confidence scale, an online EKG test, and a course evaluation. Statistically significant differences in knowledge and confidence were found for individual groups after nurses participated in the intervention. Statistically significant differences were found in pre-knowledge and post-confidence when groups were compared. Organizations that use various instructional methods to educate nurses in EKG interpretation can use different teaching modalities without negatively affecting nurses' knowledge or confidence in this skill. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Chemistry is a very comprehensive discipline that researches atoms; molecules; the structure of matter in the form of element or compound; combinations, and physical and chemical properties of matter; macroscopic and microscopic transformations of matters; the energy and entropy released or absorbed in the course of these transformations; the structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and minerals in the body. This discipline includes numerous reactions at the macroscopic, microscopic and particulate levels, abstract concepts, three-dimensional structure of molecules, mathematics, and graphics. It is important for students to be trained as scientists to internalize -with meaningful learning - chemistry having much abstract concepts. Especially for students in associate degree programs in Vocational High Schools, taking this integrated course will provide them to be more creative in their future professional work; to cope with and overcome analytical problems; to be self-learners; to fill the gaps concerning chemical analysis originated from secondary education; and to gain critical thinking and self-evaluation skills regarding chemical problems. In the age of developing science and technology, “Computer-Based Active Learning Method” emerged with the introduction of multi-media into education and training. In this context, students will learn difficult and complex mathematical operations and graphics interpretations more meaningfully with computer-based simulations and analogies.
Full Text Available In an associative patterning task, some people seem to focus more on learning an overarching rule, whereas others seem to focus on acquiring specific relations between the stimuli and outcomes involved. Building on earlier work, we further investigated which cognitive factors are involved in feature- vs. rule-based learning and generalization. To this end, we measured participants' tendency to generalize according to the rule of opposites after training on negative and positive patterning problems (i.e., A+/B+/AB− and C−/D−/CD+, their tendency to attend to global aspects or local details of stimuli, their systemizing disposition and their score on the Raven intelligence test. Our results suggest that while intelligence might have some influence on patterning learning and generalization, visual processing style and systemizing disposition do not. We discuss our findings in the light of previous observations on patterning.
Nawrocki, A; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Podtelejnikov, A V
Separation of proteins on either carrier ampholyte-based or immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional (2-D) gels gives rise to electrophoretic patterns that are difficult to compare visually. In this paper we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI......-MS) to determine the identities of 335 protein spots in these two 2-D gel systems, including a substantial number of basic proteins which had never been identified before. Proteins that were identified in both gel systems allowed us to cross-reference the gel patterns. Vector analysis of these cross...
The paper examined the relevance of Religious Studies as an academic discipline in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. This was done with the intention to find different methods and approaches that can be used to promote the teaching and learning of Religious Education in secondary schools. The study employed a case ...
Although the idea of incorporating the ability to learn first order rules from RDBMSs is not new – Stonebraker et. al  added this feature to Postgres and...Future Directions. Volume To appear. AAAI Press (2004) 6. Stonebraker, M., Kemnitz, G.: The postgres next-generation database management system
Complexity has been linked to ease of learning. This article explores the roles of two measures of complexity – feature economy and logical complexity – in the acquisition of sets of signs, taken from a small sign language that serves as an analogue of plosive inventories in spoken language. In a
De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie
To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.
Patricia Villalonga de García
Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to introduce the methodology used to carry out a diagnostic of the system of evaluation in learning for Mathematics I (subject of the first year in the Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia of the Universidad Nacional of Tucumán in Argentina This diagnostic was based on a model of alternative evaluation of learning, designed on the basis of criteria resulting from constructivist pedagogical currents and on the basis of methodological principles for the qualitative and quantitative paradigms in socioeducational research. The criteria stated in this model led to the formulation of the hypothesis: “the evaluation of learning in the subject is enhanced with a reductionistic and disintegrated conception of the processes of teaching and learning”. In order to contrast it, surveys were designed which were applied to students in years 2001 and 2003 and to teachers in year 2001, and a study was carried out on the items of summative evaluation of the subject based on the principles of evaluation standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The sources of information were chosen by attending to the characteristics of the context of work and the limitations which conditioned the investigation. A technique was designed to analyze the open and close questions of the surveys and to study the items of the exams. This facilitated the elaboration of a system of categories with which the diagnostic was implemented. The methodological design adopted and the sources used were adequate to reach the aims proposed in the study. Besides, they provided the means to find solid argumentations to contrast the hypotheses of work.
Mohemmed, Ammar; Schliebs, Stefan; Matsuda, Satoshi; Kasabov, Nikola
Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) were shown to be suitable tools for the processing of spatio-temporal information. However, due to their inherent complexity, the formulation of efficient supervised learning algorithms for SNN is difficult and remains an important problem in the research area. This article presents SPAN - a spiking neuron that is able to learn associations of arbitrary spike trains in a supervised fashion allowing the processing of spatio-temporal information encoded in the precise timing of spikes. The idea of the proposed algorithm is to transform spike trains during the learning phase into analog signals so that common mathematical operations can be performed on them. Using this conversion, it is possible to apply the well-known Widrow-Hoff rule directly to the transformed spike trains in order to adjust the synaptic weights and to achieve a desired input/output spike behavior of the neuron. In the presented experimental analysis, the proposed learning algorithm is evaluated regarding its learning capabilities, its memory capacity, its robustness to noisy stimuli and its classification performance. Differences and similarities of SPAN regarding two related algorithms, ReSuMe and Chronotron, are discussed.
Cortes Vasquez, Augusto
One issue of real interest in the area of web data mining is to capture users' activities during connection and extract behavior patterns that help define their preferences in order to improve the design of future pages adapting websites interfaces to individual users. This research is intended to provide, first of all, a presentation of the…
Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla
We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...
Jiang, Xia; Neapolitan, Richard E
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) high-dimensional datasets are available from Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Such data provide researchers opportunities to investigate the complex genetic basis of diseases. Much of genetic risk might be due to undiscovered epistatic interactions, which are interactions in which combination of several genes affect disease. Research aimed at discovering interacting SNPs from GWAS datasets proceeded in two directions. First, tools were developed to evaluate candidate interactions. Second, algorithms were developed to search over the space of candidate interactions. Another problem when learning interacting SNPs, which has not received much attention, is evaluating how likely it is that the learned SNPs are associated with the disease. A complete system should provide this information as well. We develop such a system. Our system, called LEAP, includes a new heuristic search algorithm for learning interacting SNPs, and a Bayesian network based algorithm for computing the probability of their association. We evaluated the performance of LEAP using 100 1,000-SNP simulated datasets, each of which contains 15 SNPs involved in interactions. When learning interacting SNPs from these datasets, LEAP outperformed seven others methods. Furthermore, only SNPs involved in interactions were found to be probable. We also used LEAP to analyze real Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer GWAS datasets. We obtained interesting and new results from the Alzheimer's dataset, but limited results from the breast cancer dataset. We conclude that our results support that LEAP is a useful tool for extracting candidate interacting SNPs from high-dimensional datasets and determining their probability. © 2015 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lehmann, Ronny; Thiessen, Christiane; Frick, Barbara; Bosse, Hans Martin; Nikendei, Christoph; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Huwendiek, Sören
E-learning and blended learning approaches gain more and more popularity in emergency medicine curricula. So far, little data is available on the impact of such approaches on procedural learning and skill acquisition and their comparison with traditional approaches. This study investigated the impact of a blended learning approach, including Web-based virtual patients (VPs) and standard pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training, on procedural knowledge, objective performance, and self-assessment. A total of 57 medical students were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=30) and a control group (n=27). Both groups received paper handouts in preparation of simulation-based PBLS training. The intervention group additionally completed two Web-based VPs with embedded video clips. Measurements were taken at randomization (t0), after the preparation period (t1), and after hands-on training (t2). Clinical decision-making skills and procedural knowledge were assessed at t0 and t1. PBLS performance was scored regarding adherence to the correct algorithm, conformance to temporal demands, and the quality of procedural steps at t1 and t2. Participants' self-assessments were recorded in all three measurements. Procedural knowledge of the intervention group was significantly superior to that of the control group at t1. At t2, the intervention group showed significantly better adherence to the algorithm and temporal demands, and better procedural quality of PBLS in objective measures than did the control group. These aspects differed between the groups even at t1 (after VPs, prior to practical training). Self-assessments differed significantly only at t1 in favor of the intervention group. Training with VPs combined with hands-on training improves PBLS performance as judged by objective measures.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to produce games letter word in the learning of basic locomotor movements physical education at Elementary School third-grade students in District Gunungpati 2016. This research is the development, product development procedure includes needs analysis, literature review and observation, the initial product manufacturing, design validation by the experts, the trials I, product revision, the second large-scale trials, expert review and the final product. Data is collected using questionnaires obtained from the expert evaluation, field observations and the student questionnaire. A descriptive data analysis techniques percentage. The results of the analysis of the initial product of 91% then declared eligible. The observation and the student questionnaire on a small scale trial gained (81.6%. The test results of large-scale expert (95% to be eligible and could be used. The observation and questionnaire on large-scale test was (86.6% are feasible and can be used. On a small scale trials and large-scale increase in the observation and questionnaires to students of (5%. It can be concluded that the game is a good letter word that is feasible and can be used as an alternative to the basic motion locomotor learning materials in elementary school third-grade students in District Gunungpati.
Full Text Available The analysis of the handball development tendencies demands more and more sophisticated work forms and methods which provide possibility of the quick and good quality implementation of the setup goals and tasks in the work with children. In that case it becomes very important to create the best methods and instruments by which, with the systematic work, the acquired technical/tactical skils and motoric capacities will be adopted and automatized. Process of acquiring of technical/tactical skills and motoric capacities represents main goal in the overall training process of young handball players. It is also a part of the transformation process and an important prerequisite of the specifi c handball competition activity. During the systematic work e.g. training process, from the beginner to the top handball player, this learning process is very unique and in interwoven. It is going on by following general training rules with the purpose of creating supreme sport result
Full Text Available The pedagogical universities in their different denominations, whether as Pedagogical Higher Institutes, Pedagogical Sciences Universities or Eastern University, have had in their center, the training of the teacher in their different specialties. The Mathematics teacher has been the result of training models and curricula in correspondence with the historical moment to which they have responded, all with the purpose of preparing them to impart the mathematical content in the educations that constitute action scenarios. The objective of this paper is to analyze the historical behavior of the learning process of the basic mathematical contents in the training process, because it is understood as the fundamental basis for achieving the objectives. For its development were taken into account the logical historical method, the interview, the survey and the documentary analysis.
Full Text Available Abstract Humans are capable to identifying diverse shape in the different pattern in the real world as effortless fashion due to their intelligence is grow since born with facing several learning process. Same way we can prepared an machine using human like brain called Artificial Neural Network that can be recognize different pattern from the real world object. Although the various techniques is exists to implementation the pattern recognition but recently the artificial neural network approaches have been giving the significant attention. Because the approached of artificial neural network is like a human brain that is learn from different observation and give a decision the previously learning rule. Over the 50 years research now a days pattern recognition for machine learning using artificial neural network got a significant achievement. For this reason many real world problem can be solve by modeling the pattern recognition process. The objective of this paper is to present the theoretical concept for pattern recognition design using Multi-Layer Perceptorn neural networkin the algorithm of artificial Intelligence as the best possible way of utilizing available resources to make a decision that can be a human like performance.
Weitze, Charlotte Lærke
This article describes an innovative learning environment where remote and face-to-face full-time general upper secondary adult students jointly participate in the same live classes at VUC Storstrøm, an adult learning centre in Denmark. The teachers developed new learning designs as a part of the...... activating and equal learning designs for the students. This article is written on the basis of a chapter in the PhD–thesis by the author....
Olsen, Aarid Liland; Strand, Liv Inger; Skjaerven, Liv Helvik; Sundal, Mary-Anne; Magnussen, Liv Heide
Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with pain, dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Patient education (PE) followed by 12 weekly sessions of Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) was offered to patients with hip OA, aiming to strengthen their ability to move and act functionally in daily life. To explore how patients described their experiences and outcome from participating in PE and BBAT. Individual, semi-structured interviews with five patients, aged 52-78 years, were performed after PE and BBAT at four and ten months. Interview data were analyzed by systematic text condensation. Three main themes emerged. "Becoming motivated and involved" reflected experiences of encouragement and support from information given and communication with group members. In "Movement awareness learning" patients described becoming aware of and improving functional movement, alleviating symptoms and increasing daily functioning. "Movement and disease in a long-term perspective" reflected patientś experience of increased self-awareness and taking better care of themselves at 10 months after baseline. Practicing basic movement principles, they felt empowered to handle daily life challenges in more functional and energy-economical ways. PE followed by BBAT in groups may be beneficial to patients with hip OA, and provide lasting benefits regarding daily life function. Implications for Rehabilitation Insight into disease process and relationship to functional movement gained through patient education may empower patients with hip osteoarthritis in management of daily life Movement awareness and exploration of movement quality using principles from Basic Body Awareness Therapy was found to support patients in finding resources for functional movement, implemented in daily actions Movement strategies characterized by adjustment rather than force was experienced by the patients to support their general functioning, despite of prevailing hip pain Implementing group therapeutic factors (Yalom
Structures within molecules and nuclei have relationships to astronomical patterns. The COBE cosmic scale plots, and large scale surveys of galaxy clusters have patterns also repeating and well known at atomic scales. The Induction, Strong Force, and Nuclear Binding Energy Periods within the Big Bang are revealed to have played roles in the formation of these large scale distributions. Equations related to the enormous patterns also model chemical bonds and likely nucleus and nucleon substructures. ratios of the forces that include gravity are accurately calculated from the distributions and shapes. In addition, particle masses and a great many physical constants can be derived with precision and accuracy from astrophysical shapes. A few very basic numbers can do modelling from nucleon internals to molecules to super novae, and up to the Visible Universe. Equations are also provided along with possible structural configurations for some Cold Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
Valéria Brumato Regina Fornazari
Full Text Available Current research investigates the ideas and practices of a team of teachers of the Natural Sciences working in schools in the state of Paraná, Brazil, with regard to pedagogical workshops as teaching and learning strategies on Hydrographic Basin as theme. A continuous formation course was conducted on the theme, with data retrieved by a questionnaire applied prior to the course and after the development of workshops by the teachers. Films, recordings and descriptive memorials were analyzed according to content analysis. Results showed that teachers endeavored to problematize in the pedagogical workshops, coupled to teachers´ mediation to go beyond common sense. Students´ participation was the great progress mediated by workshops. On the other hand, interdisciplinarity and the problematization of teaching were the limiting presuppositions for their execution. The undertaking enhanced a better understanding of pedagogical workshops in the teaching of the sciences, with the need for greater investments in teachers´ continuous formation to enhance the development of teaching practices that attend to current demands in science teaching.
Van Horn, J D; Gold, J M; Esposito, G; Ostrem, J L; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F
Recent research has found that patterns of brain activation involving the frontal cortex during novel task performance change dramatically following practice and repeat performance. Evidence for differential left vs. right frontal lobe activation, respectively, during episodic memory encoding and retrieval has also been reported. To examine these potentially related issues regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 15 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a maze task paradigm. SPM analysis indicated a largely right-sided, frontal lobe activation during naive performance. Following training and practice, performance of the same maze task elicited a more posterior pattern of rCBF activation involving posterior cingulate and precuneus. The change in the pattern of rCBF activation between novel and practiced task conditions agrees with results found in previous studies using repeat task methodology, and indicates that the neural circuitry required for encoding novel task information differs from that required when the same task has become familiar and information is being recalled. The right-sided preponderance of activation during naive performance may relate to task novelty and the spatially-based nature of the stimuli, whereas posterior areas activated during repeat performance are those previously found to be associated with visuospatial memory recall. Activation of these areas, however, does not agree with previously reported findings of left-sided activation during verbal episodic memory encoding and right-sided activation during retrieval, suggesting different neural substrates for verbal and visuospatial processing within memory. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio
When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.
Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael
"Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Mohta, Medha; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreet; Shankar, Neelima
Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students' satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students' satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students' satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students' satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t -test. Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method ( P < 0.05). Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.
English writing plays an indispensible part in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learning for Chinese students, which accounts for a high score in an English test in China. And it is also a comprehensive reflection of students' abilities in L2 application. However, most non-English majors in vocational and technical colleges have great trouble…
Full Text Available In addition to the curriculum and the learning targets, there are some other points –as “the culture of the real life”, “patterns of communication and virtual-life’s experiencing”, and generally “pattern of communication and internet usage”- should be considered in evaluating internet. Applying results of a survey on the impacts of both the web-based and the traditional educational methods on students’ learning and motivation, the present study explores the patterns of internet usage. Research method is experimental, using the t test for independent groups and analyzing multi-variable regression, and some points as the population, method of sampling and data gathering is explained in the article. Results show that there is a meaningful difference between the grades of the test group and the witness group; thus variable of “the internet usage” could predict changes in learning. In other words, supra-usage of internet would decrease learning and curriculum development. However, using internet for scientific and schooling would cause students to correlate their patterns of computer and internet usage. As results show, decline in entertaining usage of internet is related to the socio-cultural context, way and amount of participating in the web, and the quality of virtual learning sphere, rather than the interest or disinterest of the users.
Qu, Jing; Qian, Liu; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Li, Huiling; Xie, Peng; Mei, Leilei
Previous studies have revealed that greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better subsequent memory. In this study, we used an artificial language training paradigm and representational similarity analysis to examine whether neural pattern similarity across repetitions before training was associated with post-training behavioral performance. Twenty-four native Chinese speakers were trained to learn a logographic artificial language for 12 days and behavioral performance was recorded using the word naming and picture naming tasks. Participants were scanned while performing a passive viewing task before training, after 4-day training and after 12-day training. Results showed that pattern similarity in the left pars opercularis (PO) and fusiform gyrus (FG) before training was negatively associated with reaction time (RT) in both word naming and picture naming tasks after training. These results suggest that neural pattern similarity is an effective neurofunctional predictor of novel word learning in addition to word memory. PMID:28878640
Full Text Available A total of 2,338 students at German universities participated in a survey, which investigated media usage patterns of so-called traditional and non-traditional students (Schuetze & Wolter, 2003. The students provided information on the digital devices that they own or have access to, and on their usage of media and e-learning tools and services for their learning. A distinction was made between external, formal and internal, informal tools and services. Based on the students’ responses, a typology of media usage patterns was established by means of a latent class analysis (LCA. Four types or profiles of media usage patterns were identified. These types were labeled entertainment users, peripheral users, advanced users and instrumental users. Among non-traditional students, the proportion of instrumental users was rather high. Based on the usage patterns of traditional and non-traditional students, implications for media selection in the instructional design process are outlined in the paper.
Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better subsequent memory. In this study, we used an artificial language training paradigm and representational similarity analysis to examine whether neural pattern similarity across repetitions before training was associated with post-training behavioral performance. Twenty-four native Chinese speakers were trained to learn a logographic artificial language for 12 days and behavioral performance was recorded using the word naming and picture naming tasks. Participants were scanned while performing a passive viewing task before training, after 4-day training and after 12-day training. Results showed that pattern similarity in the left pars opercularis (PO and fusiform gyrus (FG before training was negatively associated with reaction time (RT in both word naming and picture naming tasks after training. These results suggest that neural pattern similarity is an effective neurofunctional predictor of novel word learning in addition to word memory.
We trained a combined deep convolutional neural network to predict seals’ age (3 categories) and gender (2 categories). The entire dataset contains 110 seals with around 489 thousand location records. Most records are continuous and measured in a certain step. We created five convolutional layers for feature representation and established two fully connected structure as age’s and gender’s classifier, respectively. Each classifier consists of three fully connected layers. Treating seals’ latitude and longitude as input, entire deep learning network, which includes 780,000 neurons and 2,097,000 parameters, can reach to 70.72% accuracy rate for predicting seals’ age and simultaneously achieve 79.95% for gender estimation.
We trained a combined deep convolutional neural network to predict seals’ age (3 categories) and gender (2 categories). The entire dataset contains 110 seals with around 489 thousand location records. Most records are continuous and measured in a certain step. We created five convolutional layers for feature representation and established two fully connected structure as age’s and gender’s classifier, respectively. Each classifier consists of three fully connected layers. Treating seals’ latitude and longitude as input, entire deep learning network, which includes 780,000 neurons and 2,097,000 parameters, can reach to 70.72% accuracy rate for predicting seals’ age and simultaneously achieve 79.95% for gender estimation.
Full Text Available Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.
Pegorini, Vinicius; Karam, Leandro Zen; Pitta, Christiano Santos Rocha; Cardoso, Rafael; da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardozo; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Ribeiro, Richardson; Bertotti, Fábio Luiz; Assmann, Tangriani Simioni
Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.
Benedet, María J; Lauro-Grotto, Rosapia; Giotti, Chiara
The aim of this study was to demonstrate, by means of systematic research and qualitative data analysis, the presence, among a group of patients with fronto-temporal lobar degeneration of a subgroup that, at variance with the standard pattern, is able to devise and implement learning strategies, but appear impaired at carrying them on from a trial to the next. In order to provide evidence of the existence of a group of patients showing this type of learning disability, that we refer to as lack of strategy holding, we performed a stepwise hierarchical cluster analysis of a set of variables whose scores were selected from the subject's performance at the Test de Aprendizaje Verbal España-Complutense. Results substantiate the segregation of three groups of subjects characterized by the following patterns of performance: normal elderly individuals, who show a quite preserved ability to discover a semantic strategy along the learning trials and to carry it from a trial to the next, patients presenting with a deficit in implementing semantic learning strategies and possibly use of serial and/or phonological strategies to perform the task, and to patients who, although able to generate and implement appropriate learning strategies, appear unable to carry them over the learning trials. The presence of this new pattern raises a few questions that seem worth trying to address.
May, Michael; Neutszky-Wulff, Chresteria; Rosthøj, Susanne
for teachers at the University of Copenhagen a new and simpler pedagogical design pattern framework was developed for interfaculty sharing of experiences and enhancing communities of practice in relation to online and blended learning across the university. The framework of pedagogical design patterns were...... applied to describe the learning design in four online and blended learning courses within different academic disciplines: Classical Greek, Biostatistics, Environmental Management in Europe, and Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation. Future perspectives for using the framework for developing...... new E-learning patterns for online and blended learning courses are discussed....
Pegorini, Vinicius; Karam, Leandro Zen; Pitta, Christiano Santos Rocha; Cardoso, Rafael; da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardozo; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jos?; Ribeiro, Richardson; Bertotti, F?bio Luiz; Assmann, Tangriani Simioni
Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for th...
Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L.
The inferior colliculus (IC) in the midbrain of the auditory system uses a unique basic circuit to organize the inputs from virtually all of the lower auditory brainstem and transmit this information to the medial geniculate body (MGB) in the thalamus. Here, we review the basic circuit of the IC, the neuronal types, the organization of their inputs and outputs. We specifically discuss the large GABAergic (LG) neurons and how they differ from the small GABAergic (SG) and the more numerous glutamatergic neurons. The somata and dendrites of LG neurons are identified by axosomatic glutamatergic synapses that are lacking in the other cell types and exclusively contain the glutamate transporter VGLUT2. Although LG neurons are most numerous in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), an analysis of their distribution suggests that they are not specifically associated with one set of ascending inputs. The inputs to ICC may be organized into functional zones with different subsets of brainstem inputs, but each zone may contain the same three neuron types. However, the sources of VGLUT2 axosomatic terminals on the LG neuron are not known. Neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and IC itself that express the gene for VGLUT2 only are the likely origin of the dense VGLUT2 axosomatic terminals on LG tectothalamic neurons. The IC is unique since LG neurons are GABAergic tectothalamic neurons in addition to the numerous glutamatergic tectothalamic neurons. SG neurons evidently target other auditory structures. The basic circuit of the IC and the LG neurons in particular, has implications for the transmission of information about sound through the midbrain to the MGB. PMID:22855671
Augusto Cortez Vasquez
Full Text Available One issue of real interest in the area of web data mining is to capture users’ activities during connection and extract behavior patterns that help define their preferences in order to improve the design of future pages adapting websites interfaces to individual users. This research is intended to provide, first of all, a presentation of the methodological foundations of the use of probabilistic languages to identify relevant or most visited websites. Secondly, the web sessions are represented by graphs and probabilistic context-free grammars so that the sessions that have the highest probabilities are considered the most visited and most preferred, therefore, the most important in relation to a particular topic. It aims to develop a tool for processing web sessions obtained from a log server represented by probabilistic context-free grammars.
Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Charlier, Nathalie; De Meester, Sophie
Basic Life Support (BLS) education in secondary schools and universities is often neglected or outsourced because teachers indicate not feeling competent to teach this content. Investigate reciprocal learning with task cards as instructional model for teaching BLS and the effect of instructor expertise in BLS on learning outcomes. There were 175 students (mean age = 18.9 years) randomized across a reciprocal/BLS instructor (RBI) group, a reciprocal/non-BLS instructor (RNI) group, and a traditional/BLS instructor group (TBI). In the RBI and RNI group, students were taught BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. The instructor in the RBI group was certified in BLS by the European Resuscitation Council. In the TBI, students were taught BLS by a certified instructor according to the Belgian Red Cross instructional model. Student performance was assessed 1 day (intervention) and 3 weeks after intervention (retention). At retention, significantly higher BLS performances were found in the RBI group (M = 78%), p = 0.007, ES = 0.25, and the RNI group (M = 80%), p < 0.001, Effect Size (ES) = .36, compared to the TBI (M = 73%). Significantly more students remembered and performed all BLS skills in the experimental groups at intervention and retention. No differences in BLS performance were found between the reciprocal groups. Ventilation volumes and flow rates were significantly better in the TBI at intervention and retention. Reciprocal learning with task cards is a valuable model for teaching BLS when instructors are not experienced or skilled in BLS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hastings, D. W.
How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth
Boet, Sylvain; Bould, M Dylan; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Rössler, Bernhard; Nambyiah, Pratheeban; Li, Qi; Bunting, Alexandra; Schebesta, Karl
To compare the effectiveness of a mastery learning (ML) versus a time-based (TB) BLS course for the acquisition and retention of BLS knowledge and skills in laypeople. After ethics approval, laypeople were randomized to a ML or TB BLS course based on the American Heart Association (AHA) Heartsaver course. In the ML group, subjects practiced and received feedback at six BLS stations until they reached a pre-determined level of performance. The TB group received a standard AHA six-station BLS course. All participants took the standard in-course BLS skills test at the end of their course. BLS skills and knowledge were tested using a high-fidelity scenario and knowledge questionnaire upon course completion (immediate post-test) and after four months (retention test). Video recorded scenarios were assessed by two blinded, independent raters using the AHA skills checklist. Forty-three subjects were included in analysis (23ML;20TB). For primary outcome, subjects' performance did not change after four months, regardless of the teaching modality (TB from (median[IQR]) 8.0[6.125;8.375] to 8.5[5.625;9.0] vs. ML from 8.0[7.0;9.0] to 7.0[6.0;8.0], p = 0.12 for test phase, p = 0.21 for interaction between effect of teaching modality and test phase). For secondary outcomes, subjects acquired knowledge between pre- and immediate post-tests (p < 0.005), and partially retained the acquired knowledge up to four months (p < 0.005) despite a decrease between immediate post-test and retention test (p = 0.009), irrespectively of the group (p = 0.59) (TB from 63.3[48.3;73.3] to 93.3[81.7;100.0] and then 93.3[81.7;93.3] vs. ML from 60.0[46.7;66.7] to 93.3[80.0;100.0] and then 80.0[73.3;93.3]). Regardless of the group after 4 months, chest compression depth improved (TB from 39.0[35.0;46.0] to 48.5[40.25;58.0] vs. ML from 40.0[37.0;47.0] to 45.0[37.0;52.0]; p = 0.012), but not the rate (TB from 118.0[114.0;125.0] to 120.5[113.0;129.5] vs. ML from 119.0[113.0;130.0] to 123.0[102.0;132.0]; p
The World Wide Web (WWW) is the latest in a long line of educational technologies, and the list of courses on it is growing daily. Formative evaluations would help educators enhance teaching and learning in Web-based courses. This study analyzed the relationships between student achievement and the following variables: attitudes, motivation, learning strategies, patterns of learning, learning styles, and selected demographics. It was a population study that included 99 students taking two non-major introductory biology courses offered over the WWW by Iowa State University in the fall of 1997. Seventy-four (75%) students completed a learning style test, an on-line questionnaire, and received a grade by the end of the semester. The learning style test was the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which classified students as either field-dependent or field-independent. The on-line questionnaire consisted of four scales (attitude, motivation, learning strategies, and patterns of learning), whose pilot-test reliabilities ranged from .71 to .91. The selected demographic variables were gender, class level, previous experience in subject area, hours per week studying and working, computer access, and types of students as off-campus, on-campus, or adult students. Over two-thirds of the students taking the Web-based courses were field-independent learners; however, there were no significant differences (.05 level) in achievement by learning style. Also, different backgrounds of students with different learning styles learned equally well in Web-based courses. The students enjoyed the convenience and self-controlled learning pace and were motivated by competition and high expectations in Web-based learning. They used most the learning strategies of finding important ideas from lectures and memorizing key words of important concepts and least the learning strategy of making charts or tables to organize the material. They seemed more interested in checking their grades than in
Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.
Marambe, Kosala; Vermunt, Jan; Boshuizen, Els
Marambe, K. N., Vermunt, J. D., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). A cross-cultural comparison of student learning patterns in higher education. Higher Education, 64(3), 299-316. doi:10.1007/s10734-011-9494-z
Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Müskens, Wolfgang; Krause, Ulrike; Alturki, Uthman; Aldraiweesh, Ahmed
A total of 2,338 students at German universities participated in a survey, which investigated media usage patterns of so-called traditional and non-traditional students (Schuetze & Wolter, 2003). The students provided information on the digital devices that they own or have access to, and on their usage of media and e-learning tools and…
Keskin, Sinan; Sahin, Muhittin; Ozgur, Adem; Yurdugul, Halil
The aim of this study is to determine navigational patterns of university students in a learning management system (LMS). It also investigates whether online learners' navigational behaviors differ in terms of their academic achievement (pass, fail). The data for the study comes from 65 third grade students enrolled in online Computer Network and…
This study proposed an analytic framework for coding students' dialogic argumentation and investigated the characteristics of the small-group argumentation pattern observed in modeling-based learning. The participants were 122 second grade high school students in South Korea divided into an experimental and a comparison group. Modeling-based…
Sneath, P. H. A.
A BASIC program is presented for significance tests to determine whether a dendrogram is derived from clustering of points that belong to a single multivariate normal distribution. The significance tests are based on statistics of the Kolmogorov—Smirnov type, obtained by comparing the observed cumulative graph of branch levels with a graph for the hypothesis of multivariate normality. The program also permits testing whether the dendrogram could be from a cluster of lower dimensionality due to character correlations. The program makes provision for three similarity coefficients, (1) Euclidean distances, (2) squared Euclidean distances, and (3) Simple Matching Coefficients, and for five cluster methods (1) WPGMA, (2) UPGMA, (3) Single Linkage (or Minimum Spanning Trees), (4) Complete Linkage, and (5) Ward's Increase in Sums of Squares. The program is entitled DENBRAN.
Full Text Available A new learning rule (Precise-Spike-Driven (PSD Synaptic Plasticity is proposed for processing and memorizing spatiotemporal patterns. PSD is a supervised learning rule that is analytically derived from the traditional Widrow-Hoff rule and can be used to train neurons to associate an input spatiotemporal spike pattern with a desired spike train. Synaptic adaptation is driven by the error between the desired and the actual output spikes, with positive errors causing long-term potentiation and negative errors causing long-term depression. The amount of modification is proportional to an eligibility trace that is triggered by afferent spikes. The PSD rule is both computationally efficient and biologically plausible. The properties of this learning rule are investigated extensively through experimental simulations, including its learning performance, its generality to different neuron models, its robustness against noisy conditions, its memory capacity, and the effects of its learning parameters. Experimental results show that the PSD rule is capable of spatiotemporal pattern classification, and can even outperform a well studied benchmark algorithm with the proposed relative confidence criterion. The PSD rule is further validated on a practical example of an optical character recognition problem. The results again show that it can achieve a good recognition performance with a proper encoding. Finally, a detailed discussion is provided about the PSD rule and several related algorithms including tempotron, SPAN, Chronotron and ReSuMe.
Yu, Qiang; Tang, Huajin; Tan, Kay Chen; Li, Haizhou
A new learning rule (Precise-Spike-Driven (PSD) Synaptic Plasticity) is proposed for processing and memorizing spatiotemporal patterns. PSD is a supervised learning rule that is analytically derived from the traditional Widrow-Hoff rule and can be used to train neurons to associate an input spatiotemporal spike pattern with a desired spike train. Synaptic adaptation is driven by the error between the desired and the actual output spikes, with positive errors causing long-term potentiation and negative errors causing long-term depression. The amount of modification is proportional to an eligibility trace that is triggered by afferent spikes. The PSD rule is both computationally efficient and biologically plausible. The properties of this learning rule are investigated extensively through experimental simulations, including its learning performance, its generality to different neuron models, its robustness against noisy conditions, its memory capacity, and the effects of its learning parameters. Experimental results show that the PSD rule is capable of spatiotemporal pattern classification, and can even outperform a well studied benchmark algorithm with the proposed relative confidence criterion. The PSD rule is further validated on a practical example of an optical character recognition problem. The results again show that it can achieve a good recognition performance with a proper encoding. Finally, a detailed discussion is provided about the PSD rule and several related algorithms including tempotron, SPAN, Chronotron and ReSuMe.
Chiu, Ming-Jang; Liu, Kristina; Hsieh, Ming H; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
Abstract Background Implicit learning was reported to be intact in schizophrenia using artificial grammar learning. However, emerging evidence indicates that artificial grammar learning is not a unitary process. The authors used dual coding stimuli and schizophrenia clinical symptom dimensions to re-evaluate the effect of schizophrenia on various components of artificial grammar learning. Methods Letter string and color pattern artificial grammar learning performances were compared between 63...
Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique
Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require reverse inference, which presupposes specificity of brain activity for the hidden cognitive processes. We investigated whether multivariate pattern classification can provide this specificity. We used a word recall task to create single trial examples of immediate and long term retrieval and trained a learning algorithm to discriminate them. Next, participants performed a similar task involving monitoring instead of recall. The recall-trained classifier recognized the retrieval patterns underlying immediate and long term monitoring and classified delayed monitoring examples as long-term retrieval. This result demonstrates the feasibility of decoding cognitive processes, instead of their content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
González-Soltero, Rocío; Learte, Ana Isabel R; Sánchez, Ana Mª; Gal, Beatriz
Establishing innovative teaching programs in biomedical education involves dealing with several national and supra-national (i.e. European) regulations as well as with new pedagogical and demographic demands. We aimed to develop and validate a suitable instrument to integrate activities across preclinical years in all Health Science Degrees while meeting requirements of national quality agencies. The new approach was conceived at two different levels: first, we identified potentially integrative units from different fields according to national learning goals established for each preclinical year (national quality agency regulations). Secondly, we implemented a new instrument that combines active methodologies in Work Station Learning Activities (WSLA), using clinical scenarios as a guiding common thread to instruct students from an integrated perspective. We evaluated students' perception through a Likert-type survey of a total of 118 students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor's Degree in Medicine. Our model of integrated activities through WSLA is feasible, scalable and manageable with large groups of students and a minimum number of instructors, two major limitations in many medical schools. Students' perception of WSLA was positive in overall terms. Seventy nine percent of participants stated that WSLA sessions were more useful than non-integrated activities. Eighty three percent confirmed that the WSLA methodology was effective at integrating concepts covered by different subjects. The WSLA approach is a flexible and scalable instrument for moving towards integrated curricula, and it can be successfully adapted to teach basic subjects in preclinical years of Health Science degrees. WSLA can be applied to large groups of students in a variety of contexts or environments using clinical cases as connecting threads.
Bentata, Yassamine; Delfosse, Catherine
Students' motivation is a critical component of learning and students' perception of activity value is one of the three major components of their motivation. How can we make students perceive the usefulness and the interest of their university courses while increasing their motivation? The aim of our study was to determine students' perception of basic physiology education value and to assess the impact of lecture integration into some active learning methods on the motivation of the students of the first cycle of Medicine in a junior faculty. We conducted a prospective study, involving the students in their second year of medical studies. At first, we assessed students' motivation for university courses through a first questionnaire, after we integrated two educational activities: the case study and the realization of a conceptual map for the lectures of the physiology module and then we evaluated, through a second questionnaire, the impact of these two activities on students' motivation. Out of 249 students in their second year of medical studies 131 and 109 students have completed and returned the 1st and 2nd questionnaire respectively. Overall students' motivation for their university courses was very favorable, even if the motivation for physiology course (70.8%) was slightly lower than for all the courses (80%). Our students enjoyed the two proposed activities and only 13% (for the case study) and 16.8% (for the map) were not satisfied. 40.9% of students completed a conceptual map whose quality judged on the identification of concepts and of the links between concepts was globally satisfactory for a first experience. Students' motivation is influenced by multiple internal and external factors and is a big problem in the university environment. In this context, a rigorous planning of diversified and active educational activities is one of the main gateways for teacher to encourage motivation.
Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…
Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on parallel circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on transformers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module:…
Joireman, Jeff; Abbott, Martin L.
This report examines the overlap between student test results on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The two tests were compared and contrasted in terms of content and measurement philosophy, and analyses studied the statistical relationship between the ITBS and the WASL. The ITBS assesses…
Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel
This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…
DiGiovanni, Lisa Marie
The American Heart Association's HeartCode[TM] Healthcare Provider (HCP) Basic Life Support (BLS) e-learning program with voice-advisory manikins was implemented in an acute care hospital as the only teaching method offered for BLS certification. On course evaluations, healthcare provider staff commented that the VAM technology for skills practice…
Baird, Bonni Lynn
The purpose of this study was to determine the mediating effects of the Basic Psychological Needs at Work, comprised of competence, autonomy and relatedness, on the relationship between the Dimensions of the Learning Organization and affective and normative organizational commitment in the United States nursing population. The study incorporated…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the patterns of scaffolding contingency in teaching and learning mathematics carried out by three teachers. Contingency patterns are obtained by examining the transcription from video recording of conversation fragments between teachers and students during the provision of scaffolding. The contingency patterns are drawn in three strategies: diagnostic strategy, intervention strategy, and checking diagnosis. The result shows that the three teachers expressed different interaction contingencies in their scaffolding activities: contingent dominant, non-contingent dominant, and pseudo-contingent. It is also found that the learning interaction performed by experienced teachers tends to be contingent dominant compared to novice teachers. Keywords: Contingency, Contingent Dominant, Non-Contingent Dominant, Pseudo Contingent, Scaffolding DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3410.65-76
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM was formed two thousand years ago, and developed in the following centuries. TCM has a unique way of looking at health and illness. Zheng (syndrome is the basic unit and key term in TCM theory. Zheng is the pathological generalization of a certain stage in the development of disease. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation of TCM is the basic principle to know and treat diseases,and a kind of special method to study diseases in TCM. In Han Dynasty (200 AD, doctor Zhang Zhongjing proposed Liujing Bianzheng (the differential diagnosis in accordance with the theory of six channels to diagnose and treat diseases in Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases. In other words, he divided diseases into six channels diseases based on patient’s Zhengs. Six channels diseases almost include all of the disease according to his classification standards. In addition, there are development rules in the progress of six channels diseases.Therefore, we hypothesized that combination of six channels disease and Zheng on the basic of differentiation of six channels is a new pattern of diagnosis and treatment diseases in TCM, which is beneficial to the understanding of a certain disease and makes disease treatment more convenient, fast and effective.
Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Ha Viet; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Dam, Quang-Minh; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam's scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database. Two basic network measures, density and clustering coefficient, were taken, and the entire network was studied in comparison with two of its largest components. Results: The networks connections are very sparse, with a density of only 0.47%, while the clustering coefficient is very high (58.64%). This suggests an inefficient dissemination of information, knowledge, and expertise in the network. Secondly, the disparity in levels of connection among individuals indicates that the network would easily fall apart if a few highly-connected nodes are removed. Finally, the two largest components of the network were found to differ from the entire networks in terms of measures and were both led by the most productive and well-connected researchers. Conclusions: High clustering and low density seems to be tied to inefficient dissemination of expertise among Vietnamese social scientists, and consequently low scientific output. Also low in robustness, the network shows the potential of an intellectual elite composed of well-connected, productive, and socially significant individuals.
Pacton, Sébastien; Borchardt, Gaëlle; Treiman, Rebecca; Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel
Adults often learn to spell words during the course of reading for meaning, without intending to do so. We used an incidental learning task in order to study this process. Spellings that contained double n, r and t which are common doublets in French, were learned more readily by French university students than spellings that contained less common but still legal doublets. When recalling or recognizing the latter, the students sometimes made transposition errors, doubling a consonant that often doubles in French rather than the consonant that was originally doubled (e.g., tiddunar recalled as tidunnar). The results, found in three experiments using different nonwords and different types of instructions, show that people use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system together with word-specific knowledge to reconstruct spellings that they learn from reading. These processes contribute to failures and successes in memory for spellings, as in other domains.
Abadi, Shiran; Yan, Winston X; Amar, David; Mayrose, Itay
The adaptation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system as a genome editing technique has generated much excitement in recent years owing to its ability to manipulate targeted genes and genomic regions that are complementary to a programmed single guide RNA (sgRNA). However, the efficacy of a specific sgRNA is not uniquely defined by exact sequence homology to the target site, thus unintended off-targets might additionally be cleaved. Current methods for sgRNA design are mainly concerned with predicting off-targets for a given sgRNA using basic sequence features and employ elementary rules for ranking possible sgRNAs. Here, we introduce CRISTA (CRISPR Target Assessment), a novel algorithm within the machine learning framework that determines the propensity of a genomic site to be cleaved by a given sgRNA. We show that the predictions made with CRISTA are more accurate than other available methodologies. We further demonstrate that the occurrence of bulges is not a rare phenomenon and should be accounted for in the prediction process. Beyond predicting cleavage efficiencies, the learning process provides inferences regarding patterns that underlie the mechanism of action of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We discover that attributes that describe the spatial structure and rigidity of the entire genomic site as well as those surrounding the PAM region are a major component of the prediction capabilities.
Full Text Available The adaptation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system as a genome editing technique has generated much excitement in recent years owing to its ability to manipulate targeted genes and genomic regions that are complementary to a programmed single guide RNA (sgRNA. However, the efficacy of a specific sgRNA is not uniquely defined by exact sequence homology to the target site, thus unintended off-targets might additionally be cleaved. Current methods for sgRNA design are mainly concerned with predicting off-targets for a given sgRNA using basic sequence features and employ elementary rules for ranking possible sgRNAs. Here, we introduce CRISTA (CRISPR Target Assessment, a novel algorithm within the machine learning framework that determines the propensity of a genomic site to be cleaved by a given sgRNA. We show that the predictions made with CRISTA are more accurate than other available methodologies. We further demonstrate that the occurrence of bulges is not a rare phenomenon and should be accounted for in the prediction process. Beyond predicting cleavage efficiencies, the learning process provides inferences regarding patterns that underlie the mechanism of action of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We discover that attributes that describe the spatial structure and rigidity of the entire genomic site as well as those surrounding the PAM region are a major component of the prediction capabilities.
Kroenke, Klaus-Martin; Kraft, Indra; Regenbrecht, Frank; Obrig, Hellmuth
Gestures accompany speech and enrich human communication. When aphasia interferes with verbal abilities, gestures become even more relevant, compensating for and/or facilitating verbal communication. However, small-scale clinical studies yielded diverging results with regard to a therapeutic gesture benefit for lexical retrieval. Based on recent functional neuroimaging results, delineating a speech-gesture integration network for lexical learning in healthy adults, we hypothesized that the commonly observed variability may stem from differential patholinguistic profiles in turn depending on lesion pattern. Therefore we used a controlled novel word learning paradigm to probe the impact of gestures on lexical learning, in the lesioned language network. Fourteen patients with chronic left hemispheric lesions and mild residual aphasia learned 30 novel words for manipulable objects over four days. Half of the words were trained with gestures while the other half were trained purely verbally. For the gesture condition, rootwords were visually presented (e.g., Klavier, [piano]), followed by videos of the corresponding gestures and the auditory presentation of the novel words (e.g., /krulo/). Participants had to repeat pseudowords and simultaneously reproduce gestures. In the verbal condition no gesture-video was shown and participants only repeated pseudowords orally. Correlational analyses confirmed that gesture benefit depends on the patholinguistic profile: lesser lexico-semantic impairment correlated with better gesture-enhanced learning. Conversely largely preserved segmental-phonological capabilities correlated with better purely verbal learning. Moreover, structural MRI-analysis disclosed differential lesion patterns, most interestingly suggesting that integrity of the left anterior temporal pole predicted gesture benefit. Thus largely preserved semantic capabilities and relative integrity of a semantic integration network are prerequisites for successful use of
Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H
The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition. Although for both learning and recognition, participants who adopted analytic patterns had better recognition performance than those with holistic patterns, a significant positive correlation between the likelihood of participants' patterns being classified as analytic and their recognition performance was only observed during recognition. Significantly more participants adopted holistic patterns during learning than recognition. Interestingly, about 40% of the participants used different patterns between learning and recognition, and among them 90% switched their patterns from holistic at learning to analytic at recognition. In contrast to the scan path theory, which posits that eye movements during learning have to be recapitulated during recognition for the recognition to be successful, participants who used the same or different patterns during learning and recognition did not differ in recognition performance. The similarity between their learning and recognition eye movement patterns also did not correlate with their recognition performance. These findings suggested that perceptuomotor memory elicited by eye movement patterns during learning does not play an important role in recognition. In contrast, the retrieval of diagnostic information for recognition, such as the eyes for face recognition, is a better predictor for recognition performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Solouki, Saeed; Pooyan, Mohammad
Biological control systems have long been studied as a possible inspiration for the construction of robotic controllers. The cerebellum is known to be involved in the production and learning of smooth, coordinated movements. Therefore, highly regular structure of the cerebellum has been in the core of attention in theoretical and computational modeling. However, most of these models reflect some special features of the cerebellum without regarding the whole motor command computational process. In this paper, we try to make a logical relation between the most significant models of the cerebellum and introduce a new learning strategy to arrange the movement patterns: cerebellar modular arrangement and applying of movement patterns based on semi-supervised learning (CMAPS). We assume here the cerebellum like a big archive of patterns that has an efficient organization to classify and recall them. The main idea is to achieve an optimal use of memory locations by more than just a supervised learning and classification algorithm. Surely, more experimental and physiological researches are needed to confirm our hypothesis.
Benjamin G Schultz
Full Text Available Implicit learning (IL occurs unconsciously and without intention. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing elicited by previous exposure to a stimulus. It has been assumed that perceptual fluency is associated with IL. However, the role of perceptual fluency following IL has not been investigated in temporal pattern learning. Two experiments by Schultz, Stevens, Keller, and Tillmann demonstrated the IL of auditory temporal patterns using a serial reaction-time task and a generation task based on the process dissociation procedure. The generation task demonstrated that learning was implicit in both experiments via motor fluency, that is, the inability to suppress learned information. With the aim to disentangle conscious and unconscious processes, we analyze unreported recognition data associated with the Schultz et al. experiments using the sequence identification measurement model. The model assumes that perceptual fluency reflects unconscious processes and IL. For Experiment 1, the model indicated that conscious and unconscious processes contributed to recognition of temporal patterns, but that unconscious processes had a greater influence on recognition than conscious processes. In the model implementation of Experiment 2, there was equal contribution of conscious and unconscious processes in the recognition of temporal patterns. As Schultz et al. demonstrated IL in both experiments using a generation task, and the conditions reported here in Experiments 1 and 2 were identical, two explanations are offered for the discrepancy in model and behavioral results based on the two tasks: 1 perceptual fluency may not be necessary to infer IL, or 2 conscious control over implicitly learned information may vary as a function of perceptual fluency and motor fluency.
Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne
Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year. Medical students (N=175, 58% female) were surveyed three times in their first academic year regarding their use of learning strategies. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward) was conducted in order to identify groups of students with different patterns of learning strategies. We identified four different patterns in approaches to learning among novice medical students ("easy-going", "flexible", "problematic" and "hardworking" learners). Compared to their peers, the problematic learners had the worst final school grades. In addition changes in the use of learning strategies were identified, most of them occurred during the first term. Students start their academic studies with different patterns of learning strategies; the characteristics of these patterns change during the first academic year. Further research is necessary to better understand how individual and situational variables determine students' learning.
Huang, Qi; Yang, Dapeng; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Huajie; Liu, Hong; Kotani, Kiyoshi
Performance degradation will be caused by a variety of interfering factors for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control methods in the long term. This paper proposes an adaptive learning method with low computational cost to mitigate the effect in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios. We presents a particle adaptive classifier (PAC), by constructing a particle adaptive learning strategy and universal incremental least square support vector classifier (LS-SVC). We compared PAC performance with incremental support vector classifier (ISVC) and non-adapting SVC (NSVC) in a long-term pattern recognition task in both unsupervised and supervised adaptive learning scenarios. Retraining time cost and recognition accuracy were compared by validating the classification performance on both simulated and realistic long-term EMG data. The classification results of realistic long-term EMG data showed that the PAC significantly decreased the performance degradation in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios compared with NSVC (9.03% ± 2.23%, p < 0.05) and ISVC (13.38% ± 2.62%, p = 0.001), and reduced the retraining time cost compared with ISVC (2 ms per updating cycle vs. 50 ms per updating cycle). PMID:28608824
Full Text Available Performance degradation will be caused by a variety of interfering factors for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control methods in the long term. This paper proposes an adaptive learning method with low computational cost to mitigate the effect in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios. We presents a particle adaptive classifier (PAC, by constructing a particle adaptive learning strategy and universal incremental least square support vector classifier (LS-SVC. We compared PAC performance with incremental support vector classifier (ISVC and non-adapting SVC (NSVC in a long-term pattern recognition task in both unsupervised and supervised adaptive learning scenarios. Retraining time cost and recognition accuracy were compared by validating the classification performance on both simulated and realistic long-term EMG data. The classification results of realistic long-term EMG data showed that the PAC significantly decreased the performance degradation in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios compared with NSVC (9.03% ± 2.23%, p < 0.05 and ISVC (13.38% ± 2.62%, p = 0.001, and reduced the retraining time cost compared with ISVC (2 ms per updating cycle vs. 50 ms per updating cycle.
Full Text Available Inquiry-based learning is one of the learning methods which can provide an active and authentic scientific learning process in order students are able to improve the creative thinking skills and scientific attitude. This study aims at improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward students of biology education at the Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN Jember, Indonesia. This study is included in a descriptive quantitative research. The research focused on the topic of cell transport which was taught toward 25 students of Biology 2 class from 2017 academic year of Biology Education Department at the IAIN Jember. The learning process was conducted in two meetings in November 2017. The enhancement of students' creative thinking skills was determined by one group pre-test and post-test research design using test instrument meanwhile the scientific attitude focused on curiosity and objectivity were observed using the non-test instrument. Research result showed that students' creative thinking skills enhanced highly and students' scientific attitude improved excellently through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture.
Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Boekema, F.W.M.
A growing body of theoretical research is addressing the importance of learning in the organisational and technological renewal of firms, and therefore in their efforts to improve competitiveness (Daft & Huber, 1987; Levitt & March, 1988; Huber, 1991; Dodgson, 1993; Blackler, 1995; Dodgson, 1996).
Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Dimitriadis, Yannis
The paper was granted with "an ICALT Best Paper Award". Appears in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT04), pp. 350-354, Joensuu, Finland, 31 Aug - 1 Sep 2004. (source link).
Orsini, C; Binnie, V; Wilson, S; Villegas, M J
The aim of this study was to test the mediating role of the satisfaction of dental students' basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness on the association between learning climate, feedback and student motivation. The latter was based on the self-determination theory's concepts of differentiation of autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted where 924 students completed self-reported questionnaires measuring motivation, perception of the learning climate, feedback and basic psychological needs satisfaction. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha scores and bivariate correlations were computed. Mediation of basic needs on each predictor-outcome association was tested based on a series of regression analyses. Finally, all variables were integrated into one structural equation model, controlling for the effects of age, gender and year of study. Cronbach's alpha scores were acceptable (.655 to .905). Correlation analyses showed positive and significant associations between both an autonomy-supportive learning climate and the quantity and quality of feedback received, and students' autonomous motivation, which decreased and became negative when correlated with controlled motivation and amotivation, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that these associations were indirect and mediated by how these predictors satisfied students' basic psychological needs. These results were corroborated by the structural equation analysis, in which data fit the model well and regression paths were in the expected direction. An autonomy-supportive learning climate and the quantity and quality of feedback were positive predictors of students' autonomous motivation and negative predictors of amotivation. However, this was an indirect association mediated by the satisfaction of students' basic psychological needs. Consequently, supporting students' needs of autonomy, competence and
Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.
Răzvan V Florian
Full Text Available In many cases, neurons process information carried by the precise timings of spikes. Here we show how neurons can learn to generate specific temporally precise output spikes in response to input patterns of spikes having precise timings, thus processing and memorizing information that is entirely temporally coded, both as input and as output. We introduce two new supervised learning rules for spiking neurons with temporal coding of information (chronotrons, one that provides high memory capacity (E-learning, and one that has a higher biological plausibility (I-learning. With I-learning, the neuron learns to fire the target spike trains through synaptic changes that are proportional to the synaptic currents at the timings of real and target output spikes. We study these learning rules in computer simulations where we train integrate-and-fire neurons. Both learning rules allow neurons to fire at the desired timings, with sub-millisecond precision. We show how chronotrons can learn to classify their inputs, by firing identical, temporally precise spike trains for different inputs belonging to the same class. When the input is noisy, the classification also leads to noise reduction. We compute lower bounds for the memory capacity of chronotrons and explore the influence of various parameters on chronotrons' performance. The chronotrons can model neurons that encode information in the time of the first spike relative to the onset of salient stimuli or neurons in oscillatory networks that encode information in the phases of spikes relative to the background oscillation. Our results show that firing one spike per cycle optimizes memory capacity in neurons encoding information in the phase of firing relative to a background rhythm.
Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.
Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A
In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.
Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong
As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina
Context Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. Objective This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. Method The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. Results The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. Conclusion The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns. PMID:25243670
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences alignment. METHOD: The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. RESULTS: The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.
Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina
Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.
Lany, Jill; Gómez, Rebecca L
Probabilistically-cued co-occurrence relationships between word categories are common in natural languages but difficult to acquire. For example, in English, determiner-noun and auxiliary-verb dependencies both involve co-occurrence relationships, but determiner-noun relationships are more reliably marked by correlated distributional and phonological cues, and appear to be learned more readily. We tested whether experience with co-occurrence relationships that are more reliable promotes learning those that are less reliable using an artificial language paradigm. Prior experience with deterministically-cued contingencies did not promote learning of less reliably-cued structure, nor did prior experience with relationships instantiated in the same vocabulary. In contrast, prior experience with probabilistically-cued co-occurrence relationships instantiated in different vocabulary did enhance learning. Thus, experience with co-occurrence relationships sharing underlying structure but not vocabulary may be an important factor in learning grammatical patterns. Furthermore, experience with probabilistically-cued co-occurrence relationships, despite their difficultly for naïve learners, lays an important foundation for learning novel probabilistic structure.
Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing
By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.
Full Text Available Motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs commonly use the common spatial pattern filter (CSP as preprocessing step before feature extraction and classification. The CSP method is a supervised algorithm and therefore needs subject-specific training data for calibration, which is very time consuming to collect. In order to reduce the amount of calibration data that is needed for a new subject, one can apply multitask (from now on called multisubject machine learning techniques to the preprocessing phase. Here, the goal of multisubject learning is to learn a spatial filter for a new subject based on its own data and that of other subjects. This paper outlines the details of the multitask CSP algorithm and shows results on two data sets. In certain subjects a clear improvement can be seen, especially when the number of training trials is relatively low.
Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.
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Kabashima, Y [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: email@example.com
A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown.
A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown
Full Text Available In climate research, pressure patterns are often very important. When a climatologists need to know the days of a specific pressure pattern, for example "low pressure in Western areas of Japan and high pressure in Eastern areas of Japan (Japanese winter-type weather," they have to visually check a huge number of surface weather charts. To overcome this problem, we propose an automatic classification system using a support vector machine (SVM, which is a machine-learning method. We attempted to classify pressure patterns into two classes: "winter type" and "non-winter type". For both training datasets and test datasets, we used the JRA-25 dataset from 1981 to 2000. An experimental evaluation showed that our method obtained a greater than 0.8 F-measure. We noted that variations in results were based on differences in training datasets.
A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown.
Chiu, Ming-Jang; Liu, Kristina; Hsieh, Ming H; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
Implicit learning was reported to be intact in schizophrenia using artificial grammar learning. However, emerging evidence indicates that artificial grammar learning is not a unitary process. The authors used dual coding stimuli and schizophrenia clinical symptom dimensions to re-evaluate the effect of schizophrenia on various components of artificial grammar learning. Letter string and color pattern artificial grammar learning performances were compared between 63 schizophrenic patients and 27 comparison subjects. Four symptom dimensions derived from a Chinese Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ratings were correlated with patients' artificial grammar implicit learning performances along the two stimulus dimensions. Patients' explicit memory performances were assessed by verbal paired associates and visual reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scales Revised Version to provide a contrast to their implicit memory function. Schizophrenia severely hindered color pattern artificial grammar learning while the disease affected lexical string artificial grammar learning to a lesser degree after correcting the influences from age, education and the performance of explicit memory function of both verbal and visual modalities. Both learning performances correlated significantly with the severity of patients' schizophrenic clinical symptom dimensions that reflect poor abstract thinking, disorganized thinking, and stereotyped thinking. The results of this study suggested that schizophrenia affects various mechanisms of artificial grammar learning differently. Implicit learning, knowledge acquisition in the absence of conscious awareness, is not entirely intact in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects implicit learning through an impairment of the ability of making abstractions from rules and at least in part decreasing the capacity for perceptual learning.
Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Liu, Jia-Qian; Wang, Qian; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both accompanied by impaired learning and memory functions. This study aims to explore the expression profiles of learning or memory genes between AD and SZ. We downloaded 10 AD and 10 SZ datasets from GEO-NCBI for integrated analysis. These datasets were processed using RMA algorithm and a global renormalization for all studies. Then Empirical Bayes algorithm was used to find the differentially expressed genes between patients and controls. The results showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were related to AD whereas the gene expression profile was little affected in the SZ. Furthermore, in the aspects of the number of differentially expressed genes, the fold change and the brain region, there was a great difference in the expression of learning or memory related genes between AD and SZ. In AD, the CALB1, GABRA5, and TAC1 were significantly downregulated in whole brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. However, in SZ, only two genes CRHBP and CX3CR1 were downregulated in hippocampus, and other brain regions were not affected. The effect of these genes on learning or memory impairment has been widely studied. It was suggested that these genes may play a crucial role in AD or SZ pathogenesis. The different gene expression patterns between AD and SZ on learning and memory functions in different brain regions revealed in our study may help to understand the different mechanism between two diseases.
Wachidatul Linda Yuhanna
Full Text Available This research was a classroom action research which was conducted intwo cycles, each cycle consists of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The data used was quantitative data on student observation sheet instruments. The Results of the study which were obtained from the first cycle showed about the students’ thinking skills and scientific works. They were categorized as excellent 18.18%, good 22.73%, enough 52.27%, and sufficiently less 6.82%. As for the scientific attitude with a very active category of 11.36%, 43.18% and less active 45.45%. It has not reached indicators of success, so it was necessary to cycle II. Cycle II demonstrated the excellent category 38.63%, 36.36% good, good enough18.18% and less 6.81%. While the scientific attitude in the cycle II was an active attitude 29.54%, active 54.54%, inactive 15.91%. These results show an increase from the cycle I to cycle II. The conclusion of this study were: 1 learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry in students can be conducible applied.2 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry can improve thinking ability and scientific work and students’ scientific attitude. 3 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry be able to explore and develop student creativity in designing simple experiments which can be applied in primary schools.
Full Text Available ”Design patterns” were originally proposed in architecture and later in software engineering as a methodology to sketch and share solutions to recurring design problems. In recent years ”pedagogical design patterns” have been introduced as a way to sketch and share good practices in teaching and learning; specifically in the context of technology-enhanced learning (e-learning. Several attempts have been made to establish a framework for describing and sharing such e-learning patterns, but so far they have had limited success. At a series of workshops in a competence-development project for teachers at the University of Copenhagen a new and simpler pedagogical design pattern framework was developed for interfaculty sharing of experiences and enhancing communities of practice in relation to online and blended learning across the university. In this study, the new pedagogical design pattern framework is applied to describe the learning design in four online and blended learning courses within different academic disciplines: Classical Greek, Biostatistics, Environmental Management in Europe, and Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation. Future perspectives for using the framework for developing new E-learning patterns for online and blended learning courses are discussed.
The nature of interactions that occurs among teacher, students, learning sources, and learning environment creates different settings to enhance learning. Any setting created by a teacher is affected by 3 (three) types of cognitive load: intrinsic cognitive load, extraneous cognitive load, and germane cognitive load. This study is qualitative in nature, aims to analyse the patterns of interaction that are constituted in mathematics instructions by taking into account the cognitive load theory. The subjects of this study are 21 fifth-grade students who learn mathematics in small groups and whole-class interactive lessons. The data were collected through classroom observations which were videotaped, while field notes were also taken. The data analysis revealed that students engaged in productive interaction and inquiry while they were learning mathematics in small groups or in whole class setting, in which there was a different type of cognitive load that dominantly affecting the learning processes at each setting. During learning mathematics in whole class setting, the most frequently found interaction patterns were to discuss and compare solution based on self-developed models, followed by expressing opinions. This is consistent with the principles of mathematics learning, which gives students wide opportunities to construct mathematical knowledge through individual learning, learning in small groups as well as learning in whole class settings. It means that by participating in interactive learning, the students are habitually engaged in productive interactions and high level of mathematical thinking.
Nakamura, Toru; Nagata, Masatoshi; Yagi, Takeshi; Graybiel, Ann M; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Kitsukawa, Takashi
Animals including humans execute motor behavior to reach their goals. For this purpose, they must choose correct strategies according to environmental conditions and shape many parameters of their movements, including their serial order and timing. To investigate the neurobiology underlying such skills, we used a multi-sensor equipped, motor-driven running wheel with adjustable sequences of foothold pegs on which mice ran to obtain water reward. When the peg patterns changed from a familiar pattern to a new pattern, the mice had to learn and implement new locomotor strategies in order to receive reward. We found that the accuracy of stepping and the achievement of water reward improved with the new learning after changes in the peg-pattern, and c-Fos expression levels assayed after the first post-switch session were high in both dorsolateral striatum and motor cortex, relative to post-switch plateau levels. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of striatal sections demonstrated that both enkephalin-positive (indirect pathway) neurons and substance P-positive (direct pathway) neurons were recruited specifically after the pattern switches, as were interneurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase. When we blocked N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsolateral striatum by injecting the NMDA receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5), we found delays in early post-switch improvement in performance. These findings suggest that the dorsolateral striatum is activated on detecting shifts in environment to adapt motor behavior to the new context via NMDA-dependent plasticity, and that this plasticity may underlie forming and breaking skills and habits as well as to behavioral difficulties in clinical disorders. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Guk Bae; Jung, Kyu-Hwan; Lee, Yeha; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Namkug; Jun, Sanghoon; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A
This study aimed to compare shallow and deep learning of classifying the patterns of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Using high-resolution computed tomography images, two experienced radiologists marked 1200 regions of interest (ROIs), in which 600 ROIs were each acquired using a GE or Siemens scanner and each group of 600 ROIs consisted of 100 ROIs for subregions that included normal and five regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticular opacity, emphysema, and honeycombing). We employed the convolution neural network (CNN) with six learnable layers that consisted of four convolution layers and two fully connected layers. The classification results were compared with the results classified by a shallow learning of a support vector machine (SVM). The CNN classifier showed significantly better performance for accuracy compared with that of the SVM classifier by 6-9%. As the convolution layer increases, the classification accuracy of the CNN showed better performance from 81.27 to 95.12%. Especially in the cases showing pathological ambiguity such as between normal and emphysema cases or between honeycombing and reticular opacity cases, the increment of the convolution layer greatly drops the misclassification rate between each case. Conclusively, the CNN classifier showed significantly greater accuracy than the SVM classifier, and the results implied structural characteristics that are inherent to the specific ILD patterns.
Ricardo Jordao Duarte
Full Text Available Introduction Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Materials and Methods Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA, including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. Results By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p < 0.001 was obtained, being necessary 4.26 (∼five sessions to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. Conclusions This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training
Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cury, José; Oliveira, Luis Carlos Neves; Srougi, Miguel
Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping). The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA), including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting) were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p sessions) to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training tasks level.
Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.
This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…
Breen, Michael J.
The cognitive patterns of three learning disability subtypes were studied: (1) students with higher math than reading skills, (2) students with higher reading than math skills, and (3) students with equally low math and reading skills. Results indicated that although the three groups were characterized by a number of discrete or unique patterns,…
Pham, Thach; Thalathoti, Vijay; Dakich, Eva
This study examines the frequency and pattern of interpersonal interactions between the learners and instructors of an online English language learning course offered at a Vietnamese university. The paper begins with a review of literature on interaction type, pattern and model of interaction followed by a brief description of the online…
Anderson, Nathaniel D; Dell, Gary S
Speakers implicitly learn novel phonotactic patterns by producing strings of syllables. The learning is revealed in their speech errors. First-order patterns, such as "/f/ must be a syllable onset," can be distinguished from contingent, or second-order, patterns, such as "/f/ must be an onset if the vowel is /a/, but a coda if the vowel is /o/." A metaanalysis of 19 experiments clearly demonstrated that first-order patterns affect speech errors to a very great extent in a single experimental session, but second-order vowel-contingent patterns only affect errors on the second day of testing, suggesting the need for a consolidation period. Two experiments tested an analogue to these studies involving sequences of button pushes, with fingers as "consonants" and thumbs as "vowels." The button-push errors revealed two of the key speech-error findings: first-order patterns are learned quickly, but second-order thumb-contingent patterns are only strongly revealed in the errors on the second day of testing. The influence of computational complexity on the implicit learning of phonotactic patterns in speech production may be a general feature of sequence production.
Gülpinar, Mehmet Ali; Isoglu-Alkaç, Ümmühan; Yegen, Berrak Çaglayan
Recently, integrated and contextual learning models such as problem-based learning (PBL) and brain/mind learning (BML) have become prominent. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate a PBL program enriched with BML principles. In this study, participants were 295 first-year medical students. The study used both quantitative and qualitative…
Shah, Syed Islamuddin; Nandipati, Giridhar; Kara, Abdelkader; Rahman, Talat S
We report the development of a pattern recognition scheme that takes into account both fcc and hcp adsorption sites in performing self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC-II) simulations on the fcc(111) surface. In this scheme, the local environment of every under-coordinated atom in an island is uniquely identified by grouping fcc sites, hcp sites and top-layer substrate atoms around it into hexagonal rings. As the simulation progresses, all possible processes, including those such as shearing, reptation and concerted gliding, which may involve fcc-fcc, hcp-hcp and fcc-hcp moves are automatically found, and their energetics calculated on the fly. In this article we present the results of applying this new pattern recognition scheme to the self-diffusion of 9-atom islands (M 9 ) on M(111), where M = Cu, Ag or Ni.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new face recognition method, named kernel learning of histogram of local Gabor phase pattern (K-HLGPP, which is based on DaugmanÃ¢Â€Â™s method for iris recognition and the local XOR pattern (LXP operator. Unlike traditional Gabor usage exploiting the magnitude part in face recognition, we encode the Gabor phase information for face classification by the quadrant bit coding (QBC method. Two schemes are proposed for face recognition. One is based on the nearest-neighbor classifier with chi-square as the similarity measurement, and the other makes kernel discriminant analysis for HLGPP (K-HLGPP using histogram intersection and Gaussian-weighted chi-square kernels. The comparative experiments show that K-HLGPP achieves a higher recognition rate than other well-known face recognition systems on the large-scale standard FERET, FERET200, and CAS-PEAL-R1 databases.
Full Text Available Learning and training basic life support (BLS-especially external chest compressions (ECC within the BLS-algorithm-are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton's four-step approach for BLS training.A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334 without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory. Students' BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree. The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC.The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16, assimilating (36%, n = 121, converging (41%, n = 138, and accommodating (18%, n = 59. Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency.The findings of this work show that the four
Schröder, Hanna; Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša
Learning and training basic life support (BLS)-especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm-are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton's four-step approach for BLS training. A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory. Students' BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. The findings of this work show that the four-step-approach for
Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša
Background Learning and training basic life support (BLS)—especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm—are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton’s four-step approach for BLS training. Methods A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory. Students’ BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. Results The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. Conclusions The findings
This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…
Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele
The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound
Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Laboratory of Computational Science and Modeling, and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials MARVEL, IMX, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.
Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele
The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding - a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.
Hassaninia, Iman; Bostanabad, Ramin; Chen, Wei; Mohseni, Hooman
Fabricated tissue phantoms are instrumental in optical in-vitro investigations concerning cancer diagnosis, therapeutic applications, and drug efficacy tests. We present a simple non-invasive computational technique that, when coupled with experiments, has the potential for characterization of a wide range of biological tissues. The fundamental idea of our approach is to find a supervised learner that links the scattering pattern of a turbid sample to its thickness and scattering parameters. Once found, this supervised learner is employed in an inverse optimization problem for estimating the scattering parameters of a sample given its thickness and scattering pattern. Multi-response Gaussian processes are used for the supervised learning task and a simple setup is introduced to obtain the scattering pattern of a tissue sample. To increase the predictive power of the supervised learner, the scattering patterns are filtered, enriched by a regressor, and finally characterized with two parameters, namely, transmitted power and scaled Gaussian width. We computationally illustrate that our approach achieves errors of roughly 5% in predicting the scattering properties of many biological tissues. Our method has the potential to facilitate the characterization of tissues and fabrication of phantoms used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes over a wide range of optical spectrum.
Silva, Leandro de Carvalho da; Pereira-Monfredini, Carla Ferro; Teixeira, Luis Augusto
This study aimed at assessing the interaction between subjective error estimation and frequency of extrinsic feedback in the learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by children. 10- to 12-year olds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups combining subjective error estimation and relative frequency of extrinsic feedback (33% × 100%). Analysis of performance was based on quality of movement pattern. Analysis showed superior learning of the group combining error estimation and 100% feedback frequency, both groups receiving feedback on 33% of trials achieved intermediate results, and the group combining no requirement of error estimation and 100% feedback frequency had the poorest learning. Our results show the benefit of subjective error estimation in association with high frequency of extrinsic feedback in children's motor learning of a sport motor pattern.
Luiz Marcelo Darroz
Full Text Available One presents, in this article, the process of drawing up and developing a didactic proposal about basic concepts of Astronomy. This proposal, which sought to build an educational path for the occurrence of significant learning of the concepts covered, was developed under an extension course to a group of 13 students graduating from teacher training in High School of a public school in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. Initially one has developed the teaching methodology following from the Theory of Meaningful Learning Conceptions. The traces of meaningful learning have been obtained by means of instruments of research and evaluation, such as conceptual maps and role playing of the studied contents where the students transposed the approached subjects into new contexts. The obtained results from the learning questionnaires reached a high rate of hits. Through the registries of the meetings and the representations by drawings of the concepts, one has noticed that the students have genuinely understood the approached subjects. Through the conceptual maps the students were able to establish a progressive differentiation and an integrative reconciliation of the concepts. Thus, it was concluded that a methodology that takes into consideration what the student already knows it is essential to develop the joy of Science, the construction of meaning and appreciation of what is being learned.
Genef Caroline Andrade Ribeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing leads to negative consequences on quality of life, especially in school-age children. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the breathing pattern influences children's learning process. METHODS: This systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA instructions, with no restrictions regarding the year of publication and language, created based on the clinical question formulation according to the Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO strategy: "Is the mouth-breathing child more likely to have learning disabilities when compared to nasal breathers?" in the SciELO, PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus electronic databases. Google Scholar was used to search the gray literature. The keywords "learning," "mouth breathing," and their equivalent terms in Portuguese were used in an integrated manner. The studies included in the review were observational, conducted with schoolchildren aged 7-11 years. Afterwards, the studies were evaluated regarding their methodological quality. The research was performed by two eligible reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 357 records were obtained, of which 43 records were duplicate. After applying the eligibility criteria, ten articles were included in the research scope. Half of the studies used a control group and otorhinolaryngological assessment, whereas a minority used validated (20% and sample calculation protocols (10%. The evaluation procedures were varied. Overall, 80% of the articles showed a higher incidence of learning disabilities among mouth breathers. CONCLUSION: This systematic review has shown that mouth breathers are more likely to have learning difficulties than nasal breathers.
Ribeiro, Genef Caroline Andrade; Dos Santos, Isadora Diniz; Santos, Ana Claudia Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; César, Carla Patrícia Hernandez Alves Ribeiro
Mouth breathing leads to negative consequences on quality of life, especially in school-age children. To determine whether the breathing pattern influences children's learning process. This systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) instructions, with no restrictions regarding the year of publication and language, created based on the clinical question formulation according to the Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) strategy: "Is the mouth-breathing child more likely to have learning disabilities when compared to nasal breathers?" in the SciELO, PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus electronic databases. Google Scholar was used to search the gray literature. The keywords "learning," "mouth breathing," and their equivalent terms in Portuguese were used in an integrated manner. The studies included in the review were observational, conducted with schoolchildren aged 7-11 years. Afterwards, the studies were evaluated regarding their methodological quality. The research was performed by two eligible reviewers. A total of 357 records were obtained, of which 43 records were duplicate. After applying the eligibility criteria, ten articles were included in the research scope. Half of the studies used a control group and otorhinolaryngological assessment, whereas a minority used validated (20%) and sample calculation protocols (10%). The evaluation procedures were varied. Overall, 80% of the articles showed a higher incidence of learning disabilities among mouth breathers. This systematic review has shown that mouth breathers are more likely to have learning difficulties than nasal breathers. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning conditions, either in children's stories (semantically rich) or picture matching games (semantically sparse). Three main analyses were used to measure word learning: comprehension and production probes, phonetic accuracy, and speech motor stability. Results revealed that prosodic frequency and density influence the learnability of novel words, or that there are prosodic neighborhood density effects. The impact of semantic depth on word learning was minimal and likely depends on the amount of experience with the novel words.
Edginton, Andrea; Holbrook, Jane
To assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards a blended-learning pharmacokinetics course. Narrated visual presentations and animations that illustrated kinetic processes and guided students through the use of software programs used for calculations were created. Other learning techniques used included online self-assessment quizzes, practice problem sets, and weekly face-to-face problem-solving tutorials. A precourse questionnaire to assess students' level of enthusiasm towards the blended-learning course and to solicit any concerns they had was administered at the beginning of the course. A postcourse questionnaire that included the same 4 Likert-scale items from the precourse questionnaire and follow-up open-ended questions was administered. Individual changes in level of enthusiasm were compared for individuals who completed both the precourse and postcourse questionnaire. Students' concerns about the blended method of learning had decreased postcourse while their enthusiasm for the benefits of blended learning had increased. Students' initial concerns about the blended learning experience were focused on their ability to communicate with the instructor about the online components, but shifted to their own time management skills at the end of the course. Face-to-face interactions with each other and with the instructor were more highly rated than online interactions in this course.
Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.
Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…
Precise spike timing is considered to play a fundamental role in communications and signal processing in biological neural networks. Understanding the mechanism of spike timing adjustment would deepen our understanding of biological systems and enable advanced engineering applications such as efficient computational architectures. However, the biological mechanisms that adjust and maintain spike timing remain unclear. Existing algorithms adopt a supervised approach, which adjusts the axonal conduction delay and synaptic efficacy until the spike timings approximate the desired timings. This study proposes a spike timing-dependent learning model that adjusts the axonal conduction delay and synaptic efficacy in both unsupervised and supervised manners. The proposed learning algorithm approximates the Expectation-Maximization algorithm, and classifies the input data encoded into spatio-temporal spike patterns. Even in the supervised classification, the algorithm requires no external spikes indicating the desired spike timings unlike existing algorithms. Furthermore, because the algorithm is consistent with biological models and hypotheses found in existing biological studies, it could capture the mechanism underlying biological delay learning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicit learning was reported to be intact in schizophrenia using artificial grammar learning. However, emerging evidence indicates that artificial grammar learning is not a unitary process. The authors used dual coding stimuli and schizophrenia clinical symptom dimensions to re-evaluate the effect of schizophrenia on various components of artificial grammar learning. Methods Letter string and color pattern artificial grammar learning performances were compared between 63 schizophrenic patients and 27 comparison subjects. Four symptom dimensions derived from a Chinese Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ratings were correlated with patients' artificial grammar implicit learning performances along the two stimulus dimensions. Patients' explicit memory performances were assessed by verbal paired associates and visual reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scales Revised Version to provide a contrast to their implicit memory function. Results Schizophrenia severely hindered color pattern artificial grammar learning while the disease affected lexical string artificial grammar learning to a lesser degree after correcting the influences from age, education and the performance of explicit memory function of both verbal and visual modalities. Both learning performances correlated significantly with the severity of patients' schizophrenic clinical symptom dimensions that reflect poor abstract thinking, disorganized thinking, and stereotyped thinking. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that schizophrenia affects various mechanisms of artificial grammar learning differently. Implicit learning, knowledge acquisition in the absence of conscious awareness, is not entirely intact in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects implicit learning through an impairment of the ability of making abstractions from rules and at least in part decreasing the capacity for perceptual learning.
Mark A. Rossi
Full Text Available The role of dopamine in controlling behavior remains poorly understood. In this study we examined licking behavior in an established hyperdopaminergic mouse model—dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO mice. DAT KO mice showed higher rates of licking, which is due to increased perseveration of licking in a bout. By contrast, they showed increased individual lick durations, and reduced inter-lick-intervals. During extinction, both KO and control mice transiently increased variability in lick pattern generation while reducing licking rate, yet they showed very different behavioral patterns. Control mice gradually increased lick duration as well as variability. By contrast, DAT KO mice exhibited more immediate (within 10 licks adjustments—an immediate increase in lick duration variability, as well as more rapid extinction. These results suggest that the level of dopamine can modulate the persistence and pattern generation of a highly stereotyped consummatory behavior like licking, as well as new learning in response to changes in environmental feedback. Increased dopamine in DAT KO mice not only increased perseveration of bouts and individual lick duration, but also increased the behavioral variability in response to the extinction contingency and the rate of extinction.
De Luca, Silvia
This thesis presents a study of the Grid data access patterns in distributed analysis in the CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator. This study ranges from the deep analysis of the historical patterns of access to the most relevant data types in CMS, to the exploitation of a supervised Machine Learning classification system to set-up a machinery able to eventually predict future data access patterns - i.e. the so-called dataset “popularity” of the CMS datasets on the Grid - with focus on specific data types. All the CMS workflows run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WCG) computing centers (Tiers), and in particular the distributed analysis systems sustains hundreds of users and applications submitted every day. These applications (or “jobs”) access different data types hosted on disk storage systems at a large set of WLCG Tiers. The detailed study of how this data is accessed, in terms of data types, hosting Tiers, and different time periods, allows to gain precious insight on storage occupancy ove...
Lidhar, Navdeep K; Insel, Nathan; Dong, June Yue; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori
Some animals learn to fear a situation after observing another individual come to harm, and this learning is influenced by the animals' social relationship and history. An important but sometimes overlooked factor in studies of observational fear learning is that social context not only affects observers, but may also influence the behavior and communications expressed by those being observed. Here we sought to investigate whether observational fear learning in the degu (Octodon degus) is affected by social familiarity, and the degree to which vocal expressions of alarm or distress contribute. 'Demonstrator' degus underwent contextual fear conditioning in the presence of a cagemate or stranger observer. Among the 15 male pairs, observers of familiar demonstrators exhibited higher freezing rates than observers of strangers when returned to the conditioning environment one day later. Observer freezing during testing was, however, also related to the proportion of short- versus long- inter-call-intervals (ICIs) in vocalizations recorded during prior conditioning. In a regression model that included both social relationship and ICI patterns, only the latter was significant. Further investigation of vocalizations, including use of a novel, directed k-means clustering approach, suggested that temporal structure rather than tonal variations may have been responsible for communicating danger. These data offer insight into how different expressions of distress or fear may impact an observer, adding to the complexity of social context effects in studies of empathy and social cognition. The experiments also offer new data on degu alarm calls and a potentially novel methodological approach to complex vocalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min
Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204
Leila Roshangar; Fariba Salek Ranjbarzadeh; Reza Piri; Mahdi Karimi Shoar; Leila Rasi Marzabadi
Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP) students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical c...
Hansen, Mirko; Zahari, Finn; Ziegler, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann
The use of interface-based resistive switching devices for neuromorphic computing is investigated. In a combined experimental and numerical study, the important device parameters and their impact on a neuromorphic pattern recognition system are studied. The memristive cells consist of a layer sequence Al/Al 2 O 3 /Nb x O y /Au and are fabricated on a 4-inch wafer. The key functional ingredients of the devices are a 1.3 nm thick Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a 2.5 mm thick Nb x O y memristive layer. Voltage pulse measurements are used to study the electrical conditions for the emulation of synaptic functionality of single cells for later use in a recognition system. The results are evaluated and modeled in the framework of the plasticity model of Ziegler et al. Based on this model, which is matched to experimental data from 84 individual devices, the network performance with regard to yield, reliability, and variability is investigated numerically. As the network model, a computing scheme for pattern recognition and unsupervised learning based on the work of Querlioz et al. (2011), Sheridan et al. (2014), Zahari et al. (2015) is employed. This is a two-layer feedforward network with a crossbar array of memristive devices, leaky integrate-and-fire output neurons including a winner-takes-all strategy, and a stochastic coding scheme for the input pattern. As input pattern, the full data set of digits from the MNIST database is used. The numerical investigation indicates that the experimentally obtained yield, reliability, and variability of the memristive cells are suitable for such a network. Furthermore, evidence is presented that their strong I - V non-linearity might avoid the need for selector devices in crossbar array structures.
Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Lee, Intae; Jang, Giljin; Yousefi, Siamak; Zangwill, Linda M; Medeiros, Felipe A; Girkin, Christopher A; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Goldbaum, Michael H
The variational Bayesian independent component analysis-mixture model (VIM), an unsupervised machine-learning classifier, was used to automatically separate Matrix Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry data into clusters of healthy and glaucomatous eyes, and to identify axes representing statistically independent patterns of defect in the glaucoma clusters. FDT measurements were obtained from 1,190 eyes with normal FDT results and 786 eyes with abnormal FDT results from the UCSD-based Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) and African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). For all eyes, VIM input was 52 threshold test points from the 24-2 test pattern, plus age. FDT mean deviation was -1.00 dB (S.D. = 2.80 dB) and -5.57 dB (S.D. = 5.09 dB) in FDT-normal eyes and FDT-abnormal eyes, respectively (p<0.001). VIM identified meaningful clusters of FDT data and positioned a set of statistically independent axes through the mean of each cluster. The optimal VIM model separated the FDT fields into 3 clusters. Cluster N contained primarily normal fields (1109/1190, specificity 93.1%) and clusters G1 and G2 combined, contained primarily abnormal fields (651/786, sensitivity 82.8%). For clusters G1 and G2 the optimal number of axes were 2 and 5, respectively. Patterns automatically generated along axes within the glaucoma clusters were similar to those known to be indicative of glaucoma. Fields located farther from the normal mean on each glaucoma axis showed increasing field defect severity. VIM successfully separated FDT fields from healthy and glaucoma eyes without a priori information about class membership, and identified familiar glaucomatous patterns of loss.
Novak, Elena; Johnson, Tristan E.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Shute, Valerie J.
The study explored instructional benefits of a storyline gaming characteristic (GC) on learning effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement with the use of an online instructional simulation for graduate students in an introductory statistics course. A storyline is a game-design element that connects scenes with the educational content. In order to…
Diana Paola Martínez-Salcedo
Full Text Available This article discloses an experimental strategy that aims to contribute to science education in Colombia, through a proposal focusing on learning the concept of force. For this experimental teaching sequence for teaching and learning the concept of "Force" was developed from the perspective of meaningful learning of Ausubel; and applied to students from fifth grade of School Lucrecio Jaramillo Vélez, headquarters "Agrupación Colombia". Initially an investigation of prior knowledge about the concept of force, according to the results was performed was developed and applied a proposal that included questionnaires, field work, observations in science classes, surveys, experiments, socialization of work laboratory and representations contained in the notebooks, the results of these activities were analyzed qualitatively, obtaining an evaluation and interpretation of the acquired learning observed in students an appropriation of the concept, possibly because it is a proposal of an experimental nature, focusing on the student, in which the exploration of phenomena by experimental means is favorable, the approach of hypotheses and troubleshooting, besides favoring an approach to enjoyment and joy by science.
Ertmer, Peggy A; Nour, Abdelfattah Y M
In recent years, the Internet has become an effective and accessible delivery mechanism for distance education. In 2003, 81% of all institutions of higher education offered at least one fully online or hybrid course. By 2005, the proportion of institutions that listed online education as important to their long-term goals had increased by 8%. This growth in available online courses and their increased convenience and flexibility have stimulated dramatic increases in enrollment in online programs, including the Veterinary Technology Distance Learning Program (VT-DLP) at Purdue University. Regardless of the obvious benefits, distance learning (DL) can be frustrating for the learners if course developers are unable to merge their knowledge about the learners, the process of instructional design, and the appropriate uses of technology and interactivity options into effective course designs. This article describes strategies that we have used to increase students' learning of physiology content in an online environment. While some of these are similar, if not identical, to strategies that might be used in a face-to-face (f2f) environment (e.g., case studies, videos, concept maps), additional strategies (e.g., animations, virtual microscopy) are needed to replace or supplement what might normally occur in a f2f course. We describe how we have addressed students' need for instructional interaction, specifically in the context of two foundational physiology courses that occur early in the VT-DLP. Although the teaching and learning strategies we have used have led to increasingly high levels of interaction, there is an ongoing need to evaluate these strategies to determine their impact on students' learning of physiology content, their development of problem-solving skills, and their retention of information.
Du, B.; Zhen, L.; Groot, de R.S.; Goulden, C.E.; Long, X.; Cao, X.; Wu, R.; Sun, C.
Grassland ecosystems, as the basic natural resources in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, are becoming increasingly sensitive to human intervention, leading to deterioration in fragile ecosystems. The goal of this study was to describe the restoration policy-oriented adoptive changes to basic
Iremonger, M J
BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c
Ashen, R A
BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi
Hui Wang; Rui-Yun Peng
With key roles in essential brain functions ranging from the long-term potentiation (LTP) to synaptic plasticity,the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) can be considered as one of the fundamental glutamate receptors in the central nervous system.The role of NMDA R was first identified in synaptic plasticity and has been extensively studied.Some molecules,such as Ca2+,postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95),calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ),protein kinase A (PKA),mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB),are of special importance in learning and memory.This review mainly focused on the new research of key molecules connected with learning and memory,which played important roles in the NMDAR signaling pathway.
This study, involving 154 undergraduate college students in China, was conducted to determine whether the surface structure of visual graphics affect content learning when the learner was a non-native English speaker and learning took place in a non-English speaking environment. Instruction with concrete animated graphics resulted in significantly higher achievement, when compared to instruction with concrete static, abstract static, abstract animated graphics or text only without any graphical illustrations. It was also found, unexpectedly, the text-only instruction resulted in the second best achievement, significantly higher than instruction with concrete static, abstract static, and abstract animated graphics. In addition, there was a significant interaction with treatment and test item, which indicated that treatment effects on graphic-specific items differed from those on definitional items. Additional findings indicated that relation to graphics directly or indirectly from the text that students studied had little impact on their performance in the posttests. Further, 51% of the participants indicated that they relied on some graphical images to answer the test questions and 19% relied heavily on graphics when completing the tests. In conclusion, concrete graphics when combined with animation played a significant role in enhancing ESL student performance and enabled the students to achieve the best learning outcomes as compared to abstract animated, concrete static, and abstract static graphics. This result suggested a significant innovation in the design and development of ESL curriculum in computer-based instruction, which would enable ESL students to perform better and achieve the expected outcomes in content area learning.
Full Text Available In recent years, speech technology has become a vital part of our daily lives. Various techniques have been proposed for developing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system and have achieved great success in many applications. Among them, Template Matching techniques like Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, Statistical Pattern Matching techniques such as Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, Machine Learning techniques such as Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Decision Trees (DT are most popular. The main objective of this paper is to design and develop a speaker-independent isolated speech recognition system for Tamil language using the above speech recognition techniques. The background of ASR system, the steps involved in ASR, merits and demerits of the conventional and machine learning algorithms and the observations made based on the experiments are presented in this paper. For the above developed system, highest word recognition accuracy is achieved with HMM technique. It offered 100% accuracy during training process and 97.92% for testing process.
Full Text Available Background According to the available evidence, problem-based learning (PBL is one of the most successful methods in achieving higher educational objectives. In this method, the discussion about the subjects that should be taught to the students is based on a real clinical case. Various advantages and disadvantages of this method have been addressed in different studies, but the students' attitude toward this method is vita/for its success. Objective To evaluate the students• altitude toward problem- based learning and to compare it with lecture-based learning. Method In this experimental study, two topics of basic immunology were chosen after holding coordination meetings. The students were divided randomly into two groups. Group A received PBL for the first and LBL for the second topic, and group B had LBL for the first and PBL for the second topic. After the last session, a questionnaire was given to the students. Results The students considered PBL as superior in view of the student's active role in education. According to the students' opinion, group working was more evident in PBL. Although they preferred LBL to be used in a complete immunology course, they suggested that PBL is good to be used in some of the sessions. They suggested that although the learner's role is more evident in PBL, the instructor's role is still significant. They believed that self-assessment is better and easier in PBL. Discussion According to the results it is clear that, at least in some aspects, the students' attitude toward PBL is positive. This shows that by considering these aspects in educational reform programs, and by further study on the items not definitely determined in this research, we could modify PBL so that it could be used in a broader level. Key Words: problem-based learning, lecture-based learning, Attitude
Partin, Alexander C; Hosek, Matthew P; Luong, Jonathan A; Lella, Srihari K; Sharma, Sachein A R; Ploski, Jonathan E
The amygdala is a heterogeneous, medial temporal lobe structure that has been implicated in the formation, expression and extinction of emotional memories. This structure is composed of numerous nuclei that vary in cytoarchitectonics and neural connections. In particular the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the basal (B) nucleus contribute an essential role to emotional learning. However, to date it is still unclear to what extent these nuclei differ at the molecular level. Therefore we have performed whole genome gene expression analysis on these nuclei to gain a better understanding of the molecular differences and similarities among these nuclei. Specifically the LA, CeA and B nuclei were laser microdissected from the rat brain, and total RNA was isolated from these nuclei and subjected to RNA amplification. Amplified RNA was analyzed by whole genome microarray analysis which revealed that 129 genes are differentially expressed among these nuclei. Notably gene expression patterns differed between the CeA nucleus and the LA and B nuclei. However gene expression differences were not considerably different between the LA and B nuclei. Secondary confirmation of numerous genes was performed by in situ hybridization to validate the microarray findings, which also revealed that for many genes, expression differences among these nuclei were consistent with the embryological origins of these nuclei. Knowing the stable gene expression differences among these nuclei will provide novel avenues of investigation into how these nuclei contribute to emotional arousal and emotional learning, and potentially offer new genetic targets to manipulate emotional learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Our ability to generate well-timed sequences of movements is critical to an array of behaviors, including the ability to play a musical instrument or a video game. Here we address two questions relating to timing with the goal of better understanding the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing. First, how does accuracy and variance change over the course of learning of complex spatiotemporal patterns? Second, is the timing of sequential responses most consistent with starting and stopping an internal timer at each interval or with continuous timing?To address these questions we used a psychophysical task in which subjects learned to reproduce a sequence of finger taps in the correct order and at the correct times—much like playing a melody at the piano. This task allowed us to calculate the variance of the responses at different time points using data from the same trials. Our results show that while standard Weber’s law is clearly violated, variance does increase as a function of time squared, as expected according to the generalized form of Weber’s law—which separates the source of variance into time-dependent and time-independent components. Over the course of learning, both the time-independent variance and the coefficient of the time-dependent term decrease. Our analyses also suggest that timing of sequential events does not rely on the resetting of an internal timer at each event.We describe and interpret our results in the context of computer simulations that capture some of our psychophysical findings. Specifically, we show that continuous timing, as opposed to reset timing, is expected from population clock models in which timing emerges from the internal dynamics of recurrent neural networks.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...
Jennings, Carol Ann
Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…
Molinas, Carlos Roger; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Sisa, Cesar Manuel; Campo, Rudi
Training of basic laparoscopic psychomotor skills improves the acquisition of more advanced laparoscopic tasks, such as laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying (LICK). This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether pre-training of basic skills, as laparoscopic camera navigation (LCN), hand-eye coordination (HEC), and bimanual coordination (BMC), and the combination of the three of them, has any beneficial effect upon the learning curve of LICK. The study was carried out in a private center in Asunción, Paraguay, by 80 medical students without any experience in surgery. Four laparoscopic tasks were performed in the ENCILAP model (LCN, HEC, BMC, and LICK). Participants were allocated to 5 groups (G1-G5). The study was structured in 5 phases. In phase 1, they underwent a base-line test ( T 1 ) for all tasks (1 repetition of each task in consecutive order). In phase 2, participants underwent different training programs (30 consecutive repetitions) for basic tasks according to the group they belong to (G1: none; G2: LCN; G3: HEC; G4: BMC; and G5: LCN, HEC, and BMC). In phase 3, they were tested again ( T 2 ) in the same manner than at T 1 . In phase 4, they underwent a standardized training program for LICK (30 consecutive repetitions). In phase 5, they were tested again ( T 3 ) in the same manner than at T 1 and T 2 . At each repetition, scoring was based on the time taken for task completion system. The scores were plotted and non-linear regression models were used to fit the learning curves to one- and two-phase exponential decay models for each participant (individual curves) and for each group (group curves). The LICK group learning curves fitted better to the two-phase exponential decay model. From these curves, the starting points ( Y 0), the point after HEC training/before LICK training ( Y 1), the Plateau, and the rate constants ( K ) were calculated. All groups, except for G4, started from a similar point ( Y 0). At Y 1, G5 scored already
Li, R A
Normal rhythms originate in the sino-atrial node, a specialized cardiac tissue consisting of only a few thousands of nodal pacemaker cells. Malfunction of pacemaker cells due to diseases or aging leads to rhythm generation disorders (for example, bradycardias and sick-sinus syndrome (SSS)), which often necessitate the implantation of electronic pacemakers. Although effective, electronic devices are associated with such shortcomings as limited battery life, permanent implantation of leads, lead dislodging, the lack of autonomic responses and so on. Here, various gene- and cell-based approaches, with a particular emphasis placed on the use of pluripotent stem cells and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated-encoded pacemaker gene family, that have been pursued in the past decade to reconstruct bio-artificial pacemakers as alternatives will be discussed in relation to the basic biological insights and translational regenerative potential.
with the complexity this demands. The research is empirical with the constructivist point or view. The test Covalent Bond and its structure was applied as a diagnostic tool to 42 students of Chemistry and Bachelor of Natural Science and Environmental Education of the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, (UPTC the perception of this topic becomes a field that allows to explain the natural phenomena and its accurate explanation allows, on one hand, to avoid the students adapt conceptual mistakes, and on the other, foster meaningful learning in them.
Full Text Available Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy.
Sung, Y.-T.; Hou, H.-T.; Liu, C.-K.; Chang, K.-E.
Mobile devices have been increasingly utilized in informal learning because of their high degree of portability; mobile guide systems (or electronic guidebooks) have also been adopted in museum learning, including those that combine learning strategies and the general audio-visual guide systems. To gain a deeper understanding of the features and…
Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Matthijssen, A.C.B.
This supplementary book for the social, behavioral, and health sciences helps readers with no prior knowledge of IBM® SPSS® Statistics, statistics, or mathematics learn the basics of SPSS. Designed to reduce fear and build confidence, the book guides readers through point-and-click sequences using
Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.
Smith, P D
BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;
Khalil, Mohammad; Ebner, Martin
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are remote courses that excel in their students' heterogeneity and quantity. Due to the peculiarity of being massiveness, the large datasets generated by MOOC platforms require advanced tools and techniques to reveal hidden patterns for purposes of enhancing learning and educational behaviors. This publication…
Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Lin, Che-Tsun; Chou, Chien
This study aims to apply a sequential analysis to explore the effect of learning motivation on online reading behavioral patterns. The study's participants consisted of 160 graduate students who were classified into three group types: low reading duration with low motivation, low reading duration with high motivation, and high reading duration…
Vittek, J. F.
A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.
The first part of this report presents the different types of basic nuclear facilities other than electronuclear reactors. These installations can be industrial installations dedicated or not to the nuclear fuel cycle, research and support installations, be definitively stopped or being dismantled, or radioactive waste storage installations. After a comment of the main trends noticed in 2011 and 2012, the report proposes a transverse analysis of events which occurred in these installations. These events are related to various risks: dissemination of radioactive materials, exposure to ionizing radiations, criticality, fire and explosion, handling operations, loss of electric supplies or fluids, external aggression. Other events are those significant for the environment with a radiological component, or related to periodic controls and tests. The causes of these events are analysed. Specific events are presented which occurred on different sites (in the MELOX plant, in Areva sites in La Hague, Pierrelatte, in CEA sites in Cadarache and Saclay, in a fuel factory in Romans). Other topics are finally addressed: safety measures after the Fukushima accident, safety and radiation protection management systems of Areva and CEA, dismantling of nuclear installations
Becker, A S; Blüthgen, C; Phi van, V D; Sekaggya-Wiltshire, C; Castelnuovo, B; Kambugu, A; Fehr, J; Frauenfelder, T
To evaluate the feasibility of Deep Learning-based detection and classification of pathological patterns in a set of digital photographs of chest X-ray (CXR) images of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this prospective, observational study, patients with previously diagnosed TB were enrolled. Photographs of their CXRs were taken using a consumer-grade digital still camera. The images were stratified by pathological patterns into classes: cavity, consolidation, effusion, interstitial changes, miliary pattern or normal examination. Image analysis was performed with commercially available Deep Learning software in two steps. Pathological areas were first localised; detected areas were then classified. Detection was assessed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, and classification using a confusion matrix. The study cohort was 138 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and TB co-infection (median age 34 years, IQR 28-40); 54 patients were female. Localisation of pathological areas was excellent (area under the ROC curve 0.82). The software could perfectly distinguish pleural effusions from intraparenchymal changes. The most frequent misclassifications were consolidations as cavitations, and miliary patterns as interstitial patterns (and vice versa). Deep Learning analysis of CXR photographs is a promising tool. Further efforts are needed to build larger, high-quality data sets to achieve better diagnostic performance.
Watson, Robert A
To test the hypothesis that machine learning algorithms increase the predictive power to classify surgical expertise using surgeons' hand motion patterns. In 2012 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 14 surgical attendings and 10 first- and second-year surgical residents each performed two bench model venous anastomoses. During the simulated tasks, the participants wore an inertial measurement unit on the dorsum of their dominant (right) hand to capture their hand motion patterns. The pattern from each bench model task performed was preprocessed into a symbolic time series and labeled as expert (attending) or novice (resident). The labeled hand motion patterns were processed and used to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification algorithm. The trained algorithm was then tested for discriminative/predictive power against unlabeled (blinded) hand motion patterns from tasks not used in the training. The Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity metric was also measured from each hand motion pattern, with an optimal threshold calculated to separately classify the patterns. The LZ metric classified unlabeled (blinded) hand motion patterns into expert and novice groups with an accuracy of 70% (sensitivity 64%, specificity 80%). The SVM algorithm had an accuracy of 83% (sensitivity 86%, specificity 80%). The results confirmed the hypothesis. The SVM algorithm increased the predictive power to classify blinded surgical hand motion patterns into expert versus novice groups. With further development, the system used in this study could become a viable tool for low-cost, objective assessment of procedural proficiency in a competency-based curriculum.
Full Text Available Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN, i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany. The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI. At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor
Wang, Tzone I; Tsai, Kun Hua; Lee, Ming Che; Chiu, Ti Kai
With vigorous development of the Internet, especially the web page interaction technology, distant E-learning has become more and more realistic and popular. Digital courses may consist of many learning units or learning objects and, currently, many learning objects are created according to SCORM standard. It can be seen that, in the near future,…
Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.
Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…
The third report on the safety of basic nuclear installations in France other than power reactors presents an IRSN's analysis of significant events reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority in the years 2011 and 2012. It covers plants, laboratories, research reactors and facilities for the treatment, storage or disposal of waste. This report aims to contribute to a better understanding by stakeholders and more widely by the public of the safety and radiation protection issues associated with the operation of nuclear facilities, the progress made in terms of safety as well as the identified deficiencies. The main trend shows, once again, the significant role of organizational and human factors in the significant events that occurred in 2011 and 2012, of which the vast majority are without noteworthy consequences. Aging mechanisms are another major cause of equipment failure and require special attention. The report also provides IRSN's analysis of specific events that are particularly instructive for facility safety and a synthesis of assessments performed by IRSN on topics that are important for safety and radiation protection. IRSN also includes an overview of its analysis of measures proposed by licensees for increasing the safety of their facilities after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which consist of providing a 'hardened safety core' to confront extreme situations (earthquake, flooding, etc.) that are unlikely but plausible and can bring about levels of hazards higher than those taken into account in the design of the facilities
Pegah Kassraian Fard
Full Text Available Most psychiatric disorders are associated with subtle alterations in brain function and are subject to large inter-individual differences. Typically the diagnosis of these disorders requires time-consuming behavioral assessments administered by a multi-disciplinary team with extensive experience. Whilst the application of machine learning classification methods (ML classifiers to neuroimaging data has the potential to speed and simplify diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, the methods, assumptions, and analytical steps are not currently opaque and accessible to researchers and clinicians outside the field. In this paper, we describe potential classification pipelines for Autism Spectrum Disorder, as an example of a psychiatric disorder. The analyses are based on resting-state fMRI data derived from a multi-site data repository (ABIDE. We compare several popular ML classifiers such as support vector machines, neural networks and regression approaches, among others. In a tutorial style, written to be equally accessible for researchers and clinicians, we explain the rationale of each classification approach, clarify the underlying assumptions, and discuss possible pitfalls and challenges. We also provide the data as well as the MATLAB code we used to achieve our results. We show that out-of-the-box ML classifiers can yield classification accuracies of about 60-70%. Finally, we discuss how classification accuracy can be further improved, and we mention methodological developments that are needed to pave the way for the use of ML classifiers in clinical practice.
Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Kalinin, Sergei; Sumpter, Bobby
The ability to utilize individual molecules and molecular assemblies as data storage elements has motivated scientist for years, concurrent with the continuous effort to shrink a size of data storage devices in microelectronics industry. One of the critical issues in this effort lies in being able to identify individual molecular assembly units (patterns), on a large scale in an automated fashion of complete information extraction. Here we present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. We use Markov Random Field (MRF) model to decode the polar rotational states for each molecule in a large scale STM image of molecular film. We further develop an algorithm that uses a convolutional Neural Network combined with MRF and input from density functional theory to classify molecules into different azimuthal rotational classes. Our results demonstrate that a molecular film is partitioned into distinctive azimuthal rotational domains consisting typically of 20-30 molecules. In each domain, the ``bowl-down'' molecules are generally surrounded by six nearest neighbor molecules in ``bowl-up'' configuration, and the resultant overall structure form a periodic lattice of rotational and polar states within each domain. Research was supported by the US Department of Energy.
Fuentes, Amanda; Smith, Mary Lou
The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the verbal learning and memory (VLM) patterns that might differentiate children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) from children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to examine the impact of variables thought to influence outcomes (seizure laterality, age at seizure onset, age at assessment, epilepsy duration, number of antiepileptic drugs). Retrospective analyses were carried out for children with intractable unilateral TLE (n=100) and FLE (n=27) who completed standardized measures of VLM entailing lists of single words or lists of word pairs. Mean intelligent quotients and VLM scores on single words fell within the average range for both groups, whereas scores fell within the low average to borderline range on word pairs. No significant overall differences in VLM were found between the group with TLE and the group with FLE. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset were generally associated with better VLM in both groups but were related to better performance in a number of indices in the group with TLE and only fewer intrusions in the group with FLE. The VLM profiles of children with TLE and FLE are generally similar. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset have a favorable impact on both groups but are related to better encoding, retrieval, and monitoring processes for the group with TLE and improved memory monitoring (i.e., as indicated by fewer intrusions) in the group with FLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Computer-generated graphics (CGs are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs with the naked eye. In this paper, we propose a method based on sensor pattern noise (SPN and deep learning to distinguish CGs from NIs. Before being fed into our convolutional neural network (CNN-based model, these images—CGs and NIs—are clipped into image patches. Furthermore, three high-pass filters (HPFs are used to remove low-frequency signals, which represent the image content. These filters are also used to reveal the residual signal as well as SPN introduced by the digital camera device. Different from the traditional methods of distinguishing CGs from NIs, the proposed method utilizes a five-layer CNN to classify the input image patches. Based on the classification results of the image patches, we deploy a majority vote scheme to obtain the classification results for the full-size images. The experiments have demonstrated that (1 the proposed method with three HPFs can achieve better results than that with only one HPF or no HPF and that (2 the proposed method with three HPFs achieves 100% accuracy, although the NIs undergo a JPEG compression with a quality factor of 75.
Sukarmin; Dhian, T. E. V.; Nonoh, S. A.; Delisma, W. A.
This study aims to identify patterns relationships of student’s creativity with its indicators in Learning Optical Instrument. The study was conducted at SMPN 2 Sawo. SMPN 1 Jetis, SMPIT Darut Taqwa, SMPN 1 Dander, Bojonegoro and SMPN 3 Plus Al-Fatima. Data analysis used descriptive analysis using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Creativity test instruments used have been tested parameters. Creativity indicators used are personal (self-confidence, perseverance), press (spirit, unyielding), process (preparation, incubation illumination, verification) and the product (knowledge, skills). Research Result shows that perseverance and incubation are the highest capabilities and verification capabilities of the lowest. All indicators on student creativity can still be improved. The relationship between creativity with the indicators grouped into a strong, moderate, weak and no relation. Indicators that have a strong relationship (r ≥ 0.50), namely are personal (self-confidence, perseverance), process (illumination). Indicators that have a connection was (0.3 ≤ r ≤ 0.49) are press (spirit), process (verification). Indicators which have a very low correlation (r ≤ 0.1 ≤ 0.29) are press (unyielding), process (preparation), process (incubation), product (skills) as shown in Figure 1. Indicators that do not have a relationship between the creativity of the students with the indicator that is, product (knowledge).
Schmitz, Birgit; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Mobile and in particular pervasive games are a strong component of future scenarios for teaching and learning. Based on results from a previous review of practical papers, this work explores the educational potential of pervasive games for learning by analysing underlying game mechanisms. In order to determine and classify cognitive and affective…
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Holbrook, Harold D
Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t
Cain, Jason P.; Fakhry, Moutaz; Pathak, Piyush; Sweis, Jason; Gennari, Frank; Lai, Ya-Chieh
Building on previous work for cataloging unique topological patterns in an integrated circuit physical design, a new process is defined in which a risk scoring methodology is used to rank patterns based on manufacturing risk. Patterns with high risk are then mapped to functionally equivalent patterns with lower risk. The higher risk patterns are then replaced in the design with their lower risk equivalents. The pattern selection and replacement is fully automated and suitable for use for full-chip designs. Results from 14nm product designs show that the approach can identify and replace risk patterns with quantifiable positive impact on the risk score distribution after replacement.
... journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content Annual Meeting Abstracts Call for Abstracts Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ASH Academy The eLearning platform for hematologists ASH On Demand On-demand viewing ...
The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)
The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered
Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)
The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.
Digital libraries play a crucial role in distance learning. Nowadays, they are one of the fundamental information sources for the students enrolled in this learning system. These libraries contain huge amount of instructional data (text, audio and video) offered by the distance learning program. Organization of the digital libraries is…
Kinnebrew, John S.; Loretz, Kirk M.; Biswas, Gautam
Computer-based learning environments can produce a wealth of data on student learning interactions. This paper presents an exploratory data mining methodology for assessing and comparing students' learning behaviors from these interaction traces. The core algorithm employs a novel combination of sequence mining techniques to identify deferentially…
Mohd Nor, Nor Fariza; Hamat, Afendi; Embi, Mohamed Amin
Asynchronous communication by means of discussion forums plays an essential role in supporting collaborative learning. Online forums allow learners to ask questions, express their thoughts, share resources, and justify their opinions beyond the four walls of the classroom. Proponents of collaborative learning claim that this type of learning can…
Yang, Juan; Huang, Zhi Xing; Gao, Yue Xiang; Liu, Hong Tao
During the past decade, personalized e-learning systems and adaptive educational hypermedia systems have attracted much attention from researchers in the fields of computer science Aand education. The integration of learning styles into an intelligent system is a possible solution to the problems of "learning deviation" and…
Full Text Available We propose a multiagent-based reinforcement learning algorithm, in which the interactions between travelers and the environment are considered to simulate temporal-spatial characteristics of activity-travel patterns in a city. Road congestion degree is added to the reinforcement learning algorithm as a medium that passes the influence of one traveler’s decision to others. Meanwhile, the agents used in the algorithm are initialized from typical activity patterns extracted from the travel survey diary data of Shangyu city in China. In the simulation, both macroscopic activity-travel characteristics such as traffic flow spatial-temporal distribution and microscopic characteristics such as activity-travel schedules of each agent are obtained. Comparing the simulation results with the survey data, we find that deviation of the peak-hour traffic flow is less than 5%, while the correlation of the simulated versus survey location choice distribution is over 0.9.
Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started
Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom
In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.
Full Text Available In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modelling objective is split into two: baseline motion modelling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modelling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a ``reshaping function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the the baseline motion and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal ``reshaping functions. In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good ``reshaping function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: 1 learning to crawl on a humanoid and, 2 learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.
Chan, Y T
Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...
Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…
In their adaptability, young children demonstrate common sense, a kind of intelligence that, so far, computer scientists have struggled to reproduce. Gary Marcus, a developmental cognitive scientist at New York University in New York City, believes the field of artificial intelligence (AI) would do well to learn lessons from young thinkers. Researchers in machine learning argue that computers trained on mountains of data can learn just about anything—including common sense—with few, if any, programmed rules. But Marcus says computer scientists are ignoring decades of work in the cognitive sciences and developmental psychology showing that humans have innate abilities—programmed instincts that appear at birth or in early childhood—that help us think abstractly and flexibly. He believes AI researchers ought to include such instincts in their programs. Yet many computer scientists, riding high on the successes of machine learning, are eagerly exploring the limits of what a naïve AI can do. Computer scientists appreciate simplicity and have an aversion to debugging complex code. Furthermore, big companies such as Facebook and Google are pushing AI in this direction. These companies are most interested in narrowly defined, near-term problems, such as web search and facial recognition, in which blank-slate AI systems can be trained on vast data sets and work remarkably well. But in the longer term, computer scientists expect AIs to take on much tougher tasks that require flexibility and common sense. They want to create chatbots that explain the news, autonomous taxis that can handle chaotic city traffic, and robots that nurse the elderly. Some computer scientists are already trying. Such efforts, researchers hope, will result in AIs that sit somewhere between pure machine learning and pure instinct. They will boot up following some embedded rules, but will also learn as they go.
Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Wood, Guilherme; Haase, Vitor Geraldi
Math learning disability (MLD) or developmental dyscalculia is a highly prevalent and persistent difficulty in learning arithmetic that may be explained by different cognitive mechanisms. The accuracy of the number sense has been implicated by some evidence as a core deficit in MLD. However, research on this topic has been mainly conducted in demographically selected samples, using arbitrary cut-off scores to characterize MLD. The clinical relevance of the association between number sense and MLD remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed at assessing the stability of a number sense accuracy measure (w) across five experimental sessions, in two clinically defined cases of MLD. Stable measures of number sense accuracy estimate are required to clinically characterize subtypes of MLD and to make theoretical inferences regarding the underlying cognitive mechanisms. G. A. was a 10-year-old boy with MLD in the context of dyslexia and phonological processing impairment and his performance remained steadily in the typical scores range. The performance of H. V., a 9-year-old girl with MLD associated with number sense inaccuracy, remained consistently impaired across measurements, with a nonsignificant tendency to worsen. Qualitatively, H. V.'s performance was also characterized by greater variability across sessions. Concomitant clinical observations suggested that H. V.'s difficulties could be aggravated by developing symptoms of mathematics anxiety. Results in these two cases are in line with the hypotheses that at least two reliable patterns of cognitive impairment may underlie math learning difficulties in MLD, one related to number sense inaccuracy and the other to phonological processing impairment. Additionally, it indicates the need for more translational research in order to examine the usefulness and validity of theoretical advances in numerical cognition to the clinical neuropsychological practice with MLD. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese
Martinez, Michael E.
The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.
Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun
It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns.
Bethard, Steven; Ogren, Philip; Becker, Lee
ClearTK adds machine learning functionality to the UIMA framework, providing wrappers to popular machine learning libraries, a rich feature extraction library that works across different classifiers, and utilities for applying and evaluating machine learning models. Since its inception in 2008, ClearTK has evolved in response to feedback from developers and the community. This evolution has followed a number of important design principles including: conceptually simple annotator interfaces, r...
IRSN publishes the lessons learned from its analysis of significant events which have occurred in 2013 and 2014 at 82 civil basic nuclear installations (INBs) other than nuclear power plants (NPPs). Produced every two year since 2009, this report concerns 73 facilities such as plants, laboratories, facilities for the treatment, disposal and storage of waste, and facilities which have been decommissioned, and 9 research reactors, operated by around twenty different licensees in France. 210 and 227 significant events were respectively reported in 2013 and 2014 to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). This number remains similar to previous years and tends to 'stabilize' at around 200 to 220. On the one hand, among the improvements observed in 2013 and 2014, IRSN found two subjects of particular interest: - Efforts made by the licensees to increase reliability of organisational and human measures related to handling operations, in particular at the spent fuel reprocessing plant of AREVA NC La Hague and in the radioactive waste storage facilities operated by the CEA. - Important improvement program deployed by the licensee of the FBFC plant in Romans-sur-Isere (Drome) to enhance operating practices, particularly regarding management of criticality risks (prevention of uncontrolled chain reactions). On the other hand, three subjects still require special vigilance by licensees: - Ensuring full control over the safety documentation of facilities. IRSN's cross-cutting analysis of events reveal a large number of cases for which parts of the safety documentation are not fully understood at the facilities, are not applied, are inaccurate or not applicable to the situation. - Ensuring in-depth and comprehensive planning of installation clean-up and dismantling operations. Risks of worker exposure to ionising radiation are higher during these operations which may require personnel to work in close proximity to radioactive materials. - Ensuring more
Eisenhart, T.; Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.
In the wake of recent water crises, the need to understand and predict the risk of water stress in urban and rural areas has grown. This understanding has the potential to improve decision making in public resource management, policy making, risk management and investment decisions. Assuming an underlying relationship between urban and rural water stress and observable features, we apply Deep Learning and Supervised Learning models to uncover hidden nonlinear patterns from spatiotemporal datasets. Results of interest includes prediction accuracy on extreme categories (i.e. urban areas highly prone to water stress) and not solely the average risk for urban or rural area, which adds complexity to the tuning of model parameters. We first label urban water stressed counties using annual water quality violations and compile a comprehensive spatiotemporal dataset that captures the yearly evolution of climatic, demographic and economic factors of more than 3,000 US counties over the 1980-2010 period. As county-level data reporting is not done on a yearly basis, we test multiple imputation methods to get around the issue of missing data. Using Python libraries, TensorFlow and scikit-learn, we apply and compare the ability of, amongst other methods, Recurrent Neural Networks (testing both LSTM and GRU cells), Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines to predict urban water stress. We evaluate the performance of those models over multiple time spans and combine methods to diminish the risk of overfitting and increase prediction power on test sets. This methodology seeks to identify hidden nonlinear patterns to assess the predominant data features that influence urban and rural water stress. Results from this application at the national scale will assess the performance of deep learning models to predict water stress risk areas across all US counties and will highlight a predominant Machine Learning method for modeling water stress risk using spatiotemporal
Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne
In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture. © 2015 The Author(s).
Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)
The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book
Full Text Available Our approach, in this paper, is focused on life-long learning tools that are available for young Romanian entrepreneurs, in their early career stages. Life-long learning in the case of entrepreneurs is not a topic widely covered in scientific literature up to this moment. Most of the scientific papers related to entrepreneurship focus on the idea of innovation and creativity that characterizes entrepreneurship. On the other side, the scientific literature that considers life-long learning, discusses the case of employees or managers, who are required to improve their knowledge and skills in order to perform at the work place. For the current paper, it was aimed to survey the lifelong learning tools available to young Romanian people and to evaluate their efficiency with the help of interviews with young entrepreneurs on their educational path. Otherwise stated, we intended to provide more insights on the learning methods and practices of entrepreneurs, and to establish whether the current formal education represents a strong basis for entrepreneurs’ life-long learning. The research that we performed revealed that young Romanian entrepreneurs practice indeed a lifelong learning based not as much on formal education, as on learning by practicing and networking. Starting from the observations obtained, it was conceived, based on current European best practices and projective discussions with the same young entrepreneurs, a set of life-long learning initiatives that may be promoted in the entrepreneurial community, and we identify the actual steps to be taken by life-long learning education providers in order to implement these initiatives. This paper’s conclusions serve as both a state of the art analysis, in a field which is vital for entrepreneurs surviving in competitive environments, and as a prospective guide for improving the present market of life-long learning programs.
Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)
Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique
Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require
Redhead, Edward S.; Curtis, Cheryl
Human contingency learning studies were used to compare the predictions of configural and elemental theories. In two experiments, participants were required to learn which stimuli were associated with an increase in core temperature of a fictitious nuclear plant. Experiments investigated the rate at which a simple negative patterning…
As the education field strives to differentiate and personalize learning to cater to each student, two related movements are gaining attention: competency-based education and blended learning. In competency-based models, students advance on the basis of mastery, rather than according to the traditional methods of counting progress in terms of time…
Few studies of learning styles among adults with special needs exist worldwide. Even though there are large numbers of adults with special needs, this population in university education has been largely ignored in educational research. Therefore, this study aimed to gather and analyze learning styles of adult special needs students and to provide…
Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.; Jones, Alicia M.
Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) models have been proposed as a method for identifying specific learning disabilities. Three PSW models were examined for their ability to predict expert identified specific learning disabilities cases. The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model (DD/C; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) as operationalized by…
Meeus, M.T.H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Hage, J.
This paper pursues the development of a theoretical framework that explains interactive learning between innovating firms and external actors in the knowledge infrastructure and the production chain. The research question is: what kinds of factors explain interactive learning of innovating firms
Meeus, M.T.H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Hage, J.
This paper pursues the development of a theoretical framework that explains interactive learning between innovator firms and external actors in both the knowledge infrastructure and the production chain. The research question is: What kinds of factors explain the interactive learning of innovator
Manlove, S.A.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
This paper looks across three experimental studies that examined supports designed to assist high-school students (age 15–19) with cognitive regulation of their physics inquiry learning efforts in a technology-enhanced learning environment called Co-Lab. Cognitive regulation involves the recursive
Naik, Armaghan W; Kangas, Joshua D; Sullivan, Devin P; Murphy, Robert F
High throughput screening determines the effects of many conditions on a given biological target. Currently, to estimate the effects of those conditions on other targets requires either strong modeling assumptions (e.g. similarities among targets) or separate screens. Ideally, data-driven experimentation could be used to learn accurate models for many conditions and targets without doing all possible experiments. We have previously described an active machine learning algorithm that can iteratively choose small sets of experiments to learn models of multiple effects. We now show that, with no prior knowledge and with liquid handling robotics and automated microscopy under its control, this learner accurately learned the effects of 48 chemical compounds on the subcellular localization of 48 proteins while performing only 29% of all possible experiments. The results represent the first practical demonstration of the utility of active learning-driven biological experimentation in which the set of possible phenotypes is unknown in advance.
Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.
Bleakley, Amy; Khurana, Atika; Hennessy, Michael; Ellithorpe, Morgan
Parents, peers and media are informal sources of sexual information for adolescents. Although the content of sexual information communicated by these sources is known to vary, little is known about what adolescents report actually learning from each source. Data from 1,990 U.S.14-17-year-olds who participated in an online survey in 2015 were used to assess learning about four topics (sex, condoms, hormonal birth control and romantic relationships) from three informal sources (parents, peers, and television and movies). Gender and race differences in learning by source and topic were assessed using t tests. Following a factor analysis, learning about all topics was grouped by source, and regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between learning from each source and three outcomes: sexual activity, condom use and hormonal birth control use. Models included interactions between information sources and race and gender. White adolescents reported learning more from parents and less from media than black adolescents. Compared with males, females learned more about hormonal birth control and less about condoms from their parents, and more about relationships from peers and media. Learning from parents and from peers were positively associated with adolescents' sexual activity (unstandardized coefficients, 0.26 and 0.52, respectively). Learning from parents was positively associated with condom use (odds ratio, 1.5). Adolescents' learning about sex from informal sources varies by race and gender. Future research should examine whether sexual health interventions and message development can capitalize on these differences. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu
Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.
Bethard, Steven; Ogren, Philip; Becker, Lee
ClearTK adds machine learning functionality to the UIMA framework, providing wrappers to popular machine learning libraries, a rich feature extraction library that works across different classifiers, and utilities for applying and evaluating machine learning models. Since its inception in 2008, ClearTK has evolved in response to feedback from developers and the community. This evolution has followed a number of important design principles including: conceptually simple annotator interfaces, readable pipeline descriptions, minimal collection readers, type system agnostic code, modules organized for ease of import, and assisting user comprehension of the complex UIMA framework.
Nilasari, Yoni; Dasining
learning process; (2) process and procedure of curriculum development of fashion program profession based on INQF and business/industries sector is process and procedure of curriculum development of fashion program profession based on INQF and business/industries sector there are several stages: feasibility study and requirement, preparation of initial concept of curriculum planning based on INQF and the business/industries sector in the field of fashion, as well as the development of a plan to implement the curriculum based on INQF and the business/industries sector in the field of fashion, this development will produce a curriculum of fashion proficiency program in the form of learning competency of sewing technology where the implementer of learning (counselor) Is a guest teacher from business/industries sector. (3) the learning device validity aspect earns an average score of 3.5 with very valid criteria and the practicality aspect of the device obtains an average score of 3.3 with practical criteria.
Tung Manh Ho
Full Text Available Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam’s scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database. Two basic network measures, density and clustering coefficient, were taken, and the entire network was studied in comparison with two of its largest components. Results: The networks connections are very sparse, with a density of only 0.47%, while the clustering coefficient is very high (58.64%. This suggests an inefficient dissemination of information, knowledge, and expertise in the network. Secondly, the disparity in levels of connection among individuals indicates that the network would easily fall apart if a few highly-connected nodes are removed. Finally, the two largest components of the network were found to differ from the entire networks in terms of measures and were both led by the most productive and well-connected researchers. Conclusions: High clustering and low density seems to be tied to inefficient dissemination of expertise among Vietnamese social scientists, and consequently low scientific output. Also low in robustness, the network shows the potential of an intellectual elite composed of well-connected, productive, and socially significant individuals.
Ren, Guanjiao; Chen, Weihai; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha
on a simulated annealing algorithm. In a normal situation, the CPGs synchronize and their dynamics are identical. With leg malfunction or disability, the CPGs lose synchronization leading to independent dynamics. In this case, the learning mechanism is applied to automatically adjust the remaining legs...... in a physical simulation of a quadruped as well as a hexapod robot and finally in a real six-legged walking machine called AMOSII. The experimental results presented here reveal that using multiple CPGs with learning is an effective approach for adaptive locomotion generation where, for instance, different body...... chaotic CPG controller has difficulties dealing with leg malfunction. Specifically, in the scenarios presented here, its movement permanently deviates from the desired trajectory. To address this problem, we extend the single chaotic CPG to multiple CPGs with learning. The learning mechanism is based...
Emberson, Lauren L; Rubinstein, Dani Y
The influence of statistical information on behavior (either through learning or adaptation) is quickly becoming foundational to many domains of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, from language comprehension to visual development. We investigate a central problem impacting these diverse fields: when encountering input with rich statistical information, are there any constraints on learning? This paper examines learning outcomes when adult learners are given statistical information across multiple levels of abstraction simultaneously: from abstract, semantic categories of everyday objects to individual viewpoints on these objects. After revealing statistical learning of abstract, semantic categories with scrambled individual exemplars (Exp. 1), participants viewed pictures where the categories as well as the individual objects predicted picture order (e.g., bird1-dog1, bird2-dog2). Our findings suggest that participants preferentially encode the relationships between the individual objects, even in the presence of statistical regularities linking semantic categories (Exps. 2 and 3). In a final experiment we investigate whether learners are biased towards learning object-level regularities or simply construct the most detailed model given the data (and therefore best able to predict the specifics of the upcoming stimulus) by investigating whether participants preferentially learn from the statistical regularities linking individual snapshots of objects or the relationship between the objects themselves (e.g., bird_picture1-dog_picture1, bird_picture2-dog_picture2). We find that participants fail to learn the relationships between individual snapshots, suggesting a bias towards object-level statistical regularities as opposed to merely constructing the most complete model of the input. This work moves beyond the previous existence proofs that statistical learning is possible at both very high and very low levels of abstraction (categories vs. individual
Pantelidis, Panteleimon; Staikoglou, Nikolaos; Paparoidamis, Georgios; Drosos, Christos; Karamaroudis, Stefanos; Samara, Athina; Keskinis, Christodoulos; Sideris, Michail; Giannakoulas, George; Tsoulfas, Georgios; Karagiannis, Asterios
The integration of simulation-based learning (SBL) methods holds promise for improving the medical education system in Greece. The Applied Basic Clinical Seminar with Scenarios for Students (ABCS3) is a novel two-day SBL course that was designed by the Scientific Society of Hellenic Medical Students. The ABCS3 targeted undergraduate medical students and consisted of three core components: the case-based lectures, the ABCDE hands-on station, and the simulation-based clinical scenarios. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general educational environment of the course, as well as the skills and knowledge acquired by the participants. Two sets of questions were distributed to the participants: the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire and an internally designed feedback questionnaire (InEv). A multiple-choice examination was also distributed prior to the course and following its completion. A total of 176 participants answered the DREEM questionnaire, 56 the InEv, and 60 the MCQs. The overall DREEM score was 144.61 (±28.05) out of 200. Delegates who participated in both the case-based lectures and the interactive scenarios core components scored higher than those who only completed the case-based lecture session (P=0.038). The mean overall feedback score was 4.12 (±0.56) out of 5. Students scored significantly higher on the post-test than on the pre-test (Pmedical students reported positive opinions about their experiences and exhibited improvements in their clinical knowledge and skills.
Mohemmed, A; Schliebs, S; Matsuda, S; Kasabov, N
Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) were shown to be suitable tools for the processing of spatio-temporal information. However, due to their inherent complexity, the formulation of efficient supervised learning algorithms for SNN is difficult and remains an important problem in the research area. This article presents SPAN — a spiking neuron that is able to learn associations of arbitrary spike trains in a supervised fashion allowing the processing of spatio-temporal information encoded in the prec...
Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, BJ
Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The current study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated....
Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J
Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior.
Mogensen, Jesper; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik
administration of EPO significantly improves the posttraumatic functional recovery of the presently studied place learning task after transections of the fimbria-fornix. Additionally, administration of EPO influences the strategy, although not quality, of task solution in normal (sham-operated) rats.......The acquisition of a water-maze-based allocentric place learning task was studied in four groups of rats: two groups subjected to bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix and two groups undergoing a sham control operation. At the moment of surgery all animals were given one systemic......-associated impairment. The two sham-operated groups did not differ with respect to the proficiency of task acquisition. But administration of EPO to intact animals caused a significant modification of swim patterns-apparently reflecting a somewhat modified strategy of task solution. It is concluded that systemic...
Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.
waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.
Kose, Kivanc; Bozkurt, Alican; Ariafar, Setareh; Alessi-Fox, Christi A.; Gill, Melissa; Dy, Jennifer G.; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind
In this study we present a deep learning based classification algorithm for discriminating morphological patterns that appear in RCM mosaics of melanocytic lesions collected at the dermal epidermal junction (DEJ). These patterns are classified into 6 distinct types in the literature: background, meshwork, ring, clod, mixed, and aspecific. Clinicians typically identify these morphological patterns by examination of their textural appearance at 10X magnification. To mimic this process we divided mosaics into smaller regions, which we call tiles, and classify each tile in a deep learning framework. We used previously acquired DEJ mosaics of lesions deemed clinically suspicious, from 20 different patients, which were then labelled according to those 6 types by 2 expert users. We tried three different approaches for classification, all starting with a publicly available convolutional neural network (CNN) trained on natural image, consisting of a series of convolutional layers followed by a series of fully connected layers: (1) We fine-tuned this network using training data from the dataset. (2) Instead, we added an additional fully connected layer before the output layer network and then re-trained only last two layers, (3) We used only the CNN convolutional layers as a feature extractor, encoded the features using a bag of words model, and trained a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Sensitivity and specificity were generally comparable across the three methods, and in the same ranges as our previous work using SURF features with SVM . Approach (3) was less computationally intensive to train but more sensitive to unbalanced representation of the 6 classes in the training data. However we expect CNN performance to improve as we add more training data because both the features and the classifier are learned jointly from the data. *First two authors share first authorship.
Mueller, Horst H.; And Others
Metaanalytical procedures examined the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised subtest performance patterns of 36 samples of below average, normal average, learning disabled average, and above average IQ children from research. Relative patterning of WISC-R subtests as reflected in children's Bannatyne-recategorized performance profiles appeared to be…
Full Text Available The main goal of the study presented here is to identify a repeatable pattern in the seasonal succession of phytoplankton assemblages in Lago Maggiore. In order to fulfil this objective we analysed the phytoplaktonic succession during a five years period (1995-1999, through the calculation of the Bray-Curtis similarity index applied to biovolume data. A cluster analysis has been then applied to the distance matrix, allowing the identification of sample clusters possessing a similar species composition. The comparison, through the whole period considered, of the phytoplankton assemblages characterising each cluster allowed to recognise six seasonal periods (Winter, Early Spring, Late Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer, Autumn, each of them characterised by a peculiar and repeatable species assemblage. Among the most interesting findings we would mention the existence of a Late Spring/Early Summer association, dominated by Planktothrix rubescens and Fragilaria crotonensis, probably peculiar of the deep subalpine lakes, where these species can better take advantage of the physical and chemical environment of the metalimnetic niche. The identification of a pool of dominant and sub-dominant species common to other southern subalpine lakes and the existence of a similar time periodicity in the development and decline of most of them across this lake district seem to be promising in order to give our results a wider application.
Bebko, James M.; Uchikawa, Keiji; Saida, Shinya; Ikeda, Mitsuo
Two studies were conducted to investigate changes which take place in the visual information processing of novel stimuli as they become familiar. Japanese writing characters (Hiragana and Kanji) which were unfamiliar to two native English speaking subjects were presented using a moving window technique to restrict their visual fields. Study time for visual recognition was recorded across repeated sessions, and with varying visual field restrictions. The critical visual field was defined as the size of the visual field beyond which further increases did not improve the speed of recognition performance. In the first study, when the Hiragana patterns were novel, subjects needed to see about half of the entire pattern simultaneously to maintain optimal performance. However, the critical visual field size decreased as familiarity with the patterns increased. These results were replicated in the second study with more complex Kanji characters. In addition, the critical field size decreased as pattern complexity decreased. We propose a three component model of pattern perception. In the first stage a representation of the stimulus must be constructed by the subject, and restricting of the visual field interferes dramatically with this component when stimuli are unfamiliar. With increased familiarity, subjects become able to reconstruct a previous representation from very small, unique segments of the pattern, analogous to the informativeness areas hypothesized by Loftus and Mackworth [J. Exp. Psychol., 4 (1978) 565].
Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.
Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.
Wang, Ting; Guan, Sheng-Uei; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan
Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based...... estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)-based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches...
A total of 418 adolescents completed the Revised Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student, the Basic Needs Satisfaction Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Based on self-determination theory, this study examines the relationship between academic autonomous motivation, basic psychological needs…
Gomez Puente, S.M.; Sommen, P.C.W.
This paper presents the first experience of the computer-based and screencast approach used in the Signal Processing Basics course to motivate first year electrical engineering students to assess own knowledge and skills. Signal Processing Basics is a freshman course with up to 240 students. With
Roussinos, Dimitrios; Jimoyiannis, Athanassios
The educational applications of wikis are becoming very popular among instructors and researchers and they have captured their attention and imagination. This paper reports on the investigation of a wiki project designed to support university students' collaborative authoring and learning. The design framework of the wiki-based project is outlined…
Since 2004, professional accountancy bodies in membership of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) have been required to adopt mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) schemes. This research explores the learning activities of members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW) which introduced an…
Spring, Kristian J.; Graham, Charles R.
The field of international blended learning (BL) is primed to benefit from stronger communication and collaboration. Collaboration is currently limited, and regions vary greatly in terms of citations. However, BL is growing worldwide and each region is an important part of the community. The goal of this research is to explore where the most…
Salehi, Mojtaba; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa; Ghaznavi Ghoushchi, Mohammad Bagher
Material recommender system is a significant part of e-learning systems for personalization and recommendation of appropriate materials to learners. However, in the existing recommendation algorithms, dynamic interests and multi-preference of learners and multidimensional-attribute of materials are not fully considered simultaneously. Moreover,…
Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Turbey, Carolyn B.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest scatter and Bannatyne recategorization scores were investigated with three types of learning disabilities in children 6 to 16 years old: visual-motor and visual-perceptual disability (N=66); auditory-perceptual and receptive language deficit (N=18); and memory deficit (N=12). Three…
Cornelissen, Frank; de Jong, Tjip; Kessels, Joseph
Purpose: This paper aims to propose a framework which connects perspectives on knowledge and learning to various approaches of social networks studies. The purpose is twofold: providing input for the discourse in organizational studies about the way different views on knowledge and networks drive design choices and activities of researchers,…
Ratliff, Richard G.; And Others
A total of 540 college students were run in two verbal discrimination learning studies (the second, a replication of the first) with one of three verbal reward conditions. In both studies, equal numbers of male and female subjects were run in each reward condition by each male and female experimenter. (MS)
Woodcock, Stuart; Jiang, Han
Claims of the importance of having positive perceptions and expectations of students with learning disabilities (LD) have been repeatedly made over recent years. This article aims to raise awareness of the importance of attributional beliefs in relation to the educational outcomes of students with LD in Australia and China. Australian and Chinese…
Spreen, Otfried; Haaf, Robert G.
Test scores of two groups of learning disabled children (N=63 and N=96) were submitted to cluster analysis in an attempt to replicate previously described subtypes. All three subtypes (visuo-perceptual, linguistic, and articulo-graphomotor types) were identified along with minimally and severely impaired subtypes. Similar clusters in the same…
Aurini, Janice Danielle
The concept of coupling--the relationship between the environment, administrative goals, and instructional practices of education organizations--is a staple in New Institutional research. Yet processes of coupling have remained elusive. Drawing on ethnographic research of the "Ontario Learning Center" (OLC) franchise, along with…
Ferrara, Francesca; Ferrari, Giulia
In this paper, we draw on the contemporary perspective of inclusive materialism offered by de Freitas and Sinclair to contribute to current discussions on the role of the body in the learning of mathematics. Using the notions of "distributed agency" and "assemblage," we illustrate the way in which three students engage with a…
Olla, Woyita W.
Innovations and reforms are crucial for both public and Christian higher education institutions in order to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex and turbulent today's environment. Although there is a plethora of literature on strategic change, the effect of organizational learning on leading strategic change has been barely investigated…
This study investigated the claims made in the popular press about the "digital native" generation as learners. Because students' lives today are saturated with digital media at a time when their brains are still developing, many popular press authors claim that this generation of students thinks and learns differently than any generation that has…
Lewis, Katherine E.
Although many students struggle with fractions, students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) experience pervasive difficulties because of neurological differences in how they process numerical information. These students make errors that are qualitatively different than their typically achieving and low-achieving peers. This study…
Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter
The rapid development of computer graphics technology has made possible an easy integration of dynamic visualizations into computer-based learning environments. This study examines the relative effectiveness of dynamic visualizations, compared either to sequentially or simultaneously presented static visualizations. Moreover, the degree of realism…
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to finding adequate answers to the following queries: (A what are the segmental and syllabic pattern errors made by Kurdish students in their pronunciation? (B Can the problematic areas in pronunciation be predicted by a systematic comparison of the sound systems of both native and target languages? (C Can there be any consistency between the predictions and the results of the error analysis experiments in the same field? To reach the goals of the study the following steps were taken; 1.The sound systems and syllabic patterns of both languages Kurdish and English were clearly described on the basis of place and manner of articulation and the combinatory power of clusters. 2. To carry out a contrastive analysis, the sound segments (vowels, consonants and diphthongs and the syllabic patterns of both languages were compared in order to surface the similarities and differences. 3. The syllabic patterns and sound segments in English that had no counterparts in Kurdish were detected and considered as problematic areas in pronunciation. 4. To countercheck the acquired predictions, an experiment was carried out with 50 male and female pre-university students. Subjects were given some passages to read. The readability index of these passages ranged from 8.775 to 10.432 which are quite suitable in comparison to the readability index of pre-university texts ranging from 8.675 to 10.475. All samples of bound production were transcribed in IPA and the syllabic patterns were shown by symbols ‘V’ and ‘C’ indicating vowels and consonants respectively. An error analysis of the acquired data proved that English sound segments and syllabic patterns with no counterparts in Kurdish resulted in pronunciation errors.
Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran
We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400...... to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient....
Denilson Mendes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Classroom structures constitute motivational aspects to learn, which can be easily manipulated by teachers during mediation of scientific knowledge to ensure students’ engagement. Organization of learning activities, evaluation and autonomy are some examples of such structures. Two types of goals may be developed in classrooms due to different instructional strategies: performance goals and mastery goals. This work’s objectives were to compare instructional strategies of two high school chemistry teachers (Teacher A and Teacher B from two public schools located in Viçosa (Brazil and infer possible motivational patterns found among students. The comparison was based on the achievement goal theory and organized within the three classroom structures. Data were gathered through field notes from participant observation in two Chemistry classes and semi-structured interviews with both of the teachers. It was verified that Teacher A utilized strategies aligned with mastery goals, while Teacher B utilized instructional strategies that were consistent with the two types of goals. It is concluded that this can influence student engagement during Chemistry classes, considering that teachers have an important role in the orchestration of classroom structures, articulating instructional strategies that favor learning and mediation of the scientific knowledge.
Ackerly, Spafford C.
Introduces a science unit on heart rate variability (HVR) patterns. Uses spectral analysis to determine the effects of environmental stimulants such as music and emotional stress on heart rate. Observes relaxation techniques and their effects on the autonomous nervous system. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)
Chong, Chun Wie; Goh, Yuh Shan; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David; Tan, Irene Kit Ping
A range of small- to moderate-scale studies of patterns in bacterial biodiversity have been conducted in Antarctica over the last two decades, most suggesting strong correlations between the described bacterial communities and elements of local environmental heterogeneity. However, very few of these studies have advanced interpretations in terms of spatially associated patterns, despite increasing evidence of patterns in bacterial biogeography globally. This is likely to be a consequence of restricted sampling coverage, with most studies to date focusing only on a few localities within a specific Antarctic region. Clearly, there is now a need for synthesis over a much larger spatial to consolidate the available data. In this study, we collated Antarctic bacterial culture identities based on the 16S rRNA gene information available in the literature and the GenBank database (n > 2,000 sequences). In contrast to some recent evidence for a distinct Antarctic microbiome, our phylogenetic comparisons show that a majority (~75 %) of Antarctic bacterial isolates were highly similar (≥99 % sequence similarity) to those retrieved from tropical and temperate regions, suggesting widespread distribution of eurythermal mesophiles in Antarctic environments. However, across different Antarctic regions, the dominant bacterial genera exhibit some spatially distinct diversity patterns analogous to those recently proposed for Antarctic terrestrial macroorganisms. Taken together, our results highlight the threat of cross-regional homogenisation in Antarctic biodiversity, and the imperative to include microbiota within the framework of biosecurity measures for Antarctica.
Geist, Kamile; Geist, Eugene A.; Kuznik, Kathleen
Research on music and music therapy suggests that math and music are related in the brain from very early in life. Musical elements such as steady beat, rhythm, melody, and tempo possess inherent mathematical principles such as spatial properties, sequencing, counting, patterning, and one-to-one correspondence. With new understanding about the…
Meltzer, David E.
I discuss some observations from using interactive-engagement instructional methods in an upper-level thermal physics course over a two-year period. From the standpoint of the subject matter knowledge of the upper-level students, there was a striking persistence of common learning difficulties previously observed in students enrolled in the introductory course, accompanied, however, by some notable contrasts between the groups. More broadly, I comment on comparisons and contrasts regarding general pedagogical issues among different student sub-populations, for example: differences in the receptivity of lower- and upper-level students to diagrammatic representations; varying receptivity to tutorial-style instructional approach within the upper-level population; and contrasting approaches to learning among physics and engineering sub-populations in the upper-level course with regard to use of symbolic notation, mathematical equations, and readiness to employ verbal explanations.
Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
physiology is taught at the nursing education programme; this does not mean that nursing students develop good sleep habits. Methods: To support learning an innovative method was chosen where nursing students were motivated to develop good sleep habits through peer learning. Nursing students were taught...... in groups by other students, so-called sleep ambassadors. On the basis of a training programme they developed a creative concept with exercises, tests (memory and power of concentration) and social activities in connection with theoretical teaching in the subject of sleep. This concept was followed......-up by social media activities motivated the nursing students to change their sleep habits. Results: This project has been completed by one of two classes of first semester students at the nursing education programme at UCN. This class demonstrated better examination results and a lower drop-oup rate compared...
Yamashita, Toshiya; Haupt, S Shuichi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Ai, Hiroyuki
The odor localization strategy induced by odors learned via differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response was investigated in honeybees. In response to reward-associated but not non-reward-associated odors, learners walked longer paths than non-learners and control bees. When orange odor reward association was learned, the path length and the body turn angles were small during odor stimulation and greatly increased after stimulation ceased. In response to orange odor, bees walked locally with alternate left and right turns during odor stimulation to search for the reward-associated odor source. After odor stimulation, bees walked long paths with large turn angles to explore the odor plume. For clove odor, learning-related modulations of locomotion were less pronounced, presumably due to a spontaneous preference for orange in the tested population of bees. This study is the first to describe how an odor-reward association modulates odor-induced walking in bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B
Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p < .001, and verbal (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p < .01, and semantic fluency (Animal Naming), F(1, 232) = 7.57, p = .006, with the atypical group performing better on each task. Effect sizes were larger for nonverbal (Cohen's d = 0.66) than verbal learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative
Méndez, David; Slisko, Josip
Many physics professors have difficulties to know andassess in real time the learning of the students in their courses.Nevertheless, today, with Internet and the new technology devices that thestudents use every day, like smartphones, such tasks can be carried outrelatively easy. The professor pose a few questions in Socrative, the students answer them by means of the Smartphone. Inthis way, the professor knows what students learned and can promote thecooperative learning joining students who...
Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran
We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400...... to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient....... participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able...
Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran; Jonsson, Håkan; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune
We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400 participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient.
Full Text Available We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400 participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient.
Blair, Robert W.; And Others
This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.
This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with preparing and serving soups. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: thin soups, thick soups, convenience soups,…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.
This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the uses for and types of stocks and also gives information on how to cook, cool, and store stocks. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.
This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with yeast breads and their ingredients. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: yeast breads and their ingredients,…
Da Mota, Benoit; Tudoran, Radu; Costan, Alexandru; Varoquaux, Gaël; Brasche, Goetz; Conrod, Patricia; Lemaitre, Herve; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Antoniu, Gabriel; Thirion, Bertrand
Brain imaging is a natural intermediate phenotype to understand the link between genetic information and behavior or brain pathologies risk factors. Massive efforts have been made in the last few years to acquire high-dimensional neuroimaging and genetic data on large cohorts of subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is carried out with increasingly sophisticated techniques and represents a great computational challenge. Fortunately, increasing computational power in distributed architectures can be harnessed, if new neuroinformatics infrastructures are designed and training to use these new tools is provided. Combining a MapReduce framework (TomusBLOB) with machine learning algorithms (Scikit-learn library), we design a scalable analysis tool that can deal with non-parametric statistics on high-dimensional data. End-users describe the statistical procedure to perform and can then test the model on their own computers before running the very same code in the cloud at a larger scale. We illustrate the potential of our approach on real data with an experiment showing how the functional signal in subcortical brain regions can be significantly fit with genome-wide genotypes. This experiment demonstrates the scalability and the reliability of our framework in the cloud with a 2 weeks deployment on hundreds of virtual machines.