Marco Antonio Ferreira Randi
Full Text Available This study evaluates the use of role-playing games (RPGs as a methodological approach for teaching cellular biology, assessing student satisfaction, learning outcomes, and retention of acquired knowledge. First-year undergraduate medical students at two Brazilian public universities attended either an RPG-based class (RPG group or a lecture (lecture-based group on topics related to cellular biology. Pre- and post-RPG-based class questionnaires were compared to scores in regular exams and in an unannounced test one year later to assess students' attitudes and learning. From the 230 students that attended the RPG classes, 78.4% responded that the RPG-based classes were an effective tool for learning; 55.4% thought that such classes were better than lectures but did not replace them; and 81% responded that they would use this method. The lecture-based group achieved a higher grade in 1 of 14 regular exam questions. In the medium-term evaluation (one year later, the RPG group scored higher in 2 of 12 questions. RPG classes are thus quantitatively as effective as formal lectures, are well accepted by students, and may serve as educational tools, giving students the chance to learn actively and potentially retain the acquired knowledge more efficiently.
Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta
This article elucidates the process of game-based learning in classrooms through the use of the Play Curricular activity Reflection Discussion (PCaRD) model. A mixed-methods study was conducted at a high school to implement three games with the PCaRD model in a year-long elective course. Data sources included interviews and observations for…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...
Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.
This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher…
study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...... evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...
Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519
Linda K. Schlosser
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to uncover teachers’ emerging beliefs and perceptions about developmentally oriented instruction as they participated in professional development workshops and applied the strategies learned with students in after-school clubs. Twenty experienced, urban teachers volunteered to attend monthly workshops where they engaged in math games, simulations, and problem-solving activities based on the Common Core and modeled by college faculty. Teachers used the activities to offer 90-min weekly math clubs for sixth-and seventh-grade students at their schools. Twelve pre-service teachers enrolled in a college course on adolescent development acted as volunteers at the clubs. Data were collected through (a questionnaires and rating scales, (b informal group interviews, and (c weekly electronic journals. Data collected revealed changes in teachers’ beliefs about and perceptions of effective instruction as they applied game-based activities in the after-school club settings. Eighty percent of the teachers reported high levels of student engagement and greater sustained interest in problem-solving, and connected their observations to beliefs about game-based learning as an effective and age-appropriate instructional strategy. Pre-service teacher volunteers reported similar observations: The majority of club members were actively engaged in solving complex problems during game-like activities, particularly when volunteers used scaffolding strategies to support students’ participation.
Lillard, Angeline S.
Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…
Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas
This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native...... speakers of the Qatari dialect. Part of the new curriculum envisioned in the project includes the use of simple educational games, specifically designed and developed for tabletop surface computers. The paper presents a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9...... weeks in the project. The paper presents three of the most played games by the students, along with analysis on collected data, focusing on students’ performance and attitudes towards the new curriculum. Results analysis provided an encouraging image, suggesting that the conducted activity was able...
Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.
The authors designed an active learning project for a child development course in which students apply core concepts to a hypothetical baby they "raise" during the term. Students applied developmental topics to their unique, developing child. The project fostered student learning and enthusiasm for the material. The project's versatility makes it…
on their needs and desires. This paper presents results from SoundScapes body of research which is utilising technology in assistive (re)habilitation from Virtual Interactive Space (VIS); furthermore the paper describes what emerges in play scenarios that utilise enabling technology. The involved study exhibits...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...
Full Text Available This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners’ perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners’ generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher frequency of problem identification in the peer comments. Sixty percent of learners perceived the role-play strategy useful in assisting them to compose and provide meaningful feedback. Multiple motivations drove learners in making decisions on role choice when responding to their peers, mostly for peer benefits. Finally, 90% of learners reported the peer feedback useful or somewhat useful. Based on the findings of this study, we discussed educational and instructional design implications and future directions to further the line of research using role-play strategy to enhance peer feedback activity.
Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana
Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…
This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...
Many researchers have investigated learning through playing games. However, after playing games, players often go online to establish and participate in the online community where they enrich their game experiences, discuss game-related issues, and create fan-fictions, screenshots, or scenarios. Although these emerging activities are an essential…
Larsen, Maria Neumann; Søgaard, Karoline
Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet.......Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet....
Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola
in higher education through the metaphor of the ‘magic circle’. This approach stimulates intrinsic motivation and educational drive, creates safe spaces for academic experimentation and exploration, and promotes reflective risk-taking, ideation, and participation in education. We present a model of playful......Increased focus on quantifiable performance and assessment in higher education is creating a learning culture characterised by fear of failing, avoidance of risk, and extrinsic goal-oriented behaviours. In this article, we explore possibilities of a more playful approach to teaching and learning...... learning, drawing on notions of signature pedagogies, field literature, and two qualitative studies on learner conceptions of enjoyment and reasons for disengagement. We highlight the potential of this approach to invite a different mind-set and environment, providing a formative space in which failure...
This paper presupposes the notion that there is potential for the integration of play into primary and secondary school activities, because it can stimulate and support the formal as well as informal learning that takes place in school. Digital technology could be a driver for this integration...... Construction Games in Schools. The project is an exploration of how elements of play can be integrated in a technology-based learning environment. I will use examples of empirical data gathered during spring 2006 to demonstrate that play can function as a useful learning strategy, and also point out barriers......, because many of children's play activities already takes place on, and through, digital platforms. The focus for this paper is on how playorientated environmental qualities can be used and might change the current school structure. The background for the paper is the PhD project entitled Computer based...
Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap betwen pre-school and schoo. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental...... functions, among others the development of children's learning motive. From the view of activity theori, transition to formal education entails crossing boundaries from the activity system play to the activity system of school learning. The transition can be facilitated by developing a 'transitory activity...... system', which mediates between the two systems, ensuring that the result of one system serves as a tool for the next. Advanced forms of play might make up a transitory activity system. The paper describes different forms of play crossing the boundaies of role play (frame-play, aesthetic theme play...
Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…
This paper reports on a pilot study in which children aged 7-12 (N = 68) had an opportunity to study in a novel formal and informal learning setting. The learning activities were extended from the classroom to the playful learning environment (PLE), an innovative playground enriched by technological tools. Curriculum-based learning was intertwined…
Wiering, Marco A.
A promising approach to learn to play board games is to use reinforcement learning algorithms that can learn a game position evaluation function. In this paper we examine and compare three different methods for generating training games: 1) Learning by self-play, 2) Learning by playing against an
Steffe, Leslie P.; Wiegel, Heide G.
Uses the constructivist principle of active learning to explore the possibly essential elements in transforming a cognitive play activity into mathematical activity. Suggests that for such transformation to occur, cognitive play activity must involve operations of intelligence that, yield situations of mathematical schemes. Illustrates the…
Justesen, Niels; Bontrager, Philip; Togelius, Julian; Risi, Sebastian
In this article, we review recent Deep Learning advances in the context of how they have been applied to play different types of video games such as first-person shooters, arcade games, and real-time strategy games. We analyze the unique requirements that different game genres pose to a deep learning system and highlight important open challenges in the context of applying these machine learning methods to video games, such as general game playing, dealing with extremely large decision spaces...
This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of…
Theobald, Maryanne; Danby, Susan; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna; Bourne, Jane; Jones, Desley; Ross, Sharon; Knaggs, Helen; Carter-Jones, Claire
Play as a learning practice increasingly is under challenge as a valued component of early childhood education. Views held in parallel include confirmation of the place of play in early childhood education and, at the same time, a denigration of the role of play in favor for more teacher-structured and formal activities. As a consequence,…
Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Frimodt-Møller, Søren
This paper presents an integrated solution using IT technologies to help a (young) musician learn a piece of music, or learn how to play an instru- ment. The rehearsal process is organized in sequences, consisting of various ac- tivities to be 'passed'. Several games are investigated that help...
Bhonker, Nadav; Rozenberg, Shai; Hubara, Itay
Mastering a video game requires skill, tactics and strategy. While these attributes may be acquired naturally by human players, teaching them to a computer program is a far more challenging task. In recent years, extensive research was carried out in the field of reinforcement learning and numerous algorithms were introduced, aiming to learn how to perform human tasks such as playing video games. As a result, the Arcade Learning Environment (ALE) (Bellemare et al., 2013) has become a commonly...
Enyedy, Noel; Danish, Joshua A.; Delacruz, Girlie; Kumar, Melissa
The Learning Physics through Play Project (LPP) engaged 6-8-year old students (n = 43) in a series of scientific investigations of Newtonian force and motion including a series of augmented reality activities. We outline the two design principles behind the LPP curriculum: 1) the use of socio-dramatic, embodied play in the form of participatory…
not undergone much investigation. This study was conducted in cooperation with two historical museums, these being the Transport Museum in Coventry, England and The Viking Museum in Ribe, Denmark. A new learning platform called MicroCulture has been created, aimed at eliciting a sociocultural understanding......Museum learning culture is going through a paradigmatic change. Two main positions are dominant: the modernist, emphasizing the need for assessment and uniform learning outcomes, and the postmodern, encouraging dialogue and multiple learning outcomes. A critical factor is the potential contribution...... of history in young visitors. This study indicates that museum learning culture could be enriched by the introduction of mediated play as a resource for conceptual thinking and social interaction....
Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Xi, Jinglei
Cooperative learning (CL) and role play are both efficient educational tools for enhancing Chinese student active learning and communication skills. This study was designed to obtain student feedback on the format of CL together with role play in the study of pharmacology in Chinese pharmaceutical undergraduates. CL was used in the self-study of new drugs used clinically but neglected in textbook and class teaching, so that groups of students were assigned to become "specialists" in one area of new drugs. Then, these "specialists" taught their new-found knowledge to other groups in role play approach involving an interaction between the pharmacist and a patient. Student perceptions of CL together with role play were examined using an eight-item survey instrument. Students were satisfied with CL together with role play. Majority of the students believed this teaching method enhanced their learning experience, made them gain more pharmacological expertise, increased the awareness of their career in future and self-educational abilities, and fostered their cooperation spirit and confidence. The materials on CL and role play were also believed pertinent. Only 63.4-76.5% and 63.1-37.3% of the students thought "CL and role-play were very funny" and "I felt very relaxed during CL together with role-play", respectively. CL together with role play is an efficient educational tool for enhancing student active-learning and communication skills. But Chinese students will take some time to adapt to this new teaching method.
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of an educational computer video game in teaching and learning. Cultural-historical activity theory is used heuristically to explore the social and cultural interactions during game play. It is argued that knowledge construction occurs when video games function as a tool to mediate learning rather…
Chan, Zenobia C Y
Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.
The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…
Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Pai, Daiane Dal; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Hoefel, Heloísa Karnas; Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Busin, Lurdes; Unicovsky, Margarita Ana Rubin; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce
to report professors' experience in a public university of Southern region of Brazil using case studies and role play as learning strategies for nursing care of hospitalized adults. learning experience report from the Nursing Care of Adults I class of nursing undergraduate course. the development of case studies and role play considered health care needs from epidemiological profile of chronic noncommunicable diseases morbidity and mortality, nursing as an assisting method, and social aspects of hospitalized individuals. Role play planning was made by creating a stage in laboratory of practices and dialogues comprising students and professors interaction. case studies and role play encouraged students to active search for learning and brought theory closer to real health care situations.
Thomas, Veronica L.; Magnotta, Sarah R.; Chang, Hua; Steffes, Erin
Instructors are faced with the challenge of teaching a significant amount of material covering a wide variety of topics in a Principles of Marketing course. In order to present the critical consumer decision-making process concept in a meaningful way while remaining mindful of time constraints, we propose a semi-structured classroom activity that…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your 4- to 7-Month-Old ... for Encouraging Learning Print What Your Baby Is Learning By 4 months old, your baby has learned ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old ... Baby to Learn Print What Your Baby Is Learning After learning to recognize your voice, your face, ...
Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez
This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…
Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne
Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Marta Ortiz-de-Urbina Criado
Full Text Available Role-playing is an active participation tool that facilitates cooperative learning. It has also proved to be more effective in developing competencies than traditional methods. This technique is essential to make theory and practice compatible as is required in order to adapt subjects to the new education system based on the Bolonia’s agreement, especially in Social Sciences disciplines. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to show the effect and use of role-playing applied to management area. Therefore, we analyze and design the role-playing, putting it in practice in the classroom in Human Resource Management subject of different academic degrees. To conclude, this paper has shown the importance of role-playing as a learning tool and development of skills like work cooperation, problem and conflict solving, decision making, and managing complex systems.
Cook, Deirdre M.
Explores young children's mark-making in a domestic play setting. Suggests mark-making indicates aspects of the relationship between semiotic and conceptual development. Focuses on contexts in which mark-making occurs and on the authenticity of the learning events in which children participate. (DLH)
Sumsion, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Sue; McArdle, Felicity; Shield, Paul
This article provides an overview of the Education Meets Play study that will investigate early childhood educators' use of play-based learning, now mandatory under the "National Quality Standard". By building on what can be gleaned about educators' approaches to play-based learning prior to the implementation of the "Early Years…
Full Text Available Introduction: The teaching-learning process of the contents and processes involving metabolism in the disciplines of biochemistry is complex and abstract, with high number of connected simultaneous reactions. One strategy (that has been widely employed is the use of educational games (electronic or printed. In this work, a game called LudoKrebs, about ATP production, was developed and applied. It involves the glycolytic pathway, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Material and Methods: The game was to provide a better way to understanding the main steps of ATP production, as well as the perception of the reactions simultaneity and interdependence. It was developed as a puzzle and two boards integrated (one inside the other. The two boards are played simultaneously. On the board outside, the player moves the pawn in order to raise essential cards so that the pawn of the internal tray can be moved completing the glycolytic pathway and the Krebs cycle. Also, on the external board, the players get pieces for assembling the puzzle collaboratively. The game was applied in a biochemistry discipline part of a distance course of Biological Sciences, and subsequently an online survey with questions has been applied, addressing educational, affective and technical aspects. Results and Discussion: The results indicated that the game contributed positively to learning, with good evaluations in all areas covered by the survey. It was also motivating and has contributed for the understanding of the dynamic processes, being the main reasons for this type of game design with simultaneous boards. Conclusions: The results of the building, implementation and evaluation of the game indicate the strategy as significant for learning as well as motivating, being an evidence for the development this kind of games for the theme to be continued.
Samantha L. Elliott
Full Text Available Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.
Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 2010
Play is an essential part of young children's lives. This symposium highlights the integral role of play in young children's mathematics learning and examines the teacher's role in facilitating and extending this. Papers examine key tenets of play, contributing to theoretical understandings and presenting data on teacher's perceptions of play and…
Full Text Available Background: At the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit, we use the framework of CARE (a compound acronym of Capacity, cApability, collaboRation and culturE to inform all aspects of work. The principles of practice development (Manley et al., 2008 also inform our work, a major focus of which is the use of coaching, action learning sets and active learning techniques. The use of questions and questioning is key to these. These techniques are part of our person-centred approach to professional development and learning. This article describes my reflections, using Gibbs’ model (1988, on the development of a questioning tool aimed at enhancing learning through play. The tool is an origami ‘chatterbox’, which was originally developed as part of a ‘poster’ presentation at the 2014 International Practice Development Conference in Toronto. Aims and objectives: This article aims to share a critical reflection on developing and using the chatterbox and to describe how this experience led to deeper reflections on the role of play in adult learning. Conclusions and implications for practice: The chatterbox has provided a simple and effective tool for introducing, practising and reinforcing the use of enabling questions. Its development allowed the categorisation of enabling questions. Personal reflections undertaken as part of the development of the tool inspired me to explore the literature about the role of play in adult learning. It has implications for supporting the learning of people who are interested in using enabling questions, by increasing their skill and confidence.
The topic of this paper is play-like learning as it occurs when technology based learning environments is invited into the classroom. Observations of 5th grade classes playing with Lego Robolab, is used to illustrate that different ways of learning becomes visible when digital technology...
Full Text Available Children from under-resourced communities regularly enter formal schooling lagging behind their peers. These deficits in areas such as language development, reading readiness, and even in the kind of spatial skills that predict later mathematical knowledge, may persist throughout their lifespan. To address such gaps, policymakers have focused largely on schooling as the great equalizer. Yet, children only spend 20% of their waking hours in school. How can developmental scientists and educators address this “other 80%” for the benefit of children’s development? One answer is the Learning Landscapes initiative, which involves crafting carefully planned play experiences that focus on learning outcomes, particularly for children and families from under-resourced communities. Playful learning, a broad pedagogical approach featuring child-directed play methods, provides a unique way to foster learning and engagement organically within the built environment. Learning Landscapes already incorporates several well-documented projects. The Ultimate Block Party brought over 50,000 people to Central Park to engage in playful learning activities. Supermarkets became hotspots for caregiver-child interaction by simply adding prompts for caregiver-child interaction through signage in everyday “trapped” experiences. Urban Thinkscape transformed a bus stop and adjacent lot into a hub for playful learning while families were waiting for public transportation. Finally, Parkopolis is a life-size human board game that fosters STEM and reasoning skills in public spaces. This paper reflects on data from these projects while reflecting on lessons learned and future directions.
Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William
A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...
Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana
A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040
Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana
A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.
Mark S. Tremblay
Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.
Borowski, Holly P.
The majority of the distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Coarse correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific coarse correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm, which guarantees that the agents’ collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient coarse correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old ... these next few months. What Is My Child Learning? Your little one will make great strides in ...
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of novices’ learning style and gender consciousness on learning of programming concepts from game-based learning activities. Four classes of eighth graders with 59 males and 63 females participated in this study. Participants were identified as the diverger group and the converger group based on their stronger learning styles. Game-play activities were implemented to support participants’ learning of programming concepts. The results revealed that (a for the programming comprehension performance, the convergers outperformed the divergers; (b participants’ learning style and gender consciousness significantly affected their project performance; (c for the high gender consciousness learners, the convergers performed better at abstract conceptualization and active experimentation than the divergers did; (d for the divergers, the low gender consciousness learners possessed lower stereotype and were willing to challenge and performed better than the high gender consciousness learners; and (e all the participants revealed positive intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Ramani, Geetha B.; Eason, Sarah H.
Playing and learning mathematics do not have to be mutually exclusive activities, especially in kindergarten. Play and games can give young children opportunities to learn and develop foundational math skills that are aligned with Common Core standards for mathematics through age-appropriate, fun, and engaging activities.
Bontchev, Boyan; Vassileva, Dessislava; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Petrov, Milen
In recent years, many researchers have reported positive outcomes and effects from applying computer games to the educational process. The main preconditions for an effective game-based learning process include the presence of high learning interest and the desire to study hard. Therefore,
Honeyford, Michelle A.; Boyd, Karen
Play has a significant role in language and literacy learning. However, even when valued in schools, opportunities for play are limited beyond early childhood education. This study of an after-school program for adolescents looks closely at several forms of play that students engaged in to produce self-portraits. The study suggests that play and…
Gee, James Paul
The author builds on arguments he has made elsewhere that good commercial video games foster deep learning and problem solving and that such games in fact promote mastery as a form of play. Here he maintains that some good video games engage players with an important type of play, namely of play as discovery, of play as surmising new possibilities…
Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda
Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…
Borowski, Holly P.; Marden, Jason R.; Shamma, Jeff S.
The majority of the distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Coarse correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However
Barreto, Daisyane; Vasconcelos, Lucas; Orey, Michael
Purpose: With video games being a source of leisure and learning, educators and researchers alike are interested in understanding children's motivation for playing video games as a way to learn. This study explores student motivation and engagement levels in playing two math video games in the game "Club Penguin." Method: This is a…
Thorsted, Ann Charlotte
This article draws on 20 Danish university students’ reflections in and on a Problem-based Learning process (PBL). The study showed how a more playful approach changed how the students collaborated, communicated, and approached a given task. They felt more creative, open minded and engaged compared...... between play and creativity in higher education learning processes?...
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory
"This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...
Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard
There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…
González Ibánez, José de Jesús Luis; Wang, Alf Inge
The emergence of gesture-based computing and inexpensive gesture recognition technology such as the Kinect have opened doors for a new generation of educational games. Gesture based-based interfaces make it possible to provide user interfaces that are more nature and closer to the tasks being carried out, and helping students that learn best…
Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Christakis, Dimitri A
Physical activity (PA) is important for children's health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children's PA. An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Children's activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was Children were more active and less sedentary outdoors versus indoors and during the child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Nilsson, Monica; Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert
In this paper we problematize the dichotomization of play and learning that often shapes the agenda of early childhood education research and practice. This dichotomization is driven in part by the tendency to define lerning in terms of formal learning (i.e. learning as an outcome of direct instruction; and of school-based approaches that focus on teacher-led, goal directed activities and declarative knowledge; and learning in the content areas, such as math and literacy). We argue for a re-c...
Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Pedersen, Hanne
? Visual narrative is a "language" as valid as writing or speaking. Sometimes, a more valuable tool when there's an impediment to use verbal communication. Animation is a feeling and visual thinking media which allows us to "translate" words into images, sentences into stories and scripts into movies....... It teaches visual literacy, as any other curricula, together with emotional intelligence. It's a source of knowledge and for producing knowledge. Not only educators but filmmakers, as George Lucas or Martin Scorsese, agree in the importance of teaching how to read images, in the same way we are taught....... The persisting vision). We are aware of the resistance that alternative learning tools suffer from the most traditional school systems, as Sir Ken Robinson claims; we need to change the old teachings paradigms. At the Animated Learning Lab, together, with some of the newest results from other schools...
Thunyaniti, T.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.
The scientists once believed an atom was the smallest particle, nothing was smaller than this tiny particle. Later, they discovered an atom which consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, and they believed that these particles cannot be broken into the smaller particles. According to advanced technology, the scientists have discovered these particles are consisted of a smaller particles. The new particles are called quarks leptons and bosons which we called fundamental particle. Atomic structure cannot be observed directly, so it is complicated for studying these particles. To help the students get more understanding of its properties, so the researcher develops the learning pattern of fundamental particles from Play Dough Model for high school to graduate students. Four step of learning are 1) to introduces the concept of the fundamental particles discovery 2) to play the Happy Families game by using fundamental particles cards 3) to design and make their particle in a way that reflects its properties 4) to represents their particles from Play Dough Model. After doing activities, the students had more conceptual understanding and better memorability on fundamental particles. In addition, the students gained collaborative working experience among their friends also.
Full Text Available Unschoolers, and those who practice democratic, free, and progressive education philosophies, are often uncomfortable with a particular choice their children make: as Summerhills A. S. Neill observed: Every child under freedom plays most of the time for years (1964, p. 116. Those who see children as active, motivated learners can be disappointed when, given an environment rich with fascinating choices, their children spend most of their time in fantasy. The families discomfort can result in a reversion to more conventional schooling. Beginning with an early encounter with educational democracy during the 1970s at Torontos ALPHA Alternative School, supported with commentary from educators from schools that took a parallel path, and from psychologists and education critics both historic and contemporary, this article gathers arguments that support play as not only a pleasure but a necessity for growth, learning and mental health.
Schenk, Sabrina; Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris
Recent research suggests that video game playing is associated with many cognitive benefits. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating such effects, especially with regard to probabilistic categorization learning, which is a widely unexplored area in gaming research. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning in video gamers in comparison to non-gamers. Subjects were scanned in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while performing a modified version of the weather prediction task. Behavioral data yielded evidence for better categorization performance of video gamers, particularly under conditions characterized by stronger uncertainty. Furthermore, a post-experimental questionnaire showed that video gamers had acquired higher declarative knowledge about the card combinations and the related weather outcomes. Functional imaging data revealed for video gamers stronger activation clusters in the hippocampus, the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus as well as in occipital visual areas and in areas related to attentional processes. All these areas are connected with each other and represent critical nodes for semantic memory, visual imagery and cognitive control. Apart from this, and in line with previous studies, both groups showed activation in brain areas that are related to attention and executive functions as well as in the basal ganglia and in memory-associated regions of the medial temporal lobe. These results suggest that playing video games might enhance the usage of declarative knowledge as well as hippocampal involvement and enhances overall learning performance during probabilistic learning. In contrast to non-gamers, video gamers showed better categorization performance, independently of the uncertainty of the condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bird, Jo; Edwards, Susan
Digital technologies are increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of early childhood education. A significant problem for early childhood education has been how to understand the pedagogical use of technologies in a sector that values play-based learning. This paper presents a new framework to understand how children learn to use…
Holt, Josh E.; Ward, Phillip; Wallhead, Tristan L.
Background: Physical educators and coaches face an ongoing problem of presenting fun and enjoyable practices that also provide efficient learning of technical and tactical sports skills. Effective instruction also promotes the transfer of learning from practice tasks to the real game. Play Practice (PP) describes a structure for teaching sports…
Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack
"Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…
Weitze, Charlotte Lærke
digital games. The Smiley Model inspired and provided a scaffold or a heuristic for the overall gamified learning design –- as well as for the students’ learning game design processes when creating small games turning the learning situation into an engaging experience. The audience for the experiments......This paper presents a framework for designing engaging learning experiences in games – the Smiley Model. In this Design-Based Research project, student-game-designers were learning inside a gamified learning design - while designing and implementing learning goals from curriculum into the small...... was adult upper secondary general students as well as 7th grade primary school students. The intention with this article is to inspire future learning designers that would like to experiment with integrating learning and play....
van der Ree, Michiel; Wiering, Marco
This paper compares three strategies in using reinforcement learning algorithms to let an artificial agent learnto play the game of Othello. The three strategies that are compared are: Learning by self-play, learning from playing against a fixed opponent, and learning from playing against a fixed
Panfilova A. P.
Full Text Available the article made an analysis of the training playing activity from the point of view of its influence on the development of collaboration skills among the participants of game sessions, spelled out the conditions for achieving this goal and the necessary ingredients for the organization of effective interpersonal interaction in the process of learning game, based on the rules and ethical norms that do not allow to manipulate and interact correctly.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the activity of play in design education among university students with interdisciplinary background. The study subscribes to social theories of learning and takes into account an international summer school which brought visual communication design and architecture students and instructors together at the intersection of design in Istanbul asking such questions: How can student learning activity in design education are fostered? How can studio experience be formulated to cultivate the understanding of place? In this study the international group acted as a learning community. Istanbul served at her best offering her potential for making connections through exploration and discovery. The paper casts student tasks formulated as playful graphic expression and reflects student statements, unfolding connections made across filters of space, time and movement in the working process of visual design studio. The particular design studio experiences uncover how students reconstructed their own texts. The study as a result releases the fact that one might best come to know a place through the activity of play and this kind of knowing is one that constantly evolving.
Weitze, Charlotte Lærke
is relevant to the professional creation of small digital learning games as well as the big Game , that is, the learning and play situations that exist surrounding the use of small learning games, when students discuss, negotiate, develop, and decide what to do next inside the learning games. The desired...... balance is lost if the learning processes become shallow – at a low level of cognitive complexity – though it may be great fun . Conversely, a game may facilitate good learning processes and many learning activities but result in low motivation among students because it is considered boring.......When seeking to create ideal learning environments for students and teachers, it can be a challenge to find a balance between facilitating learning processes at high levels of cognitive complexity  and creating playful and engaging experiences for students and teachers . This challenge...
Active learning is generally made by a lecturer in learning face to face. In the face to face learning, lecturer can implement a variety of teaching methods to make students actively involved in learning. This is different from learning that is actuating in e-learning. The main characteristic of e-learning is learning that can take place anytime and anywhere. Special strategies are needed so that lecturer can make students play an active role in the course of e-learning. Research in order to ...
Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.
Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...
Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara
When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…
Boyette, Adam H
Few systematic studies of play in foragers exist despite their significance for understanding the breadth of contexts for human development and the ontogeny of cultural learning. Forager societies lack complex social hierarchies, avenues for prestige or wealth accumulation, and formal educational institutions, and thereby represent a contrast to the contexts of most play research. Analysis of systematic observations of children's play among Aka forest foragers (n = 50, ages 4-16, M = 9.5) and Ngandu subsistence farmers (n = 48, ages 4-16, M = 9.1) collected in 2010 illustrates that while play and work trade off during development in both groups, and consistent patterns in sex-role development are evident, Aka children engage in significantly less rough-and-tumble play and competitive games than children among their socially stratified farming neighbors. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Boyette, Adam H.
Few systematic studies of play in foragers exist despite their significance for understanding the breadth of contexts for human development and the ontogeny of cultural learning. Forager societies lack complex social hierarchies, avenues for prestige or wealth accumulation, and formal educational institutions, and thereby represent a contrast to…
Mezei, Jessica M.
mostly articulated learning connections in terms of the active or participatory nature of the experiences. Additionally, a majority of teachers discussed inquiry learning in concert with inquiry teaching which led to a wider range of comparisons made based on the teacher's interpretation of inquiry as a pedagogical approach instead of focusing solely on inquiry learning. This study has implications for both research and practice. Results demonstrate that teachers are interested in game play as it relates to learning and the linkages teachers made between the domains suggests it may yet prove to be a fruitful analogical device that could be leveraged for teacher development. However, further study is needed to test these claims and ultimately, research that further aligns the benefits of game play experiences to teacher practice is encouraged in order to build on the propositions and findings of this thesis.
Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan
Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.
Full Text Available Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.
Thwaits, Anne Y.
What is the nature of art/science collaborations in museums? How do art objects and activities contribute to the successes of science centers? Based on the premise that art exhibitions and art-based activities engage museum visitors in different ways than do strictly factual, information-based displays, I address these questions in a case study that examines the roles of visual art and artists in the Exploratorium, a museum that has influenced exhibit design and professional practice in many of the hands-on science centers in the United States and around the world. The marriage of art and science in education is not a new idea---Leonardo da Vinci and other early polymaths surely understood how their various endeavors informed one another, and some 20th century educators understood the value of the arts and creativity in the learning and practice of other disciplines. When, in 2010, the National Science Teachers Association added an A to the federal government's ubiquitous STEM initiative and turned it into STEAM, art educators nationwide took notice. With a heightened interest in the integration of and collaboration between disciplines comes an increased need for models of best practice for educators and educational institutions. With the intention to understand the nature of such collaborations and the potential they hold, I undertook this study. I made three site visits to the Exploratorium, where I took photos, recorded notes in a journal, interacted with exhibits, and observed museum visitors. I collected other data by examining the institution's website, press releases, annual reports, and fact sheets; and by reading popular and scholarly articles written by museum staff members and by independent journalists. I quickly realized that the Exploratorium was not created in the way than most museums are, and the history of its founding and the ideals of its founder illuminate what was then and continues now to be different about this museum from most others in the
Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad
Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... that the method can be used online during the content generation process where the mod- els can improve and better content can be presented as the game is being played....
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…
What is active learning and what does it look like in the classroom? If students are participating in active learning, they are playing a more engaged role in the learning process and are not overly reliant on the teacher (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003; Petress, 2008). The purpose of this article is to propose a framework to describe and…
Full Text Available The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasizes children’s learning through play. This means that children’s learning in everyday practice is accomplished through a complex mixture of teacher-led activities and activities the children themselves initiate. When learning is viewed as situated and constituted through social interaction (Lave & Wenger, 1991, almost all social events have learning potential. Consequently, from an educational and a curriculum point of view it is important to raise the question of how children’s learning can be made visible, and determine what kind of learning children’s own initiated (play activities imply. The focus of the paper is on children’s (aged 3-5 years “communities of practice” at the computer during “free play” period in two various Swedish preschools settings. Events of peer interaction are analyzed in detail to illustrate what kind of learning activities are going on at the computer, and to discuss these events of potential learning in relation to the curriculum goals and the educational practice. From a curriculum point of view, the analyses show that the children’s activities at the computer involve a variety of events that might provides for learning that can be viewed as goal-oriented. From the children’s point of view, the project of socialization seems to be the most prominent goal. A crucial point for educational success, however, is to understand not only what the object of learning is, rather what motivates children’s play apprenticeship in their own “communities of practice”.
Full Text Available Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii factors which limit children's active play and (iii factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.
Brockman, Rowan; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R
Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i) factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii) factors which limit children's active play and (iii) factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.
Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.
Koivisto, Jaana-Maija; Multisilta, Jari; Niemi, Hannele; Katajisto, Jouko; Eriksson, Elina
Clinical reasoning is viewed as a problem-solving activity; in games, players solve problems. To provide excellent patient care, nursing students must gain competence in clinical reasoning. Utilising gaming elements and virtual simulations may enhance learning of clinical reasoning. To investigate nursing students' experiences of learning clinical reasoning process by playing a 3D simulation game. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Thirteen gaming sessions at two universities of applied sciences in Finland. The prototype of the simulation game used in this study was single-player in format. The game mechanics were built around the clinical reasoning process. Nursing students from the surgical nursing course of autumn 2014 (N=166). Data were collected by means of an online questionnaire. In terms of the clinical reasoning process, students learned how to take action and collect information but were less successful in learning to establish goals for patient care or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Learning of the different phases of clinical reasoning process was strongly positively correlated. The students described that they learned mainly to apply theoretical knowledge while playing. The results show that those who played digital games daily or occasionally felt that they learned clinical reasoning by playing the game more than those who did not play at all. Nursing students' experiences of learning the clinical reasoning process by playing a 3D simulation game showed that such games can be used successfully for learning. To ensure that students follow a systematic approach, the game mechanics need to be built around the clinical reasoning process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flynn, Rachel M; Colon, Nirmaliz
This pilot study examined the impact of playing an active videogame on executive functioning (EF) skills for children with special needs, who typically have lower EF skills. Acute EF change was measured in 36 children with a range of special needs, including mental health disorders and developmental disabilities. Participants were assigned to one of two active videogame conditions: playing alone and playing with a peer. Two different EF tasks were conducted pre- and postplay. Children who played alone increased their accuracy performance more than children in the paired-play condition on two measures of EF. The study explored potential covariates of prior videogame experience, age, and enjoyment, but none of these variables related to EF change. This study's findings support active videogame play as an activity that can boost EF skills for children with special needs when they play alone. Future research should continue to examine the relationships between EF and active videogame play with a peer to elucidate the contributions of social interactions.
Full Text Available Inspired by infant development theories, a robotic developmental model combined with game elements is proposed in this paper. This model does not require the definition of specific developmental goals for the robot, but the developmental goals are implied in the goals of a series of game tasks. The games are characterized into a sequence of game modes based on the complexity of the game tasks from simple to complex, and the task complexity is determined by the applications of developmental constraints. Given a current mode, the robot switches to play in a more complicated game mode when it cannot find any new salient stimuli in the current mode. By doing so, the robot gradually achieves it developmental goals by playing different modes of games. In the experiment, the game was instantiated into a mobile robot with the playing task of picking up toys, and the game is designed with a simple game mode and a complex game mode. A developmental algorithm, “Lift-Constraint, Act and Saturate,” is employed to drive the mobile robot move from the simple mode to the complex one. The experimental results show that the mobile manipulator is able to successfully learn the mobile grasping ability after playing simple and complex games, which is promising in developing robotic abilities to solve complex tasks using games.
van Oers, B.
This article proposes a reconceptualisation of role play on the basis of the Cultural-Historical theory (Vygotskij -Leont'ev - El'konin). The theory conceives of play as a specific mode of activity defined by a format that includes three basic parameters (rules, degrees of freedom and involvement).
Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Theatre is often introduced into science museums to enhance visitor experience. While learning in museums exhibitions received considerable research attention, learning from museum theatre has not. The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate the potential educational role of a science museum theatre play. The study aimed to investigate (1) cognitive learning outcomes of the play, (2) how these outcomes interact with different viewing contexts and (3) experiential learning outcomes through the theatrical experience. The play `Robot and I', addressing principles in robotics, was commissioned by a science museum. Data consisted of 391 questionnaires and interviews with 47 children and 20 parents. Findings indicate that explicit but not implicit learning goals were decoded successfully. There was little synergy between learning outcomes of the play and an exhibition on robotics, demonstrating the effect of two different physical contexts. Interview data revealed that prior knowledge, experience and interest played a major role in children's understanding of the play. Analysis of the theatrical experience showed that despite strong identification with the child protagonist, children often doubted the protagonist's knowledge jeopardizing integration of scientific content. The study extends the empirical knowledge and theoretical thinking on museum theatre to better support claims of its virtues and respond to their criticism.
Cheng, Doris Pui-Wah
For centuries, educators and psychologists have advocated "play" as the ideal activity for the development of young children. Actually, play has been found currently to be the central pedagogy in the learning of young children in 21 countries in the world. However, the quality of play-based pedagogy is becoming a key concern across…
Nielsen, Siw G.
This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…
Colliver, Yeshe; Fleer, Marilyn
Around the world, if and how young children learn through their play in early childhood education and care contexts has been the subject of much debate. Yet rarely has the debate heard from the young children themselves, often due to the pervasive belief that they do not understand learning. To redress this, a qualitative case study was conducted…
Full Text Available Scientific literacy is more than the simple reproduction of traditional school science knowledge and requires a set of skills, among them identifying scientific issues, explaining phenomena scientifically and using scientific evidence. Several studies have indicated that playing computer games in the classroom can support the development of students’ conceptual understanding about scientific phenomena and theories. Our paper presents a research study where the role of the video game Spore as a learning tool was analysed in a Biology class. An ethnographical perspective served as the framework for the organization and development of a workshop comprised of five sessions with 22 4th grade students, and their Biology teacher. The results show that this video game could become an interesting learning tool to improve students’ understanding of evolution and natural selection. The students could combine their previous knowledge with the academic knowledge obtained though the simulation presented by the video game. To sum up, an attempt has been made to give some empirical guidance about effective approaches to the utilisation of games in classrooms, additionally paying attention to a number of concerns related to the effectiveness of video games as learning tools.
Youth rarely receive opportunities to craft their own strategies around health and wellness within contexts relevant to them. From 2009 to 2010, the Institute of Play, based in New York, developed Being Me, a social networking site, to enable sixth-graders at the Quest to Learn public school to explore, discover and document a range of ideas…
Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero
In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....
Grant, Katrina; Mistry, Malini Tina
This paper investigates role-play activities and how they can be used within learning for English as an Additional Language (EAL) pupils in a Key Stage 2 setting in England. Through observations, results showed effective role-play activities can be beneficial to EAL pupils, allowing them to practice words and phrases in a relaxed atmosphere…
Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R
To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.
Although at the international school competitions, Romanian students are in the top, but few students decide to learn science in school. The major problem is "how to motivate students to study science?" In cooperation with Meridian Zero Astroclub, Oradea, we provide students non-formal space where non-formal activities can approach them to the work of a researcher. Five days in September, ten to fifteen students are invited in a journey through the science world. • Formation of the Moon's craters • Solar radiation • Solar cycles • Constellations • Solar System • Eratosthenes experiment These topics are examples from our activities. Working with students from 4 years old to 18 years old, all activities are developed in the form of games, combining mathematical skills with physics or astronomy. Older students are put in the position of teachers for younger students. Results: A better understanding of physical processes, a higher interest in science, a better application of mathematical concepts in class.
This paper discusses and questions the current metadata standards for learning objects from a pedagogical point of view. From a social constructivist approach, the paper discusses how learning objects can support problem based, self-governed learning activities. In order to support this approach......, it is argued that it is necessary to focus on learning activities rather than on learning objects. Further, it is argued that descriptions of learning objectives and learning activities should be separated from learning objects. The paper presents a new conception of learning objects which supports problem...... based, self-governed activities. Further, a new way of thinking pedagogy into learning objects is introduced. It is argued that a lack of pedagogical thinking in learning objects is not solved through pedagogical metadata. Instead, the paper suggests the concept of references as an alternative...
I study the informational complexity of active learning in a statistical learning theory framework. Specifically, I derive bounds on the rates of...convergence achievable by active learning , under various noise models and under general conditions on the hypothesis class. I also study the theoretical...advantages of active learning over passive learning, and develop procedures for transforming passive learning algorithms into active learning algorithms
Hulteen, Ryan M; Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M
Active video games (AVGs) may be useful for movement skill practice. This study examined children's skill execution while playing Xbox Kinect™ and during movement skill assessment. Nineteen children (10 boys, 9 girls; M age=7.9 yr., SD=1.4) had their skills assessed before AVG play and then were observed once a week for 6 wk. while playing AVGs for 50 min. While AVG play showed evidence of correct skill performance (at least 30-50% of the time when playing table tennis, tennis, and baseball), nearly all skills were more correctly performed during skill assessment (generally more than 50% of the time). This study may help researchers to better understand the role AVGs could play in enhancing real life movement skills.
Castro, R.M.; Nowak, R.
This paper analyzes the potential advantages and theoretical challenges of "active learning" algorithms. Active learning involves sequential sampling procedures that use information gleaned from previous samples in order to focus the sampling and accelerate the learning process relative to "passive
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Bavelier, Daphne
The notion that play may facilitate learning has long been touted. Here, we review how video game play may be leveraged for enhancing attentional control, allowing greater cognitive flexibility and learning and in turn new routes to better address developmental disorders. Video games, initially developed for entertainment, appear to enhance the behavior in domains as varied as perception, attention, task switching, or mental rotation. This surprisingly wide transfer may be mediated by enhanced attentional control, allowing increased signal-to-noise ratio and thus more informed decisions. The possibility of enhancing attentional control through targeted interventions, be it computerized training or self-regulation techniques, is now well established. Embedding such training in video game play is appealing, given the astounding amount of time spent by children and adults worldwide with this media. It holds the promise of increasing compliance in patients and motivation in school children, and of enhancing the use of positive impact games. Yet for all the promises, existing research indicates that not all games are created equal: a better understanding of the game play elements that foster attention and learning as well as of the strategies developed by the players is needed. Computational models from machine learning or developmental robotics provide a rich theoretical framework to develop this work further and address its impact on developmental disorders.
Play is so important that it is declared as one of the human rights by the United Nations. Although it is focused on children, play does "not" stop there. In the 1990s the author designed and facilitated a blended curriculum for a Head Start Program. The instructional goal was to introduce and get the children to effectively and…
Larsen, Lasse Juel
to ground the students sense of meaning. This paper proposes another approach: using visualization in immersive 3D-worlds as documentation of learning progress while at the same time constituting a reward system which motivate further learning. The overall design idea is to build a game based learning......Abstract: The present paper proposes a new design perspective for game based learning. The general idea is to abandon the long and sought after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students from elementary school to high school without teachers’ interference could learn whatever...... game based learning system, but also confront aspects of modern learning theory especially the notion of reference between content of an assignment and the reality with which it should or could be connected (situated learning). The second idea promotes a way to tackle the common experience...
Wade, M G; Ellis, M J; Bohrer, R E
The interaction between the arousal to action of environmental stimuli and recovery from that activity was presumed to generate biorhythms in the activity level of children. The level of environmental stimuli was manipulated by varying the play-group size and the apparatus, and higher environmental complexity was expected to produce more pronounced rhythms. The heart rates of 16 subjects playing in monad, dyad, and tetrad group sizes, in two playroom configurations, were monitored and spectral analysis used to locate significant biorhythms. There was a tendency toward 40-min (slow frequency) and 15-min (fast frequency) biorhythms. The group size manipulation produced the strongest biorhythmic behavior in the dyadic groups. Apparatus differences were not significant but the configuration containing a minimum quantity of play apparatus produced more variable activity than the configuration containing a large amount of play apparatus.
Wade, M. G.; Ellis, M. J.; Bohrer, R. E.
The interaction between the arousal to action of environmental stimuli and recovery from that activity was presumed to generate biorhythms in the activity level of children. The level of environmental stimuli was manipulated by varying the play-group size and the apparatus, and higher environmental complexity was expected to produce more pronounced rhythms. The heart rates of 16 subjects playing in monad, dyad, and tetrad group sizes, in two playroom configurations, were monitored and spectral analysis used to locate significant biorhythms. There was a tendency toward 40-min (slow frequency) and 15-min (fast frequency) biorhythms. The group size manipulation produced the strongest biorhythmic behavior in the dyadic groups. Apparatus differences were not significant but the configuration containing a minimum quantity of play apparatus produced more variable activity than the configuration containing a large amount of play apparatus. PMID:4714575
Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.
Hong, Seong Bock; Shaffer, LaShorage; Han, Jisu
A key aspect of the Reggio Emilia inspired curriculum is a learning group approach that fosters social and cognitive development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Reggio Emilia inspired learning group approach works for children with and without disabilities. This study gives insight into how to form an appropriate learning group…
Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R
To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.
Gordon, Sue; Thomas, Ian
Use of role-plays to develop deep student-learning has many advocates. Role-play is a powerful approach for learning that develops relevant skills in a range of disciplines and situations. In Higher Education, sustainability programmes role-play pedagogy appears to have great relevance for developing the competencies that these graduates will…
Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ‘Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. The ‘Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY study will focus largely on online delivery to enhance translational capacity. Methods/Design The intervention will be implemented at school and teacher levels, and will include six components: (i quality physical education and school sport, (ii classroom movement breaks, (iii physically active homework, (iv active playgrounds, (v community physical activity links and (vi parent/caregiver engagement. Experienced physical education teachers will deliver professional learning workshops and follow-up, individualized mentoring to primary teachers (i.e., Kindergarten – Year 6. These activities will be supported by online learning and resources. Teachers will then deliver the iPLAY intervention components in their schools. We will evaluate iPLAY in two complementary studies in primary schools across New South Wales (NSW, Australia. A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT, involving a representative sample of 20 schools within NSW (1:1 allocation at the school level to intervention and attention control conditions, will assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 and 24 months. Students’ cardiorespiratory fitness will be the primary outcome in this trial. Key secondary outcomes will include students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (via accelerometers, fundamental movement
Cecília Helena de Siqueira Sigaud
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the number of appropriate behaviors for tooth brushing before and after a playful learning intervention with preschool children. Method: A quasi-experimental, quantitative, before and after study design was conducted in an early childhood educational institution, with children between three and five years of age. The intervention consisted of three meetings with educational activities about tooth brushing, whose outcome was evaluated by means of observation of ten behaviors suitable for tooth brushing. Results: Forty-four children participated in the study. The mean of adequate behaviors was 4.4 before the intervention, and 8.5 after the intervention. A significant increase in the adoption of appropriate behaviors for tooth brushing (p <0.01 was identified. Conclusion: Nurses can enhance oral health promotion actions with preschoolers in preschool institution using playful learning interventions
Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten
Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts i...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....
Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...
Henriksen, Thomas Duus
This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...
Farley, Thomas A; Meriwether, Rebecca A; Baker, Erin T; Rice, Janet C; Webber, Larry S
Promotion of physical activity in children depends on an understanding of how children use play equipment. We conducted observations over 2 years of children in 2nd through 8th grades in a schoolyard with 5 distinct play areas with different amounts of play equipment. Children were more likely to play in areas with more installed play equipment, with densities of children in equipped areas 3.3 to 12.6 times higher than in an open grassy field. There were no significant differences by play area in the percent of children who were physically active at all, but children were more likely to be very active in areas with basketball goals and an installed play structure than in an open field. Playground equipment appeared to have a strong influence on where children played and a moderate influence on levels of activity. To maximize physical activity in children, playgrounds should be designed with ample and diverse play equipment.
The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...
Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten
Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...
A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…
This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…
Pam Wright highlights the role of technology in providing situated learning opportunities for preservice teachers to explore the role commercial computer games may have in primary education. In a study designed to assess the effectiveness of an online unit on gaming incorporated into a course on learning technologies, Wright found that thoughtful…
Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ?Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth? (iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation
Lonsdale, Chris; Sanders, Taren; Cohen, Kristen E.; Parker, Philip; Noetel, Michael; Hartwig, Tim; Vasoncellos, Diego; Kirwan, Morwenna; Morgan, Philip; Salmon, Jo; Moodie, Marj; McKay, Heather; Bennie, Andrew; Plotnikoff, Ron; Cinelli, Renata L.
Abstract Background Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s physic...
Johnstone, Avril; Hughes, Adrienne R; Janssen, Xanne; Reilly, John J
Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, 'Go2Play Active Play' intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015-16. Participants ( n = 172; mean age = 7 years) were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention ( n = 102) and comparison ( n = 21) groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was 'group' on 'time' from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (all p skills score and percentile (both p = 0.02), but no significant interaction for object control skills score ( p = 0.1) and percentile ( p = 0.3). The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.
Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik
of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in a primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between....... This paper therefore aims at illustrating how and why the “Octopus” works and functions in a learning community (school) and discus the relations between distinctions, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper introduces a new reading of pervasive learning environments as the “Octopus......” through M.M. Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning. We have adapted this theory that originally is about literature in order to find new ways of understanding the time and place relation in learning....
Although under attack from some goal-oriented politicians and parents and ofen considered superfluous by school administrators and teachers, free play remains vital to human health and creativity. Contrary to the notion that play should serve utilitarian ends or consist primarily of organized sports, the author makes a case for self-initiated…
van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Broadhead, Pat
Educators stress the importance of play for children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development. In order to effectively advocate for the inclusion of play in education settings, it is important to fully understand it. Two researchers, one from England and one from the Netherlands, sought common ground for understanding what children…
Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon
Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs. © 2016 APJPH.
Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.
Romero Herrera, N.A.; Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, M.M.; Valk, de L.C.T.; Kruitwagen, S.
In this paper we describe a case study in which we examine how to develop playful persuasive solutions to motivate older adults to maintain or increase their social and physical activities. By including various stakeholders (older adults, family, and care givers) and by designing for transitions in
Henriksen, Thomas Duus
This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learningemerges in association to game-embedded metaphors.As shown in this chapter, metaphorsseem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participantswith a suitcase containing...
Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram
Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina
This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.
Diego José Díaz
Full Text Available This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds. HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.. Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.
Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina
This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity. PMID:27120601
Markey, Karen; Swanson, Fritz; Jenkins, Andrea; Jennings, Brian; St. Jean, Beth; Rosenberg, Victor; Yao, Xingxing; Frost, Robert
This exploratory study examines whether undergraduate students will play games to learn how to conduct library research. Results indicate that students will play games that are an integral component of the course curriculum and enable them to accomplish overall course goals at the same time they learn about library research. (Contains 1 table.)
This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…
Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik
of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This short paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work with new kinds......, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper does this through Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning....
Researchers and instructional designers are exploring the possibilities of using video games to support STEM education in the U.S., not only because they are a popular media form among youth, but also because well-designed games often leverage the best features of inquiry learning. Those interested in using games in an educational capacity may benefit from an examination of the work of video game designer Will Wright. Wright designs through a constructivist lens and his open-ended, sandbox games ( SimCity, The Sims, Spore) present wide "possibility spaces" that allow players to exercise their critical thinking and problem solving skills. His games invoke a delight in discovery that inspire creative acts and interest-driven learning both during and outside of the game. Finally, he reminds us that failure-based learning is a viable strategy for building expertise and understanding.
Monedero, Javier; McDonnell, Adam C; Keoghan, Melissa; O'Gorman, Donal J
Large proportions of the population do not meet current American College of Sports Medicine physical activity recommendations, and innovative approaches are required. Most active videogames do not require a significant amount of energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to determine if modifying an active videogame increased exercise intensity to meet current physical activity recommendations. After completing a maximal oxygen uptake test, participants did a familiarization session on a separate day. Thirteen healthy participants 24.2±3.4 years of age played (1) a sedentary videogame, (2) an active videogame, and (3) a modified active videogame designed to increase physical activity for 46 minutes in a randomized order on separate days. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, heart rate reserve, percentage of maximal heart rate, metabolic equivalents of task, and energy expenditure were significantly higher during the modified active videogame trial than during the active videogame or sedentary videogame trials and also between the active videogame and sedentary videogame. A simple modification to an existing active videogame was sufficient to reach moderate exercise intensity. Active videogames could provide an important option for increasing daily physical activity and reducing sedentary time.
Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.
Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)
Scheltenaar, K.J.; van der Poel, J.E.C.; Bekker, Tilde
The goal of this paper is to explore how to implement Design Based Learning (DBL) with digital toolkits to teach 21st century skills in (Dutch) schools. It describes the outcomes of a literature study and two design case studies in which such a DBL approach with digital toolkits was iteratively
Researchers and instructional designers are exploring the possibilities of using video games to support STEM education in the U.S., not only because they are a popular media form among youth, but also because well-designed games often leverage the best features of inquiry learning. Those interested in using games in an educational capacity may…
McDermott, Lori Berger
A growing body of national research confirms that significant levels of learning and growth occur during early childhood, and that it is important, from a public policy perspective, to increase access to quality programs and services that support the development of skills and attitudes children need to succeed. Clearly, no one-size-fits-all…
Barab, Sasha A.; Dodge, Tyler; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Pettyjohn, Patrick; Peppler, Kylie; Volk, Charlene; Solomou, Maria
Although every era is met with the introduction of powerful technologies for entertainment and learning, videogames represent a new contribution binding the two and bearing the potential to create sustained engagement in a curricular drama where the player's knowledgeable actions shape an unfolding fiction within a designed world. Although…
Olsen, Heather; Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan
Early childhood programs strive to provide good-quality care and education as young children develop their physical, emotional, social, and intellectual skills. In order to provide children with positive, developmentally appropriate learning opportunities, educators ensure the safety and security of children, indoors and outdoors. The outdoor…
Herrero, David; del Castillo, Héctor; Monjelat, Natalia; García-Varela, Ana Belén; Checa, Mirian; Gómez, Patricia
Scientific literacy is more than the simple reproduction of traditional school science knowledge and requires a set of skills, among them identifying scientific issues, explaining phenomena scientifically and using scientific evidence. Several studies have indicated that playing computer games in the classroom can support the development of…
Franciosi, Stephan J.; Mehring, Jeffrey
Studies suggest that simulations and games not only improve target language skills, but they can also support knowledge creation regarding a broader variety of topics. Thus, we wanted to explore how playing an online simulation game affected knowledge of energy supply and its relationship to environmental and economic factors among learners of…
Full Text Available In this study, children with a mathematical learning disability (=14 and age-matched peers without learning disabilities (=14 as well as their parents and teachers were interviewed on how they experienced playing an instrument (guitar, drum, flute, violin, trombone, horn, and piano and on what helped them using a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings. Thematic analyses mentioned intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as important. Some children with MLD were found to have a real musical talent and a very good musical ear and memory for sounds. However, all children with MLD seemed more dependent on the aid of parents, sibling, peers, and teachers. They had to study harder and needed more time to study, more practice, and a more structured approach.
Edmonds, Roger; Smith, Simon
This paper presents research into the benefits and implementation strategies of integrating location-based mobile learning games in higher education courses to enhance educational experiences. Two approaches were studied: learning by playing, and learning by designing. In the first, games were developed for undergraduate courses in four discipline…
Salmon, Angela K.
Coupled with reflection, play leads to the development of thinking dispositions and promotes deep learning and understanding. The twenty-first century world demands that children learn how to learn by becoming reflective, self-regulating inquirers capable of metacognition (thinking about thinking). This manuscript aims to analyse how young minds…
Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F
Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal
Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien
The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.
The rise of digital games over recent years has been exponential. While many are used for entertainment, digital games have also begun to permeate education — which has lead to the coining of the term ―serious games‖ . Proponents of serious games argue that they hold enormous potential for learning , by embodying a range of pedagogical strategies. While some have adopted commercial games for use in the classroom, others have designed games specifically for educational purposes. Howev...
Trafton, J. G; Schultz, Alan C; Perznowski, Dennis; Bugajska, Magdalena D; Adams, William; Cassimatis, Nicholas L; Brock, Derek P
...., containment, under) and use that information to play a credible game of hide and seek. They model this hypothesis within the ACT-R cognitive architecture and put the model on a robot, which is able to mimic the child's hiding behavior. They also take the "hiding" model and use it as the basis for a "seeking" model. They suggest that using the same representations and procedures that a person uses allows better interaction between the human and robotic system.
Active Learning with Statistical Models ASC-9217041, NSF CDA-9309300 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Cohn, Zoubin Ghahramani, and Michael I. Jordan 7. PERFORMING...TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Al, MIT, Artificial Intelligence, active learning , queries, locally weighted 6 regression, LOESS, mixtures of gaussians...COMPUTATIONAL LEARNING DEPARTMENT OF BRAIN AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES A.I. Memo No. 1522 January 9. 1995 C.B.C.L. Paper No. 110 Active Learning with
Full Text Available Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, ‘Go2Play Active Play’ intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015–16. Participants (n = 172; mean age = 7 years were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention (n = 102 and comparison (n = 21 groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was ‘group’ on ‘time’ from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA (all p < 0.01 for school day physical activity. There was a significant interaction for gross motor quotient (GMQ score (p = 0.02 and percentile (p = 0.04, locomotor skills score and percentile (both p = 0.02, but no significant interaction for object control skills score (p = 0.1 and percentile (p = 0.3. The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.
Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni
This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between achievement and the perception of enjoyment and learning through the serious game, Playing Property.Playing Property is an audience response game forming the basis of workshops to engage junior high students, of 13 to 15 years old, and enhance their knowledge of property investment. The investigation extends to the analysis of trends in audience response decisions from 14 workshops, conducted over three consecutive years.Emerging findings present significant associations between enjoyment and the perception of learning. The relationship between achievement, measured in accumulated game score, and the responders’ perception of enjoyment is present but less significant. Further analysis supports a deeper relationship between play and learning, one where competition and other game play attributes are more effective in engagement than point scoring or rewarding.A more detailed evaluation may include staged testing of what may be learned and how well that learning endures, in comparison with other forms of teaching.
Grim, Jiří; Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel
Roč. 26, č. 12 (2005), s. 1866-1873 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/02/1271; GA ČR GA402/03/1310; GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Comission EU(XE) FP6-507772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : neural networks * distribution mixtures * playing game s Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005
Megan L. Frank
Full Text Available Background/Objective: Physical activity (PA is important in reducing childhood obesity, yet a majority of children are not meeting PA guidelines. Schools have been identified as a place to promote childhood PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of physically active recess period to increase preschool-aged children's PA. Methods: PA was measured via accelerometers in preschool-aged children (n = 29 during three, 30-min recess conditions (control; structured play; free play on separate school days. Tertile splits were performed based on PA during the free play condition and children were divided into three groups: highly, moderately and least active. Results: For the aggregated sample, children were more (p ≤ 0.001 active during the free play (1282 ± 662 counts. min−1 and structured play (1416 ± 448 counts. min−1 recess versus the control condition (570 ± 460 counts. min−1 and activity was not different between the free play and structured conditions. However, children who were the most active during free play (1970 ± 647 counts·min−1 decreased (p ≤ 0.05 activity during structured play (1462 ± 535 counts·min−1, whereas children who were moderately active (1031 ± 112 counts·min−1 or the least (530 ± 239 counts·min−1 active during free play increased activity during structured play (1383 ± 345 counts·min−1 moderately active, 1313 ± 413 counts·min−1 least active. Conclusion: Providing a physically-active recess period will contribute to preschool-aged children meeting the recommended PA guidelines; however, different children may respond in a different way based upon the structure of the recess period.
Linek, Stephanie B.; Schwarz, Daniel; Bopp, Matthias; Albert, Dietrich
Game-based learning builds upon the idea of using the motivational potential of video games in the educational context. Thus, the design of educational games has to address optimizing enjoyment as well as optimizing learning. Within the EC-project ELEKTRA a methodological framework for the conceptual design of educational games was developed. Thereby state-of-the-art psycho-pedagogical approaches were combined with insights of media-psychology as well as with best-practice game design. This science-based interdisciplinary approach was enriched by enclosed empirical research to answer open questions on educational game-design. Additionally, several evaluation-cycles were implemented to achieve further improvements. The psycho-pedagogical core of the methodology can be summarized by the ELEKTRA's 4Ms: Macroadaptivity, Microadaptivity, Metacognition, and Motivation. The conceptual framework is structured in eight phases which have several interconnections and feedback-cycles that enable a close interdisciplinary collaboration between game design, pedagogy, cognitive science and media psychology.
Irina Nikolaevna Aleshina
Full Text Available The article analyzes various attitudes to military toys, both positive and negative, existing in Russia and abroad. Toy weapons are viewed as a separate type of military toy. The study looks at the impact of military toys on children’s emotions and personality. The study looks at how children play games on their own and the way they organize them. We have conducted an experiment where three types of toys were used – military toys, soft toys and objects that act as toy substitutes. The study of games and the roles children took showed their poor playing skills. The research has detected existing connection between imagination and thinking ability and the children’s play activity. None of the children took the role of ‘the defender of the weak’ or ‘Patria’s defender’, which contradicts the results of an opinion survey of children’s parents who think that military toys help to develop ‘patriotism’, ‘courage’, and ‘teach to protect the weak’.Repeated observation of the way the same children play with military toys has shown that they take the role of defenders of the motherland or the weak only after watching TV-programmes or fiction films which show male characters defending their motherland or the weak using weapons, which shows that children’s games have social character.The experiment’s results detected what activity adults, who are concerned with the young generation’s attitude to weapons and violence, should perform. It is vital to strengthen children’s moral, ethical and cognitive spheres first, and only in second place fight against sales of military toys both in Russia and abroad.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-53
Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.
Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070
Dijnane Fernanda Vedovatto Iza
Full Text Available In this paper we discusses the importance of the childish education teachers clearly know about the meaning and the sense of the play activities with children 0 a 6 years old. This is part of doctor thesis from among of goals, one of them was to unveil the meaning and sense of the play activities attributed by childish education teachers. Part of the methodology used in the research involved interview with five childish education teachers who participated of a course about o theme and, so, video-records about yours routines and activities with the children. The results denote that the meaning and sense attributed by these teachers at to propose play activities for the children are connected to understanding of this activity as generating of the learns for this ages and, therefore, it needs to be developed with pleasure. The changes in the practices with the children are attribute to the courses which the teachers change experiences, discusses problems, suggest solutions and enlarge the possibilities about yours practices with children, which can to mean the improvement of the childish education quality. From There the importance of the public politics invest in the actions to the continuing childish teacher education by partnership with the university, so that the teachers can enlarge yours conceptions about the play activities and feel safety about to propose and to encourage these activities between children.
Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.
Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531
Roach, Lindsay; Keats, Melanie
Fundamental movement skill interventions are important for promoting physical activity, but the optimal intervention model for preschool children remains unclear. We compared two 8-week interventions, a structured skill-station and a planned active play approach, to a free-play control condition on pre- and postintervention fundamental movement skills. We also collected data regarding program attendance and perceived enjoyment. We found a significant interaction effect between intervention type and time. A Tukey honest significant difference analysis supported a positive intervention effect showing a significant difference between both interventions and the free-play control condition. There was a significant between-group difference in group attendance such that mean attendance was higher for both the free-play and planned active play groups relative to the structured skill-based approach. There were no differences in attendance between free-play and planned active play groups, and there were no differences in enjoyment ratings between the two intervention groups. In sum, while both interventions led to improved fundamental movement skills, the active play approach offered several logistical advantages. Although these findings should be replicated, they can guide feasible and sustainable fundamental movement skill programs within day care settings.
Goh, Shu Li
The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…
Mariais, Christelle; Michau, Florence; Pernin, Jean-Philippe
To strengthen the motivation of learners, the professional training sector is focusing more and more on game-based learning. In this context, the authors have become interested in the design of Learning Role-Play Game (LRPG) scenarios. The aim of this article is to improve the designers' confidence in the validity of the game-based learning…
Schmitz, Birgit; Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013). Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior. In D. Hernández-Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact. Proceedings of European Conference on Technology Enhanced
Thorsted, Ann Charlotte; Bing, Rie Grønbeck; Kristensen, Michael
the students find that this experience enhanced a different learning form, from the one they knew from their earlier PBL processes? What was it the playful approach to PBL as a learning method had mediated? The article leads on to a distinction and a model encircling three different knowledge forms based...
McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.
This study evaluated an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) case study in physical education teacher education from a student perspective. Action research evaluated the impact of a range of ICT options on student teachers' learning to play as well as learning to teach games in a secondary school context. Although multiple media were…
Dall'Alba, Gloria; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
is largely lacking in the literature on active learning. In this article, we explore the possibility of re-imagining, or at least extending, the meaning of active learning by drawing out dimensions that are neither readily visible nor instrumental, as much of this literature implies. Drawing from educational......Ample attention is being paid in the higher education literature to promoting active learning among students. Where studies on active learning report student outcomes, they indicate improved or equivalent outcomes when compared with traditional lectures, which are considered more passive...... philosophy and, in particular, existential philosophies, we argue that active learning may also be partly invisible, unfocused, unsettling, and not at all instrumentalsometimes even leaving the learner more confused and (temporarily) incompetent. However, such forms of undisclosed or ‘dark’ learning, we...
Liana Gois Leite
Full Text Available Gender is a social construct, that is, an entirely social creation of ideas about the roles specific to men and to women (BEAVOUIR, 1970. In this context, the present study examined the relationships between different genres and the way they are expressed in "play". The sample had 15 children, seven girls and eight boys, all aged between three and four years, students of a Children's Educational Center in Brasilia, Federal District. Five sessions of Systematic Observation of spontaneous play, a moment where children did not have directed activities, were performed (RICHARDSON, 1999 along with a semi-structured interview with the teacher responsible for the class. From the data analysis, it can be inferred that the formation of groups was not necessarily determined by the composition of the group according to different genres, however, a higher incidence of homogeneous groups was found. The games do not necessarily follow social stereotypes linked to gender.
Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat
Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…
Initiated in response to informal reports of vocabulary gains from gamers at universities in New Zealand and the Netherlands, this qualitative study explored how English language learners autonomously learn vocabulary while playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using research processes inherent in Grounded Theory, data…
This paper proposes a computational modelling approach for investigating the interplay of learning and playing in serious games. A formal model is introduced that allows for studying the details of playing a serious game under diverse conditions. The dynamics of player action and motivation is based
Plass, Jan L.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Homer, Bruce D.; Case, Jennifer; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Stein, Murphy; Perlin, Ken
The present research examined how mode of play in an educational mathematics video game impacts learning, performance, and motivation. The game was designed for the practice and automation of arithmetic skills to increase fluency and was adapted to allow for individual, competitive, or collaborative game play. Participants (N = 58) from urban…
Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan
Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…
Madray, Amrita; Catalano, Amy
Many educational theorists who study child development concur that the importance of play related materials in schools, homes and libraries is vital to the concept of play and learning. As academic librarians responsible for information literacy, and as the education liaison for the management and collection development of the instructional…
Riain, Isobel Ní; Dawson, Ciarán; McCarthy, Marian
The following article is based on a piece of qualitative research on the use of role-play in a literature module in the Modern Irish Dept. of University College Cork, Ireland, in 2015. There were 18 students involved in the research. The aim of the research was to investigate if students associate learning with the use of role-play in literature…
Full Text Available In this paper I examine children’s play as a context for managing physiological arousal and learning to regulate strong emotions. I define emotion regulation as the process by which children monitor and control their emotional states and their expression to adapt to different social situations or demands. Age trends and gender differences in emotion regulation problems and competencies are described. I then review the development of play, deprivation studies, and the biological functions of different forms of play in primates before discussing children’s play. Vigorous social play benefits children by promoting the development of communication, perspective-taking and emotion regulation skills. For boys especially, rough-and-tumble play in early childhood provides a scaffold for learning emotion regulation skills related to managing anger and aggression.
Bazzica, A.; Liem, C.C.S.; Hanjalic, A.
Information on whether a musician in a large symphonic orchestra plays her instrument at a given time stamp or not is valuable for a wide variety of applications aiming at mimicking and enriching the classical music concert experience on modern multimedia platforms. In this work, we propose a novel
Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai J M
The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. Cross-sectional. A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, n = 373), recruited via schools. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine demographic correlates of active gaming (≥ 1 h per week) and non-active gaming (>7h per week). Of all participants (n=373), 3% reported to play exclusively active games, 40% active games and non-active games, 40% exclusively non-active games, and 17% not playing video games at all. Active gaming adolescents played active games on average on 1.5 (sd = 1.2) days per school week for 36 (sd = 32.9)min and 1 (sd = 0.54) day per weekend for 42 (sd = 36.5)min. Non-active gaming adolescents played on average on 3.3 (sd = 1.6) days per school week for 65 (sd = 46.0)min and 1.4 (sd = 0.65) days per weekend for 80 (sd = 50.8)min. Adolescents attending lower levels of education were more likely to play active games ≥ 1 h per week than adolescents attending higher educational levels. Boys and older adolescents were more likely to play non-active games >7h per week, than girls or younger adolescents. Many adolescents play active games, especially those following a lower educational level, but time spent in this activity is relatively low compared to non-active gaming. To be feasible as a public health strategy, active gaming interventions should achieve more time is spent on active gaming at the expense of non-active gaming. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Play stimulates children’s growth and development. When mothers and their children play, a positive attitude from the mother and adequate interest from the child is required. Little is known about the play activities that effectively stimulate such positive maternal attitude and child interest. Objective To assess for associations between various play activities with maternal attitude and child interest before and after mother-child play sessions. Methods Pre-post intervention questionnaires were distributed to mothers before and after playing with their children. Children were aged 1-5 years, from two play sites (in Surabaya and Makassar, and included using purposive sampling. Eight types of toys/play activities were provided. The allocated time for answering the 17-question survey was 15 minutes. Average scores before and after the mother-child play sessions were analyzed using paired T-test. Results We collected 264 valid questionnaires, 235 in Surabaya and 29 in Makassar. Improvement of maternal attitude after the mother-child play session was found in 132 mothers [mean diff. 0.07 (SD 0.42; 95%CI -0.117 to -0.015; P=0.011]. Play activities with significant improvements in maternal attitude were jigsaw puzzle [mean diff. 0.09 (SD 0.66; 95% CI 0.007 to 0.167;P= 0.033, Lego blocks (mean diff.-0.10 (SD 0.69; 95%CI -0.186 to -0.018; P=0.017, mini-gardening (mean diff. -0.15 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.238 to -0.057; P=0.002, sandbox [mean diff.-0.24 (SD 0.83; 95%CI -0.339 to – 0.138; P < 0.001], fishing [mean diff. -0.17 (SD 0.68; 95%CI -0.253 to -0.088; P < 0.001], and animal figurines [mean diff. -0.21 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.3 to -0.117;P <0.001]. Improvement of child interest was found in 161 children [mean diff. 0.20 (SD 0.52; 95%CI -0.264 to -0.116; P<0.001]. Play activities with significant improvements in child interest were jigsaw puzzle, Lego blocks, origami, mini-gardening, fishing, and animal figurines. Conclusion Some mother
Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B
Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. Evaluate outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, and adiposity. Two-group RCT; assessments occurred at baseline, immediately after Diab, immediately after Nano, and 2 months later. Data were collected in 2008-2009, and analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. 133 children aged 10-12 years, initially between 50th percentile and 95th percentile BMI. Treatment group played Diab and Nano in sequence. Control Group played diet and physical activity knowledge-based games on popular websites. Servings of fruit, vegetable, and water; minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At each point of assessment: 3 nonconsecutive days of 24-hour dietary recalls; 5 consecutive days of physical activity using accelerometers; and assessment of height, weight, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. A repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted (analyzed in 2009-2010). Children playing these video games increased fruit and vegetable consumption by about 0.67 servings per day (pchange. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.
A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…
Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Akira
Japanese National Institutes of Technology have revealed a plan to strongly promote e-Learning and active learning under the common schematization of education in over 50 campuses nationwide. Our e-Learning and ICT-driven education practiced for more than fifteen years were highly evaluated, and is playing a leading role in promoting e-Learning…
Brom, Cyril; Šisler, Vít; Slussareff, Michaela; Selmbacherová, Tereza; Hlávka, Zdenek
Despite the alleged ability of digital game-based learning (DGBL) to foster positive affect and in turn improve learning, the link between affectivity and learning has not been sufficiently investigated in this field. Regarding learning from team-based games with competitive elements, even less is known about the relationship between…
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan
Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…
Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance
Chin A Paw, Marijke J M; Jacobs, Wietske M; Vaessen, Ellen P G; Titze, Sylvia; van Mechelen, Willem
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a weekly multiplayer class on the motivation of children aged 9-12 years to play an interactive dance simulation video game (IDSVG) at home over a period of 12 weeks. A sample of 27 children was randomly assigned to (1) a home group instructed to play the IDSVG at home; (2) a multiplayer group instructed to play the IDSVG at home and to participate in a weekly IDSVG multiplayer class. Participants were asked to play the IDSVG as often as they liked and report the playing time daily on a calendar for a 12-week period. Motivation to play was assessed by the playing duration of IDSVG in minutes and the dropout during the study. Mean age of the 16 children who completed the study was 10.6+/-0.8 years. During the 12-week intervention period, the multiplayer group played approximately twice as many minutes (901min) as the home group (376min, p=0.13). Dropout was significantly (p=0.02) lower in the multiplayer group (15%) than in the home group (64%). Our findings suggest that multiplayer classes may increase children's motivation to play interactive dance simulation video games.
Taylor, Lynne M; Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila A; Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Kerse, Ngaire M
Tayl To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Cross-sectional study. University research center. Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja
Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…
Beygelzimer, Alina; Hsu, Daniel; Langford, John; Zhang, Tong
We present and analyze an agnostic active learning algorithm that works without keeping a version space. This is unlike all previous approaches where a restricted set of candidate hypotheses is maintained throughout learning, and only hypotheses from this set are ever returned. By avoiding this version space approach, our algorithm sheds the computational burden and brittleness associated with maintaining version spaces, yet still allows for substantial improvements over supervised learning f...
De Grove, Frederik; Van Looy, Jan; Mechant, Peter
Learning opportunities offered by digital games have become an important research topic in recent years. Language learning is one of the areas in which games could prosper but the question then is whether these should be specialized language-learning games or commercial off-the-shelf games for entertainment. The goal of this paper is to compare…
Brandt, Jennifer C; Bateman, Shane W
Recent studies of veterinary practice have suggested a correlation between well-developed communication skills and job satisfaction, career retention, customer satisfaction, decreased lawsuits, and financial remuneration for veterinarians. Veterinary educators are under growing pressure to teach functional communication skills to veterinary students; however, the methods employed have not been well evaluated. In this study we have evaluated veterinary student's attitudes to learning communication skills by participating in role play. The study indicates that experiential learning modalities such as role play are perceived as effective by students, despite reluctance to participate and some discomfort surrounding participation.
He, Frank S.; Liu, Yang; Schwing, Alexander G.; Peng, Jian
We propose a novel training algorithm for reinforcement learning which combines the strength of deep Q-learning with a constrained optimization approach to tighten optimality and encourage faster reward propagation. Our novel technique makes deep reinforcement learning more practical by drastically reducing the training time. We evaluate the performance of our approach on the 49 games of the challenging Arcade Learning Environment, and report significant improvements in both training time and...
Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo
Possessing positive physical perceived competence is important for physical activity in older children. Young children are primarily physically active through play-based behaviour rather than through organised sports and activities, so understanding how play perceptions might influence physical activity behaviour is important. The study purpose was to assess if perceived active play competence is associated with young children's physical activity. Cross sectional study. This paper uses two different samples drawn from the same Australian city, both collected in 2013. The first sample included 152 children (49% boys) aged 4-5 years (M=4.7, SD=0.47), the second sample included 78 children (55% boys) aged 5-8 years (M=6.6, SD=0.93). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence was used to assess children's perceived competence in six skill-related play activities. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed for 8 consecutive days via accelerometers. A general linear model with the mean minutes in MVPA per day as the outcome, perceived play competence as the independent variable and adjusting for relevant confounders was performed in each sample. Perceived active play competence was not related to MVPA min/day (B=0.44, p=0.323) in the younger sample, but was in the older sample (B=1.53, p=0.026), explaining 24% of adjusted variance. Positive findings in the older sample show school-aged children need exposure to play based activities in order to develop the positive self-perception needed to engage in MVPA every day. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryans, Patricia; Mavin, Sharon
Explores women's experiences of learning to become managers. Discusses empirical data resulting from a questionnaire and subsequent thematic group discussion with average women managers. Highlights the importance to women managers of learning from and with others. Focuses on the contradiction women managers face, that of whether to learn to fit in…
Swenson, Brian; Kar, Soummya; Xavier, Joao
The paper is concerned with distributed learning in large-scale games. The well-known fictitious play (FP) algorithm is addressed, which, despite theoretical convergence results, might be impractical to implement in large-scale settings due to intense computation and communication requirements. An adaptation of the FP algorithm, designated as the empirical centroid fictitious play (ECFP), is presented. In ECFP players respond to the centroid of all players' actions rather than track and respo...
Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Tang, Ding-Lan; Moore, David R; Amitay, Sygal
Medical rehabilitation involving behavioral training can produce highly successful outcomes, but those successes are obtained at the cost of long periods of often tedious training, reducing compliance. By contrast, arcade-style video games can be entertaining and highly motivating. We examine here the impact of video game play on contiguous perceptual training. We alternated several periods of auditory pure-tone frequency discrimination (FD) with the popular spatial visual-motor game Tetris played in silence. Tetris play alone did not produce any auditory or cognitive benefits. However, when alternated with FD training it enhanced learning of FD and auditory working memory. The learning-enhancing effects of Tetris play cannot be explained simply by the visual-spatial training involved, as the effects were gone when Tetris play was replaced with another visual-spatial task using Tetris-like stimuli but not incorporated into a game environment. The results indicate that game play enhances learning and transfer of the contiguous auditory experiences, pointing to a promising approach for increasing the efficiency and applicability of rehabilitative training.
Full Text Available Medical rehabilitation involving behavioral training can produce highly successful outcomes, but those successes are obtained at the cost of long periods of often tedious training, reducing compliance. By contrast, arcade-style video games can be entertaining and highly motivating. We examine here the impact of video game play on contiguous perceptual training. We alternated several periods of auditory pure-tone frequency discrimination (FD with the popular spatial visual-motor game Tetris played in silence. Tetris play alone did not produce any auditory or cognitive benefits. However, when alternated with FD training it enhanced learning of FD and auditory working memory. The learning-enhancing effects of Tetris play cannot be explained simply by the visual-spatial training involved, as the effects were gone when Tetris play was replaced with another visual-spatial task using Tetris-like stimuli but not incorporated into a game environment. The results indicate that game play enhances learning and transfer of the contiguous auditory experiences, pointing to a promising approach for increasing the efficiency and applicability of rehabilitative training.
Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.
Friedrich Froebel, the German educator and founder of the Kindergarten Movement, developed a series of play materials including geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks designed to teach children about forms and relationships found in nature. Froebel's notions about using activity and play in preschool education complement many…
active learning in the sense that the learner has complete choice in the information received. Specifically, we allow the learner to ask arbitrary yes...no questions. We consider both active learning under a fixed distribution and distribution-free active learning . In the case of active learning , the...a concept class is actively learnable iff it is finite, so that active learning is in fact less powerful than the usual passive learning model. We
Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng
How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.
Nah, Kwi-Ok; Waller, Tim
This paper discusses a cross-cultural and collaborative project, in preschools in England and South Korea. The aim of the project is to investigate the pedagogy of outdoor play and learning in two different cultural contexts, from the perspectives of the practitioners. Although there has been a growing academic interest in the use of outdoor…
This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…
Childress, Marcus D.; Braswell, Ray
This article addresses the use of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) to foster communication and interaction and to facilitate cooperative learning in an online course. The authors delineate the definition and history of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), and describe current uses of MMORPGs in education, including…
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.
The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…
Randolph, Justus J.; Kangas, Marjaana; Ruokamo, Heli; Hyvönen, Pirkko
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the degree that creative and playful learning (CPL) in a technology-enriched playground influences academic achievement of students and what factors are responsible for successes. The participants were 276 students from 12 elementary classrooms in the Netherlands and Finland. The…
Letourneau, Susan M.; Meisner, Robin; Neuwirth, Jessica L.; Sobel, David M.
In two studies, Providence Children's Museum investigated caregivers' observations and perceptions of their children's play and learning at the museum. In the first, caregivers (N = 40) were interviewed about what they observed children doing, what they believed children were thinking about, and their own thoughts and actions while watching…
This paper will explore how game-play in video games as well as game centered approaches in physical education (PE) such as Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) can draw on complexity thinking to inform the learning process in physical education. Using the video game concept of game-as-teacher (Gee, 2007), ideas such as enabling constraints…
King, Elizabeth M.
Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…
Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin
The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…
van den Dries, Sjoerd; Wiering, Marco A.
This paper describes a methodology for quickly learning to play games at a strong level. The methodology consists of a novel combination of three techniques, and a variety of experiments on the game of Othello demonstrates their usefulness. First, structures or topologies in neural network
Heru, Alison M
Problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in medical education world-wide. Despite its popularity, it has not been generally considered useful for residency programs. The author presents a model for the implementation of PBL in residency programs. The author presents a description of a PBL curriculum for teaching psychosomatic medicine to PGY 2 members in a psychiatry training program. The goals of PBL are to encourage self-directed learning; enhance curiosity, using case-based, contextualized learning; promote collaborative practice; and support patient-centered care. The addition of role-playing exercises helps PGY 2 residents to develop their skills from simply developing a differential diagnosis to being able to construct biopsychosocial formulations, and it provides these residents an opportunity to practice presenting case formulations to the patient and family. Residents and faculty enjoyed the PBL role-playing sessions. Residents wanted the learning objectives given to them rather than generating their own learning objectives, to move through the cases faster, and to receive more information and more cases. Teaching psychosomatic medicine, using PBL and role-playing, allows many of the proposed Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine residency core competencies to be met. However, further refinement of the PBL method needs to take place in order to adapt its use to residency programs.
Full Text Available Dyslexia has an ambivalent relationship with learning technology. Any potential gains may be nullified if the technology is perceived to exacerbate stigma. This paper examines the use of an ‘everyday’ technology, Facebook, by a small group of sixth form students labelled as dyslexic. ‘Levelling the playing field’ is a phrase the participants used often when discussing what they wanted from learning technology. Because dyslexia usually is defined in terms of significant difficulties with literacy, we might reasonably anticipate that the participants would see Facebook as stigmatising rather than levelling the playing field, because of the very public literacy events that it demands. However, the data indicate that far from shying away from Facebook because of fear of their difficulties with literacy being exposed, the participants enthusiastically embraced it. The students saw Facebook as a desirable presence in their education, one that supported inclusion. For them, levelling the playing field with Facebook had five dimensions: keeping up to date and meeting deadlines; increased control over learning; developing metacognitive awareness; greater control over literacy process and demands; and being experts and helpers. The findings perhaps challenge some assumptions about dyslexia, literacy and learning, and may be of interest to teachers working with dyslexic students, or researchers studying learning in digitally mediated social networks.
Full Text Available Game motif programming exercises (GM-Games were developed to help novices develop complex client server game systems within their freshman year. GM-Games foster a strong work ethic in as much as they reproduce the challenges and excitement associated with game play; yet their purpose is the development of advanced programming skills. We have found that young people are just as interested in mastering programming skills as they are in mastering the shooting, racing or strategy skills required in many entertainment games. We describe in this paper how GM-Games imitate many of the aspects of game play.
Yolanda Rodríguez Manosalva
Full Text Available This paper will analyze the importance of playfulness as an instrument for learning mathematics, taking into account that the body allows to develop not only motor skills but also intellectual faculties involving high levels of abstraction, such as mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The methodology used was action research, through interviews to students, parents and teachers, as well as the systematization of experiences in the classroom by means of a field diary. It was found that traditional –tedious- teaching does not allow students to realize the importance of learning mathematics. It is concluded that it is necessary for the teachers to implement strategies that link playfulness and the body, in order to improve teaching-learning processes, which allows that mathematics do not be considered as something far from reality, but that be granted the status of a knowledge that improves the processes of understanding and reflection, facilitating the solution of practical problems.
Gozli, Davood G; Bavelier, Daphne; Pratt, Jay
Research on the impact of action video game playing has revealed performance advantages on a wide range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. It is not known, however, if playing such games confers similar advantages in sensorimotor learning. To address this issue, the present study used a manual motion-tracking task that allowed for a sensitive measure of both accuracy and improvement over time. When the target motion pattern was consistent over trials, gamers improved with a faster rate and eventually outperformed non-gamers. Performance between the two groups, however, did not differ initially. When the target motion was inconsistent, changing on every trial, results revealed no difference between gamers and non-gamers. Together, our findings suggest that video game playing confers no reliable benefit in sensorimotor control, but it does enhance sensorimotor learning, enabling superior performance in tasks with consistent and predictable structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Blumberg, Fran C; Sokol, Lori M
The authors examined gender differences in the cognitive strategies that children use when they learn how to play a video game. They interviewed 2nd- and 5th-grade boys and girls about how often they played video games and what they did "when learning how to play a video game." The children's responses to the latter question were categorized as either internally or externally oriented (i.e., reading a manual vs. asking for help, respectively). The results indicated that more frequent players and older children were more likely to cite internally based strategies. No main effects of gender were found for the proportions of the internally vs. externally based strategies that were cited.
Weintrop, David; Wilensky, Uri
Video games are an oft-cited reason for young learners getting interested in programming and computer science. As such, many learning opportunities build on this interest by having kids program their own video games. This approach, while sometimes successful, has its drawbacks stemming from the fact that the challenge of programming and game…
Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Jacobs, W.M.; Vaessen, E.P.G.; Titze, S.; van Mechelen, W.
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a weekly multiplayer class on the motivation of children aged 9-12 years to play an interactive dance simulation video game (IDSVG) at home over a period of 12 weeks. A sample of 27 children was randomly assigned to (1) a home group
Vandell, D L; Powers, C P
Social and nonsocial behavior of white, middle-class preschoolers in high, moderate, and low quality day care centers were contrasted. Children in high quality centers were more likely to interact positively with adults, while children in lower quality programs were more likely to engage in solitary play and aimless wandering.
Twenty adults (10 males and 10 females) between 19 and 25 years of age played Nintendo Wii Boxing™ for 15 minutes. ... the VO2max assessment. ... opponent when compared to when at rest (1.1 ± 0.1 kcal•min-1), while no significant differences were found between the two video game opponents or males and females.
Lambert, Simone F.; LeBlanc, Michael; Mullen, Jodi Ann; Ray, Dee; Baggerly, Jennifer; White, JoAnna; Kaplan, David
Through a joint research committee sponsored by the Association for Play Therapy (APT) and the American Counseling Association (ACA), The National Play Therapy in Counseling Practices Project conducted the first phase of investigation. Findings offered a snapshot of mental health providers of play therapy, regarding the nature of who they are and…
Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos; Natsis, Antonios
interacting with and via virtual environments and seems to play an important role in learning. This chapter presents empirical data gathered from an exploratory study regarding a problem-based physics learning activity in Second Life (SL). Our aim is to gain knowledge and experience about the sense...
Manners, Ian James
-Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society. The English-language masters’ seminars I teach at the Department of Political Science are international in terms of students and teacher, but they are also Active Learning seminars......-Danish students (and sometimes teachers) rarely speak to each other or learn each other’s names. In the international AL spaces I create, students must work together on joint tasks which require interaction to address tasks and integration in order to benefit from the multinational activity groups. Planning AL...... that complete the seminar soon become vocal advocates of international AL. Ultimately, enriching student learning through immersing Danish and international students in an international AL space is, for me, the best way of ensuring an internationalised learning outcome, rather than just international mobility....
Campigotto, Paolo; Passerini, Andrea; Battiti, Roberto
This paper introduces the active learning of Pareto fronts (ALP) algorithm, a novel approach to recover the Pareto front of a multiobjective optimization problem. ALP casts the identification of the Pareto front into a supervised machine learning task. This approach enables an analytical model of the Pareto front to be built. The computational effort in generating the supervised information is reduced by an active learning strategy. In particular, the model is learned from a set of informative training objective vectors. The training objective vectors are approximated Pareto-optimal vectors obtained by solving different scalarized problem instances. The experimental results show that ALP achieves an accurate Pareto front approximation with a lower computational effort than state-of-the-art estimation of distribution algorithms and widely known genetic techniques.
Jessica S. Gubbels
Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.
Focuses on an undergraduate course, "Outside Politics: How Minorities Play the Political Game". Describes how to create a foundation for active and collaborative learning and to promote critical thinking, discussion, and writing through reading assignments. Discusses the use of debates and role playing, autobiographies and videos, and…
Buchsbaum, Daphna; Bridgers, Sophie; Skolnick Weisberg, Deena; Gopnik, Alison
We argue for a theoretical link between the development of an extended period of immaturity in human evolution and the emergence of powerful and wide-ranging causal learning mechanisms, specifically the use of causal models and Bayesian learning. We suggest that exploratory childhood learning, childhood play in particular, and causal cognition are closely connected. We report an empirical study demonstrating one such connection--a link between pretend play and counterfactual causal reasoning. Preschool children given new information about a causal system made very similar inferences both when they considered counterfactuals about the system and when they engaged in pretend play about it. Counterfactual cognition and causally coherent pretence were also significantly correlated even when age, general cognitive development and executive function were controlled for. These findings link a distinctive human form of childhood play and an equally distinctive human form of causal inference. We speculate that, during human evolution, computations that were initially reserved for solving particularly important ecological problems came to be used much more widely and extensively during the long period of protected immaturity.
Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand, active learning changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class; moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant difference between active learning and traditional teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting active learning to traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.
Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B
Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers’ overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas. PMID:28303097
Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-E; Zhang, Xiaochu
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas.
Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R; Jago, Russell
Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1) children's perceptions of 'play'; 2) how much of their play is active play; and 3) contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Methods Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1 children's perceptions of 'play'; 2 how much of their play is active play; and 3 contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Results Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Conclusions Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.
Bashforth, Hedley; Parmar, Nitin R
This article suggests that the concept of ‘active learning’ has different meanings. These meanings are created in the dynamic and variable relationships between the uses of learning technologies and approaches to pedagogy. Institutions play a key role in mediating these relationships, privileging some meanings of ‘active learning’ over others. More dialogical forms of active learning call for changes in the mediating role of the institution. This article draws on a case study of the use of El...
Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao
Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.
Guiliano, Traci A.; Popp, Kathryn E.; Knight, Jennifer L.
Examined the extent to which women's childhood play activities predicted future sport participation. College athletes and nonathletes completed a survey on childhood play and adult sports experiences. Playing with masculine toys and games, playing in predominantly male or mixed groups, and being a tomboy characterized women who later became…
Moeller, James L.; Rifat, Sami F.
Spondylolysis is a common cause of back pain in active adolescents. For prolonged pain, an aggressive workup and specific diagnosis are needed. History and physical exam findings are not diagnostic. Tests beyond radiographs (computed tomography, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging) are necessary to determine metabolic activity and full…
McCoy, Charles Allan
Goffman's dramaturgical approach is frequently used to introduce undergraduate students to the sociological understanding of human interaction. While a number of scholars have designed engaging student activities that highlight Goffman's approach, most of these activities tend to involve atypical embarrassing interactions or norm-breaking…
Baack, Dominik; Temme, Fabian; Buss, Jens; Noethe, Max; Bruegge, Kai [TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration
Modern Cosmic-Ray experiments need a huge amount of simulated data. In many cases, only a portion of the data is actually needed for following steps in the analysis chain, for example training of different machine learning algorithms. The other parts are thrown away by the trigger simulation of the experiment or so not increase the quality of following analysis steps. In this talk, I present a new developed package for the air shower simulation software CORSIKA. This extension includes different approaches to reduce the amount of unnecessary computation. One approach is a new internal particle stack implementation that allows to priorize the processing of special intermediate shower particles and the removal of not needed shower particles. The second approach is the possibility to sent various information of the initial particle and parameters of the status of the partial simulated event to an external application to approximate the information gain of the current simulator event. If the information gain is to low, the current event simulation gets terminated and all information get stored into a central database. For the Simulation - Server communication a simple network protocol has been developed.
Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi
PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...... hour (p active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access...
Norman, Gregory J; Adams, Marc A; Ramirez, Ernesto R; Carlson, Jordan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Dillon, Lindsay; Marshall, Simon J
This study evaluated the effect of four active videogames (AVGs) varying in behavioral contingencies (behavior-consequence relations) on adolescent AVG play and overall activity levels over 4 weeks. Each AVG, manufactured by SSD/Xavix(®) (Shiseido Co. of Japan, Tokyo, Japan), was coded and scored for the number of positive and aversive behavioral contingencies within the games. "Bowling" and "Tennis" were classified as having "higher contingency scores," and "Boxing" and aerobic fitness training were classified as having "lower contingency scores." Adolescents (n=63; 11-15 years old; 62% male; 38% Hispanic; 44% overweight or obese) were randomized to play one of the four AVGs at home and recorded game play sessions in a paper log. Baseline and week 4 assessments were completed at home; week 1, 2, and 3 assessments were completed by telephone. Accelerometers were worn during baseline and weeks 1 and 4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary and light activity hours/day were stable over time, whereas moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes/day increased in the higher contingency group and decreased in the lower contingency group (interaction effect, 6.43, P=0.024). Reported game play minutes decreased in both groups from week 1 to week 4 (-29.42 minutes, P=0.001). There was some support for the hypothesis that AVGs with more behavioral contingencies, compared with AVGs with fewer behavioral contingencies, result in more physical activity. However, overall AVG play decreased substantially after the first week. Further study is needed to better understand how behavioral contingencies can be used in AVGs to enhance their potential to provide health benefits to game players.
Habash, R. W. Y.; Suurtamm, C.; Necsulescu, D.
This paper describes the evolution of the teaching of electrical engineering to mechanical engineering students based on motivation and a pedagogical strategy incorporating interdisciplinary mechatronics projects in a learning studio environment. Implementation of student projects within the curriculum has been demonstrated to be highly…
Muñoz, Karla; Kevitt, Paul Mc; Lunney, Tom; Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis
To ensure learning, game-based learning environments must incorporate assessment mechanisms, e.g. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). ITSs are focused on recognising and influencing the learner's emotional or motivational states. This research focuses on designing and implementing an affective student model for intelligent gaming, which reasons about the learner's emotional state from cognitive and motivational variables using observable behaviour. A Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) approach is employed to derive Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). The model uses the Control-Value theory of 'achievement emotions' as a basis. A preliminary test was conducted to recognise the students' prospective-outcome emotions with results presented and discussed. PlayPhysics is an emotional games learning environment for teaching Physics. Once the affective student model proves effective it will be incorporated into PlayPhysics' architecture. The design, evaluation and postevaluation of PlayPhysics are also discussed. Future work will focus on evaluating the affective student model with a larger population of students, and on providing affective feedback.
Konczak, Jürgen; Vander Velden, Heidi; Jaeger, Lukas
Playing a violin requires precise patterns of limb coordination that are acquired over years of practice. In the present study, the authors investigated how motion at proximal arm joints influenced the precision of bow movements in novice learners and experts. The authors evaluated the performances of 11 children (4-12 years old), 3 beginning-to-advanced level adult players, and 2 adult concert violinists, using a musical work that all had mastered as their first violin piece. The authors found that learning to play the violin was not associated with a release or freeing of joint degrees of freedom. Instead, learning was characterized by an experience-dependent suppression of sagittal shoulder motion, as documented by an observed reduction in joint angular amplitude. This reduction in the amplitude of shoulder flexion-extension correlated highly with a decrease of bow-movement variability. The remaining mechanical degrees of freedom at the elbow and shoulder showed patterns of neither suppression nor freeing. Only violinists with more than 700 practice hr achieved sagittal shoulder range of motion comparable to experts. The findings imply that restricting joint amplitude at selected joint degrees of freedom, while leaving other degrees of freedom unconstrained, constitutes an appropriate strategy for learning complex, high-precision motor patterns in children and adults. The findings also highlight that mastering even seemingly simple bowing movements constitutes a prolonged learning process.
Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva
Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…
Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.
Moghaddaszadeh, Asal; Ahmadi, Yasamin; Belcastro, Angelo N
Girls' (9-19 years) participation in physical activity (PA) is known to decrease at a faster rate than boys. A reduction in PA attractiveness (enjoyment) and lower psychosocial profile of girls approaching biological maturity may underlie the decreasing rate of PA participation. Since engaging children in active play programs improves health related quality of life indictors and enjoyment levels; the purposes of this study were to: 1) assess psychosocial status and PA attractiveness/enjoyment of boys and girls to an eight-week active play program; and 2) investigate the relationships among PA participation, psychosocial status and PA attractiveness with both age and maturity status for boys and girls following an active play PA program. Thirty-three children (age 9.8±1.3 years; weight 43.1±13.4 kg; BMI 20.8±3.2 kg/m2) were recruited to participate in an active play program for 8 weeks (4x/week; 1hr/d). M-S estimates ranged from -6.7 to -2.5 years away from biological maturity Daily program PA was assessed and compared to pre-post measures of psychosocial functioning and PA attractiveness. Statistical procedures were performed using ANOVA and/or Pearson's correlation r (SPSS v. 22.0) with P=0.05. PA participation in the active play program showed a group average of 39±11% time spent in moderate-vigorous PA (%MVPA) with boys averaging 45% MVPA and girls averaging 30% MVPA (Pattractiveness scores for boys did not change following the program; whereas girls improved from 67±13% to 76±9% (Pattractiveness to %MVPA, 80% of girls reporting positive changes or no change; in contrast 56% of boys responded with negative/less PA attractiveness. PA attractiveness for all children was negatively associated with age (r=-0.19) and/or M-S (r=-0.29). The relationships, however, were gender specific with boys exhibiting a coefficient of -0.28 (age) and -0.61 (M-S) (Pattractiveness promoted less decline in %MVPA for M-S (r=0.18) compared to age (r=-0.17). For girls, approaching
Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge
Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....
Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise
Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…
Dewey, Kenneth F.; Meyer, Steven J.
Introduces a software package available for the climatology curriculum that determines possible climatic events according to a long-term climate history. Describes the integration of the software into the curriculum and presents examples of active learning. (Contains 19 references.) (YDS)
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
Castro, R.M.; Nowak, R.; Bshouty, N.H.; Gentile, C.
This paper aims to shed light on achievable limits in active learning. Using minimax analysis techniques, we study the achievable rates of classification error convergence for broad classes of distributions characterized by decision boundary regularity and noise conditions. The results clearly
Catherine L. Lawson; Larry L. Lawson
This article examines pedagogical lessons derived from the learning theory embodied in commercially successfully video games and their link to reported increases in 'fluid intelligence' of student populations. The scholarly literature in this area is reviewed in order to elicit practical principles by which to guide the development of instructional video game modules for the teaching of economics. The authors' experiences in developing and pilot testing such a module, and in subsequently guid...
Full Text Available This paper discusses a project carried out with thirty six final year undergraduate students, studying the Bachelor of Science in Business and Management and taking the module Small Business Management during the academic year 2012 and 2013 in Dublin Institute of Technology. The research had two separate objectives, 1 to engage in active learning by having students work on a consulting project in groups for a real life business and 2 to improve student learning. The Small Business Management previously had a group assignment that was to choose an article related to entrepreneurship and critic it and present it to the class. Anecdotally, from student feedback, it was felt that this process did not engage students and also did not contribute to the key competencies necessary in order to be an entrepreneur. The desire was for students on successful completion of this module to have better understood how business is conducted and equip them with core skills such as innovation, critical thinking, problem solving and decision making .Student buy in was achieved by getting the students to select their own groups and also work out between each group from a one page brief provided by the businesses which business they would like to work with. It was important for the businesses to also feel their time spent with students was worthwhile so they were presented with a report from the students at the end of the twelve weeks and invited into the College to hear the presentations from students. Students were asked to provide a reflection on their three key learning points from the assignment and to answer specific questions designed to understand what they learnt and how and their strengths and weaknesses. A survey was sent to the businesses that took part to understand their experiences. The results were positive with student engagement and learning rating very highly and feedback from the businesses demonstrated an appreciation of having a different
Sigaud, Cecília Helena de Siqueira; Santos, Bruna Rodrigues Dos; Costa, Priscila; Toriyama, Aurea Tamami Minagawa
To compare the number of appropriate behaviors for tooth brushing before and after a playful learning intervention with preschool children. A quasi-experimental, quantitative, before and after study design was conducted in an early childhood educational institution, with children between three and five years of age. The intervention consisted of three meetings with educational activities about tooth brushing, whose outcome was evaluated by means of observation of ten behaviors suitable for tooth brushing. Forty-four children participated in the study. The mean of adequate behaviors was 4.4 before the intervention, and 8.5 after the intervention. A significant increase in the adoption of appropriate behaviors for tooth brushing (p encontros com atividades educativas lúdicas sobre escovação de dentes, cujo efeito foi avaliado por meio da observação de dez comportamentos adequados para a escovação dos dentes. Participaram do estudo 44 crianças. A média de comportamentos adequados foi de 4,4 antes da intervenção e 8,5 após a mesma. Houve um aumento significativo na adoção de comportamentos adequados para a escovação de dentes (p < 0,01). Por meio de intervenções educativas lúdicas, recomenda-se que os enfermeiros potencializem as ações de promoção da saúde bucal com pré-escolares em instituições de educação infantil.
Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth
Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…
Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Swaminathan, Sudha; Baton, Brooke; Danieluk, Courtney; Marsh, Samantha; Szarwacki, Monika
Block play has been included in early childhood classrooms for over a century, yet few studies have examined its effects on learning. Several previous investigations indicate that the complexity of block building is associated with math ability, but these studies were often conducted in adult-guided, laboratory settings. In the present…
Technology, digital media and popular culture form an important aspect of young children's life-worlds in contemporary post-industrial societies. A problem for early childhood educators is how to most effectively integrate these aspects of children's life-worlds into the provision of play-based learning. Traditionally, research has considered…
Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic
An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item
Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin
When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…
Rickard, K A; Gallahue, D L; Gruen, G E; Tridle, M; Bewley, N; Steele, K
An alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education centers on understanding and developing skill in implementing a play approach to learning about healthful eating and promoting active play in the context of the child, the family, and the school. The play approach is defined as a process for learning that is intrinsically motivated, enjoyable, freely chosen, nonliteral, safe, and actively engaged in by young learners. Making choices, assuming responsibility for one's decisions and actions, and having fun are inherent components of the play approach to learning. In this approach, internal cognitive transactions and intrinsic motivation are the primary forces that ultimately determine healthful choices and life habits. Theoretical models of children's learning--the dynamic systems theory and the cognitive-developmental theory of Jean Piaget--provide a theoretical basis for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century. The ultimate goal is to develop partnerships of children, families, and schools in ways that promote the well-being of children and translate into healthful life habits. The play approach is an ongoing process of learning that is applicable to learners of all ages.
IMS Learning Design provides a counter to the trend towards designing for lone-learners reading from screens. It guides staff and educational developers to start not with content, but with learning activities and the achievement of learning objectives. It recognises that learning can happen without
Huizenga, J.; Admiraal, W.; ten Dam, G.; Gouscos, D.; Meimaris, M.
With handhelds, it is possible to mix virtual with real-world data (i.e. locations and contexts) connecting virtual worlds to real life. Handheld games can be used to engage students with learning in their (school) environment. In a project called 'Games Atelier' innovative pedagogy was developed
Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.
Harten, Nathan; Olds, Tim; Dollman, Jim
Two studies were conducted to examine the interactions between gender, play area, motor skills and free play activity in 8-11 year old school children. In both studies, boys were more active than girls. In boys, but not in girls, energy expenditure was greater for high-skill than for low-skill children (p = 0.0002), and increased as play area increased (p = 0.01). These results suggest that motor skills and play space are important variables in determining the free play activity of boys, but not of girls. This may be related to widely different play styles among boys and girls.
Bruil, A.W.; Van der Toorn Vrijthoff, W.
In this paper we present our experiences in setting up and fulfilling a role-play simulation in an academic context. This simulation was set up for the first time in February 2010 to teach 260 students in their final semester in the Bachelor, the bachelor 6, of the Faculty of Architecture how to
Lee, YingHua; Takenaka, Koji; Kanosue, Kazuyuki
Physical activity contributes to children's physical and mental well-being. Research suggests that active free play helps to maintain and increase physical activity in children and also contributes to social and emotional well-being. To date, these studies have focused on Western countries. Thus, this study was conducted to gain insights into the factors of perceptions of fun, barriers, and facilitators affecting active free play from the perspective of Japanese children using focus group interviews. In Japan, 12 focus groups were conducted with 60 children aged 9-11 years. Children's perceptions of fun in active free play were categorized into socializing, achievement, emotions, and freedom. Additionally, active boys' groups were interested in free play and adventure play; girls' groups were interested in free play with less physical movement and challenges; inactive boys' groups were interested in relaxing and competitive play with bodily contact. However, children mentioned that busy schedules, weather, and health-related factors acted as main barriers. Lastly, children noted facilitators include setting schedules, having access to equipment and playgrounds, and holding special events. The findings provide insights into active free play-related factors for active and inactive Japanese children and also clarify the differences between Japanese and Western children. Such findings will contribute to designing interventions to increase active free play. © The Author(s) 2013.
School Libraries Play an Active, Transformational Role in Student Learning and Achievement. A review of: Todd, Ross J. “Student Learning Through Ohio School Libraries: A Summary of the Ohio Research Study.” Ohio Educational Library Media Association 15 Dec. 2003. Ohio Educational Library Media Association (OELMA, 2004. 15 Nov. 2006 .
achievement and active agency in the learning process. The survey statements included a combination of conclusions based on selections from school library research studies, and the Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning from the merican Association of School Librarians’ nformation Power: Building Partnerships or Learning. The two surveys were used to triangulate multiple sources of data to illustrate the “helps” provided by the school library to student learning. Students were also given the opportunity to describe “helps” in their own words in an open‐ended critical incident question. Main results – The data showed that the selected effective school libraries were perceived as providing ‘helps’ in dynamic ways that appeared to have a transformative effect on student learning. School libraries and librarians were viewed as having an active role in the learning process. Of the students surveyed, 99.4 % believed that school libraries helped them become better learners. The results were grouped into seven blocks of ‘help’ concepts that frame the contributions of the school library and the school librarian to student learning (Table 1. Help Concept Summary of Survey Statements Block 1 Find and locate information. “How helpful the school library is with getting information you need.” Block 2 Use information to complete school work. “How helpful the school library is with using the information to complete your school work.” Block 3 School work in general. “How helpful the school library is with your school work in general.” Block 4 Using computers in the library, at school, and at home. “How helpful the school library is with using computers in the library, at school, and at home.” Block 5 General reading interests. “How helpful the school library is to you with your general reading interests.” Block 6 Outside school “How helpful the school library is to you when you are not at school.” Block 7 General school aspects
Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika
New playground concepts--favouring natural play characteristics--emerge. The aim of our free play study is to explore the relation between newly established natural playgrounds and the widely spread contemporary ones in terms of physical activity levels. The playground features differ in vegetation, topography, size and play equipment. The…
Bergen, Doris; Davis, Darrel
Many early developmental theorists such as Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky suggested that play--which the authors of this article define as both playful activity and playful thought--had the power to influence the moral emotions, behaviors, and reasoning of children. More recent researchers have also found evidence of moral development in…
McConell, David A.; Chapman, LeeAnna; Czaijka, C. Douglas; Jones, Jason P.; Ryker, Katherine D.; Wiggen, Jennifer
The adoption of active learning instructional practices in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses has been shown to result in improvements in student learning, contribute to increased retention rates, and reduce the achievement gap among different student populations. Descriptions of active learning strategies…
Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.
Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...
Beichner, Robert J.
This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.
Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...
Moore, Hilary; Hibbert, Fiona
This paper is one of the first presentations of research into brain gym's effectiveness in learning musical instruments. Brain gym (or Edu-K) is the popular, over-arching name for a system of exercises, approaches, and techniques intended to improve mental and physical performance. We explain the basic concepts and activities of brain gym and…
Jagoda, Patrick; Gilliam, Melissa; McDonald, Peter; Russell, Christopher
Gamification--the use of game mechanics in conventionally nongame activities--has received attention in the field of education. Games, however, are not reducible to the common mechanisms of gamification that target extrinsic motivation, and may also include elements such as role playing, world making, and collective storytelling. Here, the authors…
Pourghaznein, Tayebeh; Sabeghi, Hakimeh; Shariatinejad, Keyvan
Nursing education can maintain its dynamic quality when it moves toward innovation and modern methods of teaching and learning. Therefore, teachers are required to employ up to date methods in their teaching plans. This study evaluated the effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students' learning, retention, and satisfaction. Sixty nursing students were selected as an experiment and control groups during two consecutive semesters. The educational content was presented as e-learning and role playing during one semester (experiment group) and as lectures in the next semester (control group). A questionnaire containing three parts was used to assess demographics, learning and satisfaction statuses. The questionnaire also included a final openended question to evaluate the students' ideas about the whole course. The mean scores of posttest were 16.13 ± 1.37 using role playing, 15.50 ± 1.44 using e-learning and 16.45 ± 1.23 using lectures. The differences between the mean scores of posttest and pretest were 12.84 ± 1.43, 12.56 ± 1.57, and 13.73 ± 1.53 in the mentioned methods, respectively. Lectures resulted in significantly better learning compared to role playing and e-learning. In contrast, retention rates were significantly lower using lectures than using role playing and e-learning. Students' satisfaction from e-learning was significantly lower than lecturing and role playing. Due to the lower rates of retention following lectures, the teachers are recommended to use student- centered approaches in their lectures. Since students' satisfaction with e-learning was lower than the other methods, further studies are suggested to explore the problems of e-learning in Iran.
Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario
For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…
A fundamental problem which confronts Science teachers is the difficulty many students experience in the construction, understanding and remembering of concepts. This is more likely to occur when teachers adhere to a Transmission model of teaching and learning, and fail to provide students with opportunities to construct their own learning. Social construction, followed by individual reflective writing, enables students to construct their own understanding of concepts and effectively promotes deep learning. This method of constructing knowledge in the classroom is often overlooked by teachers as they either have no knowledge of it, or do not know how to appropriate it for successful teaching in Science. This study identifies the difficulties which students often experience when writing reflectively and offers solutions which are likely to reduce these difficulties. These solutions, and the use of reflective writing itself, challenge the ideology of the Sydney Genre School, which forms the basis of the attempt to deal with literacy in the NSW Science Syllabus. The findings of this investigation support the concept of literacy as the ability to use oral and written language, reading and listening to construct meaning. The investigation demonstrates how structured discussion, role play and reflective writing can be used to this end. While the Sydney Genre School methodology focuses on the structure of genre as a prerequisite for understanding concepts in Science, the findings of this study demonstrate that students can use their own words to discuss and write reflectively as they construct scientific concepts for themselves. Social construction and reflective writing can contribute to the construction of concepts and the development of metacognition in Science. However, students often experience difficulties when writing reflectively about scientific concepts they are learning. In this investigation, students identified these difficulties as an inability to understand
Bi, Weihong; Fu, Guangwei; Fu, Xinghu; Zhang, Baojun; Liu, Qiang; Jin, Wa
In view of the current poor learning initiative of undergraduates, the idea of creating a good learning environment and motivating active learning enthusiasm is proposed. In practice, the professional tutor is allocated and professional introduction course is opened for college freshman. It can promote communication between the professional teachers and students as early as possible, and guide students to know and devote the professional knowledge by the preconceived form. Practice results show that these solutions can improve the students interest in learning initiative, so that the active learning and self-learning has become a habit in the classroom.
Muthoni, Kamau Joyce
In Kenya there is still a high population of children either born with or who develop physical challenges. These children are often neglected and most do not join school at the expected age. In joining school they encounter several difficulties in their play and learning activities. These children with physical challenges have developmental needs…
Dinkel, Danae; Dev, Dipti; Guo, Yage; Hulse, Emily; Rida, Zainab; Sedani, Ami; Coyle, Brian
The purpose of this study was to determine if the Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment in Child Care (Go NAP SACC) intervention was effective in improving best practices in the areas of infant and child physical activity and outdoor play and learning in family child care homes (FCCHs) in Nebraska. FCCHs (n = 201) participated in a pre-post evaluation using the Infant and Child Physical Activity and Outdoor Play and Learning assessments from the Go NAP SACC validated measure to assess compliance with best practices. At post, FCCHs demonstrated significant differences in 85% of the Infant and Child Physical Activity items (17 of 20) and 80% of the Outdoor Play and Learning items (12 of 15). Significant differences in best practices between urban and rural FCCH providers were also found. Go NAP SACC appears to be an effective intervention in Nebraska as, after participation in the initiative, providers were improving child care physical activity best practices. Additional research is needed to objectively determine if these changes resulted in objective improvements in children's physical activity levels. Further, efforts are needed to develop and/or identify geographic-specific resources for continued improvement.
Full Text Available Podcasts are entering their second decade. However, this article does not present a chronological narrative of this history or focus groups exploring their effectiveness. Instead, this paper probes the enlivening capacity of podcasting when inserted into the much wider discourse of sonic media. My research probes the impact on teaching and learning when cutting away four of our five senses to focus on auditory culture, sonic media, hearing and listening. This research shows the value of ‘blind listening,’ cutting away the eyes and visual literacy, to activate more complex modes of learning.
Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.
This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…
The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.
Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.
The reasons to introduce formats of Active Learning in Engineering (ALE) like project work, problem based learning, use of cases, etc., are mostly based on practical experience and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different
Lindsey, Eric W.
Research Findings: Two forms of exercise play (toy mediated and non-mediated) and 2 forms of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play (chase and fighting) were examined in relation to preschoolers' peer competence. A total of 148 preschoolers (78 boys, 89 Euro-Americans) were observed during free play at their university-sponsored child care center. The…
Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin
Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...
Full Text Available Abstract. Uncertainty in the nation's economy, the impact of globalization as well as various crises and disasters are problems that may lead to national disintegration which make few groups want to secede from NKRI. All these problems unilaterally are evidences of the unreliability of civic education learning as a subject that mandates to maintain the integrity of NKRI, not in the macro scope but in giving civic education as early as possible from the elementary school. The learning outcomes of civic education learning do not only include the acquisition of knowledge, but more to the acquisition of feeling and behavior. Consequently, in the pre-cycle, the researcher found difficulties to integrate the two domains, which made the learning outcomes below the mini-mum mastery criteria, students’ behavior lacking the feeling of love to their homeland and stu-dents’ motivation in learning low. To solve the problems, the researcher used role play method and as a result, after two cycles, students’ learning outcomes increased. The percentage of stu-dents’ minimum mastery criteria increased from 52% (score 75 to 69% in cycle I and 96% in cycle II. In addition, the students’ were more motivated in learning, followed ceremony in an or-derly manner, and behaved in ways that reflect the love of homeland. It can be concluded that ap-plying role play method in the lesson of preserving the integrity of NKRI at Grade V SDN Cilengkrang North Sumedang Regencey, students’ learning outcomes could be improved. Keywords: Role Play Method, Civic Education Learning, Integrity of The Unitary State of The Republic of Indonesia Abstrak. Ketidakpastian kondisi perekonomian bangsa, pengaruh globalisasi serta berbagai krisis dan bencana merupakan permasalahan yang merujuk ke arah disintegrasi bangsa. Sehingga segelintir kelompok ingin memisahkan diri dari NKRI. Semua permasalahan diatas secara sepihak merupakan suatu bukti ketidak mempanan pembelajaran PKn
Blake, Tim K
Journaling is a method frequently discussed in nursing literature and educational literature as an active learning technique that is meant to enhance reflective practice. Reflective practice is a means of self-examination that involves looking back over what has happened in practice in an effort to improve, or encourage professional growth. Some of the benefits of reflective practice include discovering meaning, making connections between experiences and the classroom, instilling values of the profession, gaining the perspective of others, reflection on professional roles, and development of critical thinking. A review of theory and research is discussed, as well as suggestions for implementation of journaling into coursework.
Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.
Karl J Friston
Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.
Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija
The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…
Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith
We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.
Gomes, Judith; Fleer, Marilyn
There are a growing number of studies that have examined science learning for preschool children. Some research has looked into children's home experiences and some has focused on transition, practices, routines, and traditions in preschool contexts. However, little attention has been directed to the relationship between children's learning experiences at preschool and at home, and how this relationship can assist in the development of science concepts relevant to everyday life. In drawing upon Hedegaard's (Learning and child development, 2002) cultural-historical conception of motives and Vygotsky's (The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: problems of general psychology, 1987) theory of everyday and scientific concept formation, the study reported in this paper examines one child, Jimmy (4.2 years), and his learning experiences at home and at preschool. Data gathering featured the video recording of 4 weeks of Jimmy's learning in play at home and at preschool (38.5 h), parent questionnaire and interviews, and researcher and family gathered video observations of home play with his parents (3.5 h). Findings show how a scientific motive develops through playful everyday learning moments at home and at preschool when scientific play narratives and resources are aligned. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the science learning of young children and a conception of pedagogy that takes into account the reciprocity of home and school contexts for learning science.
Kazimoglu, Cagin; Kiernan, Mary; Bacon, Liz; MacKinnon, Lachlan
This paper outlines an innovative game-based approach to learning introductory programming that is grounded in the development of computational thinking at an abstract conceptual level, but also provides a direct contextual relationship between game-play and learning traditional introductory programming. The paper proposes a possible model for,…
Pyle, Angela; Poliszczuk, Daniel; Danniels, Erica
Kindergarten teachers face the challenge of balancing traditional developmental programming and contemporary academic standards. In classrooms following a play-based learning framework, academic content such as literacy is to be taught within children's play. However, educators have reported conceptual and practical challenges with integrating…
Ivana Verónica Rivero
Full Text Available During their training, students of Physical Education construct theoretical and practical knowledge about already known corporal practices. They learn about already known concepts. They re-define practical knowledge in a higher level of complexity and abstraction, assigning them educational value that will be the basis of their professional intervention. When they are taught to propose 'games which are not games proper' [activities or sports that the teacher presents as games, though not everybody can play them, the student of Physical Education has theoretical elements that support the use of the game as a pedagogic resource [both as content of other axes or as methodological strategy for the teaching of sports or motor skills]. Nevertheless, when teachers teach them to suggest popular games to amuse themselves, they find it difficult to plan and to justify their future intervention. The final results of a qualitative research, presented as a thesis for a master's degree, show that in Physical Education various forms of motor games are taught but only one way to play them: the not ludic one. One teaches to subordinate the way of playing to the form of the games proposed by the teacher. One teaches to move within the frame of the rules of the game, and to put the body at the service of the game
Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa
This article offers an empirically based contribution to the growing body of studies using Conversation Analysis (CA) as a tool for analyzing second/foreign language learning in and through interaction. Building on a sociointeractional view of learning as grounded in the structures of participation in social activities, we apply CA methods to…
Kobza, Stefan; Ferrea, Stefano; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina; Südmeyer, Martin; Bellebaum, Christian
Feedback to both actively performed and observed behaviour allows adaptation of future actions. Positive feedback leads to increased activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, whereas dopamine neuron activity is decreased following negative feedback. Dopamine level reduction in unmedicated Parkinson's Disease patients has been shown to lead to a negative learning bias, i.e. enhanced learning from negative feedback. Recent findings suggest that the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from feedback might differ, with the striatum playing a less prominent role in observational learning. Therefore, it was hypothesized that unmedicated Parkinson's Disease patients would show a negative learning bias only in active but not in observational learning. In a between-group design, 19 Parkinson's Disease patients and 40 healthy controls engaged in either an active or an observational probabilistic feedback-learning task. For both tasks, transfer phases aimed to assess the bias to learn better from positive or negative feedback. As expected, actively learning patients showed a negative learning bias, whereas controls learned better from positive feedback. In contrast, no difference between patients and controls emerged for observational learning, with both groups showing better learning from positive feedback. These findings add to neural models of reinforcement-learning by suggesting that dopamine-modulated input to the striatum plays a minor role in observational learning from feedback. Future research will have to elucidate the specific neural underpinnings of observational learning.
Jhonatan Perdomo Toro
Full Text Available In this article we describe and analyze how autonomous learning emerges in third graders' socioaffective practices as reconstructed in written narratives. Results were obtained by analyzing and reflecting on classroom observation, interviews and written narratives done by the students which let us appreciate different behaviors and reactions the students usually went through. This study shows that children are able to recognize and reflect on the causes and consequences of situations thanks to the use of different socialization forms implemented by their parents; those forms help them become aware of their duties and homework. It also makes evident that social interaction, with family as the main contributors, plays an important role in children's development of autonomy.
Howcroft, Jennifer; Fehlings, Darcy; Wright, Virginia; Zabjek, Karl; Andrysek, Jan; Biddiss, Elaine
Active videogames (AVGs) have potential in terms of physical activity and therapy for children with cerebral palsy. However, the effect of social interaction on AVG play has not yet been assessed. The objective of this study is to determine if multiplayer AVG versus solo affects levels of energy expenditure and movement patterns. Fifteen children (9.77 [standard deviation (SD) 1.78] years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I) participated in solo and multiplayer Nintendo(®) "Wii™ Boxing" (Nintendo, Inc., Redmond, WA) AVG play while energy expenditure and punching frequency were monitored. Moderate levels of physical activity were achieved with no significant differences in energy measures during multiplayer and solo play. Dominant arm punching frequency increased during the multiplayer session from 95.75 (SD 37.93) punches/minute to 107.77 (SD 36.99) punches/minute. Conversely, hemiplegic arm punching frequency decreased from 39.05 (SD 29.57) punches/minutes to 30.73 (SD 24.74) punches/minutes during multiplayer game play. Children enjoyed multiplayer more than solo play. Opportunities to play AVGs with friends and family may translate to more frequent participation in this moderate physical activity. Conversely, increased hemiplegic limb use during solo play may have therapeutic advantages. As such, new strategies are recommended to promote use of the hemiplegic hand during multiplayer AVG play and to optimize commercial AVG systems for applications in virtual reality therapy.
Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna
This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…
Silva, Laianna Victoria Santiago; Tanaka, Patrícia Sayuri de Lima; Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia
To analyze the learning built during the matches of the games by students of the subject Gestão de Políticas Públicas em Saúde at the Universidade de Brasília. Exploratory, descriptive research, in a qualitative approach, with 26 students from various graduation courses in health, using a questionnaire and participant observation. Participants reinvented rules, related issues addressed in the games to the reality, interacted with colleagues and had fun throughout the match. Comparing the games in relation to ludicity, the BANFISA was more attractive than the (IN) DICA-SUS, although they are complementary. Learning constructed by the students goes beyond the content of the subject; involve the active participation in group and creativity.
Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie
This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.
Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo
Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, u...
Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinich; Sugiura, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Noda, Masahiro
This study examines the development of various reaction movements in preschool children and the relationship between reaction times and favorite play activities. The subjects were 167 healthy preschool children aged 4-6 (96 boys and 71 girls). This study focused on the reaction times of the upper limbs (reaction 1: release; reaction 2: press) and the whole body (reaction 3: forward jump). The activities frequently played in preschools are largely divided into dynamic play activities (tag, soccer, gymnastics set, dodge ball, and jump rope) and static play activities (drawing, playing house, reading, playing with sand, and building blocks). The subjects chose 3 of 10 cards picturing their favorite play activities, depicting 10 different activities. All intraclass correlation coefficients of measured reaction times were high (0.73-0.79). In addition, each reaction time shortened with age. Reaction 1 showed a significant and low correlation with reaction 3 (r = 0.37). The effect size of the whole body reaction time was the largest. Whole body reaction movement, which is largely affected by the exercise output function, develops remarkably in childhood. Children who liked "tag" were faster in all reaction times. The children who chose "soccer" were faster in reactions 2 and 3. In contrast, children who liked "playing house" tended to have slower reaction times. Dynamic activities, such as tag and soccer, promote development of reaction speed and agility in movements involving the whole body. Preschool teachers and physical educators should re-examine the effect of tag and use it periodically as one of the exercise programs to avoid unexpected falls and injuries in everyday life.
Jaryse C Harris
Full Text Available Polyadenylation is an essential mechanism for the processing of mRNA 3' ends. CstF-64 (the 64,000 Mr subunit of the cleavage stimulation factor; gene symbol Cstf2 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA polyadenylation site usage. We discovered a paralogous form of CstF-64 called τCstF-64 (Cstf2t. The Cstf2t gene is conserved in all eutherian mammals including mice and humans, but the τCstF-64 protein is expressed only in a subset of mammalian tissues, mostly testis and brain. Male mice that lack Cstf2t (Cstf2t-/- mice experience disruption of spermatogenesis and are infertile, although female fertility is unaffected. However, a role for τCstF-64 in the brain has not yet been determined. Given the importance of RNA polyadenylation and splicing in neuronal gene expression, we chose to test the hypothesis that τCstF-64 is important for brain function. Male and female 185-day old wild type and Cstf2t-/- mice were examined for motor function, general activity, learning, and memory using rotarod, open field activity, 8-arm radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Male wild type and Cstf2t-/- mice did not show differences in learning and memory. However, female Cstf2t-/- mice showed significantly better retention of learned maze tasks than did female wild type mice. These results suggest that τCstf-64 is important in memory function in female mice. Interestingly, male Cstf2t-/- mice displayed less thigmotactic behavior than did wild type mice, suggesting that Cstf2t may play a role in anxiety in males. Taken together, our studies highlight the importance of mRNA processing in cognition and behavior as well as their established functions in reproduction.
Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Jieun E; Renshaw, Perry F
Several studies have suggested that addictive disorders including substance abuse and pathologic gambling might be associated with dysfunction on working memory and prefrontal activity. We hypothesized that excessive online game playing is associated with deficits in prefrontal cortex function and that recovery from excessive online game playing might improve prefrontal cortical activation in response to working memory stimulation. Thirteen adolescents with excessive online game playing (AEOP) and ten healthy adolescents (HC) agreed to participate in this study. The severity of online game play and playing time were evaluated for a baseline measurement and again following four weeks of treatment. Brain activation in response to working memory tasks (simple and complex calculations) at baseline and subsequent measurements was assessed using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared to the HC subjects, the AEOP participants exhibited significantly greater activity in the right middle occipital gyrus, left cerebellum posterior lobe, left premotor cortex and left middle temporal gyrus in response to working memory tasks during baseline measurements. After four weeks of treatment, the AEOP subjects showed increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left occipital fusiform gyrus. After four weeks of treatment, changes in the severity of online game playing were negatively correlated with changes in the mean β value of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in response to complex stimulation. We suggest that the effects of online game addiction on working memory may be similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence.
Grace Adebisi Fayombo
This study investigated the relationships between the active learning strategies (discussion, video clips, game show, role– play, five minute paper, clarification pauses, and small group) and academic achievement among a sample of 158 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations between active learning strategies and students’ academic achievement; so also the activ...
Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language document consists of four single-sheet sets of guidelines developed by the Family Involvement Partnership for Learning to assist parents in facilitating their children's elementary school success. The front part of the sheets describes general ways parents can support their children, including modeling writing, reading aloud,…
Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Yong Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F
Brain responses, particularly within the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, to Internet video-game cues in college students are similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence in response to the substance-related cues. In this study, we report changes in brain activity between baseline and following 6 weeks of Internet video-game play. We hypothesized that subjects with high levels of self-reported craving for Internet video-game play would be associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one healthy university students were recruited. At baseline and after a 6-week period of Internet video-game play, brain activity during presentation of video-game cues was assessed using 3T blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Craving for Internet video-game play was assessed by self-report on a 7-point visual analogue scale following cue presentation. During a standardized 6-week video-game play period, brain activity in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex of the excessive Internet game-playing group (EIGP) increased in response to Internet video-game cues. In contrast, activity observed in the general player group (GP) was not changed or decreased. In addition, the change of craving for Internet video games was positively correlated with the change in activity of the anterior cingulate in all subjects. These changes in frontal-lobe activity with extended video-game play may be similar to those observed during the early stages of addiction.
Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia
Information and communication technologies (ICT), namely the Internet, can play a valuable educational role in several school subjects, including science education. The same applies to problem-based learning (PBL), that is, a student-centered active learning methodology that can prepare students for lifelong learning. WebQuests (WQs) combine PBL…
Ibáñez, María Blanca; Maroto, David; García Rueda, José Jesús; Leony, Derick; Delgado Kloos, Carlos
3D virtual worlds are recognized as collaborative learning environments. However, the underlying technology is not sufficiently mature and the virtual worlds look cartoonish, unlinked to reality. Thus, it is important to enrich them with elements from the real world to enhance student engagement in learning activities. Our approach is to build learning environments where participants can either be in the real world or in its mirror world while sharing the same hybrid space in a collaborative ...
Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs
regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings......, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...
Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities.......g. Biesta, 2010; Standal, 2015) I will argue that the focus on learning outcome and effects on physical activity has gone too far in order to reach the objectives. If the notion of ‘keeping pupils physically active’ is understood as a representation of the core quality of physical activity, it seems...
Amir Hossein Memari
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD indicates several neurodevelopmental impairments which may end in impairments in motor or physical activities. Daily physical activity involvement was investigated in a total of 83 children (52 boys and 31 girls with ASD aged 6–15 years. Results indicated that only 10 (12% of children with ASD were physically active. Children were predominantly engaged in solitary play rather than social play activities. Gender, family income, and household structure were found to be associated with activity scores. Financial burden and lack of opportunities were noted as the leading barriers to physical activities. In conclusion, findings indicated a low rate of physical activity participation in children with ASD that is closely associated with sociodemographic variables.
Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...
Althouse, Norm R.; Hedges, Peggy L.
This article describes a 60-minute classroom activity using LEGO® bricks that demonstrates and reinforces the importance of the managerial process. The activity, Plan Before You Play (PBP), is targeted to introductory business classes, and differs from others in that it requires little investment or up-front planning, is easily scalable, and, with…
Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.
Brüggemann, A Jelmer; Persson, Alma
Abuse in health care organizations is a pressing issue for caregivers. Forum play, a participatory theater model, has been used among health care staff to learn about and work against abuse. This small-scale qualitative study aims to explore how forum play participants experience the potentials and limitations of forum play as an educational model for continued professional learning at a hospital clinic. Fifteen of 41 members of staff of a Swedish nephrology clinic, primarily nurses, voluntarily participated in either one or two forum play workshops, where they shared experiences and together practiced working against abuse in everyday health care situations. Interviews were conducted after the workshops with 14 of the participants, where they were asked to reflect on their own and others' participation or nonparticipation, and changes in their individual and collective understanding of abuse in health care. Before the workshops, the informants were either hesitant or very enthusiastic toward the drama-oriented form of learning. Afterward, they all agreed that forum play was a very effective way of individual as well as collective learning about abuse in health care. However, they saw little effect on their work at the clinic, primarily understood as a consequence of the fact that many of their colleagues did not take part in the workshops. This study, based on the analysis of forum play efforts at a single hospital clinic, suggests that forum play can be an innovative educational model that creates a space for reflection and learning in health care practices. It might be especially fruitful when a sensitive topic, such as abuse in health care, is the target of change. However, for the effects to reach beyond individual insights and a shared understanding among a small group of participants, strategies to include all members of staff need to be explored.
Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…
Flavia Bignardi da Silva Nunes
Full Text Available Introduction: Daily life experiences provide maturity along human development, and the environments in which they occur are essential for this process. These experiences help to build children’s personalities and the way they deal with the world around them. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to understand the occupational behavior of four children aged five to six years old through their mothers’ reports. Methodology: The average time spent with daily activities is described, and playing was a central theme of analysis. We analyzed the preferences, companies and emotional characteristics of the play activity. We used an Activity Clock and semi-structured interviews with the children’s mothers as data collection instruments. Results: The main results show that most of their daily life time is spent with sleep, school and play activities. They indicate that children prefer games that challenge acquisitions that are under construction. Regarding company, these children still have their mothers as a reference to the play activity, but also peers their age or a little older. Conclusion: Play has an important representation in the daily occupational lives of these children and it stands as a key life experience to acquire skills and face challenges.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.
Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Pecjak, Sonja; Kranjc, Simona
This study evaluated several groups of preschoolers engaged in symbolic play to define elements of play and differences in regard to age. Analyses of videotapes indicated that the nature of symbolic play changes with regard to play situations in which children have been included. (LBT)
Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational app...
Cowles, Anne; Beatty, William W; Nixon, Sara Jo; Lutz, Lanna J; Paulk, Jason; Paulk, Kayla; Ross, Elliott D
Previous studies have described patients with possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who continued to play familiar songs skillfully, despite their dementias. There are no reports about patients with dementia who successfully learned to play new songs, and two papers describe failures of patients with AD to learn to play a new song although they continued to play familiar songs competently. In the present paper we describe a moderately demented patient (SL) with probable AD who learned to play a song (Cossackaya!) on the violin that was published after the apparent onset of his dementia. He showed modest retention of the song at delays of 0 and 10 minutes. This contrasts with his profound disturbance in both recall and recognition on other anterograde memory tests (word lists, stories, figures, environmental sounds, sounds of musical instruments), and marked impairment on measures of remote memory (famous faces, autobiographical memory). SL showed milder deficits in confrontation naming, verbal fluency and attention, but no dyspraxia or aphasic comprehension deficits. Except for the Block Design test, his visuospatial skills were intact. SL's learning of the new song in the absence of any evidence of episodic memory is reminiscent of patients with temporal lobe amnesia who show better memory for song melody than for lyrics or verse, although his retention was not as good.
Kitchens, Brent; Means, Tawnya; Tan, Yinliang
In this study, the authors propose a set of key elements that impact the success of an active learning implementation: content delivery, active learning methods, physical environment, technology enhancement, incentive alignment, and educator investment. Through a range of metrics the authors present preliminary evidence that students in courses…
Faculty may perceive many barriers to active learning in their classrooms. Four groups of participants in a faculty development workshop were asked to list their perceived barriers to active learning. Many of the problems identified were present on more than one list. The barriers fall into three categories: student characteristics, issues…
Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....
This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…
Diaz-Orueta, Unai; Facal, David; Nap, Henk Herman; Ranga, Myrto-Maria
Learning digital games can influence both older adults' health condition and their capacity to carry on activities in their actual environment. The goal of the current study was to explore and define the user requirements for developing digital learning games for older Europeans, focusing on types of learning games, motivational and social aspects, and preferences on game controllers. For this initial stage, a qualitative focus group study was performed in three participating countries (Spain, The Netherlands, and Greece) where both games existing in the market and others developed in other European Commission projects like HERMES were presented to them, both on video presentations and also with the possibility to actually test some of them. Challenge, socialization, fun, providing learning opportunities, and escape from daily routine were extracted as the main keys why older people would be interested in playing digital games. Users described themselves as active and participating in many leisure activities, and this level of activity appeared to be related with the contents proposed for digital games, such as physical activity, culture, arts, and other human sciences (history, geography, traveling, foreign languages, music), and daily life skills (cooking, computer use, first aid). The knowledge gathered from the focus groups will be used as input for the design of a learning game that will be largely compatible with the needs and abilities of a wide range of older Europeans.
Hsiao, Kuo-Lun; Huang, Tien-Chi; Chen, Mu-Yen; Chiang, Nien-Ting
Although ubiquitous learning is a novel and creative teaching approach, two key issues inhibit its success overall: a lack of appropriate learning strategies regarding learning objectives, and ineffective learning tools for receiving knowledge regarding the chosen subjects. To address these issues, we develops and designs a game-based educational…
Bureaucratic Politics and Decision Making under Uncertainty in a National Security Crisis: Assessing the Effects of International Relations Theory and the Learning Impact of Role-Playing Simulation at the U.S. Naval Academy
Using a pre-/posttest research design, this article measures the learning impact of active-learning techniques such as role-playing simulations in an international relations course. Using the students' different responses to the pre- and postsimulation surveys in a quasi-experimental design whereby two sections that were taught by the same…
Peng, Wei; Lin, Jih-Hsuan; Crouse, Julia
This article reports a meta-analysis of energy expenditure (EE) of playing active video games (AVGs). In particular, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), and EE were assessed and three moderators for the effects of AVGs--types of AVG, player age, and player weight status--were analyzed. The results show that playing AVGs significantly increased HR, VO2, and EE from resting. The effect sizes of playing AVGs on HR, VO2, and EE were similar to traditional physical activities. AVG type and player age were significant moderators for the effects of AVGs. The finding suggests that AVGs are effective technologies that may facilitate light- to moderate-intensity physical activity promotion.
Ana Célia de Brito Miranda
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the concept formation involved in the study of food chain by utilizing the vygotskian referential and playful activities. The teacher-researcher planned the activities that were experienced by a group of children in an elementary school aged 4 to 5. The topic chosen intended to support ecological literacy and the construction of scientific concepts in children. For the data collect, the study employed diverse instruments of a playful nature, such as theatre, games, drawings, and video-recorded interviews. The study showed a generally positive influence of playful activities to develop a perception of belonging to the food chain and becoming aware of the importance of caring for animals in order to preserve life, as well as an evolution inside the phases proposed by Vygotsky.
Jones, Michelle A
Background : Indoor soft play can provide a safe but exciting physical activity opportunity regardless of environmental conditions. Relatively little is known about the quality or quantity of physical activity engaged in by children during indoor free soft play. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution indoor free soft play can make in enabling children to meet physical activity guidelines and to evaluate the effects of sex and body mass index category. Methods : Seventy-two boys and girls aged five to 10 years engaged in un-controlled indoor free soft play with a mean duration of 120.7 (27.1) min, during which physical activity was monitored using Actigraph accelerometers. Results : Children spent an average of 61.7 (24.2) min engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 51.4% ( n = 37) achieved the recommended 60 min of MVPA through the single visit to the indoor soft play center. Boys (68.3 (25.7) min) engaged in significantly ( p < 0.05) more MVPA than girls (55.8 (21.4) min). Normal weight (65.7 (23.3) min) children engaged in significantly more MVPA than overweight children (48.0 (18.9) min). Conclusions : Attendance at a soft play indoor center has the potential to support children to engage in sufficient MVPA and overcome environmental factors that can restrict physical activity opportunities.
Background: Indoor soft play can provide a safe but exciting physical activity opportunity regardless of environmental conditions. Relatively little is known about the quality or quantity of physical activity engaged in by children during indoor free soft play. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution indoor free soft play can make in enabling children to meet physical activity guidelines and to evaluate the effects of sex and body mass index category. Methods: Seventy-two boys and girls aged five to 10 years engaged in un-controlled indoor free soft play with a mean duration of 120.7 (27.1) min, during which physical activity was monitored using Actigraph accelerometers. Results: Children spent an average of 61.7 (24.2) min engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 51.4% (n = 37) achieved the recommended 60 min of MVPA through the single visit to the indoor soft play center. Boys (68.3 (25.7) min) engaged in significantly (p < 0.05) more MVPA than girls (55.8 (21.4) min). Normal weight (65.7 (23.3) min) children engaged in significantly more MVPA than overweight children (48.0 (18.9) min). Conclusions: Attendance at a soft play indoor center has the potential to support children to engage in sufficient MVPA and overcome environmental factors that can restrict physical activity opportunities. PMID:28895904
Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Finistrella, Viviana; Ingrosso, Lisa; Monti, Giorgia; Vanelli, Maurizio; Vitale, Marco; Volta, Elio; Scazzina, Francesca
To improve nutritional knowledge of children, single-group educational interventions with pre/post knowledge assessment were performed in primary schools in Parma, Italy, participating to the Giocampus Program. A total of 8165 children (8-11 years old) of 3rd, 4th and 5th grades of primary school were involved in 3 hours per class nutritional lessons, with specifically designed games and activities for each school grade. To evaluate children learning, a questionnaire was administered before and after three months of educational intervention. A total of 16330 questionnaires were analysed. Children nutritional knowledge significantly increased (peducational figures, tools and games, was successful in improving children's nutritional knowledge. A stable integration of this method in primary school settings could prepare a new generation of citizens, better educated on health-promotion lifestyles.
Ergler, Christina R; Kearns, Robin; Witten, Karen
Studies of seasonal barriers for outdoor activities seldom view families' play practices as grounded in the everyday experience of the natural elements. This paper brings 20 families' mundane outdoor play experiences in Auckland's temperate climate to the fore. Through drawings and interviews, families residing in both suburban detached houses and central city apartments revealed locally constituted beliefs about appropriate play spaces (e.g. garden, park). While the majority of participants retreated to indoor activities during winter, some children and their parents viewed the outdoors as the only opportunity for 'real fun'. We advocate the importance of a better understanding of children's seasonal outdoor play. In particular, we argue that in order to promote year-round healthy levels of outdoor activities it is necessary to understand variations in societal, neighbourhood and family values attributed to outdoor activities. Further, to develop a more nuanced understanding of the locational complexities of outdoor play it is important to understand the meanings of, and practices associated with, seasonal and weather conditions in different international locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L
To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.
Dijnane Fernanda Vedovatto Iza; Maria Aparecida Mello
In this paper we discusses the importance of the childish education teachers clearly know about the meaning and the sense of the play activities with children 0 a 6 years old. This is part of doctor thesis from among of goals, one of them was to unveil the meaning and sense of the play activities attributed by childish education teachers. Part of the methodology used in the research involved interview with five childish education teachers who participated of a course about o theme and, so, vi...
Beers, P.J.; Hermans, F.; Veldkamp, T.; Hinssen, J.
According to transition science, system innovation requires experimentation and social learning to explore the potential of innovations for sustainable development. However, the transition science literature does not elaborate much on the learning processes involved. Senge's Field of Change provides
Via a systematic review of the literature on learning games, this article presents a systematic discussion on the design of intrinsic integration of domain-specific learning in game mechanics and game world design. A total of 69 articles ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were coded for the literature synthesis. Exemplary learning games…
Lu, Chris; Chang, Maiga; Kinshuk; Huang, Echo; Chen, Ching-Wen
The research presented in this paper is part of a 5-year renewable national research program in Canada, namely the NSERC/iCORE/Xerox/Markin research chair program that aims to explore possibilities of adaptive mobile learning and to provide learners with a learning environment which facilitates personalized learning at any time and any place. One…
Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen
Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.
Moore, Holly Carrell; Adair, Jennifer Keys
In this article we share descriptive findings from two qualitative, grounded theory (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998) studies on how two distinct groups of learners--prekindergarteners and preservice teachers in early childhood education coursework--used touch-screen tablets in their playful, discovery-based learning processes. We found similarities…
Mystakidis, Stylianos; Berki, Eleni
The University of Patras' Library Services designed and offered to primary and secondary schools the pilot educational program "From the Ancient to the Modern Tablets," featuring immersive multimedia learning experiences about the book history. The pilot program consisted of three stages: a playful library tour, followed by an…
This book introduces music reading skills in 21 lessons that focus on the violin but which may be applied to the study of any musical instrument. The lessons are designed for beginning music students and build upon previous lessons in the book. This volume focuses on the violin because of the large number of students presently learning to play it…
Brookshire, Cathy A.
This paper outlines Standards of Learning for grades 6-12 students in Virginia that are covered when they attend live performances of William Shakespeare's plays. The paper details separate standards for each grade in English, subdivided into standards which fulfill requirements in Oral Language, Reading/Literature, Writing, and Research, along…
Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian
Drawing on the theoretical work of the British sociologist Basil Bernstein, this paper documents how learning is structured and organised through play in three Early Years Education (EYE) settings catering for children aged three to five in England, UK. Its data address current issues raised within EYE research relating to "quality and high…
Byun, Chong Hyun Christie
The importance of active learning in the classroom has been well established in the field of Economic education. This paper examines the connection between active learning and performance outcomes in an Economics 101 course. Students participated in single play simultaneous move game with a clear dominant strategy, modeled after the Prisoner's…
Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
Lillard et al. (2013) concluded that pretend play is not causally related to child outcomes and charged that the field is subject to a "play ethos", whereby research is tainted by a bias to find positive effects of play on child development. In this commentary, we embrace their call for a more solidly scientific approach to questions in this…
Nur Rokhimah Hanik, Anwari Adi Nugroho
Biology learning especially high plant system courses needs to be applied to active learning centered on the student (Active Learning In Higher Education) to enhance the students' learning activities so that the quality of learning for the better. Outdoor Learning is one of the active learning invites students to learn outside of the classroom by exploring the surrounding environment. This research aims to improve the students' learning activities in the course of high plant systems through t...
Full Text Available Laboratory activities and constructivism are two notions that have been playing significant roles in science education. Despite common beliefs about the importance of laboratory activities, reviews reported inconsistent results about the effectiveness of laboratory activities. Since laboratory activities can be expensive and take more time, there is an effort to introduce virtual laboratory activities. This study aims at exploring the learning environment created by a virtual laboratory and a real laboratory. A quasi experimental study was conducted at two grade ten classes at a state high school in Bandung, Indonesia. Data were collected using a questionnaire called Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES before and after the laboratory activities. The results show that both types of laboratories can create constructivist learning environments. Each type of laboratory activity, however, may be stronger in improving certain aspects compared to the other. While a virtual laboratory is stronger in improving critical voice and personal relevance, real laboratory activities promote aspects of personal relevance, uncertainty and student negotiation. This study suggests that instead of setting one type of laboratory against the other, lessons and follow up studies should focus on how to combine both types of laboratories to support better learning.
McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada
This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.
Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…
Full Text Available In this paper the author offers a practical view of the theory-grounded research on education action. She draws on studies carried out at the Center for Research on Activity, Development and Learning (CRADLE at the University of Helsinki in Finland. In its work, the Center draws on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT and is well-known for the theory of Expansive Learning and its more practical application called Developmental Work Research (DWR. These approaches are widely used to understand professional learning and have served as a theoreticaland methodological foundation for studies examining change and professional development in various human activities.
Holt, Nicholas L; Neely, Kacey C; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie; Pynn, Shannon R; Boyd, Kassi A; Ingstrup, Meghan; Robinson, Zac
Children's engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1) How has active free play changed across three generations? (2) What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children) residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada). Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.
Nicholas L. Holt
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1 How has active free play changed across three generations? (2 What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Methods Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Results Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. Conclusions These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.
Fong, Ruth C; Scheirer, Walter J; Cox, David D
Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain. After training, these neurally-weighted classifiers are able to classify images without requiring any additional neural data. We show that our neural-weighting approach can lead to large performance gains when used with traditional machine vision features, as well as to significant improvements with already high-performing convolutional neural network features. The effectiveness of this approach points to a path forward for a new class of hybrid machine learning algorithms which take both inspiration and direct constraints from neuronal data.
Gosselin, Philippe Henri; Cord, Matthieu
Active learning methods have been considered with increased interest in the statistical learning community. Initially developed within a classification framework, a lot of extensions are now being proposed to handle multimedia applications. This paper provides algorithms within a statistical framework to extend active learning for online content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The classification framework is presented with experiments to compare several powerful classification techniques in this information retrieval context. Focusing on interactive methods, active learning strategy is then described. The limitations of this approach for CBIR are emphasized before presenting our new active selection process RETIN. First, as any active method is sensitive to the boundary estimation between classes, the RETIN strategy carries out a boundary correction to make the retrieval process more robust. Second, the criterion of generalization error to optimize the active learning selection is modified to better represent the CBIR objective of database ranking. Third, a batch processing of images is proposed. Our strategy leads to a fast and efficient active learning scheme to retrieve sets of online images (query concept). Experiments on large databases show that the RETIN method performs well in comparison to several other active strategies.
Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce
Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…
Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.
We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...
Piyaluk Wongsri; Prasart Nuangchalerm
Problem statement: Socioscientific issues-based learning activity is essential for scientific reasoning skills and it could be used for analyzing problems be applied to each situation for more successful and suitable. The purposes of this research aimed to compare learning achievement, analytical thinking and moral reasoning of seventh grade students who were organized between socioscientific issues-based learning and conventional learning activities. Approach: The samples used in research we...
Scanlan, Aaron T; Dascombe, Ben J; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Peucker, Jessica L; Dalbo, Vincent J
To compare game activity demands between female and male semiprofessional basketball players. Female (n=12) and male (n=12) semiprofessional basketball players were monitored across 3 competitive games. Time-motion-analysis procedures quantified player activity into predefined movement categories across backcourt (BC) and frontcourt (FC) positions. Activity frequencies, durations, and distances were calculated relative to live playing time (min). Work:rest ratios were also calculated using the video data. Game activity was compared between genders for each playing position and all players. Female players performed at greater running work-rates than male players (45.7±1.4 vs. 42.1±1.7 m/min, P=.05), while male players performed more dribbling than female players (2.5±0.3 vs. 3.0±0.2 s/min; 8.4±0.3 vs. 9.7±0.7 m/min, P=.05). Positional analyses revealed that female BC players performed more low-intensity shuffling (P=.04) and jumping (P=.05), as well as longer (P=.04) jogging durations, than male BC players. Female FC players executed more upper-body activity (P=.03) and larger work:rest ratios (Pbasketball. Furthermore, position-specific variations between female and male basketball players should be considered. These data may prove useful in the development of gender-specific conditioning plans relative to playing position in basketball.
In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)
Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin E.; Thomsen, Erik; Szabo, Peter; Horsewell, Andy
Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed. Peer Reviewed
Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.
Mathrani, Anuradha; Christian, Shelly; Ponder-Sutton, Agate
This study demonstrates a game-based learning (GBL) approach to engage students in learning and enhance their programming skills. The paper gives a detailed narrative of how an educational game was mapped with the curriculum of a prescribed programming course in a computing diploma study programme. Two separate student cohorts were invited to…
Simones, Lilian; Rodger, Matthew; Schroeder, Franziska
This study centers upon a piano learning and teaching environment in which beginners and intermediate piano students (N = 48) learning to perform a specific type of staccato were submitted to three different (group-exclusive) teaching conditions: "audio-only" demonstration of the musical task; observation of the teacher's action…
Kitching, Lucy; Wheeler, Steve
Games based learning is currently a hotly debated topic in education and is a fertile field of study (Holmes, 2011; Abrams, 2009). Many schools are exploring ways in which games can be embedded into the curriculum, to enhance learning through deeper engagement and higher levels of motivation (Miller & Robertson, 2010). This paper explores the…
Full Text Available We present our approach on how smart city technologies may enhance the learning process. We have developed the CLIO urban computing system, which invites people to share personal memories and interact the collective city memory. Various educational scenarios and activities were performed exploiting CLIO; in this paper we present the methodology we followed and the experience we gained. Learning has always been the cognitive process of acquiring skills or knowledge, while teachers are often eager to experiment with novel technological means and methods; our aim was to explore the effect that urban computing could have to the learning process. We applied our methodology in the city of Corfu inviting schools to engage their students in learning through the collective city memory while exploiting urban computing. Results from our experience demonstrate the potential of exploiting urban computing in the learning process and the benefits of learning out of the classroom.
Full Text Available Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signalling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behaviour. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.
FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl
Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Otero, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Eva; Royo, Pablo
This paper proposes several activities that encourage self-learning in engineering courses. For each activity, the context and the pedagogical issues addressed are described emphasizing strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, this work describes and implements five activities, which are: questionnaires, conceptual maps, videos, jigsaw and…
Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana
This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…
Loui, Michael C.
In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…
Conklin, Hilary G.
Recent efforts to define qualities of effective teaching practice have done little to capture the role of play, imagination, and creativity in classroom teaching. Drawing on theories of play and data from a two-year case study that included classroom observations, interviews, artifact collection, and surveys, the author examines the ways in which…
Levy, Gary D.
Although the notion is certainly cliched, baseball often serves as an excellent metaphor for life. Some of the methodologies currently being used to measure, evaluate, manage, and even play baseball may serve as references for ways that higher education may be measured, evaluated, managed, and played. This chapter proposes and presents…
Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…
Güllich, Arne; Kovar, Peter; Zart, Sebastian; Reimann, Ansgar
This study examined contributions of different types of sport activities to the development of elite youth soccer performance. Match-play performance of 44 German male players was assessed by expert coaches twice, 24 months apart (age 11.1-13.1 years), based on videotaped 5v5 matches. Player pairs were matched by identical age and initial performance at t 1 . Each player was assigned to a group of either "Strong" or "Weak Responders" based on a higher or lower subsequent performance improvement at t 2 within each pair (mean Δperformance 29% vs. 7%). A questionnaire recorded current and earlier amounts of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting play, in soccer and other sports, respectively. Group comparison revealed that "Strong Responders" accumulated more non-organised soccer play and organised practice/training in other sports, but not more organised soccer practice/training. Subsequent multivariate analyses (multiple linear regression analyses (MLR)) highlighted that higher resultant match-play performance at t 2 was accounted for R 2 adj = 0.65 by performance at t 1 , together with more non-organised soccer play and organised engagement in other sports, respectively, and greater current, but less earlier volume of organised soccer. The findings suggest that variable early sporting experience facilitates subsequent soccer performance development in German elite youth footballers.
Robert, Maxime; Ballaz, Laurent; Hart, Raphael; Lemay, Martin
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to secondary complications related to physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory capacity. This problem could be greatly attenuated through the use of video games that incorporate physical activity for 2 reasons: Video games already represent an important component of leisure time in younger people, and such games can lead to a high level of exercise intensity in people who are healthy. The study objective was to evaluate exercise intensity in children with spastic diplegic CP and children who were typically developing while playing with an active video game console. This was a cross-sectional study. Ten children (7-12 years old) with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) and 10 children who were age matched and typically developing were evaluated in a movement analysis laboratory. Four games were played with the active video game console (jogging, bicycling, snowboarding, and skiing) for 40 minutes. Heart rate was recorded during the entire playing period with a heart rate belt monitor. Exercise intensity was defined as the percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR). In addition, lower extremity motion analysis was carried out during the final minute of the playing period for the jogging and bicycling games. No difference between groups was observed for any variables. A main effect of games was observed for the amount of time spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. Specifically, more than 50% of the playing time for the jogging game and more than 30% of the playing time for the bicycling game were spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. In addition, the jogging game produced a larger range of motion than the bicycling game. A limitation of this study was the relatively small and heterogeneous sample. For all 4 games, similar exercise intensity levels were observed for children who were typically developing and children with CP, suggesting that children with CP could
Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela
event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...
Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.
In recent years, advances in machine learning have transformed fields such as image recognition, natural language processing and recommender systems. Many of these performance gains have relied on the availability of large, labeled data sets to train high-accuracy models; labeled data sets are those for which each sample includes a target class label, such as waveforms tagged as either earthquakes or noise. Earthquake seismologists are increasingly leveraging machine learning and data mining techniques to detect and analyze weak earthquake signals in large seismic data sets. One of the challenges in applying machine learning to seismic data sets is the limited labeled data problem; learning algorithms need to be given examples of earthquake waveforms, but the number of known events, taken from earthquake catalogs, may be insufficient to build an accurate detector. Furthermore, earthquake catalogs are known to be incomplete, resulting in training data that may be biased towards larger events and contain inaccurate labels. This challenge is compounded by the class imbalance problem; the events of interest, earthquakes, are infrequent relative to noise in continuous data sets, and many learning algorithms perform poorly on rare classes. In this work, we investigate the use of active learning for automatic earthquake detection. Active learning is a type of semi-supervised machine learning that uses a human-in-the-loop approach to strategically supplement a small initial training set. The learning algorithm incorporates domain expertise through interaction between a human expert and the algorithm, with the algorithm actively posing queries to the user to improve detection performance. We demonstrate the potential of active machine learning to improve earthquake detection performance with limited available training data.
Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo
Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136
Lisa M. Barnett
Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control and time (pre and post and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no. Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95 participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006 but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913 between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835. A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406 or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.
Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo
To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and 'real life' activities. Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.
This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course...... collaboration at the cost of individual performance and possible long-term collective performance as well....
Gutierrez, Belinda; Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly
Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame "Fair Play" in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing "quests" to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play "Fair Play" or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking.
Full Text Available Learning new words is an increasingly common necessity in everyday life. External factors, among which music and social interaction are particularly debated, are claimed to facilitate this task. Due to their influence on the learner’s temporal behavior, these stimuli are able to drive the learner's attention to the correct referent of new words at the correct point in time. However, do music and social interaction impact learning behavior in the same way? The current study aims to answer this question. Native German speakers (N = 80 were requested to learn new words (pseudo-words during a contextual learning game. This learning task was performed alone with a computer or with a partner, with or without music. Results showed that music and social interaction had a different impact on the learner’s behavior: Participants tended to temporally coordinate their behavior more with a partner than with music, and in both cases more than with a computer. However, when both music and social interaction were present, this temporal coordination was hindered. These results suggest that while music and social interaction do influence participants’ learning behavior, they have a different impact. Moreover, impaired behavior when both music and a partner are present suggests that different mechanisms are employed to coordinate with the two types of stimuli. Whether one or the other approach is more efficient for word learning, however, is a question still requiring further investigation, as no differences were observed between conditions in a retrieval phase which took place immediately after the learning session. This study contributes to the literature on word learning in adults by investigating two possible facilitating factors, and has important implications for situations such as music therapy, in which music and social interaction are present at the same time.
Verga, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Kotz, Sonja A
Learning new words is an increasingly common necessity in everyday life. External factors, among which music and social interaction are particularly debated, are claimed to facilitate this task. Due to their influence on the learner's temporal behavior, these stimuli are able to drive the learner's attention to the correct referent of new words at the correct point in time. However, do music and social interaction impact learning behavior in the same way? The current study aims to answer this question. Native German speakers (N = 80) were requested to learn new words (pseudo-words) during a contextual learning game. This learning task was performed alone with a computer or with a partner, with or without music. Results showed that music and social interaction had a different impact on the learner's behavior: Participants tended to temporally coordinate their behavior more with a partner than with music, and in both cases more than with a computer. However, when both music and social interaction were present, this temporal coordination was hindered. These results suggest that while music and social interaction do influence participants' learning behavior, they have a different impact. Moreover, impaired behavior when both music and a partner are present suggests that different mechanisms are employed to coordinate with the two types of stimuli. Whether one or the other approach is more efficient for word learning, however, is a question still requiring further investigation, as no differences were observed between conditions in a retrieval phase, which took place immediately after the learning session. This study contributes to the literature on word learning in adults by investigating two possible facilitating factors, and has important implications for situations such as music therapy, in which music and social interaction are present at the same time.
Huang, Rui-Ting; Jang, Syh-Jong; Machtmes, Krisanna; Deggs, David
Although there is a growing interest in mobile learning, there are limited studies that focus on student knowledge acquisition. As applications and usages of mobile technology have become more and more accepted, it is important and meaningful that researchers and practitioners of mobile learning understand the potential factors that could…
Games and simulations have become the learning resource du jour in e-learning circles, suggested as the solution to a wide range of learning objectives. However, the results of previous endeavours in this arena have been mixed, causing many educators to approach games with some trepidation. Coupled with the overly-hyped and only marginally effective ‘edutainment’ market in the 1990s, many educators and trainers have been left with a sceptical view of what is popularly regarded as another atte...
Miyachi, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Kenta; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Tanaka, Shigeho
Active video game systems controlled through arm gestures and motions (Nintendo Wii Sports) and video games controlled through force plate (Wii Fit Plus) are becoming increasingly popular. This study was performed to determine the energy expenditure (EE) during Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports game activities. Twelve adult men and women performed all the activities of Wii Sports (five activities: golf, bowling, tennis, baseball, and boxing) and Wii Fit Plus (63 activities classified as yoga, resistance, balance, and aerobic exercises). Each activity was continued for at least 8 min to obtain a steady-state EE. Because EE was assessed in an open-circuit indirect metabolic chamber consisting of an airtight room (20,000 or 15,000 L), subjects were freed of apparatus to collect expired gas while playing the games. MET value was calculated from resting EE and steady-state EE during activity. The mean MET values of all 68 activities were distributed over a wide range from 1.3 METs (Lotus Focus) to 5.6 METs (single-arm stand). The mean MET values in yoga, balance, resistance, and aerobic exercise of Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports were 2.1, 2.0, 3.2, 3.4, and 3.0 METs, respectively. Forty-six activities (67%) were classified as light intensity (6.0 METs). Time spent playing one-third of the activities supplied by motion- and gesture-controlled video games can count toward the daily amount of exercise required according to the guidelines provided by the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association, which focus on 30 min of moderate-intensity daily physical activity 5 d x wk(-1).
Simons, M.; Vet, E. de; Brug, J.; Seidell, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.
Objectives: The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, n= 373), recruited via
simons, M.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Brug, J.; Seidell, J.C.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, n = 373), recruited via
Simons, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323255639; de Vet, Emely; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai J M
OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, n = 373), recruited via
Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure. This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics. Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. Using a simple hebbian-type learning, the model is able to memorize a large number of input/output mappings. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns. These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in
Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling
Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.
Karamali Esmaili, Samaneh; Shafaroodi, Narges; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Parand, Akram; Zarei, Masoume; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed
Although the effect of educational methods on executive function (EF) is well known, training this function by a playful method is debatable. The current study aimed at investigating if a play-based intervention is effective on metacognitive and behavioral skills of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. In the current randomized, clinical trial, 49 subjects within the age range of 7 to 11 years with specific learning disabilities were randomly assigned into the intervention (25 subjects; mean age 8.5±1.33 years) and control (24 subjects; mean age 8.7±1.03 years) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received EF group training based on playing activities; subjects in the control group received no intervention. The behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) was administered to evaluate the behavioral and cognitive aspects of EF. The duration of the intervention was 6 hours per week for 9 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare mean changes (before and after) in the BRIEF scores between the groups. The assumptions of multivariate analysis of covariance were examined. After controlling pre-test conditions, the intervention and control groups scored significantly differently on both the metacognition (P=0.002; effect size=0.20) and behavior regulation indices (P=0.01; effect size=0.12) of BRIEF. Play-based therapy is effective on the metacognitive and behavioral aspects of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. Professionals can use play-based therapy rather than educational approaches in clinical practice to enhance EF skills.
O'Dwyer, Mareesa V; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe; Stratton, Gareth
Early childhood provides a window of opportunity for the promotion of physical activity. Given the limited effectiveness of interventions to date, new approaches are needed. Socio-ecological models suggest that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier lifestyles in children. This study describes the effectiveness of a family-focused 'Active Play' intervention in decreasing sedentary time and increasing total physical activity in preschool children. Seventy-seven families were recruited from 8 randomly selected SureStart children's centres in the North West of England. Centres were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 4) or a comparison group (n = 4). Parents and children in the intervention group received a 10-week active play programme delivered by trained active play professionals; this included an activity and educational component. Families in the comparison group were asked to maintain their usual routine. Each participating parent and child wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and post-test. Week and weekend day sedentary time and total physical activity adjusted for child- and home- level covariates were analysed using multilevel analyses. Significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time and physical activity for both week and weekend days. Children in the intervention group engaged in 1.5% and 4.3% less sedentary time during week and weekend days, respectively and 4.5% and 13.1% more physical activity during week and weekend days, respectively than children in the comparison group. Parent's participation in sport and their physical activity levels, child's sex, availability of media in the home and attendance at organised activities were significant predictors of sedentary time and physical activity in this age group. A 10-week family focused active play intervention produced positive changes in sedentary time and total physical activity levels in preschool children
Full Text Available Hamstring injuries and its rehabilitation in competitive events such as football targets safe and early return to play. This is because hamstring injuries are more related to prolonged recovery time and high rate of re-injury. In this case study, Zakeer Mundampara, 26-year-old footballer of Chennaiyin FC team (Indian super league tournament, who was rehabilitated for Grade 2 hamstring strain was briefed. To describe the importance of conservative rehabilitation in hamstring injuries and report on player's rehabilitation program and clinical outcome. Zakeer Mundampara was conservatively treated with active release technique for 2 weeks duration. Data collected includes passive knee extension test range of motion and verbal rating score. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, Zakeer Mundampara had nearly full range of pain-free movement, normal gait and trained to run safely. By the 3rd week, he started to perform all sports specific drills. He was rehabilitated and set fit to play after 4 weeks from the date of injury. Active release technique is effective in hamstring injuries. In this case study, rehabilitation program with an emphasis on active release technique is found to be effective in returning the footballer back to play.
Veitch, J; Salmon, J; Ball, K
Many Australian children are more sedentary than they should be, and almost one in five are currently overweight or obese. Some children may face difficulties finding opportunities to be active, having poor access to safe public open spaces or having low independent mobility limiting their access to places to play. This study aimed to examine children's access to places in their neighborhood for active free play and how these vary by age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Behavioral maps of the local neighborhood were completed by children (8-12 years) from five primary schools across different areas of Melbourne. Children living in low SES outer-urban neighborhoods had to travel greater distances to access local parks compared with those in inner-urban mid and high SES areas. One-third (32%) of children reported an independent mobility range of <100 m from home. In conclusion, for some children opportunities to engage in active free play in the local neighborhood may be limited due to lack of parks in close proximity to home and restricted independent mobility. It is important to collaborate with local governments, urban planners and community groups to improve access to neighborhood parks and to promote a sense of neighborhood safety.
Wilson, C.; Rothenberg, D.
Nuclear operators are eager to update their automation infrastructure, but are apprehensive due to the consequences of failure. The process industries have learned that alarm design is critical to a successful Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation. This paper shares valuable insight into how alarms play a key role in successful management of upsets, help focus operator attention, and supply critical information during periods of high stress. (authors)
Cevik, Mucahit; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Stout, Natasha K; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Craven, Mark; Alagoz, Oguzhan
Most cancer simulation models include unobservable parameters that determine disease onset and tumor growth. These parameters play an important role in matching key outcomes such as cancer incidence and mortality, and their values are typically estimated via a lengthy calibration procedure, which involves evaluating a large number of combinations of parameter values via simulation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how machine learning approaches can be used to accelerate the calibration process by reducing the number of parameter combinations that are actually evaluated. Active learning is a popular machine learning method that enables a learning algorithm such as artificial neural networks to interactively choose which parameter combinations to evaluate. We developed an active learning algorithm to expedite the calibration process. Our algorithm determines the parameter combinations that are more likely to produce desired outputs and therefore reduces the number of simulation runs performed during calibration. We demonstrate our method using the previously developed University of Wisconsin breast cancer simulation model (UWBCS). In a recent study, calibration of the UWBCS required the evaluation of 378 000 input parameter combinations to build a race-specific model, and only 69 of these combinations produced results that closely matched observed data. By using the active learning algorithm in conjunction with standard calibration methods, we identify all 69 parameter combinations by evaluating only 5620 of the 378 000 combinations. Machine learning methods hold potential in guiding model developers in the selection of more promising parameter combinations and hence speeding up the calibration process. Applying our machine learning algorithm to one model shows that evaluating only 1.49% of all parameter combinations would be sufficient for the calibration. © The Author(s) 2015.
This research was carried out during a study which focused upon the rough and tumble play of children in the early years department of a suburban primary school in northern England. The child sample's playtime activities were ethnographically observed over a period of 18 calendar months, during which time interviews were also carried out with the…
Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya
Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.
Giuseppe Davide Paparo
Full Text Available Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.
Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hulteen, Ryan M; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M
Actual and perceived object control (commonly ball) skill proficiency is associated with higher physical activity in children and adolescents. Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movement to control/play the electronic gaming system and therefore provide an opportunity for screen time to become more active. The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing sports AVGs has a positive influence on young children's actual and perceived object control skills. Two group pre/post experimental design study. Thirty-six children aged 6-10 years old from one school were randomly allocated to a control or intervention condition. The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence for Young Children assessed perceived object control skill. The intervention consisted of 6×50min lunchtime AVG sessions on the Xbox Kinect. Two to three sport games were chosen for participants to play each session. General linear models with either perceived object control or actual object control skill as the outcome variables were conducted. Each base model adjusted for intervention status and pre-score of the respective outcome variable. Additional models adjusted for potential confounding variables (sex of child and game at home). No significant differences between the control and intervention groups were observed for both outcomes. This study found that playing the Xbox Kinect does not significantly influence children's perceived or actual object control skills, suggesting that the utility of the Xbox Kinect for developing perceived and actual object control skill competence is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi
This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....
Full Text Available This article introduces the Learning Activity Design (LEAD framework for the development and implementation of mobile learning activities in primary schools. The LEAD framework draws on methodological perspectives suggested by design-based research and interaction design in the specific field of technology-enhanced learning (TEL. The LEAD framework is grounded in four design projects conducted over a period of six years. It contributes a new understanding of the intricacies and multifaceted aspects of the design-process characterizing the development and implementation of mobile devices (i.e. smart phones and tablets in curricular activities conducted in Swedish primary schools. This framework is intended to provide both designers and researchers with methodological tools that take account of the pedagogical foundations of technologically-based educational interventions, usability issues related to the interaction with the mobile application developed, multiple data streams generated during the design project, multiple stakeholders involved in the design process and sustainability aspects of the mobile learning activities implemented in the school classroom.
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…
Grant, Shelia I.
This collection of learning activities is intended for use in reinforcing mathematics instruction as it relates to building maintenance. Fifty activity sheets are provided. These are organized into units on the following topics: numeration, adding whole numbers, subtracting whole numbers, multiplying whole numbers, dividing whole numbers,…
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…
Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed....
de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.
Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the
Wu, Shu-Chen; Faas, Stefan; Geiger, Steffen
This qualitative study investigated Chinese and German teachers' and parents' conceptions and understanding of learning at play. A total of 28 teachers and 12 parents took part in this study. Among the participants, 12 kindergarten teachers (6 German and 6 Chinese) were interviewed to obtain their perspectives on learning at play. These…
The most common form of teaching is still the form where a teacher presents the subject of the lecture to a listening audience. During teaching history this has proved to be an effective way of teaching, however the probability of students being inactive is high and the learning outcome may...... through the same curriculum as usual during a term? • Will Active Learning reduce failure rate? • Will Active Learning give a higher learning outcome than traditional teaching? This paper deals with the results of this experiment, answers the mentioned questions and presents a way to implement Active...
Simons, M.; Vet, de E.W.M.L.; Brug, J.; Seidell, J.C.; Chinapaw, M.
Objective: The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of activeand non-active gaming among adolescents.Design: Cross-sectional.Methods: A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12–16years, n = 373), recruited via
Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana
This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…
Peter Bryant; Antony Coombs; Monika Pazio
Recognising and responding to behaviours and patterns of resistance is critical to the successful implementation of technology-enhanced learning strategies at higher education institutions. At institutional, academic and student levels, resistance manifests itself in a variety of forms, at best supporting a critical culture and at worst creating inertia and active disquiet. Through the lens of an institution-wide strategic learning innovation vision at the University of Greenwich, designed t...
The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.
Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…
Bourke-Taylor, H; Law, M; Howie, L; Pallant, J F
This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Assistance to Participate Scale (APS). The APS measures the assistance that a school-aged child with a disability requires to participate in play and leisure activities from the primary carer's perspective. Mixed methodology using an instrument design model was used to complete two studies. First, a qualitative research design was used to generate items and scoring criteria for the APS. Second, a quantitative study evaluated the instrument using data collected from 152 mothers with children aged 5-18 years. Statistical analysis assessed the underlying structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the APS. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two correlated components, reflecting home-based and community-based play activities. Both subscales and the total APS scale showed good internal consistency. The APS correlated as predicted with individual domains and overall scores for other validated measures (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory caregiver scales and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) with correlations ranging from rho = 0.42 to rho = 0.77. The APS was able to discriminate between groups of children based on type of schooling (regular or segregated), need for equipment/assistive devices, frequency of lifting and disability. The APS provides professionals with a brief psychometrically sound tool that measures the amount of caregiver assistance provided to a child with a disability to participate in play and recreation. The APS may be used as an outcome measure and to evaluate and predict the amount and type of additional assistance families need to facilitate their child's participation in an important aspect of the child's daily life and development: play and recreation.
Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie
In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and…
Vos, N.W.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Denessen, E.J.P.G.
In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128)
Ho, Tracy Kwei-Liang; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Ching-Kong; Tsai, Jih-Long
Traditional methods of teaching music are largely subjective, with the lack of objectivity being particularly challenging for violin students learning vibrato because of the existence of conflicting theories. By using a computer-based analysis method, this study found that maintaining temporal coincidence between the intensity peak and the target…
Southgate, Erica; Budd, Janene; Smith, Shamus
Computer gaming is a global phenomenon and there has been rapid growth in "serious" games for learning. An emergent body of evidence demonstrates how serious games can be used in primary and secondary school classrooms. Despite the popularity of serious games and their pedagogical potential, there are few specialised frameworks to guide…
Cheep-Aranai, Rin; Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee
Learner-centeredness is a consistent theme in the field of education. Yet, the perspectives of young learners are still barely considered. Lightbown and Spada (2013) have pointed out that even though young children have not developed cognitive maturity and the metalinguistic awareness of adolescents or adults, they learn a language without any…
As online education escalates, it is important for instructors to explore teaching techniques that engage students and enhance learning at a profound level. To achieve this goal, instructors must look at the primarily text-based environment of the online class not as a limitation, but as an opportunity. Attentive and highly personal teaching that…
Cekaite, Asta; Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
In this study we argue that a focus on language learning ecologies, that is, situations for participation in various communicative practices, can shed light on the intricate processes through which minority children develop or are constrained from acquiring cultural and linguistic competencies (here, of a majority language). The analysis draws on…
Leaman, Lori Hostetler; Flanagan, Toni Michele
This article draws from situated learning theory, teacher education research, and the authors' collaborative self-study to propose a teacher education pedagogy that may help to bridge the theory-into-practice gap for preservice teachers. First, we review the Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium standards to confirm the call for…
Heru, Alison M.
Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in medical education world-wide. Despite its popularity, it has not been generally considered useful for residency programs. The author presents a model for the implementation of PBL in residency programs. Method: The author presents a description of a PBL curriculum for teaching…
To investigate whether a persuasive game may serve as a way to change attitude towards the homeless and increase affective learning, this study examined, experimentally, the effects of persuasive rhetoric and ethos in a video game designed to put the player in the shoes of an almost-homeless person for thirty days. Data were collected from 5139…
Drawing on studies of successful remote schools in one region of Australia, it was found that two key strategies were common in the approaches at these schools. First, to make the strategies and expectations being adopted explicit to all those involved in the learning enterprise, and second, that consistency in approaches was crucial. Bourdieu's…
Opportunities for play and self-initiated activity, considered to be an important part of children's learning in early childhood settings, diminish as children progress into school. Previous studies suggest that losing time for play/self-initiated activity can impact negatively on children's attitudes to school learning. This article discusses the…
Gaming has played an important part in our daily lives for quite some time now. As a result, many researchers are interested in the various ways in which gaming has an impact beyond its own context. This dissertation explores one particular type of impact, i.e., the impact of gaming on
Ruiller, C.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Patin-Saint-Mieux, B.
This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several
Ruiller, Caroline; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Patin-Saint-Mleux, Bertille
This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several
Role play is an increasingly popular technique in tertiary education, being student centred, constructivist and suitable for a range of subject areas. The choice of formats is wide open, with options ranging from the traditional face to face performance through to multi-user online computer games. Some teachers prefer to take advantage of features…
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games like World of Warcraft are ideally suited to encourage and facilitate second language development (SLD) in the extramural setting, but to what extent do the language learners' actual trajectories of gameplay contribute to SLD? With the current propensity to focus research in digital game-based…
Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis
This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…
Now in its second edition, "Nature and Young Children" promotes the holistic development of children by connecting them with nature. It offers advice and guidance on how to set up indoor and outdoor nature play spaces as well as encouraging environmentally responsible attitudes, values and behaviour in your early childhood setting. Covering topics…
Screens are occupying an increasingly bigger place in families, which can have harmful consequences on the development of young children. To ensure their harmonious construction, children must not be deprived of games which involve interaction with the outside world and adults. They need exchanges with their parents and with professionals aware of the role which they have to play in a child's discoveries.
Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni
This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles
The aim of this study was to define the locomotor activity of footballer players during the 2010 World Cup and to assess what differences existed among different playing positions. Research was conducted using research material collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records player movements during a game by use of semi-automatic cameras. A total of 599 players who participated in the championships were analyzed. The results were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test that calculated the Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) in order to determine which mean values significantly differed among the player positions. It was found that midfielders covered on average the largest distance during a match (10,777.6 m, Plocomotor activity at high and sprint intensities (2936.8 m and 108.4 m, respectively). Additionally, midfielders also spent the largest amount of time at performing at a high intensity (10.6%). Strikers also featured high levels of the above parameters; the total length of distance covered with high intensities was found to be on average 2586.7 m, the distance covered at sprint intensity was 105 m. The footballers, playing at the championship level feature excellent locomotor preparation. This fact is undoubtedly supported by the aerobic training of high intensity. Such training allows footballers to extend the distance they cover during the match, increase the intensity of locomotor activities and sprint speed distance.
The introduction of active learning exercises into a traditional lecture has been shown to improve students’ learning. Hands-on learning...opportunities in labs and projects provide are additional tools in the active learning toolbox. This paper presents a series of innovative hands-on active ... learning activities for mechanics of materials topics. These activities are based on a Methodology for Developing Hands-on Active Learning Activities, a
Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie; Cutter-MacKenzie, Amy; Huang, Terry; O'Connor, Amanda
This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of '360 degree marketing' on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children's knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children's food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children's healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children's learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific teaching and learning practices used by early
Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin
Many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful and mobile activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In this chapter we explore play as a structure to support visitor learning, drawing from internation...
Gubaev, Konstantin; Podryabinkin, Evgeny V.; Shapeev, Alexander V.
In recent years, the machine learning techniques have shown great potent1ial in various problems from a multitude of disciplines, including materials design and drug discovery. The high computational speed on the one hand and the accuracy comparable to that of density functional theory on another hand make machine learning algorithms efficient for high-throughput screening through chemical and configurational space. However, the machine learning algorithms available in the literature require large training datasets to reach the chemical accuracy and also show large errors for the so-called outliers—the out-of-sample molecules, not well-represented in the training set. In the present paper, we propose a new machine learning algorithm for predicting molecular properties that addresses these two issues: it is based on a local model of interatomic interactions providing high accuracy when trained on relatively small training sets and an active learning algorithm of optimally choosing the training set that significantly reduces the errors for the outliers. We compare our model to the other state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature on the widely used benchmark tests.
Zoya A. Reshetova
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of mechanisms of learning for understanding the nature of the human mind. Learning is regarded as a special activity that is important for developing the human mind in a specific cultural and historical setting and indirect activity. The author’s understanding of the ideas developed by the psychological theory of activity for establishing the principles of developing the human mind is highlighted. Interpretation of dialectical connections of brain processes and mind, and also the objective activity that emerges them is provided. According to the activity theory, the causes of the students’ psychological difficulties and the low efficacy of learning within predominant reproductive method or the use of the trial and error method are revealed. Thus, a new understanding of the renowned didactic principles of scientific rigour, accessibility, objectivity, the connection of learning with life and others is offered. The contribution of the psychological theory in organizing and managing the studies, increasing teaching activity and awareness, and the growth of the internal causes of motivation are shown. Particular attention is paid to the issue of intellectual development and creative abilities. The author believes the creative abilities of the student and the way the latter are taught are interconnected. At the same time, the developers and educators should make efforts to develop in the students a systemic orientation in the subject, primarily mastering the method of system analysis. Once the method of system analysis has been mastered, it becomes a general intellectual and developing tool through which activities are organized to solve any teaching problems with whatever type of content and difficulty level. Summing up, the organization and disclosure to the student of the process of learning as an activity with its social, consciously transformative and sense shaping meaning, the conditions of its development
Bruun, Jesper; Johannsen, Bjørn Friis
that students use bodily explorations to construct meaning and understanding from kinaesthetic learning that is relevant to school physics? To answer the question, we employ a semiotics perspective to analyse data from a 1-hour lesson for 8-9th graders which introduced students to kinaesthetic activities, where......?”). The analysis is conducted by searching the data to find episodes that illustrate student activity which can serve as a sign of the object that the ‘experiential gestalt of causation’ is employed in the construction of the intended learning outcome. In essence, we study a chaotic but authentic teaching...
A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our
Kottyan, Gregg; Kottyan, Leah; Edwards, Nicholas M.; Unaka, Ndidi I.
Avondale, a disadvantaged neighborhood in Cincinnati, lags behind on a number of indicators of child well-being. Childhood obesity has become increasingly prevalent, as one third of Avondale’s kindergarteners are obese or overweight. The study objective was to determine perceptions of the quantity of and obstacles to childhood physical activity in the Avondale community. Caregivers of children from two elementary schools were surveyed to assess their child’s physical activity and barriers to being active. Three hundred forty surveys were returned out of 1,047 for a response rate of 32%. On school days, 41% of caregivers reported that their children spent more than 2 hours watching television, playing video games, or spending time on the computer. While over half of respondents reported that their children get more than 2 hours of physical activity on school days, 14% of children were reported to be physically active less than 1 hour per day. Caregivers identified violence, cost of extracurricular activities, and lack of organized activities as barriers to their child’s physical activity. The overwhelming majority of caregivers expressed interest in a program to make local playgrounds safer. In conclusion, children in Avondale are not participating in enough physical activity and are exposed to more screen time than is recommended by the AAP. Safety concerns were identified as a critical barrier to address in future advocacy efforts in this community. This project represents an important step toward increasing the physical activity of children in Avondale and engaging the local community. PMID:24306236
Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank
Holbert, Nathan; Weintrop, David; Wilensky, Uri; Sengupta, Pratim; Killingsworth, Stephen; Krinks, Kyra; Clark, Doug; Brady, Corey; Shapiro, R. Benjamin; Russ, Rosemary S.; Klopfer, Eric
This effort has produced many interesting games though it is unclear if “educational video games” have achieved their promise. Similarly, for many years constructionists have engaged children in learning across a variety of contexts, including game design. While these programs have been successful, their exploratory nature leads to concerns about content coverage. In this symposium we discuss the potential of blending these two design traditions. Constructionist video games infuse tradi...
When kids play video games, they want to perfect their skills, advance to the next level, and become a master. It is the kind of focus that many teachers would love to see in their classrooms. From elementary through high school, computer games are being woven into the curriculum to engage students in new ways. However, many schools lack the…
Pedersen, B. K. M. K.; Andersen, K. E.; J⊘rgensen, A.
Educational Robotics has proven a feasible way of supporting and exemplifying Computational Thinking. With this paper, we describe the user-centered iterative and incremental development of a new educational robotic system, BRICKO, to support tangible, social and playful interaction while educating...... children in 1st–3rd grade in Computational Thinking. We develop the system through seven main iterations including a total of 108 participant pupils and their teachers. The methodology is a mixture of observation and interviews using Wizard of OZ testing with the early pilot prototypes as well as usability...... categories of command-bricks. We discuss the methodologies used for assuring a playful and social educational robotic system and conclude that we achieved a useful prototype for supporting education in Computational Thinking....
Alberto Inácio da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play
Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Cole, Michael H; Naughton, Geraldine; Dawson, Brian
The rapid transition of female Australian football players from amateur to semi-elite competitions has the potential for athletes to be underprepared for match-play. To gain an understanding the match demands of female football, the aims of this study were three-fold: (1) to highlight the physical qualities that discriminate selected and non-selected female Australian Football players, (2) to investigate activity profiles of female Australian Football players, and (3) to gain an understanding of the influence of physical qualities on running performance in female Australian Football match-play. Twenty-two female Australian football (AF) state academy players (mean ± SD age, 23.2 ± 4.5 years) and 27 non-selected players (mean ± SD age, 23.4 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1), countermovement jump and 30m sprint tests were completed prior to the competitive season. During 14 matches, players wore global positioning system (GPS) units to describe the running demands of female AF match-play. Selected players were faster over 30 metres (ES=0.57; p=0.04) and covered greater distances on the Yo-Yo IR1 test (ES=1.09; pfemale AF players were faster and had greater intermittent running ability than players not selected to a State academy program. An emphasis should be placed on the development of physical fitness in this playing group to ensure optimal preparation for the national competition.
Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from
Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth
The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…
McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Kellar, Charlyn; Morgan, Christine
Background: Medical education is moving toward active learning during large group lecture sessions. This study investigated the saturation and breadth of active learning techniques implemented in first year medical school large group sessions. Methods: Data collection involved retrospective curriculum review and semistructured interviews with 20 faculty. The authors piloted a taxonomy of active learning techniques and mapped learning techniques to attributes of learning-centered instruction. Results: Faculty implemented 25 different active learning techniques over the course of 9 first year courses. Of 646 hours of large group instruction, 476 (74%) involved at least 1 active learning component. Conclusions: The frequency and variety of active learning components integrated throughout the year 1 curriculum reflect faculty familiarity with active learning methods and their support of an active learning culture. This project has sparked reflection on teaching practices and facilitated an evolution from teacher-centered to learning-centered instruction. PMID:29707649
McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Kellar, Charlyn; Morgan, Christine
Medical education is moving toward active learning during large group lecture sessions. This study investigated the saturation and breadth of active learning techniques implemented in first year medical school large group sessions. Data collection involved retrospective curriculum review and semistructured interviews with 20 faculty. The authors piloted a taxonomy of active learning techniques and mapped learning techniques to attributes of learning-centered instruction. Faculty implemented 25 different active learning techniques over the course of 9 first year courses. Of 646 hours of large group instruction, 476 (74%) involved at least 1 active learning component. The frequency and variety of active learning components integrated throughout the year 1 curriculum reflect faculty familiarity with active learning methods and their support of an active learning culture. This project has sparked reflection on teaching practices and facilitated an evolution from teacher-centered to learning-centered instruction.
Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L
This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.
Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert
. It is proposed that the neural machinery required in such a learning/retrieval mechanism could involve the NMDA receptor, in conjunction with the ability of dendrites to maintain differentially activated regions. In particular, it is suggested that such a parcellation of the dendrite allows the neuron......Differentially activated areas of a dendrite permit the existence of zones with distinct rates of synaptic modification, and such areas can be individually accessed using a reference signal which localizes synaptic plasticity and memory trace retrieval to certain subregions of the dendrite...... to participate in multiple sequences, which can be learned without suffering from the 'wash-out' of synaptic efficacy associated with superimposition of training patterns. This is a biologically plausible solution to the stability-plasticity dilemma of learning in neural networks....
Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L
Overweight and obese youth, who face increased risk of medical complications including heart disease and type II diabetes, can benefit from sustainable physical activity interventions that result in weight loss. This study examined whether a 20-week exergame (i.e., videogame that requires gross motor activity) intervention can produce weight loss and improve psychosocial outcomes for 54 overweight and obese African-American adolescents. Participants were recruited from a public high school and randomly assigned to competitive exergame, cooperative exergame, or control conditions. All exergame participants were encouraged to play the Nintendo Wii Active game for 30-60 min per school day in a lunch-time or after-school program. Cooperative exergame participants worked with a peer to expend calories and earn points together, whereas competitive exergame participants competed against a peer. Control participants continued regular daily activities. Outcome measures included changes in weight, peer support, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, measured at baseline, and at ∼10 and 20 weeks. Growth curve analysis revealed that cooperative exergame players lost significantly more weight (mean = 1.65 kg; s.d. = 4.52) than the control group, which did not lose weight. The competitive exergame players did not differ significantly from the other conditions. Cooperative exergame players also significantly increased in self-efficacy compared to the control group, and both exergame conditions significantly increased in peer support more than the control group. Exergames, especially played cooperatively, can be an effective technological tool for weight loss among youth. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Martin, Karen E; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Trapp, Georgina S A
To examine the role of pet play and dog walking in children's and adolescents' leisure time, and the relationship between these activities and physical activity. The study design was observational. The study setting was metropolitan Perth and nonmetropolitan regions in Western Australia. The study included 1097 primary school (mean age, 10.1 years; SD, 1.6 years) and 657 secondary school (mean age, 14.0 years; SD, 1.3 years) students. Validated measures of total physical activity, dog walking, and pet play activity (prevalence and time) were calculated. Generalized linear models tested for differences between proportions, while adjusting for socioeconomic status, age, and school-level clustering. Approximately one third of primary school and one quarter of secondary school students reported that they walked the dog at least once in the last week. Pet play was the most common play activity for primary and secondary school girls, and the second and third most popular play activity for secondary and primary school boys, respectively. Secondary school students who walked the dog or played with pets spent an average of 1 hour per week on each activity, and they were significantly more likely (p physical activity recommendations than secondary school students not reporting these activities. Given the significant proportion of young people who frequently engage in dog walking and pet play, and the high level of pet ownership in many Western countries, promotion of these activities to support young people's health is warranted.
Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.
An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…
Active learning involves students engaging with course content beyond lecture: through writing, applets, simulations, games, and more (Prince, 2004). As mathematics is often viewed as a subject area that is taught using more traditional methods (Goldsmith & Mark, 1999), there are actually many simple ways to make undergraduate mathematics…
Barakova, E.I; Spaanenburg, L
The composition of the example set has a major impact on the quality of neural learning. The popular approach is focused on extensive pre-processing to bridge the representation gap between process measurement and neural presentation. In contrast, windowed active sampling attempts to solve these
Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula
Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…
A popular activity among young children is the use of mobile devices and apps. Yet, the impact of mobile devices on learning and development is rather underexplored. The limited studies identified explore effects on literacy development and communication and report on mixed findings. A considerable gap is observed as to how the use of mobile apps…