Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi
This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....
Full Text Available This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in general learners do not demonstrate autonomous language learning behaviour. They prefer learning English in a relaxed environment particularly by engaging in entertaining activities, and through note-taking. However, they do not have sufficient interaction with their facilitator, other learners or speakers. Although the participants are distance learners, they do not prefer Internet-based activities. Conditions stemming from adulthood, lack of skills necessary to perform an activity, lack of awareness of some activities and learners’ experiences in their previous years of education are some of the reasons for their unautonomous behaviour. The article also includes suggestions for teaching and future research.
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…
Magana, Alejandra J.; Vieira, Camilo; Boutin, Mireille
This paper studies electrical engineering learners' preferences for learning methods with various degrees of activity. Less active learning methods such as homework and peer reviews are investigated, as well as a newly introduced very active (constructive) learning method called "slectures," and some others. The results suggest that…
Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green
In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…
Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio
Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.
Bonestroo, W.J.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
Is actively planning one’s learning route through a learning domain beneficial for learning? Moreover, can learners accurately judge the extent to which planning has been beneficial for them? This study examined the effects of active planning on learning. Participants received a tool in which they
Van Marsenille, Anne
The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the informal learning activities which French-speaking higher education students in Brussels engage in while learning English and Dutch. The informal learning of English was investigated in 2012, while the informal learning of Dutch was studied in 2015 and then compared to the informal…
This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…
Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph
Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…
This study investigated whether an English reading course integrated with the problem-based learning approach could foster foreign language learners' reading comprehension ability, strategy use, and their active learning attitudes. The pedagogy was featured with the small group scaffolding. Two intact English classes in a Taiwanese university were…
This research-paper aims at examining the effectiveness of cooperative learning activities in enhancing EFL learners' fluency. The researcher has used the descriptive approach, recorded interviews for testing fluency as tools of data collection and the software program SPSS as a tool for the statistical treatment of data. Research sample consists…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the relationship between Interpersonal Intelligence and the learners' vocabulary learning through teaching reading activity so as to see whether this type of intelligence contributes to better vocabulary learning and whether there is any significant relationship between the performance of participants with interpersonal intelligence and their vocabulary learning in reading activity or not. This quantitative study consisted of a vocabulary test, a reading passage, an English proficiency test and a Multiple Intelligences questionnaire followed the study. A pre- test and post -test were conducted to get the differences in the students‟ post- test vocabulary score and their pre- test vocabulary score served as their gain score in vocabulary knowledge through reading. The comparison between the students‟ scores showed that there was no significant difference in the final performance of two groups. Therefore, this study doesn‟t support the idea of relationship between interpersonal intelligence and vocabulary learning through reading, but as a positive point, the present study indicated that reading texts can greatly assist the learners in developing the level of their vocabulary knowledge. This study proved to be useful for Iranian EFL learners and also EFL teachers can adopt the technique in their classes to advance their students' language learning. A comparison of the results after the next course cycle will then allow us to assess the effects of enhancing vocabulary knowledge, which would not be possible without reading texts.
Eskildsen, Søren; Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias
This paper presents how to gain insights into children’s navigation of an interactive virtual learning environment and how that would benefit their educators. A prototype for logging user information as quantifiable data has been developed and deployed in an in-situ evaluation of the system...
John, Benneaser; Jayakumar, J.; Thavavel, V.; Arumugam, Muthukumar; Poornaselvan, K. J.
Teaching and learning are increasingly taking advantage of the rapid growth in Internet resources, open content, mobile technologies and social media platforms. However, due to the generally unstructured nature and overwhelming quantity of learning content, effective learning remains challenging. In an effort to close this gap, the authors…
Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin
This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…
Reza Karimi, RPh, PhD
Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.
Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven "closing the loop" feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer's drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams' impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators' interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation. Type: Case Study
Full Text Available In response to the fact that college students complain on their unsuccessful story of their EFL learning experience such as the limited number of vocabulary, English Grammar confusion, low competence of English language skills, this article explores an alternative effective way of helping them to improve their English through Text-Based Learning (TBL model. This article is then intended to narrate the implementation of TBL to teach English for college students of non English Department of Post Graduate Program of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung, Indonesia. The result of implementing this teaching model proves to be able to not only stimulate joyful learning atmosphere but to attract the students’ active participation during the EFL instructional process as well. This further brings about their better practical understanding on English language skills as their expectation. Therefore, for English lecturers, this model is pedagogically good to be implemented in their English instructional practices.
Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English.
Blended learning appears to facilitate learner empowerment more readily than either face-to-face or fully online courses. This contention is supported by a review of literature on the affordances of blended learning that support Thomas and Velthouse's (1990) four conditions of empowerment: choice, meaningfulness, competence, and impact. Blended…
In response to the fact that college students complain on their unsuccessful story of their EFL learning experience such as the limited number of vocabulary, English Grammar confusion, low competence of English language skills, this article explores an alternative effective way of helping them to improve their English through Text-Based Learning (TBL) model. This article is then intended to narrate the implementation of TBL to teach English for college students of non English Department of Po...
Schreurs, Jeanne; Al-Huneidi, Ahmad
A Learner-centered learning is constructivism based and Competence directed. We define general competencies, domain competencies and specific course competencies. Constructivism based learning activities are based on constructivism theory. For each course module the intended learning level will be defined. A model is built for the design of a learner centered constructivism based and competency directed learning process. The application of it in two courses are presented. Constructivism ba...
Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…
spaces, learning to learn through languages, learners´ stories, qualitative research method Methodology or Methods/Research Instruments or Sources Used A number of semi structured qualitative interviews have been conducted with three learners of Danish as second language. The language learners...... in the paper is on the research process and methodological tools. The goal of this paper is to show, that learners´ stories have a huge potential in researching learning processes. References Benson, P. & D. Nunan (2004). Lerners´ stories. Difference and Diversity in Language Learning. Cambridge University...... to use learners´ stories as a research methodology in the field of learning in general and language learning in particular....
In the discourse of learner self-management, learners must take responsibility for learning and are offered the possibility of individual autonomy and control. A critical perspective reveals that environmental constraints inhibit the success of technical-rational self-management techniques. An alternative view is the entrepreneurial self, a…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…
Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.
The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.
Conradie; P.W.; Lombard; A.; Moller; M.
The dramatic effect of information technology on society is undeniable. In education, it is evident in the use of terms like active learning, blended learning, electronic learning and mobile learning (ubiquitous learning). This study explores the perceptions of 54 learners in a higher education institution regarding the use of mobile devices in a third year module. Using semi-structured interviews, it was found that mobile devices had a positive impact on learner motivati...
McCray, Kimberly H.
In order to better understand the importance of adult learning theory to museum educators' work, and that of their profession at large, museum professionals must address the need for more adult learning research and practice in museums--particularly work informed by existing theory and work seeking to generate new theory. Adult learning theory…
Artelt, Cordula; Baumert, Jürgen; Julius-McElvany, Nele; Peschar, Jules
What are students like as learners as they approach the end of compulsory education? The answer matters greatly, not only because those with stronger approaches to learning get better results at school but also because young adults able to set learning goals and manage their own learning are much
Dommett, Eleanor J.
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the different ways in which learners may have ownership over technology-enhanced learning by reflecting on technical, legal and psychological ownership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a variety of examples of technology-enhanced learning ranging from open-source software to cloud storage to discuss…
Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui
The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…
The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance. Keywords: academic needs; academic performance; barriers to learning; ...
Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.
Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.
Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol
As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners.
Full Text Available The study explored Western Cape primary and secondary school learners' experiences regarding the provision and utilization of support services for improving learning. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted and data gathered through focus group interviews involving 90 learners. Results revealed that learners received and utilized various forms of learning support from their schools, teachers, and peers. The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance.
Ilgaz, Hale; Gulbahar, Yasemin
Offering many advantages to adult learners, e-Learning is now being recognized--and preferred--by more and more people, resulting in an increased number of distance learners in recent years. Numerous research studies focus on learner preferences for online learning, with most converging around the individual characteristics and differences, if not…
The students learning English as a foreign language sometimes enjoy computer systems in their classes to do some class activities and tasks. The learners' attitudes toward enjoying computer systems can help the teachers to be aware that computers in EFL classrooms are necessary. The aim of the present study is to ...
Full Text Available Digital learning as a popular learning approach has received increasing attention in modern education. The learner profile in online learning plays a critical role in supporting personalized learning. This article uses an information flow-based approach to build the learner profile for supporting personalized learning. The learner profile includes the individual profile to capture the personal features and the community profile to capture the social features in online learning environment.
In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile devices, mobile learning (m-learning) has becoming another popular topic. There is a strong need for both researchers and educators to be aware of adult learners' attitudes toward English mobile learning, yet relevant studies on mobile learning to promote English learning for adult learners are…
Butler, Yuko Goto; Someya, Yuumi; Fukuhara, Eiji
Young learners' use of instructional games in foreign language learning is not yet well understood. Using games that were part of the learning tools for an online assessment, Jido-Eiken, a standardized English proficiency test for young learners in Japan, we examined young learners' game-playing behaviours and the relationship of these behaviours…
Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly
This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…
active learning in the sense that the learner has complete choice in the information received. Specifically, we allow the learner to ask arbitrary yes...no questions. We consider both active learning under a fixed distribution and distribution-free active learning . In the case of active learning , the...a concept class is actively learnable iff it is finite, so that active learning is in fact less powerful than the usual passive learning model. We
This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…
Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun
Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…
Knörzer, L.; Brünken, R.; Park, B.
The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media postulates that affective factors as well as individual learner characteristics impact multimedia learning. The present study investigated how experimentally induced positive and negative emotions influence multimedia learning and how learner characteristics moderated this impact. Results…
Mohamed, Hafidi; Lamia, Mahnane
Learners usually meet cognitive overload and disorientation problems when using e-learning system. At present, most of the studies in e-learning either concentrate on the technological aspect or focus on adapting learner's interests or browsing behaviors, while, learner's skill level and learners' success rate is usually neglected. In this paper,…
Van Cong Pham
Full Text Available This paper represents a personalized context-aware mobile learning architecture for supporting student to learn English as foreign language in order to prepare for TOEFL test. We consider how to apply open learner modeling techniques to adapt contents for different learners based on context, which includes location, amount of time to learn, the manner as well as learner's knowledge in learning progress. Through negotiation with system, the editable learner model will be updated to support adaptive engine to select adaptive contents meeting learner's demands. Empirical testing results for students who used application prototype indicate that interaction user modeling is helpful in supporting learner to learn adaptive materials.
Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj
Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modelling of learner's personality profile, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be a key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…
Marques, Maria A.; Viegas, Maria C.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Janssen, José; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; Conde, Miguel Á.; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.
Marques, M. A., Viegas, M. C., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Janssen, J., Waszkiewicz, E., Conde González, M. Á., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2013). Managing Informal Learning in professional contexts: the learner's perspective. In F. J. García-Peñalvo, M. Á. Conde, & D. Griffiths (Eds.).
Bekleyen, Nilüfer; Selimoglu, Figen
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the learners' behaviors and perceptions about autonomous language learning at the university level in Turkey. It attempts to reveal what type of perceptions learners held regarding teachers' and their own responsibilities in the language learning process. Their autonomous language learning…
This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…
In this paper I discuss "personal learning environments" and their diverse benefits, uses, and implications for life-long learning. Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) are Web 2.0 and social media technologies that enable individual learners the ability to manage their own learning. Self-directed learning is explored as a foundation…
Chen, H Carrie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; ten Cate, Olle
Learning in the clinical workplace can appear to rely on opportunistic teaching. The cognitive apprenticeship model describes assigning tasks based on learner rather than just workplace needs. This study aimed to determine how excellent clinical teachers select clinical learning experiences to support the workplace participation and development of different level learners. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. We explored their approach to teach different level learners and their perceived role in promoting learner development. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 clinical teachers and identified three themes related to their teaching approach: sequencing of learning experiences, selection of learning activities and teacher responsibilities. All teachers used sequencing as a teaching strategy by varying content, complexity and expectations by learner level. The teachers initially selected learning activities based on learner level and adjusted for individual competencies over time. They identified teacher responsibilities for learner education and patient safety, and used sequencing to promote both. Excellent clinical teachers described strategies for matching available learning opportunities to learners' developmental levels to safely engage learners and improve learning in the clinical workplace.
Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin
The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.
This study examined the potential of pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) to build social relations with learners and, consequently, to motivate learning. The study investigated the impact of PAL affect (positive vs. negative vs. neutral), PAL gender (male vs. female), and learner gender (male vs. female) on learners’ social judgments, motivation, and learning in a controlled experiment. Participants were 142 college students in a computer-literacy course. Overall, the results ind...
Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Mansor, Mahani
Some public universities in developing countries have traditional language learning environments such as classrooms with only blackboards and furniture which do not provide conducive learning environments. These traditional environments are unable to cater for digital learners who need to learn with learning technologies. In order to create…
Alston, Geleana Drew; Clegg, T. E.; Clodfelter, Roy J., Jr.; Drye, Kimberly C.; Farrer, J. V.; Gould, Derek; Mohsin, Nidhal M.; Rankin, Tomiko N.; Ray, Sherri L.
Adult education is grounded in responding to the needs of others, and the field places emphasis on adult learning theories such as transformative learning and experiential learning. Service learning is an educational approach that balances formal instruction and direction with the opportunity for adult learners to serve in the community as a…
This paper examines the effectiveness of a mobile assisted blended learning scenario for pronunciation in Korean language. In particular, we analyze how asynchronous oral communication between learners of Korean and native speakers via "kakaotalk" (an open source mobile phone application) may be beneficial to the learner in terms of…
Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron; Sawang, Sukanlaya
This study aims to identify and categorize barriers to e-learning adoption and the relative impact of those barriers on learners. It contributes to the understanding of learner perceptions of barriers, the different types of barriers and their relative importance. This study used a quantitative methodology grounded in previous literature. The…
Akçay, Aslihan; Ferzan Bütüner, Tuba; Arikan, Arda
English has become a compulsory lesson starting at the second grade in Turkey while younger learners are growingly introduced to it at earlier ages through various pre-schools, day-care programs and private courses. This descriptive study focuses on young learners' self-reported reasons for learning English and other foreign languages. Twenty…
Rodríguez, Ashley; Rodríguez, Diane
As the demographics across the United States continues to change, specifically with increases in school age English Learners who speak a home language other than English, it is imperative that schools meet the diverse needs of these children. This article summarizes studies about English Learners with learning disabilities. It reports on the…
This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project.......This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project....
Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…
Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.
Full Text Available This study investigated the opportunity to learn (OTL that is available to Grade 12 mathematics learners. Learner workbooks were analysed in terms of time on task, curriculum coverage, curriculum coherence, and cognitive demand. Based on these elements, experienced mathematics teachers judged the opportunity that the learners have to achieve more than 60% for each topic. According to the workbooks, the average number of active learning days in this sample was 54.1 days per annum. This resulted in limited curriculum coverage in almost all sections in 16 of the 18 under-performing schools. In these schools, learners spent most of their time practising routine procedures. The high correlation of 0.95 (p < 0.001 between the experts'prediction about the opportunity to learn in the different schools (based on the learner workbooks and learners' actual performance in the Grade 12 exam shows that the number, the coverage, the cognitive level, and the coherence of activities play a major role in understanding learner performance.
Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy
This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…
In the modern age of exponential knowledge growth and accelerating technological development, the need to engage in lifelong learning is becoming increasingly urgent. Successful lifelong learning, in turn, requires learner autonomy, or "the capacity to take control of one's own learning" (Benson, 2011, p. 58), including all relevant…
Park, Clara C.
Learning styles were investigated for 857 English-learners of Armenian, Hmong, Korean, Mexican, and Vietnamese origin in 20 California high schools. All ethnic groups indicated major or minor preferences for kinesthetic/tactile and visual learning styles. Groups differed in preferences for group versus individual learning. Some preferences were…
By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…
Shaalan, Khaled F.
This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…
Shafto, Michael G; Seifert, Colleen M
How far can teaching methods go to enhance learning? Optimal methods of teaching have been considered in research on supervised and unsupervised learning. Locally optimal methods are usually hybrids of teaching and self-directed approaches. The costs and benefits of specific methods have been shown to depend on the structure of the learning task, the learners, the teachers, and the environment.
Parma City School District, OH.
This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…
Full Text Available This study is designed to measure readiness among distance learner to embrace new technologies in their studies. This study involved 190 distance learner from the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia as a respondent and the data were collected by questionnaire that adapted from Parasuraman and Colby (2001 . The study was carried out to see whether distance education learners are comfortable to study by using new technology. The results show that all respondent are comfortable and confidence enough to embrace new technology in their learning.
This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…
Ning, Huiping; Hornby, Garry
This study was aimed at investigating the impact of cooperative learning on the motivation of tertiary English learners. Participants were from two randomly assigned classes at a university in the north of China. A pre-test-post-test control group design was employed to compare the impact of the cooperative learning approach with that of…
Chan, Hoi Wing
This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning . Out-of-class…
Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Liaw, Shu-Sheng
Within a constructivist paradigm, the virtual reality technology focuses on the learner's actively interactive learning processes and attempts to reduce the gap between the learner's knowledge and a real-life experience. Recently, virtual reality technologies have been developed for a wide range of applications in education, but further research…
This dissertation discusses the role the social activity of networking plays in lifelong learners’ professional and personal continuous development. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that networking is a learning strategy for lifelong learners, in which conversations are key activities through which they reassess their held thoughts and make sense of their experiences together with others.
This dissertation discusses the role the social activity of networking plays in lifelong learners’ professional and personal continuous development. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that networking is a learning strategy for lifelong learners, in which conversations are key activities through
Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi
Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level. The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.
Azman Che Mat
Full Text Available Role playing is among the language activities that stimulate language learners to use the language they are learning. However, a successful activity is always challenging especially when the learners are beginners. Therefore, a special arrangement needs to be carried out by instructors. This article explores the use of storyboards, or ‘PCVA’, to help Arabic learners prepare for their video project based on role playing. Blended methods were used to collect data, namely surveys, interviews, and observations. The target participants were among degree students from second level (TAC451 and third level (TAC501 of Arabic course. The total number of the participants is 87 respondents. Interview and observation were conducted during consultation period and then, related information was documented for the purpose of the study. Descriptive analysis was implemented to interpret the data. The findings showed a positive feedback from the learners who were involved in the experiment.
Joo, Young Ju; Joung, Sunyong; Kim, Nam Hee; Chung, Hyun Min
This study aimed to investigate the structural relationships among teaching presence, cognitive presence, usage, learning flow, satisfaction, and learning persistence in corporate e-learners. The research participants were 462 e-learners registered for e-lectures through an electronics company in South Korea. First, the sense of teaching presence,…
IMS Learning Design provides a counter to the trend towards designing for lone-learners reading from screens. It guides staff and educational developers to start not with content, but with learning activities and the achievement of learning objectives. It recognises that learning can happen without
Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed
The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…
This paper sets out to review the relationship of learner autonomy and motivation in English learning based on previ-ous theoretical and empirical studies. This study can be of great help for learners to realize the great importance of learner autono-my and learning motivation, making them more autonomous, motivated and successful in English learning.
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Edson, Alden Jack
This exploratory study reports on how students activated learner-controlled scaffolding and navigated through sequences of connected problems in a digital learning environment. A design experiment was completed to (re)design, iteratively develop, test, and evaluate a digital version of an instructional unit focusing on binomial distributions and…
Full Text Available Motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a big matter to overcome. There are some students who seem to assume that as long as the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory, they shouldn‘t be forced to participate. Educational research has shown that students who are actively involved in the learning activity will learn more than students who are passive recipients of knowledge. Young adolescents who are 10 to 15 years old experience stages of life and more growth than any other time in their life. They have intelectual capacity and learn best through interaction and activity rather than just listening. Obviously, increased attention and motivation are the essential ingredients for learning, and are more important than intelligence. In other words, to increasing student involvement, attention and motivation, teachers can use a very beginning action that held the first time before core teaching activity with a hope that engaging the senses and emotions will increase students‘ attention span. Accordingly, as start-up activities, icebreakers can be a useful way of creating a sense of relaxed and informal atmosphere which motivate and activate an interaction. Icebreakers allow for a student to become emotionally connected with classroom situation and increases motivation to engage with the following discussion. Therefore, this paper presents icebreaker as a strategy to active involevement for young adolescent learners.
Mills, Michael, Ed.; Wake, Donna, Ed.
Education has been progressing at a rapid pace ever since educators have been able to harness the power of mobile technology. Open-access learning techniques provide more students with the opportunity to engage in educational opportunities that may have been previously restricted. "Empowering Learners with Mobile Open-Access Learning…
The digital shift to technology-mediated modes of instructional delivery and the increased global connectivity has led to the rise in globalized e-learning programs. Educational institutions face multiple challenges as they seek to design effective, engaging and culturally competent instruction for an increasingly diverse learner population. The…
Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P
This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…
Alkhezzi, Fahad; Al-Dousari, Wadha
This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners' performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning…
Pantic, M.; Zwitserloot, R.; De Weerdt, M.M.
This paper describes a novel, learner-centered technology for authoring web lectures. Besides seamless integration of video and audio feeds, Microsoft PowerPoint slides, and web-pages, the proposed Online Learning Facility (OLF) also facilitates online interactive testing and review of covered
Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang
Adaptive Learning Systems would perform better if they would be able to exchange as many relevant fragments of information about the learner as possible. The use of Web Services standards is recently gaining the attention of many researches as a promising solution for the problem of interfacing a...
Melvin Ballera; Mosbah Mohamed Elssaedi; Ahmed Khalil Zohdy
Collaborative problem solving in e-learning can take in the form of discussion among learner, creating a highly social learning environment and characterized by participation and interactivity. This paper, designed a collaborative learning environment where agent act as co-learner, can play different roles during interaction. Since different roles have been assigned to the agent, learner will assume that multiple co-learner exists to help and guide him all throughout the ...
Seng C. Keng
With the rapid and exponential growth of Internet use worldwide, online learning has become one of the most widely used learning paradigms in the education environment. Yet despite the rapidly increasing cultural diversity of online learners, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of cross-cultural Online Learning Systems (OLS) using a suitable measurement to answer the question, “Do culturally different learners perceive OLS effectiveness differently?” The aim of this co...
Mahalingam, Sheila; Abdollah, Faizal Mohd; Sahib, Shahrin
M-Learning has a potential to improve efficiency in the education sector and has a tendency to grow advance and transform the learning environment in the future. Yet there are challenges in many areas faced when introducing and implementing m-learning. The learner centered attribute in mobile learning implies deployment in untrustworthy learning…
This article describes a 40-week Computer, Research Skills, and Projects (CRSP) blended learning course designed and implemented at Dubai Men's College. The learning employed a design using socio-constructivist principles in the blended approach to cater to the learning preferences of students. (Contains 2 figures and 1 footnote.)
McLean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J
Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate student difficulties and levels of stress. This commentary will argue that while this reform in medical education is laudable, with positive implications for learning, medical educators may not have understood or perhaps not embraced "learner-centredness" in its entirety. During their training, medical students are expected to be "patient-centred". They are asked to apply a biopsychosocial model, which takes cognisance of all aspects of a patient's well-being. While many medical schools profess that their curricula reflect these principles, in reality, many may not always practice what they preach. Medical training all too often remains grounded in the biomedical model, with the cognitive domain overshadowing the psychosocial development and needs of learners. Entrusted by parents and society with the education and training of future healthcare professionals, medical education needs to move to a "learner-centred philosophy", in which the "whole" student is acknowledged. As undergraduate and post-graduate students increasingly apply their skills in an international arena, this learner-centredness should equally encapsulate the gender, cultural and religious diversity of both patients and students. Appropriate support structures, role models and faculty development are required to develop skills, attitudes and professional behaviour that will allow our graduates to become caring and sensitive healthcare providers.
Abdel Razeq, Anwar Ahmad
This study investigated the readiness of university students for autonomous learning of English as a foreign language. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. The study assessed learners' readiness for autonomous learning across three dimensions: a) learners' perceptions of their educational responsibilities; b) learners' abilities…
The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…
Basaran, Süleyman; Cabaroglu, Nese
The ubiquitous use of Internet-based mobile devices in educational contexts means that mobile learning has become a plausible alternative to or a good complement for conventional classroom-based teaching. However, there is a lack of research that explores and defines the characteristics and effects of mobile language learning (LL) through language…
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT. Chinese EFL learners' ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners' EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years' English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed.
Sorgenfrei, Christian; Smolnik, Stefan
E-learning systems are considerably changing education and organizational training. With the advancement of online-based learning systems, learner control over the instructional process has emerged as a decisive factor in technology-based forms of learning. However, conceptual work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not advanced…
Dall'Alba, Gloria; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
is largely lacking in the literature on active learning. In this article, we explore the possibility of re-imagining, or at least extending, the meaning of active learning by drawing out dimensions that are neither readily visible nor instrumental, as much of this literature implies. Drawing from educational......Ample attention is being paid in the higher education literature to promoting active learning among students. Where studies on active learning report student outcomes, they indicate improved or equivalent outcomes when compared with traditional lectures, which are considered more passive...... philosophy and, in particular, existential philosophies, we argue that active learning may also be partly invisible, unfocused, unsettling, and not at all instrumentalsometimes even leaving the learner more confused and (temporarily) incompetent. However, such forms of undisclosed or ‘dark’ learning, we...
Vasilyeva, Tatyana; Uskova, Olga; Kosheleva, Elena Yurievna; Dong Thi Lin Jang
The purpose of this article is to move readers toward a deeper understanding of and wider respect for the issues of the modern system of bilingual education based on the principles of multiculturalism. Different conditions of learning are taken into account: the Russian language in restricted linguistic medium as well as Russian as a foreign language. The principles of multiculturalism determine the educational concepts used in teaching Russian to diverse categories of learners. The authors d...
Zahra Abolhassani Chimeh
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of those activities which are based on all types of strategies for teaching conversational skills. These strategies are practiced in the form of 17 activities and their effectiveness on the oral language performane of Persian learners has been investigated. The second language learning strategies in this research are dependent on two Kuhn's paradigms and include "learning" and "using" second language. The former consists of recognition and acceptance of materials, distinction from other materials, categorizing them for a better learning, constant involvement with materials, using common memorization methods for rehearsal to improve natural conversation learning. The teacher's Linguistics and Iranology knowledge in choosing teaching materials, producing similarities and differences in two languages, lexical and syntactic categorizations of activities based on the first to the third strategies were implemented in the classroom. Informal gatherings, appropriate assignments of certain tasks like memorizing the dialogues or proverbs were practiced for the fourth and the fifth strategies. These strategies were applied on 19 undergaduate intermediate Persian language learners, with Slav mother tongue in 5 successive semesters from 2011 to 2013. In this research, it was affirmed that there is a positive correlation between using strategic activities with the improvement of converational skill of language learners. That is, the more learners are active in the activities related to strategies, the better they become in the conversational skill.
Keng, Seng C.
With the rapid and exponential growth of Internet use worldwide, online learning has become one of the most widely used learning paradigms in the education environment. Yet despite the rapidly increasing cultural diversity of online learners, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of cross-cultural Online Learning Systems (OLS) using a…
Bangladesh is a poverty stricken country with a huge population "unemployed' in respect of the definition of Economics including both male and female. Government is striving hard to make the people well-equipped with necessary skills and learning in order that they can prove themselves fit for the upcoming challenges of the global economy and…
When I was invited to give one of the keynote talks at the Second International Conference on Telecollaboration in Higher Education, my first thought was that I should decline. It is true that for thirty years I was responsible for Trinity College Dublin's self-access language learning facilities and resources; true also that around the turn of…
Reuter, Jamie M.
The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to
Jill L. Robinson
Full Text Available Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles translates into versatility in leadership styles. One group of versatile learners reported using a wider range of leadership styles suggesting that learning flexibility may transfer to leadership flexibility. Surprisingly, learners of all types reported utilizing Power and Intrinsic styles of leadership above all others. Implications for leadership development include considering individual differences when crafting leadership programs, matching learning styles to leader training, and the need to move beyond one set of leadership behaviors to increase flexibility in dealing with complex situations. Using a large sample rarely seen in management studies, this paper makes key contributions to the literature.
Full Text Available Caring of students in teaching-learning process should be one of the most important attentions of teachers. They should be the central body by which the measurement of success or failure is underpinned. Teachers will be considered successful when their students get scores above the passing grade. However, they must fail when the students get unsatisfactory achievements. Even though students’ success is the end of the aim of teaching-learning process but their involvement is not taken into account accordingly. To achieve such a goal, their internal potentials should be revitalized. The inner potentials include attitude, motivation, aptitude, and intelligence. The successful study can be achieved when the four internal potential are well managed. For that reason, teachers’ attention should be addressed to intensify the potentials to get the significant yield.
Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van
In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners
Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.
In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…
This study explores the relationship between (perceptual and cognitive) learning styles and the use of hypermedia annotations by intermediate EFL learners while reading a hypermedia text. The participants were 44 EFL adult learners studying English for academic purposes. Data were collected through a software tracking tool, a learning styles survey and interviews. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, suggesting that learners with different learning styles had similar patterns ...
Sistani, Mahsa; Hashemian, Mahmood
This study, first, examined whether there was any relationship between Iranian L2 learners' vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs), on the one hand, and their multiple intelligences (MI) types, on the other hand. In so doing, it explored the extent to which MI would predict L2 learners' VLSs. To these ends, 40 L2 learners from Isfahan University of…
Arguel, Amaël; Lockyer, Lori; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Lodge, Jason M.; Kennedy, Gregor
Confusion is an emotion that is likely to occur while learning complex information. This emotion can be beneficial to learners in that it can foster engagement, leading to deeper understanding. However, if learners fail to resolve confusion, its effect can be detrimental to learning. Such detrimental learning experiences are particularly…
Distributing learning completely through mobile courses is a new trend. Social presence has been identified as a significant predictor of learner satisfaction with online learning. It is a key element that improves learner satisfaction with online learning (Cobb, 2009; Reio & Crim, 2013). This study explores whether social presence is inherent…
Fu, Fong-Ling; Su, Rong-Chang; Yu, Sheng-Chin
In an effective e-learning game, the learner's enjoyment acts as a catalyst to encourage his/her learning initiative. Therefore, the availability of a scale that effectively measures the enjoyment offered by e-learning games assist the game designer to understanding the strength and flaw of the game efficiently from the learner's points of view.…
Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj; Pasand, Parastou Gholami
The significance of using language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies in particular is quite clear to both language learners and language specialists. Being familiar with and making use of a range of different vocabulary learning strategies is a great aid for EAP learners in dealing with unknown words. The present…
Full Text Available Recognizing our own learning strategies is an effective way to help ourselves to self evaluate for what we have done in our own learning. One among other factors leading to a successful learning is due to the effective learning strategies. However, not all learners are aware of what they have been doing in learning, or they even sometimes do not know how to learn. If this is the problem, learning strategy training can be very beneficial for the learners with this problem. Why should be through strategy training? The answer might lie on the fact that strategy is quite amenable to change, and by nature, teachable as well as learneable (Oxford, 1990. In addition, Nuswantara (2008 also found out that the successful learners (i.e. in learning English were triggered by the courage of using various learning strategies, the more varied the learners are willing to try out, the broader the chance for success. Training is the way that can be selected to present to the learners’ various strategies that they can choose and at the same time employ when learning is taken place. Moreover, by means of training, learners are made aware of the strategy, and they can mend their own strategy, as a result, they become more self - directed rather than dependent. This article attempts to frame out from the perspective of how to bring reading strategies that are applicable for handling various reading content texts to the learners, and present the result of a one-group experimental study. Thus, training is prepared for college learners who are inevitably deal with various English content textbooks and the final aim of the training is to improve learners’ study skills. Then, one group experimental study using correlated sample provides some evidences supporting the effectiveness of the training. Specifying on reading strategies, SQ3R that is joined with other learning strategies involving writing activity, annotating a text and paraphrasing/summarizing is exposed to
There is a growing research interest in how healthcare professionals learn online. This paper reports an analysis of reflections that relate to patients from users of an e-learning resource, BMJ Learning. Healthcare professionals who use BMJ Learning are encouraged to reflect on their learning. Over one year, all of the learners' reflections that related to patients were captured by the programme's software and were analysed using thematic analysis. A number of key themes emerged from this analysis: many learners reflected on patients in the context of their disease; many learners reflected on how they had put their learning into action or planned to put their learning into action for the benefit of patients; many learners reflected on how they would pass on what they had learned to patients; learners greatly appreciated patients contributing to the learning. Learners predominantly reflect about patients in the context of their disease. The reflections demonstrate that learners are keen to put their learning into action for the benefit of their patients. Learners' reflections show a keen interest in the patient-centredness of the learning resources.
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71…
Full Text Available Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly ‘incompatible’ with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (reorganizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces.
Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander
Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638
Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels
The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... for students taking a graduate auditing course reflect prior accounting work experience for some students and undergraduate accounting coursework experience for all students. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning...... suggested by Robert M. Gagné. An instrument was developed to measure differences regarding learning outcomes in the context of an auditing course by posing a broad set of questions testing declarative knowledge and the full range of intellectual skills from discrimination to the use of higher...
Full Text Available This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners’ performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning vocabulary, and how this can affect the learner's’ ability to use grammar correctly and whether their writing skill is improved. The results showed that using mobile phone applications to teach a foreign language skill or subskill is fruitful and does impact learners’ comprehension of vocabulary and grammatical rules. The results specifically indicate that mobile phones can be used in many different ways to teach and learn technical and semi-technical vocabulary easily outside the classroom, however, to teach grammatical rules and writing it is recommended that certain strategies be used due to certain limitations.
Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels
The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... is part of every day life within most accounting firms. Developing a sound on-the-job training environment is pivotal in the recruitment and design of supervision, and in the end for the expected "successrate" in retaining (valuable) employees. Prior research suggests that scripts or schemas provide...
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…
Language learning is a resilient process, and many linguistic properties can be developed under a wide range of learning environments and learners. The first goal of this review is to describe properties of language that can be developed without exposure to a language model - the resilient properties of language - and to explore conditions under which more fragile properties emerge. But even if a linguistic property is resilient, the developmental course that the property follows is likely to vary as a function of learning environment and learner, that is, there are likely to be individual differences in the learning trajectories children follow. The second goal is to consider how the resilient properties are brought to bear on language learning when a child is exposed to a language model. The review ends by considering the implications of both sets of findings for mechanisms, focusing on the role that the body and linguistic input play in language learning.
The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…
Qin, Jiwei; Zheng, Qinghua; Li, Haifei
E-learning provides an unprecedented flexibility and convenience for e-learners by breaking the limitations of space and time. However, the role of emotion is neglected in current e-learning systems. We focus strictly on negative emotions of e-learners, integrating emotion regulation theories with recommender technique, and present the study of…
Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung
This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…
DiBella, Karen S.; Williams, Kimberly G.
Technology has certainly altered the landscape in which students learn today. The use of technology in today's classrooms is continually increasing as educators seek ways to engage learners and maximize learning potential. Incorporating Web 2.0 tools into the classroom can not only encourage collaboration among learners, but also provide a way for…
Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei
The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…
Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung
This study explores motivational and demotivational factors in English learning among elderly learners attending a lifelong education institute located in Seoul, South Korea. A total of 420 elderly learners with limited English learning experience responded to a questionnaire with 47 five-point Likert-type items. In order to investigate what…
The paper finds out poor engagement in business English training program prevents adult learners at College of Continuing Education of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies from improving their communication skills. PBL (Project-Based Learning) is proposed to motivate adult learners to get involved with learning a lot. Based on the perspective…
de Leeuw, Robert A; Westerman, Michiel; Scheele, Fedde
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the needs and expectations of learners and educational experts in postgraduate medical e-learning, and to contribute to the current literature. Methods: We performed four focus-group discussions with e-learning end-users (learners) and
The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred method of learning about heart disease by adult learners. This research study also investigated if there was a statistically significant difference between race/ethnicity, age, and gender of adult learners and their preferred method of learning preventative heart disease care. This…
Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob
Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2008). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology, 3(4), 404-423.
Nadeem, Danish; Stoyanov, Slavi; Koper, Rob
Nadeem, D., Stoyanov, S., & Koper, R. (2009). Social support system in learning network for lifelong learners: A Conceptual framework [Special issue]. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 19(4/5/6), 337-351.
D.Ed. The aim of this theses is to find out whether there is any relationship between learners' attitudes and learning difficulties in mathematics: To investigate whether learning difficulties in mathematics are associated with learners' gender. To establish the nature of teachers' perceptions of the learning problem areas in the mathematics curriculum. To find out about the teachers' views on the methods of teaching mathematics, resources, learning of mathematics, extra curricular activit...
Chu, Hui-Chin; Hsieh, Mei-Chi; Chang, Shan-Chih
The study aimed at investigating the relationships among career development, learning motivation, and learning satisfaction of adult learners in master's programs at S University. Questionnaires were distributed with 211 valid returns (71%). The results indicated that some of the demographics are factors affecting both of the learners' learning…
Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language. Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.
Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.
This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.
One way to foster active social inclusion is to enable students to develop a positive attitude to "foreignness". Creating a situation where mainstream students are less wary of foreign languages and cultures, and where newcomers feel their linguistic background is being valued, provides favourable conditions for the inclusion of these newcomers in the classroom and in society. However, language classrooms in French schools rarely take any previously acquired linguistic knowledge into account, thus unconsciously contributing to the rift between multilingual learners (e.g. 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant children, refugees, children of parents with different mother tongues) and French learners. Native French learners' first experience of learning another language is usually when English is added as a subject to their curriculum in primary school. In some schools in France, English lessons now include the simulation of multilingual situations, designed in particular for the French "quasi-monolingual" students to lose their fear of unknown languages and "foreignness" in general. But the overall aim is to help both groups of learners become aware of the positive impact of multilingualism on cognitive abilities. However, to achieve long-term effects, this awareness-raising needs to be accompanied by maximum engagement on the part of the students. This article explores an instructional strategy termed Pluralistic Approaches based upon Unknown Languages (PAUL), which was designed to develop learning strategies of quasi-monolingual students in particular and to increase learner engagement more generally. The results of a small-scale PAUL study discussed by the author seem to confirm an increase in learner engagement leading to an enhancement of learning outcomes. Moreover, PAUL seems indeed suitable for helping to prepare the ground for social inclusion.
Chen, Won Sun; Yao, Adrian Yong Tat
Blended learning, a convergence of e-learning approach and face-to-face learning, has been regarded as a new paradigm in modern education. The degree of learners' satisfaction with blended learning played a crucial role in evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning adoption. Therefore, this study examined the primary factors affecting…
based on educational informatics. I shall draw your attention to the fact that in information sciences an ontology is described as an explicit (and formal) specification of a shared conceptualisation on the domain of interest. Ontologies of a thing/phenomenon support different researchers in providing......Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning....... This research will conceptually focus on multiple categories through the adult learners’ developing conceptions of learning. The focus will be on different categories from the basic conceptions to excellent ones. I will take an appropriate model of students’ developing conceptions of learning into my...
One of the challenges for the future of technology-enhanced learning is the retention of learners. On-line learning environments should engage learners and provide an appropriate “Quality of Experience” (QoE). For more than a decade, adaptive hypermedia systems have been used to adapt content and instruction to individual knowledge, goals and preferences in an effort to engage learners. However, even if the content is highly engaging it can be very difficult to achieve good Quality ...
Chauke, Helani Elisa
The aims of this research were to determine, by means of both the literature review and the empirical research, the experiences secondary school learners have in the compilation of their learning portfolios and the influence this compilation of the portfolios has on their perceptions of their efficacy; and to make suggestions for the continued use of the portfolio in developing interests of learners. The sample for this study consisted of 744 learners studying Mathematics and Science. The stu...
-centred method, such as task-based teaching and learning or a method inspired by problem-based learning, can be employed as a motivating methodology to provide a supportive environment for language and culture learning (i.e., Chinese language and culture learning), particularly in an intercultural (or Danish......This PhD study explores the influence of teaching and learning methods on learner motivation in teaching Chinese as a foreign language in an intercultural (or Danish) context and illustrates how the learners are motivated to learn Chinese language and culture through task-based teaching...... and learning in a student-centred learning environment. Both qualitative and mixed methods approaches have been employed to examine learner motivation and the effects of certain teaching and learning methods (i.e. student-centred methods) in a given context. The findings have shown that a student...
Puvaneswary Murugaiah; Siew Ming Thang
Technology has brought tremendous advancements in online education, spurring transformations in online pedagogical practices. Online learning in the past was passive, using the traditional teacher-centred approach. However, with the tools available today, it can be active, collaborative, and meaningful. A well-developed task can impel learners to observe, to reflect, to strategize, and to plan their own learning. This paper describes an English as a Second Language (ESL) instructor’s att...
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71 teachers across 13 schools in two states indicated that online units effectively deepened science knowledge across all three student groups. Comparing all treatment and control students on pretest-to-posttest improvement on standards-based content-specific assessments, there were statistically significant mean differences (17% improvement treatment vs. 6% control; p English learner status, indicating that these two groups performed similarly to their peers; students with learning disabilities had significantly lower assessment scores overall. Teachers and students were moderately satisfied with the units.
Cominsky, L.; Smith, D. A.; Lestition, K.; Greene, M.; Squires, G.
NASA's Universe of Learning is one of 27 competitively awarded education programs selected by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to enable scientists and engineers to more effectively engage with learners of all ages. The NASA's Universe of Learning program is created through a partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Chandra X-ray Center, IPAC at Caltech, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Exoplanet Exploration Program, and Sonoma State University. The program will connect the scientists, engineers, science, technology and adventure of NASA Astrophysics with audience needs, proven infrastructure, and a network of over 500 partners to advance the objectives of SMD's newly restructured education program. The multi-institutional team will develop and deliver a unified, consolidated suite of education products, programs, and professional development offerings that spans the full spectrum of NASA Astrophysics, including the Exoplanet Exploration theme. Program elements include enabling educational use of Astrophysics mission data and offering participatory experiences; creating multimedia and immersive experiences; designing exhibits and community programs; providing professional development for pre-service educators, undergraduate instructors, and informal educators; and, producing resources for special needs and underserved/underrepresented audiences. This presentation will provide an overview of the program and process for mapping discoveries to products and programs for informal, lifelong, and self-directed learning environments.
Smith, Denise A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Squires, Gordon K.; Greene, W. M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; NASA's Universe of Learning Team
NASA’s Universe of Learning is one of 27 competitively awarded education programs selected by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to enable scientists and engineers to more effectively engage with learners of all ages. The NASA's Universe of Learning program is created through a partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Chandra X-ray Center, IPAC at Caltech, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Exoplanet Exploration Program, and Sonoma State University. The program will connect the scientists, engineers, science, technology and adventure of NASA Astrophysics with audience needs, proven infrastructure, and a network of over 500 partners to advance the objectives of SMD’s newly restructured education program. The multi-institutional team will develop and deliver a unified, consolidated suite of education products, programs, and professional development offerings that spans the full spectrum of NASA Astrophysics, including the Cosmic Origins, Physics of the Cosmos, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. Program elements include enabling educational use of Astrophysics mission data and offering participatory experiences; creating multimedia and immersive experiences; designing exhibits and community programs; providing professional development for pre-service educators, undergraduate instructors, and informal educators; and, producing resources for special needs and underserved/underrepresented audiences. This presentation will provide an overview of the program and process for mapping discoveries to products and programs for informal, lifelong, and self-directed learning environments.
Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal
The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…
Clare S. Johnson
Full Text Available The inclusion of online elements in learning environments is becoming commonplace in Post Compulsory Education. A variety of research into the value of such elements is available, and this study aims to add further evidence by looking specifically at the use of collaborative technologies such as online discussion forums and wikis to encourage higher order thinking and self-sufficient learning. In particular, the research examines existing pedagogical models including Salmon’s five-stage model, along with other relevant literature. A case study of adult learners in community-based learning centres forms the basis of the research, and as a result of the findings, an arrow model is suggested as a framework for online collaboration that emphasises the learner, mentions pre-course preparation and then includes three main phases of activity: post, interact and critique. This builds on Salmon’s five-stage model and has the benefit of being flexible and responsive, as well as allowing for further development beyond the model, particularly in a blended learning environment.
Bohon, Leslie L.; McKelvey, Susan; Rhodes, Joan A.; Robnolt, Valerie J.
Experiential learning theory places experience at the center of learning. Kolb's four-stage cycle of experiential learning suggests that effective learners must engage fully in each stage of the cycle--feeling, reflection, thinking, and action. This research assesses the alignment of Kolb's experiential learning cycle with the week-long Summer…
Cankaya, Serkan; Yunkul, Eyup
The purpose of this study was to reveal the attitudes and views of university students about the use of Edmodo as a cooperative learning environment. In the research process, the students were divided into groups of 4 or 5 within the scope of a course given in the department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology. For each group,…
Loretta Z. le Roux
The results of the study indicated that progression in competence did not occur as learners progressed through higher levels of their training, except during the third-year of study. However, the study’s results confirmed the strengths of the Case-based clinical reasoning approach to teaching and learning. This approach is able to combine the strengths of the traditional methods, which dealt with large class sizes and that had a focus on learner centred learning, with a focus on clinical practice. This approach provides realistic opportunities for learners to experiment with solutions to dilemmas encountered in real life situations, from the protected and safe environment of the classroom. The first-year learners who were observed in this study, who although novices, were exposed to Case-based teaching approaches and showed more self-perceived competence than learners in later years. This occurred in spite of the limited exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.
This article first looks at the complex conceptualization of Chinese learners' social-class identities with respect to a shifting Chinese class stratification. It then examines the link between social class and second-language learning in the Chinese context by reviewing several studies on Chinese learners' social-class backgrounds and their…
Isazadeh, Parya; Makui, Selma Mohammad Zadeh; Ansarian, Loghman
The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n = 180) language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred…
This article presents the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework as one way to understand how to support learners with severe disabilities and how to support their access to authentic and appropriate curricula that improves their quality of life. Two key ideas from the UDL framework, (a) understanding learner variability and (b) supporting…
Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.
In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…
Examines the intersection of learner identity, social position, and second-language acquisition. The article, which focuses on a case study of a white woman learning Japanese in Japan, presents a conversation between the learner and her professor to show the dynamic coconstruction of identity and sociolinguistic proficiency within conversational…
Ozdamar-Keskin, Nilgun; Ozata, Fatma Zeynep; Banar, Kerim; Royle, Karl
The purpose of the study is to examine digital literacy competences and learning habits of learners enrolled in the open and distance education system of Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were gathered from 20.172 open and distance learners through a survey which included four parts: demographic information, abilities to use digital technologies,…
Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei
The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…
Zhang, Yi (Leaf)
The purpose of this research study was to explore the influence of Confucian-heritage culture on Chinese learners' online learning and engagement in online discussion in U.S. higher education. More specifically, this research studied Chinese learners' perceptions of power distance and its impact on their interactions with instructors and peers in…
Al-Ahdal, Arif Ahmed Mohammed Hassan; Al-Ma'amari, Ahmed Ali Hassan
Socio-psychological research and findings into learner differences led to the emergence of learner strategies research in the last century. With major contributions from the emerging field of Linguistics in the mid 1970s, language learning strategies began to receive considerable attention. It is worth noting that the primary concern of most of…
Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza
The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…
The paper gives an overview of learner corpora and their application to second language learning and teaching. It is proposed that there are four core components in learner corpus research, namely, corpus linguistics expertise, a good background in linguistic theory, knowledge of SLA theory, and a good understanding of foreign language teaching…
Saab, N.; van Joolingen, W.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.
In this study, we investigated the influence of individual learners' motivation on the collaborative discovery learning process. In this we distinguished the motivation of the individual learners and had eye for the composition of groups, which could be homogeneous or heterogeneous in terms of
Saab, Nadira; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M.
In this study, we investigated the influence of individual learners' motivation on the collaborative discovery learning process. In this we distinguished the motivation of the individual learners and had eye for the composition of groups, which could be homogeneous or heterogeneous in terms of motivation. The study involved 73 dyads of 10th-grade…
Dousay, Tonia A.
This study investigated the effects of two design principles as prescribed by the cognitive theory of multimedia learning on the situational interest of adult learners in a multimedia-based continuing education training program. One hundred and two adult learners employed by an emergency medical service were randomly assigned to one of three…
This article explores the changing worldview of a new generation of learners and the threat that this poses to the future of experiential learning (EL). Initially the differing characteristics of three generations of learners, X, Y, and Z, are outlined, along with key educational reforms they have been subject to, particularly in the United…
Yuan, Yifeng; Tangen, Donna; Mills, Kathy A.; Lidstone, John
This paper reports the findings of a study investigating Chinese English language learners' perceptions of pragmatics in the EFL learning context in China. A total of 237 Chinese EFL first--year university students participated in the study. A questionnaire and focus group interviews were used to collect data about learners' pragmatics insights…
Demouy, Valérie; Jones, Ann; Kan, Qian; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Eardley, Annie
Most of the literature on mobile language learning is located in classroom contexts, and often concerns the use of resources developed by teachers or researchers. However, we also need to understand learner initiated practices, in informal as well as formal settings, where mobile language learners are increasingly using digital resources. In this…
The present study intended to investigate the possible difference between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs concerning learning and teaching of language components, namely, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Furthermore, this study examined the association between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs and their language components' development. To this…
The present study aims to probe into learners' perceptions of blended learning in relation to the respective roles of face-to-face learning (f2f learning) and online learning as well as their interaction in the blended EFL contexts. Questionnaires were used in the study to examine the attitudes of 296 university students towards a blended English…
Khaled Nasser ElSayed
Most of e-learning and m-learning systems are course-centric. These systems provided services that concentrated on course material and pedagogical. They did not take into account varieties of student levels, skills, interests or preferences. This paper provides a design of an approach for personalized and self-adapted agent-based learning systems for enhancing e-learning and mobile learning (m-learning) services to be learner-centric. It presents a modeling of goals of different learners of a...
Salman A. Al Nasarat
Full Text Available This study was designed to examine difficulties in interpreting English phrasal verbs (PVs that individual college student of English face during their academic career. Interpretation is an apparent obstacle that Jordanian English students encounter as they learn language systematically. The learners being investigated were divided into two groups including regular students of English language and literature and non-majoring English students who study communication skills in English at Al Hussein Bin Talal University. Basically, the present study attempted to investigate students’ background level and performance to identify the source of weakness in interpreting PVs either orally or based on written texts. The findings would shed light on translating inability and more significantly on interpreting strategies while students work out the meaning of spoken or written PVs combinations. The overall score obtained by students in the designed test resulted in a plausible explanation for this learning problem and should help for a better course design and instruction as well as effective classroom teaching and curricula.
Davidsen, Jacob; Georgsen, Marianne
to collaborative and academic issues. In the paper, we bring forward perspectives on the creation of learning designs where students engage in dialogue and interaction in a shared workspace. Empirical studies show that children regulate their own learning processes and guide each other through activities in which...
Full Text Available This paper examines issues around learning ‘content’ and its place in the new digital learning culture. We focus on the increasing demands of digital learners for content that is relevant and the challenges this poses if educators are to stay relevant to them. We say ‘relevance’ is best achieved when content is negotiated with learners in collaboration with instructors. We describe strategies in which technology enhanced teaching and learning solutions have enabled learners to negotiate and create digitised learning content that is educationally, culturally and socially relevant. We cite two case studies that exemplify this approach: a trial of negotiated content with primary school aged digital learners at Brisbane School of Distance Education (BSDE, Australia, and the content decision-making processes used for the development of e-learning courses for hearing health professionals and Auditory-Verbal Therapy at Hear and Say WorldWide Brisbane, Australia. We focus on the changing demands and skill sets of digital learners, their learning managers and subject matter experts, and the use of technology enhanced teaching and learning solutions as the negotiating tool in the development of digital content that is academically rigorous and also learner friendly.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether learners are willing to transfer learning in this mobile learning environment via SMS. The reason for this is to measure the effectiveness of the new method used in learning and education especially in distance education field. For this reason, students’ responses are gathered which looked at three factors namely learner characteristic, learning design and learning environment. The data are gathered through a survey research design with questionnaires using five-point likert scale. The questionnaires was administered for 105 distance education students from four courses including Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Social Science and Bachelor of Management. The Rasch Model Analysis was used to measure these dimensions. Rasch Model is a one-parameter logistic model within item response theory (IRT whereby the amount of a given latent trait in a person and the amount of that same latent trait reflected in various items can be estimated independently yet still compared explicitly to one another. The result of the study showed that learning transfer occurred and being influenced most by learner’s characteristics especially in term of their motivation as well as their perceive utility/value of the SMS learning to their job and academic performances.
Kafuko M. Maria; Namisango Fatuma; Byomire Gorretti
Mobile learning (m-learning) is steadily growing and has undoubtedly derived benefits to learners and tutors in different learning environments. This paper investigates the variation in benefits derived from enhanced classroom learning through use of m-learning platforms in the context of a developing country owing to the fact that it is still in its initial stages. The study focused on how basic technology-enhanced pedagogic innovation like cell phone-based learning is enhancing classroom le...
Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic
An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item
de Leeuw, Robert A; Westerman, Michiel; Scheele, Fedde
The objectives of this study were to identify the needs and expectations of learners and educational experts in postgraduate medical e-learning, and to contribute to the current literature. We performed four focus-group discussions with e-learning end-users (learners) and didactic experts. The participants were postgraduate learners with varying levels of experience, educational experts from a Dutch e-learning task group, and commercial experts from a Dutch e-learning company. Verbatim transcribed interview recordings were analyzed using King's template analysis. The initial template was created with reference to recent literature on postgraduate medical e-learning quality indicators. The transcripts were coded, after which the emerging differences in template interpretation were discussed until a consensus was reached within the team. The final template consisted of three domains of positive e-learning influencers (motivators, learning enhancers, and real-world translation) and three domains of negatively influential parameters (barriers, learning discouragers, and poor preparation). The interpretation of the final template showed three subjects which form the basis of e-learning, namely, Motivate, Learn and Apply. This study forms a basis for learning in general and could be applied to many educational instruments. Individual characteristics should be adapted to the target audience. Three subjects form the basis of, and six themes cover all items needed for, good (enough) postgraduate e-learning. Further research should be carried out with learners and real-world e-learning to validate this template.
Kelly, P Adam; Haidet, Paul; Schneider, Virginia; Searle, Nancy; Seidel, Charles L; Richards, Boyd F
Having recently introduced team learning into the preclinical medical curriculum, evidence of the relative impact of this instructional method on in-class learner engagement was sought. To compare patterns of engagement behaviors among learners in class sessions across 3 distinct instructional methods: lecture, problem-based learning (PBL), and team learning. Trained observers used the STROBE classroom observation tool to measure learner engagement in 7 lecture, 4 PBL, and 3 team learning classrooms over a 12-month period. Proportions of different types of engagement behaviors were compared using chi-square. In PBL and team learning, the amount of learner-to-learner engagement was similar and much greater than in lecture, where most engagement was of the learner-to-instructor and self-engagement types. Also, learner-to-instructor engagement appeared greater in team learning than in PBL. Observed engagement behaviors confirm the potential of team learning to foster engagement similar to PBL, but with greater faculty input.
Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth
In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)
Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.
In this paper, I use an autoethnographical approach, coupled with existing research literature on Chinese learners and learning, to reflect upon my own experiences as a junior high school student in order to explore how Chinese students perceive their learning, and how they establish and justify their own sense of self-regulation in learning. It…
Corporations are growing more and more international and accordingly need to train and develop an increasingly diverse and dispersed employee based. M-learning seems like it may be the solution if it can cross cultures. Learner initiative has been shown to be a disadvantage of distant learning environments, which would include m-learning.…
Schouten, D.G.M.; Venneker, F.; Bosse, T.; Neerincx, M.; Cremer, A.H.M.
In this study, we investigate if a digital coach for low-literate learners that provides cognitive learning support based on scaffolding can be improved by adding affective learning support based on motivational interviewing, and social learning support based on small talk. Several knowledge gaps
Schouten, Dylan G. M.; Venneker, Fleur; Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark A.; Cremers, Anita H. M.
In this study, we investigate if a digital coach for low-literate learners that provides cognitive learning support based on scaffolding can be improved by adding affective learning support based on motivational interviewing, and social learning support based on small talk. Several knowledge gaps are identified: motivational interviewing and small…
Collis, Betty; Moonen, J.C.M.M.; Hung, David; Khine, Myint Swe
Learners can and do become engaged in learning through intrinsic motivations without the need for a teacher or instructional designer. In the workplace, for example, workplace learning is typically seen as a process of such self-guided learning, based on the needs of the task at hand. In the school
Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao
In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…
Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA) were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions…
Talmage, Craig A.; Lacher, R. Geoffrey; Pstross, Mikulas; Knopf, Richard C.; Burkhart, Karla A.
The prevalence of learning providers for third agers continues to expand alongside the growth of the older adult population, yet there remains little empirical evidence on what types of learning experiences are most desired by lifelong learners. This article examines the effects that different learning topics have on attendance at classes hosted…
Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura E.; Armfield, Shadow W. J.; Chan, Junn-Yih
Web 2.0 technology integration requires a higher level of self-regulated learning skills to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE). This study examined each of the four aspects of learner self-regulation in online learning (i.e., environment structuring, goal setting, time management, & task strategies) as the predictor for level of…
O'Donnell, Eileen; Lawless, Séamus; Sharp, Mary; Wade, Vincent P.
The realisation of personalised e-learning to suit an individual learner's diverse learning needs is a concept which has been explored for decades, at great expense, but is still not achievable by non-technical authors. This research reviews the area of personalised e-learning and notes some of the technological challenges which developers may…
Sendurur, Emine; Efendioglu, Esra; Çaliskan, Neslihan Yondemir; Boldbaatar, Nomin; Kandin, Emine; Namazli, Sevinç
This study is designed to understand the informal language learners' experiences of m-learning applications. The aim is two-folded: (i) to extract the reasons why m-learning applications are preferred and (ii) to explore the user experience of Duolingo m-learning application. We interviewed 18 voluntary Duolingo users. The findings suggest that…
Self-directed learning is an important form of adult learning (Caffarella, 1993; Knowles, 1975; Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2005; Merriam, 2001; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). The strategies of self-directed learning allow adult learners to cope better with their studies while fulfilling family, work and other commitments. This study…
Full Text Available This paper describes an action research study during which a flexible or hybrid approach to delivering an Information and Communication Technology competency course is implemented in the preparation of student teachers. The course incorporates Web-based course-content delivery, face-to-face classroom meetings to satisfy the need for human interaction, a variety of assessment methods, as well as recognition of prior learning. The objectives are to accommodate learning diversity, make learning focused and achievable for each learner, allow for intervention if the learning outcomes are not met, and focus on and guide the learning process, i.e. teach learners how to learn. This paper reports on the perspectives and experiences of two groups of first year learners, namely student teachers who attended a hybrid ICT course and first year learners who attended an e-learning ICT course. It was found that the success rate of the hybrid mode ICT course was significantly higher than that of the similar e-learning ICT course. The hybrid mode ICT course also enabled the learners to become self-directed to a higher degree.
Full Text Available The shift to technology-mediated modes of instructional delivery and increased global connectivity has led to a rise in globalized e-learning programs. Educational institutions face multiple challenges as they seek to design effective, engaging, and culturally competent instruction for an increasingly diverse learner population. The purpose of this study was to explore strategies for expanding learner analysis within the instructional design process to better address cultural influences on learning. A case study approach leveraged the experience of practicing instructional designers to build a framework for culturally competent learner analysis.The study discussed the related challenges and recommended strategies to improve the effectiveness of cross-cultural learner analysis. Based on the findings, a framework for conducting cross-cultural learner analysis to guide the cultural analysis of diverse learners was proposed. The study identified the most critical factors in improving cross-cultural learner analysis as the judicious use of existing research on cross-cultural theories and joint deliberation on the part of all the participants from the management to the learners. Several strategies for guiding and improving the cultural inquiry process were summarized. Barriers and solutions for the requirements are also discussed.
Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand, active learning changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class; moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant difference between active learning and traditional teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting active learning to traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.
Jackson, Sherion H.; Crawford, Debi
Young learners today are not growing up at the foot of the family radio or spending a good portion of their childhood glued to the television while Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers disseminate information in a constant stream as did previous generations. Rather, this generation of young learners continues to spend many out-of-school hours in a digital…
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori
This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…
Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.
Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…
Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing
Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…
Full Text Available The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n=180 language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred twenty three (n=123 language learners were selected for the study. These participants were distributed into 4 experimental groups (with 25 learners and a control group (with 23 learners. Researcher-made vocabulary pretest and posttest which were designed using the vocabularies from the movies were also administered to the participants. The findings of the study after three weeks of treatment revealed that both authentic video materials and instructional video materials can have positive effect on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL leaners. This effect, however, is not different among extrovert learners. It was also revealed that introvert EFL learners benefit more from authentic video materials. The findings of the study could be used by material developers or language teachers who may wish to use video materials in their classes. Keywords: Authentic video materials, Instructional video materials, Vocabulary learning, Introversion, Extroversion
As many important issues pertaining to blended learning within the Sub-Saharan African context remain unexplored, this study implemented a blended learning approach in a graduate level course at a private university in Ghana, with the objective of exploring adult learners' attitudes, experiences and behaviors towards this learning approach, as…
Stull, Andrew T.; Mayer, Richard E.
Do students learn more deeply from a passage when they attempt to construct their own graphic organizers (i.e., learning by doing) than when graphic organizers are provided (i.e., learning by viewing)? In 3 experiments, learners were tested on retention and transfer after reading a passage with author-provided graphic organizers or when asked to…
This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…
Full Text Available Foreign Language Anxiety (FLA can be a crippling condition for many students, preventing them from taking an active part in the classroom, and also retarding their L2 use in wider communicative situations. Providing learners with the tools to overcome anxiety on an individual basis is an area which needs further investigation. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT is a widespread counselling practice used to treat anxieties. It shares similarities with some techniques employed in Advising in Language Learning (ALL for helping students with language goals, and it is worthwhile investigating and raising awareness of how it can be used for FLA. The article describes major characteristics of FLA and also CBT, and then describes four functions which CBT and ALL share: goal-setting, guided discovery, Socratic questioning and use of reflection. Preliminary research also demonstrates how some of the practices associated with CBT could be applied by Learning Advisors to help students to overcome FLA.
Loretta Z. le Roux
exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.
Full Text Available The present study attempted to examine the relationship between English as a Foreign Language (EFL learnersâ motivational beliefs and their use of learning strategies. The three components of motivation, i.e. expectancy component, value component and affective component, were examined in relation to metacognitive, cognitive and effort management strategies. Two hundred and fifty seven EFL learners representing different proficiency levels completed the Persian version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, which consisted of motivation scale and learning strategies scale. The analysis of the effect of proficiency level on motivational beliefs showed a significant effect of proficiency level on test anxiety and extrinsic goal orientation, suggesting that less proficient learners were significantly more anxious and more extrinsically oriented compared to advanced learners of English. It was also found that self-efficacy, control of learning beliefs, intrinsic goal orientation and task value could account for 70% of variations in self-regulated learning (SRL strategies. Based on the findings of this study, several suggestions are made to aid instructors in creating a non-product-oriented approach to learning, which promotes foreign language learnersâ learning outcomes.
Full Text Available Technology has brought tremendous advancements in online education, spurring transformations in online pedagogical practices. Online learning in the past was passive, using the traditional teacher-centred approach. However, with the tools available today, it can be active, collaborative, and meaningful. A well-developed task can impel learners to observe, to reflect, to strategize, and to plan their own learning. This paper describes an English as a Second Language (ESL instructor’s attempt to foster interactive and reflective learning among distance learners at a public university in Malaysia, working within the framework proposed by Salmon (2004. The authors found that proper planning and close monitoring of a writing activity that incorporates interactive and reflective learning helped to raise the students’ awareness of their own learning process and consequently helped them to be more responsible for their learning. The students acquired significant cognitive benefits and also valuable practical learning skills through the online discussions. However, there were challenges in carrying out the writing task to promote this form of learning, including students’ professional and family commitments and cultural attitudes as well as communication barriers in the online environment. To address these challenges, the authors recommend the following: ensure tutor guidance, enforce compulsory participation, address technical problems quickly, commence strategic training prior to the beginning of a task, and implement team teaching with each instructor taking on certain roles.
Albatayneh, Naji Ahmad; Ghauth, Khairil Imran; Chua, Fang-Fang
Nowadays, most of e-learning systems embody online discussion forums as a medium for collaborative learning that supports knowledge sharing and information exchanging between learners. The exponential growth of the available shared information in e-learning online discussion forums has caused a difficulty for learners in discovering interesting…
Sandars, John; Homer, Matthew; Walsh, Kieran; Rutherford, Alaster
There is increasing use of hypermedia online learning in continuing medical education (CME) that presents the learner with a wide range of different learning resources, requiring the learner to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. This study is the first to apply an SRL perspective to understand how learners engage with hypermedia online learning in CME. We found that the main SRL skills used by learners were use of strategies and monitoring. The increasing use of strategies was associated with increasing interest in the topic and with increasing satisfaction with the learning experience. Further research is recommended to understand SRL processes and its impact on learning in other aspects of hypermedia online learning across the different phases of medical education. Research is also recommended to implement and evaluate the learning impact of a variety of approaches to develop the SRL skills of hypermedia online learners in CME.
Full Text Available In two upper-level elective biology courses and one beginning-level general biology course, college students participated in Learning Partnerships with middle or high school classes to study some aspect of biology. The goals were to enhance learning by providing resources to middle and high school students and teachers and by encouraging college students to consider teaching as a learning tool and a possible career goal. The college students designed lessons, activities, and laboratories that were done at the schools and at Bates College. Feedback and data suggest that the partnerships have helped teachers enrich their curricula, enhanced student learning, encouraged additional high school students to consider applying to college, and encouraged college students to consider teaching science.
Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.
Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...
Phillips, Janet M
Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.
Kharratzadeh, Milad; Montrey, Marcel; Metz, Alex; Shultz, Thomas R
Culture is considered an evolutionary adaptation that enhances reproductive fitness. A common explanation is that social learning, the learning mechanism underlying cultural transmission, enhances mean fitness by avoiding the costs of individual learning. This explanation was famously contradicted by Rogers (1988), who used a simple mathematical model to show that cheap social learning can invade a population without raising its mean fitness. He concluded that some crucial factor remained unaccounted for, which would reverse this surprising result. Here we extend this model to include a more complex environment and limited resources, where individuals cannot reliably learn everything about the environment on their own. Under such conditions, cheap social learning evolves and enhances mean fitness, via hybrid learners capable of specializing their individual learning. We then show that while spatial or social constraints hinder the evolution of hybrid learners, a novel social learning strategy, complementary copying, can mitigate these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Huelskamp, Amelia; Hritz, Nancy
Creative K-12 health teachers can engage students in large classes by utilizing active learning strategies. Active learning involves engaging students in higher-order tasks, such as analysis and synthesis, which is a crucial element of the movement toward what is commonly called "learner-centered" teaching. Health education teachers who…
This study uncovered the different factors that make up the learning satisfaction of non-traditional learners in Singapore. Data was collected from a component of the student evaluation exercise in a Singapore university in 2011. A mixed-methods approach was adopted in the analysis. The study stated that non-traditional learners’ learning satisfaction can be generally grouped into four main categories: a) Desirable Learning Deliverables; b) Directed Learning Related Factors; c) Lecturer/Tutor...
Robinson, Heather A.; Kilgore, Whitney; Warren, Scott J.
The purpose of this study was to identify emergent themes regarding higher education instructors' perceptions concerning the provision of collaborative learning activities and opportunities in their online classroom. Through semi-structured interviews, instructors described their teaching experiences and reported specifically about the online…
Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun
This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews...... and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of tasks are perceived as motivating from the students’ perspective and which characteristics the learners associate with motivating tasks. The study indicates that it is important to consider the learners’ affective factors and learning situation...... factors, which can boost learners’ intrinsic motivation, when designing a task, especially at a beginning stage of foreign language learning, and to integrate cultural elements into tasks as an added value to motivate learners. Finally, this study identifies challenges and barriers related to TBTL...
Full Text Available Against a backdrop of increasingly vocation-focussed course provision within higher education, of widening participation initiatives intended to promote greater inclusion for learners affected by learning difficulties, and of moves towards greater use of social and collaborative forms of learning, this paper discusses the case of an undergraduate Computing student affected by Asperger’s Syndrome (AS.While there is recognition in the literature of problems associated with face-to-face dialogue for persons affected by AS, there is a paucity of research both into the experience of students in higher education, and around the issue of participation in group-work activities increasingly found in creative aspects of computing. This paper highlights a tension between moves towards collaborative learning and UK disabilities legislation in relation to learners with AS. Employing a qualitative case-study methodology, the investigation revealed how a technology-enhanced learning intervention afforded an AS-diagnosed learner greater opportunities to participate in group-work in a higher education context. The findings suggest that not only can computer-mediated communications afford AS-diagnosed learners opportunities to participate meaningfully in group-work, but also that the learner demonstrated higher levels of collective-inclusive versus individual-exclusive phraseology than neurotypical peers, thereby challenging assumptions around participation in collaborative learning activities and assimilation of peer-feedback.
Full Text Available In this paper I am going to argue that our most important role as language teachers is to provide potentially engaging materials for our learners and then to make use of them in optimally engaging ways. If we do not engage our learners most of the time no amount of exposure, teaching, practice or use of the language will help them to achieve sufficient language acquisition and development.
Busch, John; Hanna, Philip; O'Neill, Ian; McGowan, Aidan; Collins, Matthew
The aim of this research is to analysis past student learner analytics using machine learning algorithms that had undertaken a web development and programming module. By specifically using the access and error web server logs from each student web server it provides a deeper learner analytic data. The web server logs every web file access and error access from a browser so in turn each data file can directly relate to a student's engagement level and assessment strategy. Each log holds severa...
Zheng, Robert; Stucky, Bradd; McAlack, Matt; Menchaca, Mike; Stoddart, Sue
The WebQuest as an inquiry-oriented approach in web learning has gained considerable attention from educators and has been integrated widely into curricula in K-12 and higher education. It is considered to be an effective way to organize chaotic internet resources and help learners gain new knowledge through a guided learning environment.…
Johnson, Mark; Griffiths, Dai; Hanslot, Zubair
Johnson, M., Griffiths, D., & Hanslot, Z. (2010). Positioning Learning Design: Learner Experience and the challenges of transforming teaching practice. In D. Griffiths, & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open
Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin
This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…
Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.
This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…
Diep, Nguyet A.; Cocquyt, Celine; Zhu, Chang; Vanwing, Tom
The present study employs social cognitive theory (SCT) and social capital as the guiding frameworks to explain online interaction quality among learners in a blended learning program (N = 179). Capturing performance expectancy by perceived learning benefits and online interaction quality with nuanced cognitive measures, the study aims to validate…
In this paper, I narrate highlights of my long process of learning and teaching English as a foreign language in mainland China and Australia, presenting a picture of the practices of learning and teaching English in mainland China from the bottom up. Over the past 50 years, English learners in mainland China, as Gao Yihong has written, have…
Doolittle, Peter E.; Bryant, Lauren H.; Chittum, Jessica R.
The construction of asynchronous learning environments often involves the creation of self-paced multimedia instructional episodes that provide the learner with control over the pacing of instruction (segmentation); however, does the amount of segmentation impact learning? This study explored the effects of the degree of segmentation on recall and…
Philominraj, Andrew; Jeyabalan, David; Vidal-Silva, Christian
This article presents an empirical study carried out among the students of higher secondary schools to find out how English language learning occurs naturally in an environment where learners are encouraged by an appropriate method such as visual learning. The primary data was collected from 504 students with different pretested questionnaires. A…
Technologies bring a new era of content presentation for online teaching and learning. With more instructors adopting new tools to design online teaching materials, students are often put into learning contexts with certain new design components. Assessing learner experience and outcome in these contexts is challenging because of the complexity…
Gómez-Rey, Pilar; Barbera, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Francisco
This article explores the quality of the online learning experience based on the Sloan-C framework and the Online Learning Consortium's (OLC) quality scorecard. The OLC index has been implemented to evaluate quality in online programs from different perspectives. Despite this, the opinions of learners are ignored, and it is built using feedback…
Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda
This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…
Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana
This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…
Constituting a more specific form of online collaboration, eTandem Language Learning (eTLL) shows great potential for non-formal, self-directed language learning. Research in this field, particularly regarding task design, is still scarce. Focusing on their beliefs and attitudes, this article examines what learners think about how…
The chapter discusses the potential of personal learning environments (PLE) based on Web 2.0 applications for language courses in higher education (HE). This novel approach to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education involves learners in the design of learning environments, tools and processes. The chapter begins…
Shakarami, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina J.
Digital media play enormous roles in much of the learning, communication, socializing, and ways of working for "Net-Generation" learners who are growing up in a wired world. Living in this digital era may require different ways of communicating, thinking, approaching learning, prioritizing strategies, interpersonally communicating, and…
As a relatively innovative teaching/learning approach in the Arabian Gulf region, in general, and in Oman, in particular, project-based learning requires progressive amendments and adaptations to the national culture of the learner. This article offers analysis of the current state of the approach in the local educational environment. Furthermore,…
Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Toste, Jessica R.; Mahal, Stephanie
Promoting self-determined learning through student-directed learning strategies has been documented to promote more positive school-related outcomes for upper elementary grade learners with disabilities and other students who are struggling. These strategies are typically introduced in multicomponent interventions combining several…
Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL) has gained importance recently and several studies are carried out in this field. Especially, learners of linguistically different communities (Byelorussian/Russian) are observed to make errors while learning Turkish. If making errors is an integral outcome in learning a TFL, then to what extent is it…
Full Text Available As the prevalence of e-learning continues to grow in higher education settings, so too does the need for empirical research examining the antecedents of success in this environment. Previous research has suggested some characteristics that may determine success in an online course; however, little empirical evidence exists relating potential predictors of e-learning success with actual performance outcomes, particularly for different levels of learners. Students new to college may need different kinds of support to succeed in an online course compared to students with more experience in taking college-level courses, whether online or in-class, and navigating institutional resources. A primary goal of the current study is to determine the kinds of support needed to help lower-level and upper-level learners succeed in an e-learning environment. We assess several predictors of e-learning success and compare the relative effectiveness of these characteristics across novice and expert learners. Findings suggest that for lower-level students, access to technology predicted learner performance, whereas for upper-level students, motivation and self-discipline predicted learner performance. We discuss the implications of these results for e-learning instructors, instructional designers, and knowledge management practitioners.
Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd
The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P < 0.05) in V learners and at the occipital 1 and 2 sites (P < 0.05) in R learners. The between-groups comparison showed that P200 amplitudes elicited by pictures in V learners were larger than those of R learners at the parietal 4 site (P < 0.05). The ITM test result showed that a picture set showed distinctively more correct responses than that of a word set for both V learners (P < 0.001) and R learners (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the result indicated that the P200 amplitude at the parietal 4 site could be used to objectively distinguish V learners from R learners. A lateralization existed to the right brain (occipital 2 site) in V learners. The ITM test demonstrated the existence of picture superiority effects in both learners. The results revealed the first objective electrophysiological evidence partially supporting the validity of the subjective psychological VARK questionnaire study. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Novak, Joseph D.
The construction and reconstruction of meanings by learners requires that they actively seek to integrate new knowledge with knowledge already in their cognitive structure. Ausubel's assimilation theory of cognitive learning has been shown to be effective in guiding research and instructional design to facilitate meaningful learning (Ausubel, The psychology of meaningful verbal learning, New York: Grune and Stratton, 1963; Educational psychology: A cognitive view, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968; The acquisition and retention of knowledge, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000). Gowin's Vee heuristic has been employed effectively to aid teachers and students in understanding the constructed nature of knowledge (Gowin, Educating, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981). Situated learning occurs when learning is by rote or at a lower level of meaningful learning. Concept mapping has been used effectively to aid meaningful learning with resulting modification of student's knowledge structures. When these knowledge structures are limited or faulty in some way, they may be referred to as Limited or Inappropriate Propositional Hierarchies (LIPH's). Conceptual change, or more accurately conceptual reconstrution, requires meaningful learning to modify LIPH's. Collaborative group learning facilitates meaningful learning and new knowledge construction. World-wide economic changes are forcing major changes in business and industry placing a premium on the power and value of knowledge and new knowledge production. These changes require changes in school and university education that centers on the nature and power of meaningful learning. New computer tools are available to facilitate teaching activities targeted at modifying LIPH's, and aiding meaningful learning in general.
Fenesi, Barbara; Kim, Joseph A
Research on metacognition has consistently demonstrated that learners fail to endorse instructional designs that produce benefits to memory, and often prefer designs that actually impair comprehension. Unlike previous studies in which learners were only exposed to a single multimedia design, the current study used a within-subjects approach to examine whether exposure to both redundant text and non-redundant text multimedia presentations improved learners' metacognitive judgments about presentation styles that promote better understanding. A redundant text multimedia presentation containing narration paired with verbatim on-screen text (Redundant) was contrasted with two non-redundant text multimedia presentations: (1) narration paired with images and minimal text (Complementary) or (2) narration paired with minimal text (Sparse). Learners watched presentation pairs of either Redundant + Complementary, or Redundant + Sparse. Results demonstrate that Complementary and Sparse presentations produced highest overall performance on the final comprehension assessment, but the Redundant presentation produced highest perceived understanding and engagement ratings. These findings suggest that learners misperceive the benefits of redundant text, even after direct exposure to a non-redundant, effective presentation.
Sun, Peijian Paul; Teng, Lin Sophie
This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid's six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners' learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context. A four-factor PLSPQ was successfully constructed including auditory/visual, kinaesthetic/tactile, group, and individual styles. Such a measurement model was cross-validated through CFAs with 118 CSL learners. The study not only lends evidence to the literature that Reid's PLSPQ lacks construct validity, but also provides CSL teachers and learners with insightful and practical guidance concerning learning styles. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.
Seung Jae Lee
Full Text Available The information and communication technology has become an indispensable part of modern education. The paradigm shift in the educational environment makes the instructors recollect the traditional roles in classroom education and adjust their responsibilities to accommodate a transformed pedagogy and learner expectations. This paper aims at the instructor’s role in on-line education and studies how the instructor affects the learner satisfaction via the instructor involvement. Modifying the information system success model, the learning-environment qualities are rearranged into two-tiered formats—rigid and flexible contents—depending on the instructor’s manageability. A partial least square analysis was used to examine the structural relationship among rigid and flexible contents qualities (i.e., technology-assisted learning-environment qualities, learner satisfaction, and learner retention, and found that the instructor involvement had a moderating effect on flexible contents qualities (test and activity; further, the moderating effect of instructor is captured as high involvement in tests and low involvement in activities. Consequently, this paper confirms the relationship between learning-environment qualities, learner satisfaction, and instructor involvement. Empirically, the instructor role in on-line education and the degree of instructor involvement in higher education are substantiated; the result of this study will also contribute to e-learning design or content delivery system development in a practical way.
Vahid Fallah Golchin
Full Text Available Language learning has experienced a shift of focus from a form-focused to a meaning-focused approach, and the necessity of using task-based learning, a relatively recent approach, has emerged. The vital role of task-based materials makes it obligatory not to exclude them from the language learning syllabi. The current study aims at investigating whether task-based reading can contribute significantly to the development of reading comprehension of Iranian advanced EFL learners of English. An experimental study was carried out in order to scrutinize the applicability of task-based language teaching. To this end, 60 female advanced EFL learners, selected from among a pool of 100 learners, were assigned equally and randomly into two groups of thirty, consisting of an experimental and a control group. The selection of the participants was based on the results of a standard and piloted version of Paper-based TOEFL. The participant’s mean age was about 23, ranging from 20 to 27 years of age. Both groups received a pretest and a post-test of reading. During the treatment period the experimental group received task-based reading activities while the control group received reading instructions through traditional methods. The impact of the treatment upon the reading comprehension ability of the participants was analyzed through an independent-samples t-test, and comparisons between groups were made. The results clearly indicated the development of reading comprehension ability of the participants in the first group (the experimental group through the application of task-based reading activities.
Lizl-Louise van Niekerk
Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.
Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J
Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.
Gabriel Eduardo Cote Parra
Full Text Available The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based on a collaborative online learning interaction. The data were gathered from participants’ posts, and the findings revealed that class tasks promoted an asynchronous voluntary interaction among participants in which they shared knowledge and experiences while expressing the opinions and points of view that enabled them to actively participate in the face-to-face class.
Learner autonomy has been one of the most popular terms in the language learning field lately. Researchers have been conducting studies to see different aspects of learner autonomy and to bring different suggestions to teachers to promote autonomous learning in their classrooms. Students of a particular cultural background would not show the same…
This paper presents the findings from a multiple-case study which has investigated the impact of mobile Web 2.0 technologies on self-directed learning (SDL) of workplace learners by exploring participants' learning experiences with a mobile App. Drawing on existing literatures, we examined learners' SDL personal attributes and process in the…
Akhand, Mohd. Moniruzzaman
Now a day, the buzz word for a language classroom is "learner autonomy" that is defined differently by different experts. The fundamental of learner autonomy, however, is to involve the learning in the teaching and learning process. The term "webquest" is also a new concept to the teachers in this part of the world. A webquest…
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270
Seung Youn (Yonnie Chyung, Ed.D.
Full Text Available In a face-to-face classroom, the instructor can easily diagnose students’ motivational status by observing their facial expressions and postures, but such cues are absent in an online classroom. Therefore, online instructors often estimate students’ motivational level based on their online behavior such as the number of messages they post, and look for effective strategies to help them actively participate in online dialogues. One such strategy is contract learning which facilitates self-directed behaviors through structuring an agreed learning process. This study reports a contract learning strategy in a graduate-level online class, examining whether a sample of 28 students’ motivation could indeed be predicted by their online behavior. Results from the study found that the students’ online behavior was not a predictor for their motivational status, though there were age and gender differences in their online behavior. The students felt more self-directed and motivated during contract learning, but what they really liked was being able to select assignments that were relevant to their interests and needs. This paper concludes by discussing practical implications of the findings at the end.
Keen, Cheryl H.; Woods, Robert
In this article, we interpreted, in light of Mezirow's theory of transformative learning, interviews with 13 educators regarding their work with marginalized adult learners in prisons in the northeastern United States. Transformative learning may have been aided by the educators' response to unplanned activating events, humor, and respect, and…
Andersen, Jeffery C.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between general course satisfaction, learner-instructor interaction, and the learner-social media interaction scores of participants. This study used an online survey with 60 questions to gather the participants' demographic data, learner-instructor interaction data, learner-social…
Full Text Available Traditional and modern vocabulary instruction techniques have been introduced in the past few decades to improve the learners’ performance in reading comprehension. Semantic mapping, which entails drawing learners’ attention to the interrelationships among lexical items through graphic organizers, is claimed to enhance vocabulary learning significantly. However, whether this technique suits all types of learners has not been adequately investigated. This study examines the effectiveness of employing semantic mapping versus traditional approaches in vocabulary instruction to EFL learners with different perceptual modalities. A modified version of Reid’s (1987 perceptual learning style questionnaire was used to determine the learners’ modality types. The results indicate that semantic mapping in comparison to the traditional approaches significantly enhances vocabulary learning of EFL learners. However, although visual learners slightly outperformed other types of learners on the post-test, no significant differences were observed among intermediate learners with different perceptual modalities employing semantic mapping for vocabulary practice.
Learners of English might be familiar with several online monolingual dictionaries that are not necessarily the best choices for the English as Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) context. Although these monolingual online dictionaries contain definitions, pronunciation guides, and other elements normally found in general-use dictionaries, they are…
According to recent modifications in Turkish educational system, English language teaching starts in the second grade. Young learners studying in this grade were in the focus in this study. This paper reported on the findings of a mixed method study conducted in three different primary schools in the west of Turkey. The main aim was to represent…
Mills, Kathy A.
The power to influence others in ever expanding social networks in the new knowledge economy is tied to capabilities with digital media production that require increased technological knowledge. This article draws on research in primary classrooms to examine the repertoires of cross-disciplinary knowledge that literacy learners need to produce…
Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Estévez-Ayres, Iria; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Delgado Kloos, Carlos; Fernández-Panadero, Carmen
MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have changed the way in which OER (Open Educational Resources) are bundled by teachers and consumed by learners. MOOCs represent an evolution towards the production and offering of structured quality OER. Many institutions that were initially reluctant to providing OER have, however, joined the MOOC wave.…
Taskiran, Ayse; Gumusoglu, Eylem Koral; Aydin, Belgin
Education in 21st century is dominated by the generation of digital natives who are greatly exposed to and participate in technology in their social and educational lives. There is no doubt that anything experienced in social life directly affects learners' educational experiences. Highly popular social networks are being used in almost every…
Problem-based learning (PBL) has made a major shift in support of student learning for many medical school curricula around the world. Since curricular development of PBL in the early 1970s and its growth in the 1980s and 1990s, there have been growing numbers of publications providing positive and negative data in regard to the curricular effectiveness of PBL. The purpose of this study was to explore supportive data for the four core objectives of PBL and to identify an interface between the objectives of PBL and a learner-centered paradigm. The four core PBL objectives, ie, structuring of knowledge and clinical context, clinical reasoning, self-directed learning, and intrinsic motivation, were used to search MEDLINE, the Education Resources Information Center, the Educator's Reference Complete, and PsycINFO from January 1969 to January 2011. The literature search was facilitated and narrowed if the published study included the following terms: "problem-based learning", "medical education", "traditional curriculum", and one of the above four PBL objectives. Through a comprehensive search analysis, one can find supportive data for the effectiveness of a PBL curriculum in achieving the four core objectives of PBL. A further analysis of these four objectives suggests that there is an interface between PBL objectives and criteria from a learner-centered paradigm. In addition, this review indicates that promotion of teamwork among students is another interface that exists between PBL and a learner-centered paradigm. The desire of medical schools to enhance student learning and a need to provide an environment where students construct knowledge rather than receive knowledge have encouraged many medical schools to move into a learner-centered paradigm. Implementation of a PBL curriculum can be used as a prevailing starting point to develop not only a learner-centered paradigm, but also to facilitate a smooth curricular transition from a teacher-centered paradigm to a
Davood Mashhadi Heidar
Full Text Available The present study explored the vocabulary learning strategies used by Iranian EFL learners and Marine Engineering (ME students by using the categorization of vocabulary learning strategies proposed by Schmitt (1997. A vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire was administered to 30 EFL learners and 43 ME students. Then, the strategies used by each group were determined and the two groups were compared with each other. It was found that both groups used determination strategies more frequently than social strategies for discovering a new word’s meaning. The most frequently used discovery strategy by both groups was found to be “bilingual dictionary”. The second and third most frequently used strategy for discovery by EFL learners and ME students was found to be “monolingual dictionary” and “guess from textual context”, respectively. It was also revealed that EFL learners used memory strategies more frequently than other strategies for consolidating the meaning of new words and ME students used cognitive strategies the most frequently. Both groups were found to use “verbal repetition” more frequently than all other consolidation strategies. The second most frequently used strategy by EFL learners was “use Englishlanguage media” whilst for ME students they were “written repetition” and “word lists”. The comparison of the strategy use by the participants in the two groups showed no significant difference.
Marques, Priscila Garcia; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar
This study investigated the effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on motor skill learning. For this purpose, beginner and intermediate learner swimmers practised the front crawl. Seventy college students took part in this experiment. They comprised 40 novice learners, both male (n=19) and female (n=21), with an average age of 20.7 years (±0.44), and 30 intermediate learners, both male (n=17) and female (n=13), with an average age of 21.1 years (±0.86). The design involved a pretest (one day), four acquisition sessions (four days), and a retention test (one day). They were divided into three groups: (1) choice, which could choose to watch a video with their best or overall performance during practise; (2) yoked, which were paired to those of the choice group; and (3) control (did not watch any video). The measures included the performance of front crawl and self-efficacy. The results showed that: (1) beginners who chose a type of observation strategy had superior motor skill learning; (2) for intermediate learners, self-observation promoted better motor learning, regardless of the control of choices; (3) self-observation improved self-efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our
Issham Bin Ismail
Full Text Available The evolution of technologies as well as Internet application has created new ways of communication which gives impact to all regions and sectors including educators and learners in Higher-Education Learning institutions in Malaysia. Virtual learning environments as well as e-learning applications are some of pedagogical mechanisms which may sound easy and quick to be applied but unfortunately they are rarely used. This research attempts to introduce m-Learning as “Convenience Education” (CE. This study will determine the design which suits the system, to identify the suitable content and hardware. The study expected to develop the system framework, the content as well as the hardware, to make recommendations on the existing learning mechanisms and to develop a framework that contributes to the improvement of the education system in Malaysia. This paper includes a pilot project using short message service (SMS - mobile technology for a Physics course for distance learners at the Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide
Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…
Learning strategies are considered to be one of the key factors affecting the learning process, its effectiveness and study results. They are important for lifelong learning of foreign languages and as a learning skill they represent a priority in the process of European globalization and integration. Moreover, learning strategies as a foreign…
Arendse, Gillian J.
In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.
Bornman, Juan; Donohue, Dana K.
This study examined teachers' attitudes toward learners with two types of barriers to learning: a learner with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a learner with little or no functional speech (LNFS). The results indicated that although teachers reported that the learner with ADHD would be more disruptive in class and have a…
Avsec, Stanislav; Rihtarsic, David; Kocijancic, Slavko
Open learning (OL) strives to transform teaching and learning by applying learning science and emerging technologies to increase student success, improve learning productivity, and lower barriers to access. OL of robotics has a significant growth rate in secondary and/or high schools, but failures exist. Little is known about why many users stop their OL after their initial experience. Previous research done under different task environments has suggested a variety of factors affecting user satisfaction with different types of OL. In this study, we tested a regression model for student satisfaction involving students' attitudes toward OL usage. A survey was conducted to investigate the critical factors affecting students' achievements and satisfaction in OL of robotics with use of own developed direct manipulation learning environment as learning context. A multiple regression analyses were carried out to investigate how different facets of students' expectations and experiences are related to perceived learning achievements and course satisfaction. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of predictor variables to student satisfaction. The results demonstrate that students have significantly positive perceptions toward using OL of robotics as a learning-assisted tool. Furthermore, behavioral intention to use OL is influenced by perceived usefulness and self-efficacy. The following five major categories of satisfaction factors with OL course were revealed during analysis of the studies (effect sizes in parentheses): organization (0.69); implementation (0.61); professional content (0.53); interaction (0.43); self-efficacy (0.14). All these effect sizes were judged to be significant and large. The results also showed that learner-mentor/instructor interaction, learner-professional content interaction, and online and offline self-efficacy were good predictors of student satisfaction and course quality. Peer interactions and
Slow learners are individuals with below average cognitive abilities. In general they are more immature and show problems in areas such as concentration, short-term and long-term memory, metacognition, motivation, social integration, executive functions and some others. One of the problematic areas is also organization. Well-developed organizational skills are very important because they affect many aspects of our lives. They enable us to cope with everyday tasks, as well as more complex task...
Barry, Margot; Egan, Arlene
Adult learners are attracted to learning opportunities (e.g. course offers) which seem promising in terms of allowing them to match their choices to their own perceived predispositions. To find out more about their personal learning style, some adult learners may fill in a questionnaire designed by researchers who aim (and claim) to enable both course providers and learners to optimise learning outcomes. The evaluation of these questionnaires measures learning styles using indicators developed for this purpose, but the results are not conclusive and their utility is therefore questionable. This narrative review critically examines some of the research which explores the usefulness of considering students' learning styles in adult education. The authors present a discussion - which remains hypothetical - on why the use of learning styles measures continues to be popular despite the absence of rigorous research findings to support this practice. Factors discussed by the authors include confirmation bias (making choices which confirm our prejudices) and user qualification (limiting availability to trained users, e.g. psychologists) as well as limited resources and skills in evaluating research, paired with educators' quest to implement evidence-focused techniques. The authors conclude that while learning styles assessments can be useful for the purpose of reflection on strengths and weaknesses, they should play a limited role in educational choices.
Özmen, Büsra; Atici, Bünyamin
In this study, it was aimed to examine the use of learning management systems supported by social networking sites in distance education and to determine the views of learners regarding these platforms. The study group of this study, which uses a qualitative research approach, consists of 15 undergraduate students who resumed their education in…
Muuro, Maina Elizaphan; Oboko, Robert; Wagacha, Waiganjo Peter
In this paper we explore the impact of an intelligent grouping algorithm based on learners' collaborative competency when compared with (a) instructor based Grade Point Average (GPA) method level and (b) random method, on group outcomes and group collaboration problems in an online collaborative learning environment. An intelligent grouping…
The shift to technology-mediated modes of instructional delivery and increased global connectivity has led to the rise in globalized e-learning programs. Educational institutions face multiple challenges as they seek to design effective, engaging, and culturally competent instruction for an increasingly diverse learner population. The purpose of…
Schulze, Salomé; Lemmer, Eleanor
Science education is particularly important for both developed and developing countries to promote technological development, global economic competition and economic growth. This study explored the relationship between family experiences, the motivation for science learning, and the science achievement of a group of Grade Nine learners in South…
Herrmann, K. J.; Bager-Elsborg, A.; McCune, V.
This paper considers relationships between approaches to learning, learner identities, self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement in higher education. In addition to already established survey instruments, a new scale, "subject area affinity," was developed. The scale explores the extent to which students identify with their area of…
Ahangari, Saeideh; Dogolsara, Shokoufeh Abbasi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of using two types of dictionaries (monolingual and bilingual) on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary learning. An OPT (Oxford placement test, 2001) was administered among 90 students 60 of whom were selected as the participants of this study. They were sophomore students studying English as a…
Khoshsima, Hooshang; Sayadi, Fatemeh
This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL…
Rapid increase in information sources in different formats, developments in technology and need for lifelong learning have drawn increased attention to needs for information literacy. Although information literacy is significant for students of all educational levels, it has become even more significant for e-learners. Therefore, this study…
Boersma, A.; ten Dam, G.T.M.; Wardekker, W.L.; Volman, M.L.L.
In this study, the concept of ‘community of learners’ was used to improve initial vocational education. The framework of a ‘community of learners for vocational orientation’ that we present offers both a theoretical understanding of teaching–learning processes in initial vocational education and
Boersma, A.; ten Dam, G.; Wardekker, W.; Volman, M.
In this study, the concept of ‘community of learners’ was used to improve initial vocational education. The framework of a ‘community of learners for vocational orientation’ that we present offers both a theoretical understanding of teaching–learning processes in initial vocational education and
Alahdadi, Shadi; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh
A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and…
Rahim, Mehrak; Goli, Atefeh
The aim of the current study was investigating the role of achievement in learning English as a foreign language in EFL learners' cheating attitudes and cheating behaviors. Eight hundred junior high-school students were selected based on random cluster sampling and participated in the study. Their attitudes towards academic dishonesty and their…
Pinyin is a sound-annotating system for Chinese characters using Roman letters. Teaching and learning Pinyin has been an important educational practice in Mainland China for native Chinese children, and it is also typically taught to beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign/second language in tertiary-level classrooms. However, whether it should…
Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Ting-Han
This study mainly investigates language anxiety and its relationship to the use of learning strategies and multiple intelligences among young learners in an EFL educational context. The participants were composed of 212 fifth- and sixth-graders from elementary schools in central Taiwan. Findings indicated that most participants generally…
Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia
Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…
Silseth, K.; Arnseth, H. C.
In this article, we examine the relationship between how students are positioned in social encounters and how this influences learning in a technology-supported science project. We pursue this topic by focusing on the participation trajectory of one particular learner. The analysis shows that the student cannot be interpreted as one type of…
Thorius, Kathleen A. King; Santamaría Graff, Cristina
This article discusses a research-based reading intervention called peer-assisted learning strategies in reading (PALS) and includes practical suggestions for educators concerned with literacy as a tool to reposition and empower students of color, English learners, and students with disabilities in schools and society. Following a rationale…
Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Van den Berg, Bert; Eshuis, Jannes; Berlanga, Adriana; Nadolski, Rob; Waterink, Wim; Boers, Nanda; Koper, Rob
Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., Van den Berg, B., Eshuis, J., Berlanga, A. J., Nadolski, R. J., Waterink, W., Boers, N., & Koper, R. (2007). Recommendation strategies for e-learning: preliminary effects of personal recommender system for lifelong learners. Unpublished manuscript.
van der Zande, P.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827363
Learners in Dialogue; this thesis aims at the exploration of teacher expertise for teachers who want to teach genetics in the context of genetic testing and at finding ways to foster teacher learning concerning this expertise. Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily
Kibirige, Israel; Lehong, Moyahabo Jeridah
The study explored the effect of cooperative learning on Grade 12 learners' performance in projectile motions. A quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent control group was used. Two schools were purposively selected from Maleboho Central circuit in South Africa based on their performance in Physical Sciences Grade 12 results of 2011.…
Keskin, Sinan; Sahin, Muhittin; Ozgur, Adem; Yurdugul, Halil
The aim of this study is to determine navigational patterns of university students in a learning management system (LMS). It also investigates whether online learners' navigational behaviors differ in terms of their academic achievement (pass, fail). The data for the study comes from 65 third grade students enrolled in online Computer Network and…
Full Text Available Being able to speak English fluently is as measuring rod for someone who is said to be good at English. In Indonesian context, English is still as foreign language and this becomes problem for them who want to learn it. The problem could be caused by the difficulty of the English itself, the learners’ personality and the process in learning it. There are ample solutions to deal with those difficulties; however, the writer provides a solution as a proposal for motivating the learners; there are 8 keys to be possessed by the learners before they learn to speak English. They are (1 Listen up, (2 be good at imitating, (3 use the mouth, (4 check the voice, (5 have the motion, (6 smile, (7 thank God, and (8 love. The solution is as inner drive or instrinsic motivation for the learners and it can also be used by the teachers, tutors and lecturers as reference for motivatingthe learners in learning or in mastering English speaking.
Mahofa, Ernest; Adendorff, Stanley; Kwenda, Chiwimbiso
The aim of this study was to explore the learning of mathematics word problems by African immigrant early learners in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study and also informed the research method. Purposive sampling methods were used to select 10 African immigrant…
De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Olesova, Larisa
This study examined asynchronous online discussions in the online course "English Language Development" to identify themes related to participants' learning about the language and literacy development of English Language Learners when they facilitated online discussions to determine whether the participants developed sufficient…
Vaca Torres, Ady Marcela; Gómez Rodríguez, Luis Fernando
This research study examined how a group of ninth graders enhanced the speaking skill in an English as a foreign language classroom through project-based learning. Data about the experience were collected through field notes, transcripts of learners' oral performance, and one interview. Grounded theory was implemented for data analysis, out of…
Spoelstra, Howard; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter
Spoelstra, H., Van Rosmalen, P., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Project team formation support for self-directed learners in social learning networks. In P. Kommers, P. Isaias, & N. Bessis (Eds.), Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Web Based Communities and Social Media (ICWBC & SM 2012)
Lai Yuanxing; Aksornjarung, Prachamon
This study examined EFL learners' attitudes and motivation towards learning English through content-based instruction (CBI) at a university in Thailand. Seventy-one (71) university students, the majority sophomores, answered a 6-point Likert scale questionnaire on attitudes and motivation together with six open-ended questions regarding learning…
This study investigated the claims made in the popular press about the "digital native" generation as learners. Because students' lives today are saturated with digital media at a time when their brains are still developing, many popular press authors claim that this generation of students thinks and learns differently than any generation that has…
Wang, Shudong; Heffernan, Neil
Pedagogical theories and the applications of information technology for language learning have been widely researched in various dimensions. However, ethical issues, such as online privacy and security, and learners' personal data disclosure, are not receiving enough research attention. The perceptions and attitudes from those who participate in…
White, Caroline; Laczik, Andrea
Work-Related Learning (WRL) has been enthusiastically embraced by UK governments since the 1990s as a means of reengaging learners in the final years of compulsory schooling. However, recent years have seen a policy shift away from WRL towards a more academic curriculum for all young people. Drawing on a qualitative study commissioned by the…
Vahdat, Sedigheh; Rasti Behbahani, Amin
This study explored the effect of video games as a new tool for Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) vocabulary learning. To conduct the study, 40 intermediate EFL learners, both male and female, were chosen through a TOEFL proficiency test. The participants were divided into two groups (10 males and 10 females in each): a control group and…
Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Lundqvist, Karsten Øster; Williams, Shirley Ann
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) attract learners with a variety of backgrounds. Engaging them using game development was trialled in a beginner's programming course, "Begin programming: build your first mobile game," on FutureLearn platform. The course has completed two iterations: first in autumn 2013 and second in spring 2014 with…
Yavuz, Aysun; Höl, Devrim
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attributions of Turkish EFL learners on success and failure in learning English as a foreign language with different variables such as gender and level of English proficiency. To investigate the attributions of the participants and gather the relevant data, a questionnaire including 38 items and…
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.
Artini, Luh Putu
This research aimed at developing rich language learning environment to help elementary school students develop their literacy skills in English. Shortage of professional English teachers in primary school, limited time allocation, as well as the lack of tools and facilities that support English language teaching and learning for young learners had resulted in students’low literacy skills in English. It was tried out in six primary schools across Bali involving 12 teachers and 520 students. T...
McDonald, Robert Christopher
The purpose of this study was to explore the process of developing a learning progression (LP) on constructing explanations about sea level rise. I used a learning progressions theoretical framework informed by the situated cognition learning theory. During this exploration, I explicitly described my decision-making process as I developed and revised a hypothetical learning progression. Correspondingly, my research question was: What is a process by which a hypothetical learning progression on sea level rise is developed into an empirical learning progression using learners' explanations? To answer this question, I used a qualitative descriptive single case study with multiple embedded cases (Yin, 2014) that employed analytic induction (Denzin, 1970) to analyze data collected on middle school learners (grades 6-8). Data sources included written artifacts, classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews. Additionally, I kept a researcher journal to track my thinking about the learning progression throughout the research study. Using analytic induction to analyze collected data, I developed eight analytic concepts: participant explanation structures varied widely, global warming and ice melt cause sea level rise, participants held alternative conceptions about sea level rise, participants learned about thermal expansion as a fundamental aspect of sea level rise, participants learned to incorporate authentic scientific data, participants' mental models of the ocean varied widely, sea ice melt contributes to sea level rise, and participants held vague and alternative conceptions about how pollution impacts the ocean. I started with a hypothetical learning progression, gathered empirical data via various sources (especially semi-structured interviews), revised the hypothetical learning progression in response to those data, and ended with an empirical learning progression comprising six levels of learner thinking. As a result of developing an empirically based LP
Full Text Available This paper describes a work in progress in which we aim to encourage EFL students to take their learning beyond the classroom in order to experience English in different ways. Inspired by what is being done at the Quest to Learn middle and high school in New York City and ChicagoQuest (Institute of Play, 2014b our idea involves conducting an action research project in order to find out if game-like learning techniques, modified and adapted to the needs of university-aged EFL learners in Ecuador will help to increase motivation and independent learning for our students.
Accommodating adult basic education (ABE) learners with learning disabilities (LD) is common practice across many instructional, testing, and work settings. However, the results from this literature search indicate that very few empirically based studies are available to support or reject the effectiveness of a great deal of accommodation…
Cheang, Kai I
To develop, implement, and assess a learner-centered approach to teaching a third-year pharmacotherapy course in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. The pharmacotherapy course was restructured according to the learner-centered approach. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was administered to students before and after taking the course, and changes in MSLQ subscales from baseline were evaluated. Students' response to the learner-centered approach and characteristics associated with MSLQ scores were also evaluated. Compared to baseline, students' intrinsic goal orientation control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy, critical thinking, and metacognitive self-regulation improved after taking the course. Students responded positively to the learner-centered approach. Additionally, students with a clinical practice career orientation or who prepared frequently for classes scored higher on several MSLQ domains. The learner-centered approach was effective in promoting several domains of motivation and learning strategies in a third-year pharmacotherapy course.
Full Text Available In a general context, lifelong learning appears to be about increasing access to education and supporting individual development. In the specific context of the United Kingdom, lifelong learning is about converting people to a culture of learning in order that the nation can produce creative, enterprising scholars (Blunkett, 1998. In both contexts, it is considered that learning needs to be a lifelong commitment, in order that individuals can fulfil their potential and improve themselves.
In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…
Full Text Available Reza KarimiPacific University School of Pharmacy, Hillsboro, OR, USABackground: Problem-based learning (PBL has made a major shift in support of student learning for many medical school curricula around the world. Since curricular development of PBL in the early 1970s and its growth in the 1980s and 1990s, there have been growing numbers of publications providing positive and negative data in regard to the curricular effectiveness of PBL. The purpose of this study was to explore supportive data for the four core objectives of PBL and to identify an interface between the objectives of PBL and a learner-centered paradigm.Methods: The four core PBL objectives, ie, structuring of knowledge and clinical context, clinical reasoning, self-directed learning, and intrinsic motivation, were used to search MEDLINE, the Education Resources Information Center, the Educator’s Reference Complete, and PsycINFO from January 1969 to January 2011. The literature search was facilitated and narrowed if the published study included the following terms: “problem-based learning”, “medical education”, “traditional curriculum”, and one of the above four PBL objectives.Results: Through a comprehensive search analysis, one can find supportive data for the effectiveness of a PBL curriculum in achieving the four core objectives of PBL. A further analysis of these four objectives suggests that there is an interface between PBL objectives and criteria from a learner-centered paradigm. In addition, this review indicates that promotion of teamwork among students is another interface that exists between PBL and a learner-centered paradigm.Conclusion: The desire of medical schools to enhance student learning and a need to provide an environment where students construct knowledge rather than receive knowledge have encouraged many medical schools to move into a learner-centered paradigm. Implementation of a PBL curriculum can be used as a prevailing starting point to
Farbman, David A.
With the number of students who are English language learners (ELLs) likely to double in coming years, it is more important than ever for schools across the U.S. to design and implement educational practices and strategies that best meet ELLs' learning needs, says the report, "Giving English Language Learners the Time They Need to…
This article aims to contribute to the discussion surrounding Manuela du Bois-Reymond's important "trendsetter learner" thesis and, in so doing, to join the wider debate about post-compulsory learning cultures. The article outlines the trendsetter learner thesis and then considers recent criticisms that it has attracted. While the author…
Ahour, Touran; Haradasht, Pezhman Nourzad
This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of two types of learning, competitive and cooperative, on the reading comprehension of introvert and extrovert EFL learners. To this end, 120 learners studying at Marefat English Language Institute in Tehran, Iran were selected, after taking a Preliminary English Test (PET), to participate in…
Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Coyle, Do
This article addresses the need to develop new pedagogic approaches which promote learner independence in contexts where learning takes place through the medium of more than one language. The challenges of responding to a rapidly changing educational landscape to ensure that our learners become pluriliterate global citizens are presented through…
Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Ho, Shu-Chun; Wu, Min-ping; Ni, Ci-Yuan
Gesture-based learning have particularities, because learners interact in the learning process through the actual way, just like they interact in the nondigital world. It also can support kinesthetic pedagogical practices to benefit learners with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. But without proper assistance or guidance, learners' learning…
Brenner, Judith; Bird, Jeffrey; Ginzburg, Samara B; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Papasodero, Vincent; Rennie, William; Schlegel, Elisabeth; Ten Cate, Olle; Willey, Joanne M
Two dominant themes face medical education: developing integrated curricula and improving the undergraduate medical education (UME) to graduate medical education (GME) transition. An innovative solution to both of these challenges at the Zucker School of Medicine has been the application of the cognitive apprenticeship framework in requiring emergency medical technician (EMT) certification during the first course in medical school as the core on which to build an integrated curriculum and provide entrustable clinical skills. Beginning with the Class of 2011, student feedback about the short-term impact of the experience was collected annually. In addition, perceptions of near graduates and alumni were surveyed in 2017 to explore the long-term impact of the experience. Theme analysis was conducted via inductive coding. Both first-year and more experienced learners report the value of the EMT curriculum as an integrated component of the first course of medical school. Reported positive long-term impacts included the first-hand observation of social determinants of health and interprofessionalism. Negative comments by early learners focused on course logistics, whereas older learners recalled the variability of clinical experiences during ambulance runs. The integration of the EMT curriculum as a core component of the first course serves multiple purposes: 1) it provides the foundation of a spiral learning approach; 2) it contextualizes the basic sciences within clinical practice; 3) it provides opportunities for students to engage in authentic clinical activities under the guidance of mentors; 4) it introduces students to the interdisciplinary nature of medicine; and 5) it serves as the first entrustable professional activity (EPA) for our students.
Full Text Available Research revealing the positive effects of cooperative learning (CL on EFL learning is vast and well-documented, yet little is known about the processes occurring within the use of CL in EFL classrooms. This qualitative case study fills the gap in the literature by exploring the role of individual accountability—a principle of and one of the activities in CL—in enhancing EFL learning. The study was conducted in Indonesian middle and high schools‘ EFL classrooms. Document analysis, classroom observations (involving two secondary school teachers and 77 students, and in-depth interviews (involving the two teachers and four focal students were utilized as data collection methods. The gathered data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. One of the findings—identified by looking at the relation between the EFL learners as individual accountability performers and the division of labor—substantiated that reciprocity and exchange of information took place in the observed CL groups. Specifically, the division of labor arranged by the procedures of the selected CL structures (including individual accountability activities, i.e., performances and peer interaction made the EFL learners specialize on a certain part of the learning materials—thus creating information gap—and learn from their peers‘ presentations of expertise (i.e., the previously thought about, discussed, and learned information.
Learning styles have lately attracted considerable attention as a measure which elucidates the influence of individuality on learning. In this article, the concept of learning styles are defined, and earlier literatures concerning learning styles are surveyed, based mainly on Reid's (1995) classification. They are categorized as 3 types; sensory learning style, affective learning style, and cognitive learning style. After that, the learning styles of Korean learners are reviewed. The studies ...
The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course
Jill L. Robinson
Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...
Robinson, Jill L.
Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...
Full Text Available Due to paramount importance of knowledge, life-long learning, globalization, and mobility; eLearning as an information technology application has faced rapid growth in recent years. Disseminated war for talent enforces providers of eLearning products to identify technological gaps of learning and provide personalized services for customers of this industry. As we may know, designing customer-centered environments and managing end-user relations are the most effective elements in the market gain, due to the importance of customer satisfaction. The special features of eLearning systems with respect to their centers and users make them appropriate realms for applying a Customer Relationship Management (CRM methodology. Learner Relationship Management (LRM, which is more specialized than CRM in eLearning context, plays a significant role in improving quality of services, enhancing learners’ satisfaction and retention, keeping them, and recruitment new users. LRM provides an integrated infrastructure for eLearning systems and helps them to analyse learners’ capabilities and find the best match to overcome the turbulent environment and tight competition. Also, by improving the service quality and enhancing teaching and learning flows, LRM offers personalized instructions to learners.
Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten
Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive learning hypothesis, the learners who received
Latha Rajendra Kumar
Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of the present study was to further investigate study processes, learning styles, and academic achievement in medical students. Methods: A total of 214 (mean age 22.5 years first and second year students - preclinical years - at the Asian Institute of Medical Science and Technology (AIMST University School of Medicine, in Malaysia participated. There were 119 women (55.6% and 95 men (44.4%. Biggs questionnaire for determining learning approaches and the VARK questionnaire for determining learning styles were used. These were compared to the student’s performance in the assessment examinations. Results: The major findings were 1 the majority of students prefer to study alone, 2 most students employ a superficial study approach, and 3 students with high kinesthetic and read-write scores performed better on examinations and approached the subject by deep approach method compared to students with low scores. Furthermore, there was a correlation between superficial approach scores and visual learner’s scores. Discussion: Read-write and kinesthetic learners who adopt a deep approach learning strategy perform better academically than do the auditory, visual learners that employ superficial study strategies. Perhaps visual and auditory learners can be encouraged to adopt kinesthetic and read-write styles to enhance their performance in the exams.
This paper analyses the result of a survey on 238 undergraduate EFL students at a public university in Malaysia. The survey focused on their attitude towards English learning and causes that might have hindered their learning. For data collection, a 19 item questionnaire were designed and administered on 238 students. The objective of this study…
In Confucianism, the subject of learning is one of the most important concerns. For centuries, Confucian thinkers have been devoted to seeking answers to questions such as, how to be a morally noble and decent human being? (??), how to be a true and moral human being--a noble man? (junzi, ??) and how to learn to be a junzi? A "junzi" can…
Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…
Mobile learning is cognitively demanding and frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where these fields interact and presents an…
Maloney, Stephen; Chamberlain, Michael; Morrison, Shane; Kotsanas, George; Keating, Jennifer L; Ilic, Dragan
Web-based digital repositories allow educational resources to be accessed efficiently and conveniently from diverse geographic locations, hold a variety of resource formats, enable interactive learning, and facilitate targeted access for the user. Unlike some other learning management systems (LMS), resources can be retrieved through search engines and meta-tagged labels, and content can be streamed, which is particularly useful for multimedia resources. The aim of this study was to examine usage and user experiences of an online learning repository (Physeek) in a population of physiotherapy students. The secondary aim of this project was to examine how students prefer to access resources and which resources they find most helpful. The following data were examined using an audit of the repository server: (1) number of online resources accessed per day in 2010, (2) number of each type of resource accessed, (3) number of resources accessed during business hours (9 am to 5 pm) and outside business hours (years 1-4), (4) session length of each log-on (years 1-4), and (5) video quality (bit rate) of each video accessed. An online questionnaire and 3 focus groups assessed student feedback and self-reported experiences of Physeek. Students preferred the support provided by Physeek to other sources of educational material primarily because of its efficiency. Peak usage commonly occurred at times of increased academic need (ie, examination times). Students perceived online repositories as a potential tool to support lifelong learning and health care delivery. The results of this study indicate that today's health professional students welcome the benefits of online learning resources because of their convenience and usability. This represents a transition away from traditional learning styles and toward technological learning support and may indicate a growing link between social immersions in Internet-based connections and learning styles. The true potential for Web
Atkisson, Curtis; O'Brien, Michael J; Mesoudi, Alex
Social learning (learning from others) is evolutionarily adaptive under a wide range of conditions and is a long-standing area of interest across the social and biological sciences. One social-learning mechanism derived from cultural evolutionary theory is prestige bias, which allows a learner in a novel environment to quickly and inexpensively gather information as to the potentially best teachers, thus maximizing his or her chances of acquiring adaptive behavior. Learners provide deference to high-status individuals in order to ingratiate themselves with, and gain extended exposure to, that individual. We examined prestige-biased social transmission in a laboratory experiment in which participants designed arrowheads and attempted to maximize hunting success, measured in caloric return. Our main findings are that (1) participants preferentially learned from prestigious models (defined as those models at whom others spent longer times looking), and (2) prestige information and success-related information were used to the same degree, even though the former was less useful in this experiment than the latter. We also found that (3) participants were most likely to use social learning over individual (asocial) learning when they were performing poorly, in line with previous experiments, and (4) prestige information was not used more often following environmental shifts, contrary to predictions. These results support previous discussions of the key role that prestige-biased transmission plays in social learning.
Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith
Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.
Janet Mannheimer Zydney
Full Text Available Research has found that increasing learner control offers several benefits, including increased motivation, attitude, and learning. The goal of the present study was to determine how prior math achievement influences students' selection of the difficulty level of problems within Math Pursuits, a hypermedia learning program. Math Pursuits was designed to help children understand mathematics by discovering how it relates to the world around them. The program presented each learner with an adjustable level of challenge, along with the necessary scaffolding to support success. The researchers hypothesized that students with lower math skills would choose to start with a lower difficultly level; whereas, students with higher math skills would begin the program by choosing a question with a higher level of difficulty. Results supported these hypotheses. This research also examined the motivational framework guiding students' selection of problem difficulty.
Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.
This paper discusses and questions the current metadata standards for learning objects from a pedagogical point of view. From a social constructivist approach, the paper discusses how learning objects can support problem based, self-governed learning activities. In order to support this approach......, it is argued that it is necessary to focus on learning activities rather than on learning objects. Further, it is argued that descriptions of learning objectives and learning activities should be separated from learning objects. The paper presents a new conception of learning objects which supports problem...... based, self-governed activities. Further, a new way of thinking pedagogy into learning objects is introduced. It is argued that a lack of pedagogical thinking in learning objects is not solved through pedagogical metadata. Instead, the paper suggests the concept of references as an alternative...
Sara de Freitas
Full Text Available This study compares continual assessment data, intake numbers, retention numbers and final examination grades of a mixed cohort of face-to-face and distance learners against similar data from previous years where e-learning materials were not used in order to test whether e-learning materials can support the same quality and quantity of teaching and learning for both face-to-face and distance learners. The results for this cohort of learners demonstrate that: (i distance e-learners score as well and sometimes better than face-to-face learners; (ii face-to-face student numbers have increased; (iii overall, student retention and student attendance have been maintained; (iv final examination results have been maintained or in some cases improved; (v lecturer workload was high, but not unmanageable, and it is clear how manageability can be improved.
Jill L. Robinson
Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in le...
Author Dr Roseanna Bourke takes the reader on a fascinating exploration of learning: the theory, practice and young people's take on it. What do you say to a young person who tells you her brain is an eighth full? Or to the one who says he only knows he has learned something when he receives a stamp or a sticker? This book is about how learners…
Full Text Available Most of the early studies in the field of language learning strategies focused on identifying the characteristics of good language learners. Identifying and discussing the strategies used by good language learners were considered as a good way to make the learners aware of the notion of language learning strategies. The present study was an attempt to collect and classify the characteristics of representative good language learners, developing English as a foreign /second language in Iran; specifically those who had achieved high scores in the IELTS General Module. And also this study aimed at identifying the characteristics associated with a good language learner in one area: learning strategies. Thirty-four Iranian IELTS candidates receiving 6+ band score were selected to participate in this study. They were interviewed and asked to write down their own reports of the experiences they had in developing their second language. They were asked to report their preferred strategies while studying English as well. They were also requested to fill out the learning strategy and learning style questionnaires. The results of interviews and open ended questions were specifically organized and classified via employing both descriptive and explanatory methods. The learners’ responses to the standardized questionnaires also were analyzed by SPSS system Version 20. The findings of the present study although revealed that there is a high correlation between IELTS scores, strategy taking inventory scores. This revealed that the learners recording high scores in IELTS use appropriate learning strategies.
DeBourgh, Gregory A
Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.
I study the informational complexity of active learning in a statistical learning theory framework. Specifically, I derive bounds on the rates of...convergence achievable by active learning , under various noise models and under general conditions on the hypothesis class. I also study the theoretical...advantages of active learning over passive learning, and develop procedures for transforming passive learning algorithms into active learning algorithms
Hedayati, Mohsen; Foomani, Elham Mohammadi
The study reported here explores whether English as a foreign Language (EFL) learners' preferred ways of learning (i.e., learning styles) affect their task performance in computer-mediated communication (CMC). As Ellis (2010) points out, while the increasing use of different sorts of technology is witnessed in language learning contexts, it is…
This paper depicts a perceptual picture of learning analytics based on the understanding of learners and teachers at the SSU as a case study. The existing literature covers technical challenges of learning analytics (LA) and how it creates better social construct for enhanced learning support, however, there has not been adequate research on…
Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping
Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…
Johanna C.W. De Vos
Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.
Full Text Available Underlying any learning and teaching process is a set of preferred Learning Styles (LSs and Teaching Styles (TSs which epitomize the overall educational policy and identification of which is sine qua non for any reform of the educational system. This ex-post-facto study scrutinized preference of Iranian EFL teachers' for Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator, and Delegator TSs and their students' tendencies towards Visual, Auditory, and Kinaesthetic student LSs. We collected the research data based on Grasha's (1996 Teaching Style Questionnaire administered to 30 Iranian EFL teachers and the Barsch Learning Style Questionnaire (1991 administered to 300 Iranian EFL learners. Descriptive statistics of the research data revealed that majority of Iranian EFL learners opt for the visual learning style and teachers highly favour facilitating foreign language learning. However, Visual and Delegate Learning and Teaching Styles reflected the lowest frequencies. The findings underscore the need to raise teachers’ awareness of LSs so that they can modify their teaching according to their students’ preferences.
Research purpose: The objective of the research was to investigate the relation between adultlearners’ cognitive learning strategies (measured by the examination preparation inventoryand their psychosocial employability attributes (measured by the employability attributesscale. Motivation for the study: Recent research has made important progress in understanding thenotions of cognitive learning styles in learning and psychosocial employability attributes insustaining individuals’ employability in the contemporary world of work. However, researchon how adult learners’ cognitive learning strategies influence the psychosocial attributes theyneed to manage and sustain their employability has been lacking. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design wasused, involving a stratified proportional random sample of 1102 predominantly early careerblack female undergraduate level adult learners. The participants were enrolled for distancelearning studies in the economic and management sciences field at a South African highereducation institution. Main findings: Canonical correlation and multiple regression analysis indicated the abstracttheoretical and factual practical cognitive learning strategies as useful predictors of theparticipants’ overall level of psychosocial employability attributes and especially their levelsof career self-management and proactivity. Practical/managerial implications: Learning practitioners should strive to integrate cognitivelearning strategies in the design of learning and assessment activities in order to fosterthe psychosocial employability attributes adult learners need to manage their continuedemployability in the contemporary workplace. Contribution: The study contributes new insights to the employability and learning andeducation literature. The results may potentially inform formal learning and assessmentdesign in order to improve adult learners’ learning performance and employability.
Full Text Available In learning a second language or foreign language (L2, learners should master the competences. Normally, L2 learners first should master the linguistic competence which includes the mastery of vocabularies, pronunciation, and grammar. The study is to find out the syntax error made by L2 learners in conversation as well as to find out the exchanging information. The data were the recording conversation of Visual Communication Design students first semester of Binus University joining English Entrant. Error analysis was used to analyze the data. There are two points of view to analyze the data: syntax from taxonomy and exchanging information. Taxonomy employs the error in omission, addition, misinformation, and mis-ordering. Exchanging information point of view employs the error in finite element and mood. The result shows that L2 learners made some errors in grammar and exchanging information because they are influenced by the L1. They tend to transfer from L1 to L2 rather than thinking to create the utterances in L2.
Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang
Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…
Gardner, David; Yung, Kevin W. H.
This paper reports on the findings of a study looking at students' motivation to engage in self-access language learning (SALL) while taking an English for Academic Purposes course which contains a substantial integrated SALL component. To-date there has been limited research into the motivation of such students but it is an important area of…
Robinson, Jill L.
Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb's Experiential…
Ghauth, Khairil Imran; Abdullah, Nor Aniza
A recommender system is a piece of software that helps users to identify the most interesting and relevant learning items from a large number of items. Recommender systems may be based on collaborative filtering (by user ratings), content-based filtering (by keywords), and hybrid filtering (by both collaborative and content-based filtering).…
The article describes the agentive development of a group of first-year Japanese university students. They first individually wrote their language learning histories to grasp what they had been through in their junior and senior high school English education. They then analyzed the histories in small groups, discussing what motivated and…
Turner, Elizabeth T.
There is a significant divide between what students want and what students receive in the classroom. Students increasingly lack interest and motivation to participate and learn. Instructional practices within and across schools vary widely, creating inconsistencies. Teachers' instructional plans may put content and curricular needs above…
Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B
Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Gautum, Satyen; Jangam, Sachin; Loh, Kai Chee
Developing responsible learners is one of the key education challenges of our time. Education literature suggests that for students to see themselves as active and necessary participants in their own learning, it is important that they view themselves as stakeholders in education. This research aims at exploring the effectiveness of instructional…
Oyoo, Samuel Ouma
Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT
Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba
Full Text Available This study examined the intention to use E-learning among EFL learners. A total of 147 English language learners responded to the survey, these students have access to E-learning system. The chief purpose of this paper aims to understand the factors that affect the students’ intention to use E-learning in Malaysian context. The findings of the study revealed that that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were able to be significant determinants of intention to use. Based on factor analysis, cognitive attitude and affective attitude were added to the modified framework as potential mediating factors. Moreover, cognitive attitude is fully mediating the relationship between perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and intention to use. Meanwhile, the study results indicated that the cognitive attitude is a significant determinant of intention to use. The study helps to understand the significant factors to explain, predicate and measure the acceptance of E-learning as a new tool of students learning process.
Castro, R.M.; Nowak, R.
This paper analyzes the potential advantages and theoretical challenges of "active learning" algorithms. Active learning involves sequential sampling procedures that use information gleaned from previous samples in order to focus the sampling and accelerate the learning process relative to "passive
Full Text Available During the recent technological years, language learning has been attempted to transform its path from the conventional methods to instrumental applications. Mobile phone provides people to reach and exchange information through chats (WhatsApp. It is a tool or mode that means the facilities are used for main purposes. The unique features of the application are its compatibility to exchange information, enhance communication and relationship. A mobile phone provides to download, upload and store learning materials and information files. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the use and effect of mobile applications such as WhatsApp on school work and out of school work. In this way, Oxford Placement Test (OPT was conducted among 80 learners in order to select intermediate EFL learners. In total, 60 participants whose scores were 70 or higher were elected as the intermediate level and were divided into experimental and control groups. In order to control the reliability of the collocation pretest, the test was pilot studied on 15 learners. Then, the pretest was conducted to measure the learner’s collocation knowledge in both of the groups. The experimental group frequently installed WhatsApp application in order to learning and practicing new collocations in order to learning and practicing new collocations, while the control group did not use any tool for learning them. An immediate posttest after the treatment was administered. The results in each group were statistically evaluated and the findings manifested that the experimental group who used WhatsApp application in learning collocation significantly outperformed the control group in posttest. Thus usage of WhatsApp application to acquire collocations can reinforce and enhance the process of collocations acquisition and it can guarantee retention of collocations. This study also prepares pedagogical implications for utilizing mobile application as an influential instrument
Full Text Available The present study endeavors to investigate the impact of visual and etymological treatments on learning idioms among English language learners. Seventy-nine intermediate students at Rooz Academy Language School in Babol were selected from among a total number of 116 learners based on their performances on the Longman complete course for the TOEFL test to fulfill the purpose of the study. The students were then assigned into three experimental groups. Initially, a pre-test of idiomatic expressions including 48 idiomatic items was administered to the participants in all groups. During the instructional period, the groups were taught a group of abnormally decomposable idioms through different treatments, namely, visual, etymological, and a combination of visual-etymological elaboration. At the end of the instructional period, the participants in all groups were given a posttest which was the same as the pretest. The design of this study is quasi-experimental. The data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. The results of data analysis revealed that the etymological treatment was more effective than visual aids on learning idioms among intermediate English language learners. However, the visual-etymological treatment was the most effective one. The findings of this study have implications for EFL teachers, students, and materials developers.
Full Text Available Reading passages contain many new words. Looking up every word in the dictionary and finding the exact meaning can be a difficult job for learners and may hinder the process of reading. Providing glosses can help learners deal with this issue. The objective of the present study is to make enquiries about the effect of glosses on incidental vocabulary learning. To this end, 45 Iranian EFL learners were selected from 70 according to their performance on KET test. Then they were divided into three groups of 15 randomly. Ten reading texts were selected and unfamiliar vocabularies were glossed in three ways: pictorial, textual and pictorial-textual glosses. Participants were required to read the texts under one of the three conditions. After the completion of ten sessions of treatment, participants were given a vocabulary post-test to measure vocabulary learning. The outcome of the study indicated that the group that received the combination of pictorial and textual glosses outperformed the other two groups. The findings can be of great importance for language teachers and material developers.
Rejane Teixeira Vidal
Full Text Available Esta investigação combinou a instrução-focada-na-forma com o ensino baseado em tarefas em contexto de aprendizagem autônoma no cenário de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira que tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento da interlíngua do aprendiz no que tange à precisão lingüística. Pretendeu-se dar uma contribuição ao entendimento de que, ao produzir a língua alvo enquanto se reflete sobre ela, o aprendiz pode consolidar conhecimento já existente assim como gerar conhecimento do que é novo para ele (Swain, 1998, ajudando-o a compreender e a tornar-se mais consciente de seu processo de aprendizagem como um todo. O estudo atingiu seus principais objetivos: trouxe evidências adicionais à reivindicação de que aprendizes eficientes compreendem o processo subjacente à sua aprendizagem e que tarefas com foco na forma que exploram o diálogo colaborativo via metafala têm o potencial de esclarecer questões do campo de estudo conhecido como "desenvolvimento do aprendiz" (Benson, 2001, além de melhorar a qualidade de sua produção lingüística.This investigation attempted to combine form-focused instruction with task-based learning in the context of autonomous learning in an English as a foreign language scenario with the aim of stretching learners' interlanguage as related to language accuracy. It intended to contribute to furthering the understanding concerning how producing the target language while reflecting on it may trigger cognitive processes that both consolidate existing knowledge and generate linguistic knowledge which is new to the learner (Swain, 1998, helping them understand and become more conscious of their learning process as a whole. The study has achieved the major aims it had set out to accomplish: it provided additional evidence for the claim that successful learners understand the process underling their own learning and that form-focused tasks which explore collaborative dialogue via metatalk have the
Corre, Mathieu Le; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H.; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan
Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486
Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan
Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Incidental vocabulary learning is one of the most significant sources of learning vocabulary for language learners Laufer & Hulstjin, 2001. This study endeavored to investigate the effect of using online collaborative tasks on incidental vocabulary learning of impulsive vs. reflective Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson vocabulary proficiency test was administered to 100 Iranian EFL learners as the homogeneity test and the pretest. Using random sampling procedure, 75 learners were selected as the main participants for this study. Kember, McKay, Sinclair and Wong (2008 reflective thinking questionnaire was administered to these learners, based on which they were distinguished based on their cognitive thinking styles, i.e., impulsivity and reflectivity. The participants were homogenously distributed into 3 main groups (impulsive experimental group, reflective experimental group, and the control group. All participants went through 4 weeks of treatment. Experimental groups were conducted using Telegram software and the control group was conducted in a classroom. The results of t-test after 4 weeks of treatment revealed that reflective learners benefited from online collaborative groups with regard to incidental vocabulary learning. The findings of the study are discussed in light of previous research.
Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim
This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…
months afterwards. They were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicates that the ET changed the state of the learners’ ungrammatical items. They became so dynamic. At a certain period, some appeared; then due to the ET, some were destabilized, some were fluctuating, and others were still stabilized. New errors appeared as they started learning to use new grammatical items. The conclusion drawn from this study is that ET can change the state of the learners’ IL errors; ET contributes to the destabilization process. Errors may persist momentarily but they can be destabilized. The ET still works on the learners who are at their post puberty. Thus, there is a great possibility for the learners to acquire complete TL grammar since their ungrammatical items are dynamic. Keywords: error treatment, interlanguage, fossilization, stabilization, destabilization.
The present research aimed at investigating types of games used by a teacher as warming-up activities in young learners' classrooms. The research involved a teacher of an English course and her young learner students. The data were collected by using observation and interview. The collected data were analyzed by using qualitative method. According to the result of data collection and data analysis, it was found that the teacher applied some types of games proposed by Hadfield (2001) and Evans...
Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Chan, Junn-Yih; Blocher, Michael
Learning management systems traditionally provide structures to guide online learners to achieve their learning goals. Web 2.0 technology empowers learners to create, share, and organize their personal learning environments in open network environments; and allows learners to engage in social networking and collaborating activities. Advanced…
A G Lim
Full Text Available Background. Emergency medicine (EM is a relatively new, but growing medical specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. African EM training programmes have used small-group learning (SGL modalities in their curricula. However, there is little knowledge of whether SGL modalities are perceived to be effective in these African EM training programmes. Objectives. To investigate the acceptability of SGL for physicians’ training in an academic Tanzanian emergency department using a novel EM curriculum. Methods. Using responses to a written questionnaire, we explored the perceived effectiveness of SGL compared with traditional didactic lectures among 38 emergency department physician learners in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Perceptions of SGL were identified from qualitative responses, and regression analyses were used to determine strength of association between quantitative outcomes. Results. Reported benefits of SGL included team building, simulation training, enhancement of procedural skills, and the opportunity to discuss opinions on clinical management. SGL scored more favourably with regard to improving clinical practice, enjoyment of learning, and building peer-to-peer relations. Lectures scored more favourably at improving medical knowledge. Preference towards SGL over lectures for overall training increased with years of clinical experience (95% confidence interval (CI 0.16 - 0.62, p=0.002, Spearman’s rho 0.51, and the perception that SGL reinforces learner-teacher relationships correlated with seniority within residency training (95% CI 0.14 - 0.86, p=0.007, Spearman’s rho 0.47. Conclusion. Techniques of SGL were perceived as effective at improving clinical practice in the emergency department setting. These modalities may be more favourably accepted by more experienced physician learners – therefore, new EM teaching programmes in Africa should consider these factors when targeting educational strategies for their respective regions and learner
Full Text Available Although self-regulation, derived from educational psychology, is a new topic in the second language learning field, language learning strategy was the main focus of many studies in the last two decades. Also, among the L2 individual differences, motivation plays an important role in achieving the educational goals. In this research, motivation is investigated from self-determination theory by which five types of motivation are presented. No study was found to investigate the role of motivation in both self-regulation and language learning strategy. For such a purpose, 49 Chinese EFL learners respond to SILL, MSLQ and LLOS_IEA respectively proposed by Oxford (1990, Pintrich et al (1991 and Noel et al (2000. The results running Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between motivation, self-regulation and language learning strategies. It is also revealed that Chinese EFL learners use memory, social and affective strategy more than the other ones. The most common motivational orientation is identified regulation. Among self-regulated learning strategies, effort regulation is highly used by them. At the end some implication is considered.
Karen L. Murphy
Full Text Available Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.
Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud
Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically. The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.
Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors
This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…
This article describes the theoretical and pedagogical background and results from the first semester of a service-learning program for English learners at a public Moroccan university and the local high school. This study fills a gap in the literature related to service-learning practice and outcomes in Morocco and the Arab world in general. The…
Liew, Tze Wei; Zin, Nor Azan Mat; Sahari, Noraidah; Tan, Su-Mae
The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that a smiling expression on the face of a talking pedagogical agent could positively affect a learner's emotions, motivation, and learning outcomes in a virtual learning environment. Contrary to the hypothesis, results from Experiment 1 demonstrated that the pedagogical agent's smile induced negative…
With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact…
Hayward, Milan S.; Williams, Mitchell R.
The completion agenda demands higher community college graduation rates among adult learners, and prior learning assessment (PLA) is a promising solution. PLA permits students to earn credit for college-level learning acquired outside of higher education and is associated with improved student outcomes. However, little is known regarding community…
Bozkurt, Aras; Honeychurch, Sarah; Caines, Autumm; Bali, Maha; Koutropoulos, Apostolos; Cormier, Dave
This article contributes to the literature on connectivism, connectivist MOOCs (cMOOCs) and rhizomatic learning by examining participant interactions, community formation and nomadic learner behavior in a particular cMOOC, #rhizo15, facilitated for 6 weeks by Dave Cormier. It further focuses on what we can learn by observing Twitter interactions…
Hughes, Julie; Herrington, Margaret; McDonald, Tess; Rhodes, Amy
This paper analyses the use of an e-portfolio system in contributing to the personalized learning of two dyslexic learners at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. The rationale for this research rests at the intersection of generic findings from e-portfolio (and wider e-learning) research and the still challenging project in higher education (HE)…
Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju
This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…
Lai, Chun; Shum, Mark; Tian, Yan
Enhancing self-directed use of technology for language learning is essential for maximizing the potential of technology for language learning. Understanding how to construct learner training to promote this critical competency is of great significance. This study examined the effectiveness of an online training platform aimed at enhancing the…
Lu, Zhihong; Wen, Fuan; Li, Ping
Teaching listening and speaking in English in China has been given top priority on the post-secondary level. This has lead to the question of how learners develop communicative language ability (CLA) effectively in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environments. The authors demonstrate a self-developed language skill learning system with…
Loiseau, Mathieu; Cervini, Cristiana; Ceccherelli, Andrea; Masperi, Monica; Salomoni, Paola; Roccetti, Marco; Valva, Antonella; Bianco, Francesca
In this paper, we present two versions of a learning game developed respectively at the Grenoble Alpes and Bologna University. This research focuses on a digital game aimed at favouring the learners' "playful attitude" and harnessing it towards "accuracy" aspects of language learning (lexicon and morphology, here). The game,…
Dalsgaard, Christian; Pedersen, Nicholai Friis; Aaen, Janus Holst
The aim of this paper is to identify the key learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet. Rather than focusing on mobile technology or the mobility of the learner, the paper emphasises the ubiquity of internet access as a paramount catalyst for new learning in the digital age. From a sociocultural perspective the paper discusses different ways…
Al-Azawei, Ahmed; Lundqvist, Karsten
Online learning constitutes the most popular distance-learning method, with flexibility, accessibility, visibility, manageability and availability as its core features. However, current research indicates that its efficacy is not consistent across all learners. This study aimed to modify and extend the factors of the Technology Acceptance Model…
Chen, Yukun; Cao, Hongxin; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Xu, Hua
Objectives This study was to assess whether active learning strategies can be integrated with supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods, thus reducing the number of annotated samples, while keeping or improving the quality of disambiguation models. Methods We developed support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to disambiguate 197 ambiguous terms and abbreviations in the MSH WSD collection. Three different uncertainty sampling-based active learning algorithms were implemented with the SVM classifiers and were compared with a passive learner (PL) based on random sampling. For each ambiguous term and each learning algorithm, a learning curve that plots the accuracy computed from the test set as a function of the number of annotated samples used in the model was generated. The area under the learning curve (ALC) was used as the primary metric for evaluation. Results Our experiments demonstrated that active learners (ALs) significantly outperformed the PL, showing better performance for 177 out of 197 (89.8%) WSD tasks. Further analysis showed that to achieve an average accuracy of 90%, the PL needed 38 annotated samples, while the ALs needed only 24, a 37% reduction in annotation effort. Moreover, we analyzed cases where active learning algorithms did not achieve superior performance and identified three causes: (1) poor models in the early learning stage; (2) easy WSD cases; and (3) difficult WSD cases, which provide useful insight for future improvements. Conclusions This study demonstrated that integrating active learning strategies with supervised WSD methods could effectively reduce annotation cost and improve the disambiguation models. PMID:23364851
Chen, Yukun; Cao, Hongxin; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Xu, Hua
This study was to assess whether active learning strategies can be integrated with supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods, thus reducing the number of annotated samples, while keeping or improving the quality of disambiguation models. We developed support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to disambiguate 197 ambiguous terms and abbreviations in the MSH WSD collection. Three different uncertainty sampling-based active learning algorithms were implemented with the SVM classifiers and were compared with a passive learner (PL) based on random sampling. For each ambiguous term and each learning algorithm, a learning curve that plots the accuracy computed from the test set as a function of the number of annotated samples used in the model was generated. The area under the learning curve (ALC) was used as the primary metric for evaluation. Our experiments demonstrated that active learners (ALs) significantly outperformed the PL, showing better performance for 177 out of 197 (89.8%) WSD tasks. Further analysis showed that to achieve an average accuracy of 90%, the PL needed 38 annotated samples, while the ALs needed only 24, a 37% reduction in annotation effort. Moreover, we analyzed cases where active learning algorithms did not achieve superior performance and identified three causes: (1) poor models in the early learning stage; (2) easy WSD cases; and (3) difficult WSD cases, which provide useful insight for future improvements. This study demonstrated that integrating active learning strategies with supervised WSD methods could effectively reduce annotation cost and improve the disambiguation models.
Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.
The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...
Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten
Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...
A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…
This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…
Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I
Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sandra du Plessis
Full Text Available Multilingualism in classrooms is currently prompting debate and has significantly impacted on schooling in South Africa over the last decade. At present South African educators face the challenge of coping with and finding solutions to culturally and linguistically diverse urban school contexts which did not exist before. In many South African communities young learners, without any prior knowledge of English, are enrolled in English preschools. Preschool teachers have the demanding task of preparing these multilingual preschoolers for formal schooling in English, and, in addition, are pressurised by parents or caregivers who expect their children to be fluent in English by the time they enter primary school. A group of preschool teachers in a specific urban, multilingual preschool context expressed concern about multilingual preschool learners' academic performances and their future, and requested advice and support from speech-language therapists. To investigate this need, an exploratory, descriptive, contextual research design, incorporating the quantitative perspective, was selected to describe the specific educational context of multilingual preschools in the Pretoria central business district (CBD and the Sunnyside area. Results indicated that the participants perceived certain personal challenges while supporting the preschool learners acquiring English as Language of Learning and Teaching (ELoLT. These participants expressed a need for knowledge and support.
Damien Le Gal
Full Text Available English as Foreign Language (EFL in East Asia involves major sociocultural issues. Modern, Western-based methodologies such as Communicative Language Learning (CLL, Communicative Language Teaching, CLT in this paper and its further development Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching (TBLLT, Ellis, 2003, feature principles which can conflict with some of the fundamental values of Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC education and hinder their adoption in Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Hong-Kong and Vietnam. This article introduces a sociocultural, ethnographic perspective on EFL in East Asia which contextualizes language teaching in its broader educational and cultural environment. Teacher-centeredness, book and writing focuses, memorization strategies within a grammar-translation approach are in contradiction with modern language teaching methodologies' focuses on learner-centeredness and teachers' facilitating roles, student participation and interactions, communication competence and learner autonomy. The text advocates for a mean between Western and Eastern learning cultures through a context-based, culturally-sensitive approach and introduces classroom's strategies for the implementation of CLL and TBLLT in China and East Asia.
Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J
How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ayala, Vivian Luz
In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationship between certain factors of online learning readiness and learners’ end-of-course achievements. The study was conducted at a two-year post-secondary Turkish military school within the scope of the course titled Computer Literacy, which was designed and implemented in a blended way. The data were collected from 155 post-secondary military students through an online questionnaire. Three sub-scales of Hung et al.’s Online Learning Readiness Scale were used to collect the data during the first two weeks of the course. Descriptive and inferential statistics, such as Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were performed to analyze the data. The descriptive results of the study indicated that students’ motivation for online learning was higher than both their computer/Internet self-efficacy and their orientations to self-directed learning. The inferential results revealed that the students’ end-of-course grades had significantly positive relationships with their computer/Internet self-efficacy and self-directed learning orientations. Finally, the students’ self-direction towards online learning appeared to be the strongest predictor of their achievements within the course; whereas computer/Internet self-efficacy and motivation for learning did not predict the learner achievement significantly.
Engku Ibrahim Engku Haliza
Full Text Available The major concern of this paper is to advocate the integration of PBL strategies in classroom instruction as a way of promoting active learning. It is undoubted that the benefits of problem-based learning (PBL are numerous. In the sciences, PBL has been well integrated in the curriculum. This research reports of an experience of integrating problem-based learning in an introductory Sociolinguistics course for 60 undergraduates of a Bachelors of English programme through a semester that ran for 14 weeks. A focused group interview and questionnaire were used to find out the perceptions of the students undergoing the hybrid PBL course. The findings of this study reveal that students generally enjoyed the PBL approach and found that they had little choice but to become active learners. Some challenges faced by the learners were also highlighted. These findings have implications for the integration of PBL in the field of social sciences.
Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko
Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds.
Xu, Yan; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun
Recently, computer technology and multimedia elements have been developed and integrated into teaching and learning. Entertainment-based learning environments can make learning contents more attractive, and thus can lead to learners' active participation and facilitate learning. A significant amount of research examines using video editing…
This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher…
Hung, Yu-Wan; Higgins, Steve
This study investigates the different learning opportunities enabled by text-based and video-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) from an interactionist perspective. Six Chinese-speaking learners of English and six English-speaking learners of Chinese were paired up as tandem (reciprocal) learning dyads. Each dyad participated…
Fraser, Katie C.
Government policy and academic research both talk about transforming learning through networked technologies – sharing newly available information about the learning context with new partners to support lifelong learning activities, and giving learners increased power and autonomy. This thesis examines how such learning opportunities might be supported. In order to ground these learning opportunities in current educational activity it studies homework, which is an example of a learning activi...
Full Text Available This study investigated Laufer and Hustijn’s (2001 Involvement Load Hypothesis in vocabulary learning. It comprised two experiments. Experiment 1 examined whether two tasks with equal involvement load but different distribution of components would yield the same result in initial learning and retention of target words. Experiment 2 investigated whether two tasks, one input and another output, with equal involvement load and the same distribution of components would result in equivalent initial learning and retention of target words. 126 advanced English learners completed one of three vocabulary learning tasks that equated in the amount of involvement they induced: sentence writing, fill-in, and translation (L2-L1. Receptive knowledge of the target words was assessed immediately after treatment and two weeks later, and one month interval after the first delayed posttest. The result of t-test for Experiment 1 showed that when two tasks had equal involvement load but different distribution of components they resulted in similar amounts of initial learning and retention of new words. The findings of Experiment 2 indicated when two tasks, one input and another output, had equal involvement load and the same distribution of components, they led to superiority of fill-in task over translation task in initial vocabulary learning, however, not in retention of new words.
Su, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Chester S. J.
MOOCs social media has appealed to most instructors and learners like strong magnets by using ubiquitous handheld devices to share and discuss films, pictures, and messages. Through the social platform, users can share, track, and search for the information of their specific interests. Thus, they can make interactive discussions as well as social…
Okinyi, Nyaruri Paul; Kwaba, Jacob Gekonge; Nyabuto, Neria Nyanchama
The importance of leadership in organizations has increased and leadership training and development has advanced and peoples' performance. Institutions in higher education are investing heavily in advancement of leadership programs aimed at improving learners' leadership skills and scholars. To this day, many scholars in higher institutions…
Kelsey Hood Cattaneo
Full Text Available Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based, through theoretical and practical lenses, could function as a useful tool for researchers and practitioners in comparing pedagogies. This article classified five active learning pedagogies based on six constructivist elements. The comparison was completed through a comparative analysis and a content analysis informed by a systematic literature review. The findings were that learner-centeredness is a primary goal of all pedagogies; however, there is a strong dissonance between each pedagogy’s theoretical underpinnings and implementation realities. This dissonance complicates differentiating active learning pedagogies and classification as a comparative tool has proved to have limited usefulness.
Bin Kadir, Mohd Amin; Arifin, Syamsul; Latipun; Fuad, Ahmad Nur
This study describes adult learners' understanding in learning Islam using andragogy approach in which the study was conducted in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educate his companions of who are adults from the shackles of "jahiliyyah," spiritual and intellectual…
Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views
Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong
Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a
Hughes, Julie; Herrington, Margaret; McDonald, Tess; Rhodes, Amy
This paper analyses the use of an e-portfolio system in contributing to the personalized learning of two dyslexic learners at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. The rationale for this research rests at the intersection of generic findings from e-portfolio (and wider e-learning) research and the still challenging project in higher education (HE) of creating inclusive curricula. A qualitative, ethnographic approach was employed in a piece of collaborative research between academic staff and dyslexic learners. Two retrospective learner narratives were constructed and then reviewed by all co-authors in terms of the 'personalized fit' which they allowed with dyslexic thinking, learning and writing experience. The findings suggest a potential refinement of the general pedagogical claims about e-portfolio-based learning when considering dyslexic learners and thence the value of an enhanced prioritization of e-portfolio learning practices within inclusive HE curricula. The review and analysis also allow a 'critical' discussion of the practical and theoretical issues arising within this work. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien
The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.
At the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences our theme centered on active learning systems where adult learners engage on their own initiative. Many of the participants were pharmacists active in clinical practices. Regardless of their specialized skill-sets, pharmacists are constantly faced with difficult challenges in their daily work. Passive, one-way lectures are one resource for them, but unfortunately such lectures provide limited insights for resolving concrete problems. The present meeting aimed to show participants how to obtain information they need to solve specific real-world problems. This paper summarizes how we planned this year's meeting, including details about the debate symposium, social lunch, and online questionnaires. All these elements had the end goal of enabling learners proactivity to become their own best resource for learning. It is sincerely hoped that the design and execution of this meeting will prove resourceful for future annual meetings.
Gorissen, Chantal; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob
This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style ( ASRS; i.e., a macro level of motivation) on learning. This
Gorissen, Chantal J J; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob
This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style (ASRS; i.e. a macro level of motivation) on learning. This
Gorissen, Chantal J. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob
This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style (ASRS; i.e. a macro level of motivation) on learning. This research was performed to gain more insight in the…
Active Learning with Statistical Models ASC-9217041, NSF CDA-9309300 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Cohn, Zoubin Ghahramani, and Michael I. Jordan 7. PERFORMING...TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Al, MIT, Artificial Intelligence, active learning , queries, locally weighted 6 regression, LOESS, mixtures of gaussians...COMPUTATIONAL LEARNING DEPARTMENT OF BRAIN AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES A.I. Memo No. 1522 January 9. 1995 C.B.C.L. Paper No. 110 Active Learning with
Govaerts, S.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.
In the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) domain, visualizations are attracting increased interest. In this paper, we present the Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner activities within online learning environments for learners and teachers to help increase awareness and to support
Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.
Extension professionals can gain much-needed competencies in volunteer administration through experiential learning by participating in volunteer activities. Experiential learning is a means of behavior change that allows the individual learner to reflect on, abstract, and apply their experiences to new situations. This article expands on…
Gholson, Barry; Craig, Scotty D.
This article explores several ways computer-based instruction can be designed to support constructive activities and promote deep-level comprehension during vicarious learning. Vicarious learning, discussed in the first section, refers to knowledge acquisition under conditions in which the learner is not the addressee and does not physically…
Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian
This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…
Xu, Hui Ling; Moloney, Robyn
There is increasing enrolment of Chinese heritage language learners in tertiary Chinese language classrooms across Australia. Educated in English, Chinese heritage learners are of diverse national origins and the Chinese language varieties to which they have been exposed through family or community are also diverse. Recent research in this field…
Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus
Lifelong learners are confronted with a broad range of activities they have to manage every day. In most cases they have to combine learning, working, family life and leisure activities throughout the day. Hence, learning activities from lifelong learners are disrupted. The difficulty to find a
Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian
Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni
This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Li, Zhong-Zheng; Cheng, Yuan-Bang; Liu, Chen-Chung
Game-like learning systems such as simulation games and digital toys are increasingly being applied to foster higher-level abilities in educational contexts, as they may facilitate an active learning experience. However, the effect of such game-like learning systems is not guaranteed because students may only be interested in the fantasy…
A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…
Samian, Hosein Vafadar; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon; Mohebbi, Hassan
This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the effect of giving and receiving marginal L1 glosses on L2 vocabulary learning. To that end, forty nine Iranian learners of English were assigned to three different experimental conditions including marginal L1 glosses Giver (n = 17), marginal L1 glosses Receiver (n = 17), and no…
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Knox, Carolyn; Walden, Emily
The 2006 National Science Board called for new strategies and instructional materials for teachers to better serve English Learners' (EL) needs. Bilingual Collaborative Online Projects in science were created to assist ELs' construction of science knowledge, facilitate academic English acquisition, and improve science learning. Two bilingual…
Pham, Thach; Thalathoti, Vijay; Dakich, Eva
This study examines the frequency and pattern of interpersonal interactions between the learners and instructors of an online English language learning course offered at a Vietnamese university. The paper begins with a review of literature on interaction type, pattern and model of interaction followed by a brief description of the online…
Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…
Overrepresentation of Dual Language Learners (DLLs) in special education remains a problem even after 40 years of inquiry. One factor is that the U.S. federal government has neither clearly explained the definition of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) nor operationally defined it to identify children for special education services. This lack of…
<正>The paper aims to discuss the English learning situation of Chinese university students in the domain of motivation theory.With specific focus on enhancing learners’ intrinsic motivation, the paper analyzes the motivation orientation of Chinese university students and suggests four motivating strategies to promote students to become self - motivated learners.
Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia
This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…
Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Ying-Chun
Multimedia materials are now increasingly used in curricula. However, individual preferences for multimedia materials based on visual and verbal cognitive styles may affect learners' emotions and performance. Therefore, in-depth studies that investigate how different multimedia materials affect learning performance and the emotions of learners…
Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Alfred, Mary; Chakraborty, Misha; Johnson, Michelle; Cherrstrom, Catherine A.
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee…
Yang, Fang-Ying; Liu, Shiang-Yao; Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Chiou, Guo-Li; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Wu, Ying-Tien; Chen, Sufen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Lee, Silvia W.-Y.; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Che-Li; Chu, Regina Juchun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an online contextualized test for assessing students' understanding of epistemic knowledge of science. In addition, how students' understanding of epistemic knowledge of science interacts with learner factors, including time spent on science learning, interest, self-efficacy, and gender, was…
Hafner, Christoph A.; Miller, Lindsay
This paper reports on the syllabus design and implementation of an English for Science and Technology (EST) course at an English-medium university in Hong Kong. The course combined elements of project-based learning and a "pedagogy for multiliteracies" (New London Group, 1996) to produce a strong learner autonomy focus. A major component…
Hall, Tracey E., Ed.; Meyer, Anne, Ed.; Rose, David H., Ed.
Clearly written and well organized, this book shows how to apply the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) across all subject areas and grade levels. The editors and contributors describe practical ways to develop classroom goals, assessments, materials, and methods that use UDL to meet the needs of all learners. Specific teaching…
Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Hsu, Chih-Chun; Chang, Li-Yun; Lin, Yu-Chi; Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting
The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of a radical-derived Chinese character teaching strategy on enhancing Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' Chinese orthographic awareness. An e-learning teaching platform, based on statistical data from the Chinese Orthography Database Explorer (Chen, Chang, Chou, Sung, & Chang,…
The study investigates immediate and delayed effects of different hypermedia glosses on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced foreign language learners. Sixty-nine freshman TEFL students studying at a Turkish university were randomly assigned to three types of annotations: (a) definitions of words, (b) definitions…
Full Text Available We report on the incorporation of e-book readers into the delivery of two distance-taught master's programmes in Occupational Psychology (OP and one in Education at the University of Leicester, UK. The programmes attract work-based practitioners in OP and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, respectively. Challenges in curriculum delivery included the need for more flexibility in the curricula, better access to essential readings and maximising the benefit of learners' limited study time. As part of a suite of pilot changes to curriculum design and delivery, 28 Sony PRS-505™ e-book readers were pre-loaded with course materials and sent out to students. The evidence suggests that the students' learning experiences improved as a result of four key benefits afforded by the e-book readers: enhanced flexibility in curriculum delivery to accommodate the mobile lifestyle of our learners, improved efficiency in the use of study time, especially short breaks during the working day, new strategies for reading course materials and cost. We discuss the opportunities and limitations associated with the e-book readers used and the challenges encountered in the study.
Use of language learning strategies is important for language learning. Some researchers state that language learning strategies are important because their use affects the development of communicative competence (Lessard-Clouston, 1997 & Oxford, 1990). Effective use of language learning strategies has particular importance for distance…
In this study, secondary school learners perceptions of Responsible Citizenship as taught in the Life Orientation learning area are explored. Citizen Education, which is set out in Learning Outcome Two of the Life Orientation Curriculum, forms the basis of the programme used to conduct this study. An international as well as a national perspective of Responsible Citizenship and the teaching thereof is explicated with special reference being made to the Further Education and Training Band. The...
This paper describes the consequences for workplace e-learning of viewing organisations as political systems. Organisations tend to stratify, and potential conflicts develop between ???top-down???, or designer-generation of workplace systems, and ???bottom-up???, or learner- and practice-based approaches. The differences between these groups in terms of their objectives, procedures, tacit knowledge and conceptions of the value of workplace e-learning have led to conflicts which have damaged r...
Lizl-Louise van Niekerk
Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in adolescent Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa. No literature exists on the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels among South African adolescents. Method: A total of 239 13- to 14-year-old learners were assessed using the Bruininkse Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2 for motor proficiency, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for physical activity levels. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation coefficients and effect sizes. Results: Statistically and practically significant correlations were found between the total BOT-2 score and the physical activity levels of the total group, as well as the boys and the girls respectively. Fine motor coordination correlated with physical activity levels in the girls, while manipulation coordination correlated with the physical activity levels of the total group and the boys. The body coordination skill of jumping in place and the strength test items showed strong correlations with physical activity in all the groups. Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.
Yogica, R.; Helendra, H.
A learning process that occurs in the classroom is a very important thing to note the quality, so it can be a determinant of student success in understanding the content of the lesson. The success of the learning process could be seen from the learning outcomes and the level of positive activities of students while in class. Students who are active in the classroom at the time of learning happen mean interest to the content of the lesson and will make their understanding deeper. In some learning processes in the classroom, the authors observed that in the first weeks of learning the level of student activity was very low. This is due to low student learning motivation. The author applies a method named: they do, they get, and they know. This method is very influential on the increase of learning activities because it affects the psychology of students to improve their learning motivation. After study in this method at two different courses in university, authors make a conclusion in the end that the method is effective to increase the frequency of student positive activity, so this method plays a role in improving the quality of learning.
Full Text Available This paper shows how to address technological, cultural and social transformations with empirically grounded innovation. Areas in transition such as higher education and learning techniques today bring about new needs and opportunities for innovative tools and services. But how do we find these tools? The paper argues for using a strategy of (user value innovation that creatively combines ethnographic methods with strategic industry analysis. By focusing on unmet and emerging needs ethnographic research identifies learner values, needs and challenges but does not determine solutions. Blue-ocean strategy tools can identify new opportunities that alter existing offerings but give weak guidance on what will be most relevant to users. The triangulation of both is illustrated through an innovation project in higher education.
Herrmann, Kim Jesper; Bager-Elsborg, Anna; McCune, Velda
This paper considers relationships between approaches to learning, learner identities, self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement in higher education. In addition to already established survey instruments, a new scale, subject area affinity, was developed. The scale explores the extent to which...... students identify with their area of study and imagine being part of it in future. The new scale showed strong psychometric properties when it was tested on a sample of 4377 students at a research-intensive university. The new scale correlated positively with both the deep approach and self-efficacy scales....... The new scale also correlated negatively with the surface approach scale. K-means cluster analysis identified seven distinct groups of students who espoused interpretable combinations of approaches, self-efficacy and subject area affinity. Cluster membership was associated with differences in academic...
Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from
Milner, Rachel E
The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Azabdaftari, Behrooz; Mozaheb, Mohammad Amin
Vocabulary acquisition is one of the most important aspects of language learning. There are a number of techniques and technologies which enhance vocabulary learning in the year 2012, e.g. wordlists, flashcards and m-learning. Mobile phones are among those devices which not only meet the expectations of their users for communication, but are also…
Holden, William R.
This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…
While authors like Mayer (2009) suggest that designers should avoid using visuals for the purpose of attracting learners' interests, some scholars suggest that visuals could influence learners' emotions. In this study the author investigated whether the perception of the visual appeal of instructional handouts affects learners' self-reported…
Learners' self-regulation, which includes motivational variables, is influenced by personal variables within learners themselves, as well as by contextual factors. A great deal of research has focused on personal variables in learners that influence their self-regulated behaviours; yet contextual influences that operate outside of formal schooling…
The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Explains and demonstrates the role of examples in the teaching and learning of mathematics, and their place in mathematics generally at all levels. Includes a combination of exercises for the reader, practical applications for teaching, and solid scholarly grounding.
Full Text Available Innovations in how a postgraduate course in knowledge management is delivered have generated better learning outcomes and made the course more engaging for learners. Course participant feedback has shown that collaborative active learning is preferred and provides them with richer insights into how knowledge is created and applied to generate innovation and value. The course applies an andragogy approach in which students collaborate in weekly dialogue of their experiences of the content, rather than learn the content itself. The approach combines systems thinking, learning praxis, and active learning to explore the interdependencies between topics and how they impact outcomes in real world situations. This has stimulated students to apply these ideas in their own workplaces.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of visual input enhancement on the vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners. One hundred and thirty-two EFL learners from elementary, intermediate and advanced proficiency levels were assigned to six groups, two groups at each proficiency level with one being an experimental and the other a control group. The study employed pretests, treatment reading texts, and posttests. T-test was used for the analysis of the data. The results revealed positive effects for visual input enhancement in the advanced level based on within group and between groups’ comparisons. However this positive effect was not found for the elementary and intermediate levels based on between groups’ comparisons. It was concluded that although visual input enhancement may have beneficial effects for elementary and intermediate levels, it is much more effective for the advanced EFL learners. This study may provide useful guiding principles for EFL teachers and syllabus designers.
Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.
There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2
Haghshenas, Mahsa Sadat Mousavi; Hashemian, Mahmood
This study examined the effect of etymological elaboration, pictorial elucidation, and integration of these 2 strategies on idiom learning by L2 learners. A total number of 80 homogeneous intermediate learners studying English at 3 language institutes in Isfahan, Iran, were selected. The intermediate participants were selected as the result of…
Full Text Available In Interactive Learning Environment (ILE, the cognitive activity and behavior of learners are the center of the researchers’ concerns. The improvement of learning through combining these axes as a structure of indicators for well-designed learning environment, encloses the measurement of the educational activity as a part of the learning process. In this paper, we propose a mathematical modeling approach based on learners actions to estimate the cognitive activity, learning behavior and motivation, in accordance with a proposed course content structure. This Cognitive indicator includes the study of knowledge, memory and reasoning. While, activity indicator aims to study effort, resistance and intensity. The results recovered on a sample of students with different levels of education, assume that the proposed approach presents a relation among all these indicators which is relatively reliable in the term of cognitive system.
Bull, Susan; Kay, Judy
The SMILI? (Student Models that Invite the Learner In) Open Learner Model Framework was created to provide a coherent picture of the many and diverse forms of Open Learner Models (OLMs). The aim was for SMILI? to provide researchers with a systematic way to describe, compare and critique OLMs. We expected it to highlight those areas where there…
Open Distance Learning (ODL) provides learners with the greatest possible control over time, place and pace of education. The educational delivery of ODL has improved greatly over the years with growing number of students continuously enrolling into various ODL programs globally. ODL however does come with issues and problems. Loss of student…
Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales
LoPresto, Michael C.; Slater, Timothy F.
Although traditional lectures are still the dominant form of undergraduate instruction, there have been relatively few studies comparing various learner-centered and active learning teaching strategies to one another in order to guide professors in making informed instructional decisions. To study the impact of different active learning…
賴素純 Su-Chun Lai
Full Text Available 本研究主要目的在探討導入Facebook 輔助以數位學習為主的成人學習者學習，是否可增加互動機會、降低因時空分隔產生的學習孤立感，進而提升學習滿意度？採用實驗設計法，以兩班64位成人學習者為研究對象，使用混成式學習模式並參考Salmon（2003）的五階段模型設計非同步教學活動。研究發現：一、採用Facebook 可增加學習者之社會臨場感與學習滿意度，但對合作學習態度及學習成績則沒有顯著影響；二、社會臨場感、合作學習態度、學習滿意度及學習成績彼此具有顯著正向關係；三、社會臨場感會正向影響學習滿意度；四、社會臨場感為學習滿意度的重要影響因素。本研究成果可作為成人教學者在教學策略及方法的設計參考。 This study explored the possibility of using Facebook in online instruction as an auxiliary tool for promoting interaction. The goal was to increase interaction and intimacy among learners to reduce the feeling of isolation and increase learner satisfaction. This research adopted an empirical design and recruited a total of 64 students from two classes. The classes were taught using a blended learning mode. Asynchronous instructional activities were designed according to the five-stage model proposed by Salmon (2003. We collected data from both Facebook and the online learning platform. According to the research findings, social presence, attitude toward collaborative learning, learning satisfaction, and learning outcomes were positively related with statistical significance. In addition, the use of Facebook promoted learners’ social presence and learning satisfaction. The impact of social presence on the attitude toward collaborative learning and learning outcome was not significant. However, social presence had a positive impact on learning satisfaction. The results of this research can be used to develop
Smith, Denise A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Squires, Gordon K.; Greene, W. M.; Biferno, Anya A.; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Goodman, Irene; Walker, Allyson; Universe of Learning Team
NASA’s Universe of Learning (UoL) is one of 27 competitively awarded education programs selected by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) in its newly restructured education effort. Through these 27 programs, SMD aims to infuse NASA science experts and content more effectively and efficiently into learning environments serving audiences of all ages. UoL is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Chandra X-ray Center, IPAC at Caltech, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Exoplanet Exploration Program, and Sonoma State University that will connect the scientists, engineers, science, technology and adventure of NASA Astrophysics with audience needs, proven infrastructure, and a network of partners to advance SMD education objectives. External evaluation is provided through a partnership with Goodman Research Group and Cornerstone Evaluation Associates. The multi-institutional team is working to develop and deliver a unified, consolidated and externally evaluated suite of education products, programs, and professional development offerings that spans the full spectrum of NASA Astrophysics, including the Cosmic Origins, Physics of the Cosmos, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. Products and programs focus on out-of-school-time learning environments and include enabling educational use of Astrophysics mission data and offering participatory experiences; creating multimedia and immersive experiences; designing exhibits and community programs; and producing resources for special needs and underserved/underrepresented audiences. The UoL team also works with a network of partners to provide professional learning experiences for informal educators, pre-service educators, and undergraduate instructors. This presentation will provide an overview of the UoL team’s approach to partnering scientists and educators to engage learners in Astrophysics discoveries and data; progress to date; and pathways for science community involvement.
Bakr Bagash Mansour Al-Sofi
Full Text Available This study examined the perceptions and views of Saudi undergraduate EFL learners regarding the role of online communication in improving their English, including the basic skills and the other aspects of language learning. It also aimed to identify the impact of some factors on the learners' perceptions on the role of online communication in developing their English level. This study is quantitatively designed in which a written questionnaire was used to collect the data of the study during the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 from 171 randomly selected students who joined different levels in English Department, College of Sciences and Arts, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia. For analyzing the data of the study, different statistical techniques in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, 21.0 version were ran. The results indicated that the students had high positive perceptions of the significant role of online communication in fostering their English. Furthermore, it was found that there were statistically significant differences in the online communication scores for the factors of foreign friendship, university level, and the frequent use of the Internet. On the contrary, the results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the online communication scores for the other two factors of age and the frequent use of English online. Students are invited more than ever before to grasp every online chance for developing their English. In particular, they are required to employ online communication not only for socialization purposes, but for using it as an educational tool as well.
Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the possible difference between EAP and EFL learners’ beliefs concerning learning and teaching of language components, namely, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Furthermore, this study examined the association between EAP and EFL learners’ beliefs and their language components’ development. To this end, 231 undergraduate EAP (117 and EFL (114 learners at Ferdowsi University took part in the study by completing a five-point Likert scale questionnaire adapted from Simon and Taverniers (2011. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts’ judgment and factor analysis. Moreover using Cronbach alpha coefficient the questionnaire was found acceptably reliable (α=0.88. Furthermore, for language components’ development, the EAP learners’ scores in English course and EFL learners’ average scores in their Basic English courses were taken into account. The results of an Independent Samples t-test revealed that there existed a statistically significant difference between EAP and EFL learners’ beliefs on learning and teaching language components. Furthermore, the results of Pearson correlation coefficients indicated a statistically significant positive association between EFL learners’ beliefs and their language components’ development, however no statistically significant correlation was found between EAP learners’ beliefs and their language components’ development.
Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin
Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…
Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.
A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…
Van Rosmalen, Peter; Wilson, Amanda; Hummel, Hans
With the advent of social media it is widely accepted that teachers and learners are not only consumers but also may have an active role in contributing and co-creating lesson materials and content. Paradoxically one strand of technology enhanced learning, i.e. game-based learning, aligns only
Full Text Available With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact that they are keen to take control of their learning and autonomy is thought to lead to greater motivation and engagement, and the link with games-based learning suggests that the fun factor involved should not be overseen. This paper focuses on the use of mobile applications for independent language learning in higher education. It investigates how learners use mobile apps in line with their classes to enhance their learning experience. We base our analysis on a survey carried out in autumn 2013 in which 286 credited and non-credited language students from various levels of proficiency at The University of Manchester express their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mobile applications for independent language learning, together with examples of useful apps and suggestions of how these could be integrated in the language class.
Chi, Michelene T H
Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or learning outcomes. Thus, a framework is provided here that offers a way to differentiate active, constructive, and interactive in terms of observable overt activities and underlying learning processes. The framework generates a testable hypothesis for learning: that interactive activities are most likely to be better than constructive activities, which in turn might be better than active activities, which are better than being passive. Studies from the literature are cited to provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Moreover, postulating underlying learning processes allows us to interpret evidence in the literature more accurately. Specifying distinct overt activities for active, constructive, and interactive also offers suggestions for how learning activities can be coded and how each kind of activity might be elicited. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.