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Sample records for learning abilities test

  1. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  2. Development of a psychological test to diagnose abilities required for successful learning medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Gessmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We substantiate the necessity of psychological tools aimed at diagnostics of the capabilities for successful learning in medical university, and show the progress of its development. The questionnaire is developed based on the U.S. and European success tests, and its design meets the famous “test for medical professions” (TMS. “Kostroma test for medical professions” (KTMP is not a translation or adaptation of TMS to Russian conditions. It will be re-designed with new test items based on the principles of classical test construction. Creating scientifically based methods of psychological diagnosis of general cognitive ability is a prerequisite for the successful solution of a wide range of research and practical issues related to improving the effectiveness of education and training programs.

  3. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  4. Implicit learning as an ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND LIFELONG LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.

  6. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  7. Utility of finger maze test for learning and memory abilities in infants of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to thiamazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayumi; Arima, Akihiro; Kato, Hirohito; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2014-11-01

    A new type of learning and memory test using a finger maze was conducted in infant cynomolgus monkeys that were exposed to thiamazole (2 and 3.5 mg/kg per day to pregnant animals orally) during the fetal period (gestational days 120 to 150). We modified Tsuchida's original finger maze test method by reducing the number of trials per day and simplifying the criteria for achievement of training, and we added a long-term memory test. In the memory test, thiamazole-exposed infants required greater time to complete the finger maze test than the control infants although no effect was noted in the training or learning test. The results suggest that an impaired long-term memory could be detected by our modified finger maze test. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. Learning-Ability Relations in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPH INTERPRETATION ABILITY USING HYPERTEXT-ASSISTED KINEMATIC LEARNING AND FORMAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Manurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.

  10. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  11. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  12. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  13. Teachers’ ability in using math learning media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniladevi; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Dalais, M.

    2017-12-01

    The studies aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skill in making math instructional media, develop math instructional media, train and assist the use of instructional media in learning math in the classroom. The method used in the activities adopted the pattern of preventive implementation, planning stage, program implementation, observation and evaluation and reflection. The research results show that the evaluation of teachers’ ability is still in average category. The result required more intensive training.

  14. P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Chooi, Weng-Tink; Hussain, Muhammad

    2015-09-23

    Educational psychology research has linked fluid intelligence with learning and memory abilities and neuroimaging studies have specifically associated fluid intelligence with event related potentials (ERPs). The objective of this study is to find the relationship of ERPs with learning and memory recall and predict the memory recall score using P300 (P3) component. A sample of thirty-four healthy subjects between twenty and thirty years of age was selected to perform three tasks: (1) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test to assess fluid intelligence; (2) learning and memory task to assess learning ability and memory recall; and (3) the visual oddball task to assess brain-evoked potentials. These subjects were divided into High Ability (HA) and Low Ability (LA) groups based on their RAPM scores. A multiple regression analysis was used to predict the learning & memory recall and fluid intelligence using P3 amplitude and latency. Behavioral results demonstrated that the HA group learned and recalled 10.89 % more information than did the LA group. ERP results clearly showed that the P3 amplitude of the HA group was relatively larger than that observed in the LA group for both the central and parietal regions of the cerebrum; particularly during the 300-400 ms time window. In addition, a shorter latency for the P3 component was observed at Pz site for the HA group compared to the LA group. These findings agree with previous educational psychology and neuroimaging studies which reported an association between ERPs and fluid intelligence as well as learning performance. These results also suggest that the P3 component is associated with individual differences in learning and memory recall and further indicate that P3 amplitude might be used as a supporting factor in standard psychometric tests to assess an individual's learning & memory recall ability; particularly in educational institutions to aid in the predictability of academic skills.

  15. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  16. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p < .001, and verbal (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p < .01, and semantic fluency (Animal Naming), F(1, 232) = 7.57, p = .006, with the atypical group performing better on each task. Effect sizes were larger for nonverbal (Cohen's d = 0.66) than verbal learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative

  17. Students’ Mathematical Problem-Solving Abilities Through The Application of Learning Models Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. L.; Yerizon, Y.; Gusmiyanti, R.

    2018-04-01

    One of the purpose mathematic learning is to develop problem solving abilities. Problem solving is obtained through experience in questioning non-routine. Improving students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities required an appropriate strategy in learning activities one of them is models problem based learning (PBL). Thus, the purpose of this research is to determine whether the problem solving abilities of mathematical students’ who learn to use PBL better than on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. This research included quasi experiment with static group design and population is students class XI MIA SMAN 1 Lubuk Alung. Class experiment in the class XI MIA 5 and class control in the class XI MIA 6. The instrument of final test students’ mathematical problem solving used essay form. The result of data final test in analyzed with t-test. The result is students’ mathematical problem solving abilities with PBL better then on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. It’s seen from the high percentage achieved by the group of students who learn to use PBL for each indicator of students’ mathematical problem solving.

  18. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability....

  19. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  20. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  1. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  2. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  3. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... the cognitive learning abilities (i.e. mathematical thinking, r = 0.62 and ...... exercise was efficient both in the promotion of learning English .... Ishigawara K, Ishizuka H. Effects of Brain Activation through Physical Exercise.

  4. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  5. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  6. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon; Kim, Nak Sang

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity

  7. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Sang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity.

  8. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  9. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  10. Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    early behavioral interventions are the most effective treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but almost half of the children do not make...behavioral intervention . 2. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder , implicit learning, associative learning, individual differences, functional Magnetic...2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0261 TITLE: Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL

  11. Contribution of Content Knowledge and Learning Ability to the Learning of Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; Hatano, Giyoo

    1991-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 1,598 Japanese college students were examined concerning the learning of facts in 2 content domains, baseball and music. Content knowledge facilitated fact learning only in the relevant domain; learning ability facilitated fact learning in both domains. Effects of content knowledge and learning ability were additive. (SLD)

  12. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND MODEL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita S. Zuliani Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.

  13. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  14. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F (1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  15. Learning to Learn: An Analysis of Early Learning Behaviours Demonstrated by Young Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Children with High/Low Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M.; Kritzer, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multiple case-study design, this study compares the early learning behaviours of young deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) children with high/low mathematics ability (as defined by test score on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3). Children's simultaneous use of multiple learning behaviours was also examined as were contributing adult…

  16. Contextual approach using VBA learning media to improve students’ mathematical displacement and disposition ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotimah, Siti; Bernard, M.; Wulandari, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The main problems of the research were the lack of reasoning ability and mathematical disposition of students to the learning of mathematics in high school students in Cimahi - West Java. The lack of mathematical reasoning ability in students was caused by the process of learning. The teachers did not train the students to do the problems of reasoning ability. The students still depended on each other. Sometimes, one of patience teacher was still guiding his students. In addition, the basic ability aspects of students also affected the ability the mathematics skill. Furthermore, the learning process with contextual approach aided by VBA Learning Media (Visual Basic Application for Excel) gave the positive influence to the students’ mathematical disposition. The students are directly involved in learning process. The population of the study was all of the high school students in Cimahi. The samples were the students of SMA Negeri 4 Cimahi class XIA and XIB. There were both of tested and non-tested instruments. The test instrument was a description test of mathematical reasoning ability. The non-test instruments were questionnaire-scale attitudes about students’ mathematical dispositions. This instrument was used to obtain data about students’ mathematical reasoning and disposition of mathematics learning with contextual approach supported by VBA (Visual Basic Application for Excel) and by conventional learning. The data processed in this study was from the post-test score. These scores appeared from both of the experimental class group and the control class group. Then, performing data was processed by using SPSS 22 and Microsoft Excel. The data was analyzed using t-test statistic. The final result of this study concluded the achievement and improvement of reasoning ability and mathematical disposition of students whose learning with contextual approach supported by learning media of VBA (Visual Basic Application for Excel) was better than students who got

  17. Item selection and ability estimation adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashley, Peter J.; van der Linden, Wim J.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The last century saw a tremendous progression in the refinement and use of standardized linear tests. The first administered College Board exam occurred in 1901 and the first Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) was given in 1926. Since then, progressively more sophisticated standardized linear tests

  18. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abstraction ability as an indicator of success for learning object-oriented programming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2006-01-01

    ability is operationalized as stages of cognitive development (for which validated tests exist). Programming ability is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of a model-based objects-first CS1. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. Surprisingly, our study shows......Computer science educators generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for learning computer science in general and programming in particular. We report on a study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on programming ability. Abstraction...... that there is no correlation between stage of cognitive development (abstraction ability) and final grade in CS1 (programming ability). Possible explanations are identified....

  20. Errors of Students Learning With React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsika Pramata Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high school in Bandung consisting of two samples. The instrument used was a test to measure students' mathematical representation ability. The reliability coefficient about the mathematical representation ability was 0.56. The most prominent errors of mathematical representation ability of students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning, was on indicator that solving problem involving arithmetic symbols (symbolic representation. In addition, errors were also experienced by many students with traditional learning on the indicator of making the image of a real world situation to clarify the problem and facilitate its completion (visual representation.

  1. An analysis of mathematical connection ability based on student learning style on visualization auditory kinesthetic (VAK) learning model with self-assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipah, S.; Kartono; Isnarto

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to analyze the quality of VAK learning with self-assessment toward the ability of mathematical connection performed by students and to analyze students’ mathematical connection ability based on learning styles in VAK learning model with self-assessment. This research applies mixed method type with concurrent embedded design. The subject of this research consists of VIII grade students from State Junior High School 9 Semarang who apply visual learning style, auditory learning style, and kinesthetic learning style. The data of learning style is collected by using questionnaires, the data of mathematical connection ability is collected by performing tests, and the data of self-assessment is collected by using assessment sheets. The quality of learning is qualitatively valued from planning stage, realization stage, and valuation stage. The result of mathematical connection ability test is analyzed quantitatively by mean test, conducting completeness test, mean differentiation test, and mean proportional differentiation test. The result of the research shows that VAK learning model results in well-qualified learning regarded from qualitative and quantitative sides. Students with visual learning style perform the highest mathematical connection ability, students with kinesthetic learning style perform average mathematical connection ability, and students with auditory learning style perform the lowest mathematical connection ability.

  2. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  3. Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.

  4. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  5. Gender, abilities, cognitive style and students' achievement in cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.

  6. Amplifying human ability through autonomics and machine learning in IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieciuch, Iryna; Reeder, John; Gutzwiller, Robert; Gustafson, Eric; Coronado, Braulio; Martinez, Luis; Croft, Bryan; Lange, Douglas S.

    2017-05-01

    Amplifying human ability for controlling complex environments featuring autonomous units can be aided by learned models of human and system performance. In developing a command and control system that allows a small number of people to control a large number of autonomous teams, we employ an autonomics framework to manage the networks that represent mission plans and the networks that are composed of human controllers and their autonomous assistants. Machine learning allows us to build models of human and system performance useful for monitoring plans and managing human attention and task loads. Machine learning also aids in the development of tactics that human supervisors can successfully monitor through the command and control system.

  7. Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning: Model of Learning to Promote Critical Thinking Ability of Pre-service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, S.; Yuanita, L.; Wasis

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning (CIBL) learning model to promote critical thinking (CT) ability of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model was developed by meeting the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. Validation of the model involves 4 expert validators through the mechanism of the focus group discussion (FGD). CIBL learning model declared valid to promote CT ability, with the validity level (Va) of 4.20 and reliability (r) of 90,1% (very reliable). The practicality of the model was evaluated when it was implemented that involving 17 of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model had been declared practice, its measuring from learning feasibility (LF) with very good criteria (LF-score = 4.75). The effectiveness of the model was evaluated from the improvement CT ability after the implementation of the model. CT ability were evaluated using the scoring technique adapted from Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. The average score of CT ability on pretest is - 1.53 (uncritical criteria), whereas on posttest is 8.76 (critical criteria), with N-gain score of 0.76 (high criteria). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that developed CIBL learning model is feasible to promote CT ability of preservice teachers.

  8. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  9. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims : The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods : One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+. All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results : All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05. Conclusions : This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  10. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials. PMID:24229729

  11. Maximizing Reading Narrative Text Ability by Probing Prompting Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwied Pratiwi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know whether Probing Prompting Learning Technique can be used to get the maximum effect of students’ reading narrative ability in teaching and learning process. This research was applied collaborative action reEsearch, this research was done in two cycle. The subject of this research was 23 students at tenth grade of SMA Kartikatama Metro. The result of the research showed that the Probing Prompting Learning Technique is useful and effective to help students get maximum effect of their reading. Based on the results of the questionnaire obtained an average percentage of 95%, it indicated that application of Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching l reading was appropriately applied. In short that students’ responses toward Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching reading was positive. In conclusion, Probing Prompting Learning Technique can get maximum effect of students’ reading ability. In relation to the result of the reserach, some suggestion are offered to english teacher, that  the use of Probing Prompting learning Technique in teaching reading will get the maximum effect of students’ reading abilty.

  12. Visual statistical learning is related to natural language ability in adults: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltrozzo, Jerome; Emerson, Samantha N; Deocampo, Joanne; Singh, Sonia; Freggens, Marjorie; Branum-Martin, Lee; Conway, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Statistical learning (SL) is believed to enable language acquisition by allowing individuals to learn regularities within linguistic input. However, neural evidence supporting a direct relationship between SL and language ability is scarce. We investigated whether there are associations between event-related potential (ERP) correlates of SL and language abilities while controlling for the general level of selective attention. Seventeen adults completed tests of visual SL, receptive vocabulary, grammatical ability, and sentence completion. Response times and ERPs showed that SL is related to receptive vocabulary and grammatical ability. ERPs indicated that the relationship between SL and grammatical ability was independent of attention while the association between SL and receptive vocabulary depended on attention. The implications of these dissociative relationships in terms of underlying mechanisms of SL and language are discussed. These results further elucidate the cognitive nature of the links between SL mechanisms and language abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviandari Widyatiningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.

  14. Self-Regulation and Problem Solving Ability in 7E-Learning Cycle Based Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Noor, N. L.

    2017-04-01

    Goal orientation differences between mastery goals and performance goals can be a cause of high and low self-regulation and problem-solving abilities. To overcome these problems applied 7E-learning cycle in which students learn and develop ways to optimise the power of reason through the learning phase elicit, engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate, and extend. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of learning by 7E-learning cycle and describe self-regulation and mathematics problem solving based on goal-orientation after the implementation 7E-learning cycle. This study used mix method design with research subject is graders XII sciences MA NU Nurul Ulum Jekulo Kudus which divided into goal orientation is mastery goal and performance goal. The independent variable of this research is learning model, while the dependent variable is problem solving and self-regulation. Then, collecting data using scale, interviews and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, paired samples t-test, and Normality-gain. The results show problem-solving abilities of students through 7E-learning cycle the average of mathematical problem-solving capability class, self-regulation at 7E-learning cycle is better than the traditional model study. The problem-solving skills at 7E-learning cycle are better than the traditional model study, there is an increase in self-regulation through 7E-learning cycle of 0.4 (medium), and there is an increased problem-solving ability through 7E-learning cycle by 0.79 (high). Based on the qualitative analysis, self-regulation and problem-solving ability after the implementation of 7E-learning cycle students of a mastery goal group are better than the performance goal team. It is suggested to implement 7E-learning cycle to improve self-regulation and problem-solving ability as well as directing and fostering mastery goal on the student in the learning process.

  15. Covariation of learning and "reasoning" abilities in mice: evolutionary conservation of the operations of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Chris; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Smith, Andrew M; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-04-01

    Contemporary descriptions of human intelligence hold that this trait influences a broad range of cognitive abilities, including learning, attention, and reasoning. Like humans, individual genetically heterogeneous mice express a "general" cognitive trait that influences performance across a diverse array of learning and attentional tasks, and it has been suggested that this trait is qualitatively and structurally analogous to general intelligence in humans. However, the hallmark of human intelligence is the ability to use various forms of "reasoning" to support solutions to novel problems. Here, we find that genetically heterogeneous mice are capable of solving problems that are nominally indicative of inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, and that individuals' capacity for reasoning covaries with more general learning abilities. Mice were characterized for their general learning ability as determined by their aggregate performance (derived from principal component analysis) across a battery of five diverse learning tasks. These animals were then assessed on prototypic tests indicative of deductive reasoning (inferring the meaning of a novel item by exclusion, i.e., "fast mapping") and inductive reasoning (execution of an efficient search strategy in a binary decision tree). The animals exhibited systematic abilities on each of these nominal reasoning tasks that were predicted by their aggregate performance on the battery of learning tasks. These results suggest that the coregulation of reasoning and general learning performance in genetically heterogeneous mice form a core cognitive trait that is analogous to human intelligence. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Development of inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource to promote learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukji, Paweena; Wichaidit, Pacharee Rompayom; Wichaidit, Sittichai

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 students before and after learning through inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource, and 2) compare average post-test score of learning achievement and analytical thinking ability to its cutting score. The target of this study was 23 Mathayomsuksa 3 students who were studying in the second semester of 2016 academic year from Banchatfang School, Chainat Province. Research instruments composed of: 1) 6 lesson plans of Environment and Natural Resources, 2) the learning achievement test, and 3) analytical thinking ability test. The results showed that 1) student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability after learning were higher than that of before at the level of .05 statistical significance, and 2) average posttest score of student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability were higher than its cutting score at the level of .05 statistical significance. The implication of this research is for science teachers and curriculum developers to design inquiry activities that relate to student's context.

  17. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  18. Dynamic change in learning and memorising ability after hemispheric irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuezhong; Bao Shiyao; Zhao Kangren; Tian Yie; Zhang Zhilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the sequence of learning and memory loss in the rat after hemispheric irradiation. Methods: After Sprague-Dawly (SD) female rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate, their cerebral hemispheres were irradiated with a single dose of 5, 15 or 30 Gy by 4 MeV electron. On D3, D7, D30 and D60, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Results: On D3 and D7, the learning ability of SD rats was impaired most but partly restored in 1 to 2 months. In observation of memory loss, the intensity of cerebral function damage was in direct proportion to the increase of radiation dose. Conclusion: The learning and memorizing ability of rats can be damage by hemispheric irradiation with the severity of impairment and possibility of recruitment depending on the dose

  19. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  20. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  1. Certification of Credence Goods with Consideration of Consumers’ Learning Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujin Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper constructs a two-period and an infinitely repeated signaling model for the certification of credence goods, with consideration of the learning ability of consumers. Based on the analysis of the existing conditions of separating equilibrium under different situations, results reveal that the certification cost has a significant influence on the separating equilibrium. The range of certification cost for a separating equilibrium is positively related to the usurp cost and the consumers’ learning ability and is negatively related to the difference in the production cost. Compared with that in a two-period model, the range of the certification cost for a separating equilibrium is greater in the infinitely repeated model and is positively related to the discount coefficient.

  2. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  3. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  4. Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Self Regulation Learning Of Yunior High Students by Using Reciprocal Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qohar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from a posttest experiment control group design  by  using reciprocal teaching, conducted  in Indonesia University of Education to investigate students’ ability in mathematical communication and self regulated learning.  Subject of the study were 254 of 9th grade students from three junior high schools of high, medium, and low level in Bojonegoro, East Java.  The instruments of the study were an essay mathematical communication test, and a self regulated learning scale. The study found that reciprocal teaching took the best role among school  cluster  and students’ prior mathematics ability on students’ mathematical communication ability and self regulated learning as well.  The other finding were there was interaction between school cluster and teaching approaches, but was no interaction between students’ prior mathematics ability and teaching approaches on mathematical communication ability and  self regulated learning. Moreover, there was association between mathematical communication and self regulated learningKeywords: Reciprocal Teaching, Mathematical Communication, Self Regulated Learning DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.562.59-74

  5. Job applicants’ attitudes towards cognitive ability and personality testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Visser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Growing research has shown that not only test validity considerations but also the test-taking attitudes of job applicants are important in the choice of selection instruments as these can contribute to test performance and the perceived fairness of the selection process. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the test-taking attitudes of a diverse group of job applicants towards personality and cognitive ability tests administered conjointly online as part of employee selection in a financial services company in South Africa. Motivation for the study: If users understand how job applicants view specific test types, they will know which assessments are perceived more negatively and how this situation can potentially be rectified. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental and cross-sectional survey design was used. An adapted version of the Test Attitude Survey was used to determine job applicants’ attitudes towards tests administered online as part of an employee selection process. The sample consisted of a group of job applicants (N = 160 who were diverse in terms of ethnicity and age and the educational level applicable for sales and supervisory positions. Main findings: On average, the job applicants responded equally positively to the cognitive ability and personality tests. The African job applicants had a statistically significantly more positive attitude towards the tests than the other groups, and candidates applying for the sales position viewed the cognitive ability tests significantly less positively than the personality test. Practical and managerial implications: The choice of selection tests used in combination as well as the testing conditions that are applicable should be considered carefully as they are the factors that can potentially influence the test-taking motivation and general test-taking attitudes of job applicants. Contribution: This study consolidated the

  6. Discovery learning model with geogebra assisted for improvement mathematical visual thinking ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juandi, D.; Priatna, N.

    2018-05-01

    The main goal of this study is to improve the mathematical visual thinking ability of high school student through implementation the Discovery Learning Model with Geogebra Assisted. This objective can be achieved through study used quasi-experimental method, with non-random pretest-posttest control design. The sample subject of this research consist of 62 senior school student grade XI in one of school in Bandung district. The required data will be collected through documentation, observation, written tests, interviews, daily journals, and student worksheets. The results of this study are: 1) Improvement students Mathematical Visual Thinking Ability who obtain learning with applied the Discovery Learning Model with Geogebra assisted is significantly higher than students who obtain conventional learning; 2) There is a difference in the improvement of students’ Mathematical Visual Thinking ability between groups based on prior knowledge mathematical abilities (high, medium, and low) who obtained the treatment. 3) The Mathematical Visual Thinking Ability improvement of the high group is significantly higher than in the medium and low groups. 4) The quality of improvement ability of high and low prior knowledge is moderate category, in while the quality of improvement ability in the high category achieved by student with medium prior knowledge.

  7. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  8. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  9. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  10. Statistical tests for equal predictive ability across multiple forecasting methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Daniel; Thyrsgaard, Martin

    We develop a multivariate generalization of the Giacomini-White tests for equal conditional predictive ability. The tests are applicable to a mixture of nested and non-nested models, incorporate estimation uncertainty explicitly, and allow for misspecification of the forecasting model as well as ...

  11. Incorporating Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in Mathematical Communicative Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…

  12. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

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    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  13. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  14. Motor learning as a criterion for evaluating coordination motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczynski Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of motor learning based on objective, metric criteria, in terms of pedagogical process aimed at improving the accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. A group of 77 students of physical education participated in the study. Within 8 months there were performed 11 measurement sessions. In each session, subjects performed 10 hits a golf ball to the target from a distance of 9 m. Accuracy of hits was recorded. Effect of motor learning has been demonstrated in the progress of 10 consecutive hits a golf ball to the target in each session (operational control; in the dynamics of performance improvement between sessions (current control; as well as in the total result of eight-month experiment (stage control. There were developed norms for quantitative and qualitative assessment of accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. Developed quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the speed of motor learning in various conditions of the educational process creates the possibility of organization the operational, current and stage control of the level of human coordination motor abilities, as required by leading process.

  15. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on students’ problem solving ability in vector analysis course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan

    2018-01-01

    The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category.

  16. The profile of problem-solving ability of students of distance education in science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiasih; Permanasari, A.; Riandi; Damayanti, T.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the students' problem-solving ability in science learning and lesson-planning ability. The method used is descriptive-quantitative. The subjects of the study were undergraduate students of Distance Higher Education located in Serang, majoring in Primary Teacher Education in-service training. Samples were taken thoroughly from 2 groups taking the course of Science Learning in Primary School in the first term of 2017, amounted to 39 students. The technique of data collection used is essay test of problem solving from case study done at the beginning of lecture in February 2017. The results of this research can be concluded that In-service Training of Primary School Teacher Education Program are categorized as quite capable (score 66) in solving science learning problem and planning science lesson. Therefore, efforts need to be done to improve the ability of students in problem solving, for instance through online tutorials with the basis of interactive discussions.

  17. Improving ability mathematic literacy, self-efficacy and reducing mathematical anxiety with learning Treffinger model at senior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Nizham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a Quasi Experimental study with the design of The Pretest-Post-Test Non-Equivalent Group Design. Population in this research is all student of class X SHS in South Jakarta. Sampling is done by purposive sampling, to obtain an experimental class and control class. In the experimental class, students learn with Treffinger learning model and control, class learning with conventional learning. This study is also to examine the differences of self-efficacy improvement and students literacy skills, and decreased students' mathematical anxiety. Also, this study also examines the relevance of early mathematical abilities (high, medium, low with improving students' math literacy skills. The instrument used in this research is literacy skill test, self-efficacy scale, mathematical anxiety scale, observation sheet, and student interview. Data were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, and two lines. From the results of the data, it is found that: (1 The improvement of literacy ability of students who are learned with Treffinger model learning is not significantly higher than students who learn with conventional. (2 The self-efficacy of students who learning with the Treffinger model learning  is better than the student that is learning by conventional. (3 The mathematical anxiety of students learning with Treffinger model learning reduces better than students learning with conventional. (4 There is a difference in the improvement of students' mathematical literacy skills learning by learning the Treffinger model and students learning with conventional learning based on early mathematical abilities. (5 Student response to Treffinger model learning is better than students learning with conventional learning. Therefore, learning model Treffinger can be an alternative model of learning to improve students' mathematical literacy skills, and self-efficacy students, and able to reduce mathematical anxiety.

  18. Effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Hyung-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in sophomore nursing students. In this prospective, quasi-experimental study, we compared the pretest and post-test scores of an experimental group and a nonequivalent, nonsynchronized control group. Both groups were selected using convenience sampling, and consisted of students enrolled in a health communication course in the fall semesters of 2011 (control group) and 2012 (experimental group) at a nursing college in Suwon, South Korea. The two courses covered the same material, but in 2011 the course was lecture-based, while in 2012, lectures were replaced by case-based learning comprising five authentic cases of patient-nurse communication. At post-test, the case-based learning group showed significantly greater communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation than the lecture-based learning group. This finding suggests that case-based learning is an effective learning and teaching method. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  20. Remember dax? Relations between children's cross-situational word learning, memory, and language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; DeBrock, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Learning new words is a difficult task. Children are able to resolve the ambiguity of the task and map words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across multiple moments in time, a behavior termed cross-situational word learning (CSWL). Although we observe developments in CSWL abilities across childhood, the cognitive processes that drive individual and developmental change have yet to be identified. This research tested a developmental systems account by examining whether multiple cognitive systems co-contribute to children's CSWL. The results of two experiments revealed that multiple cognitive domains, such as memory and language abilities, are likely to drive the development of CSWL above and beyond children's age. The results also revealed that memory abilities are likely to be particularly important above and beyond other cognitive abilities. These findings have implications for theories and computational models of CSWL, which typically do not account for individual children's cognitive capacities or changes in cognitive capacities across time.

  1. The Effect of Learning Method and Confidence Level on the Ability of Interpreting Religious Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinayati Djojosuroto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of the learning method (expository and authentic and the level of confidence in the ability of religious poetry interpretation of the students of the third semester, majoring in the Indonesian Language and Literature Education of Universitas Negeri Manado. The method used is the quasi-experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial designs. The measurement of Y variable (ability to interpret the religious poetry uses the writing test and the level of confidence uses a questionnaire. Data analysis technique in this study is analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by two lanes and Tuckey test to look at the interaction of the group. Before the test, the hypothesis is that analysis requirements normality data test using Liliefors test and homogeneity test data using Bartlett test. The results show differences in the ability to explain the religious poetry among students who study with the expository method and the students who study with the authentic method. That is, overall, the expository method is better than the authentic method to improve the ability of the students. To improve the ability of the students to interpret the religious poetry, it is better to use the authentic method for the group that has a lower level of confidence. There is the influence of the interaction between learning method (expository and authentic and the level of confidence in the ability of religious poetry interpretation. Based on these results, it can be concluded that: First, lecturers can determine what materials and method that can be used to enhance the ability to interpret religious poetry when the level of confidence of the students has been known. Second, expository teaching methods and authentic teaching method for group of students with different level of confidence will give you different result on the ability of that group of students to interpret religious poetry as well. Third, the increase of the ability to interpret

  2. Teacher's Ability to Develop Learning Materials Potentially Mathematical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani Hamdani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of learning in the field, the teacher still dominates the conversation while the students as a passive listener. As a result, not only the communication skills of students who are less developed, the understanding of student material is also lacking. Therefore it is necessary to research the ability of teachers in developing learning tools potentially mathematical discourse to improve students' mathematical communication skills. The research method used is descriptive. Research activities include: identification of problems through questionnaires, observation, and interviews; teacher training; teachers develop learning tools; validation; and enhancement of the device by the teacher. The subject of this research is the junior high school mathematics teacher from several districts in the border area of Sambas-Sarawak Regency. The results show that in every learning mathematics there is always a conversation between teachers and students, but rarely use the question "why" and "how". Most teacher-made lesson plans contain scenarios of conversations between teachers and students, but just plain questioning, have not led to a debate between each other so that understanding becomes deeper. Student worksheet made by the teacher in the form of a matter of the ordinary story, rarely load non-routine problem let alone open-ended.

  3. Using Tests as Learning Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Paul W.; Fisher, Ronald P.

    1988-01-01

    A study involving 105 undergraduates assessed the value of testing as a means of increasing, rather than simply monitoring, learning. Results indicate that fill-in-the-blank and items requiring student inferences were more effective, respectively, than multiple-choice tests and verbatim items in furthering student learning. (TJH)

  4. Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Searcy, William A; Peters, Susan; Hughes, Melissa; DuBois, Adrienne L; Nowicki, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Learned aspects of song have been hypothesized to signal cognitive ability in songbirds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-reared song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) that were tutored with playback of adult songs during the critical period for song learning. The songs developed by the 19 male subjects were compared to the model songs to produce two measures of song learning: the proportion of notes copied from models and the average spectrogram cross-correlation between copied notes and model notes. Song repertoire size, which reflects song complexity, was also measured. At 1 year of age, subjects were given a battery of five cognitive tests that measured speed of learning in the context of a novel foraging task, color association, color reversal, detour-reaching, and spatial learning. Bivariate correlations between the three song measures and the five cognitive measures revealed no significant associations. As in other studies of avian cognition, different cognitive measures were for the most part not correlated with each other, and this result remained true when 22 hand-reared female song sparrows were added to the analysis. General linear mixed models controlling for effects of neophobia and nest of origin indicated that all three song measures were associated with better performance on color reversal and spatial learning but were associated with worse performance on novel foraging and detour-reaching. Overall, the results do not support the hypothesis that learned aspects of song signal cognitive ability.

  5. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  6. Development of the Spatial Ability Test for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Sevda Göktepe; Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a test to determine spatial ability of middle school students. The participants were 704 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade) who were studying at different schools from Istanbul. Item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis were used to analyse the data.…

  7. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7Mental Modelling Ability (M-MMA) for 3Mental Modelling Ability (L-MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  8. Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; Pereda, Ernesto; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. We investigated spectral power modulations over time, and functional connectivity patterns by means of a bivariate, frequency-specific index of phase synchronization termed Phase Locking Value (PLV). Behavioural data showed learning effects in both groups, with a steeper learning curve and higher ultimate attainment for the highly skilled learners. Moreover, we established that cortical connectivity patterns and profiles of spectral power modulations over time differentiated L2 learners with various levels of language analytical abilities. Over the course of the task, the learning process seemed to be driven by whole-brain functional connectivity between neuronal assemblies achieved by means of communication in the beta band frequency. On a shorter time-scale, increasing proficiency on the AGL task appeared to be supported by stronger local synchronisation within the right hemisphere regions. Finally, we observed that the highly skilled learners might have exerted less mental effort, or reduced attention for the task at hand once the learning was achieved, as evidenced by the higher alpha band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing the "Work Ability House" Model in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.

  10. Influences of combined traffic noise on the ability of learning and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Di

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of combined traffic noise (CTN on the ability of learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice were exposed to CTN from highways and high-speed railways for 42 days, whose day–night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn was 70 dB(A. On the basis of behavioral reactions in Morris water maze (MWM and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, the impacts of CTN on learning and memory in mice were examined. Results: The MWM test showed that the ability of learning and memory in mice was improved after short-term exposure (6–10 days, the first batch to 70 dB(A CTN, which showed the excitatory effect of stimuli. Long-term exposure (26–30 days, the third batch; 36–40 days, the fourth batch led to the decline of learning and memory ability, which indicated the inhibitory effect of stimuli. Assays testing amino acid neurotransmitters showed that the glutamate level of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in the first batch. However, the former was lower than the latter in the third and fourth batches. Both, behavioral reactions and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters, testified that short-term exposure and long-term exposure resulted in excitatory effect and inhibitory effect on the ability of learning and memory, respectively. Conclusion: The effects of 70 dB(A CTN on the ability of learning and memory were closely related to the exposure duration. Furthermore, those effects were regulated and controlled by the level of glutamate in the hippocampus.

  11. Virtual Reality Learning Activities for Multimedia Students to Enhance Spatial Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Molina-Carmona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality is an incipient technology that is proving very useful for training different skills. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to design virtual reality learning activities that can help students to develop their spatial ability. To prove the hypothesis, we have conducted an experiment consisting of training the students using an on-purpose learning activity based on a virtual reality application and assessing the possible improvement of the students’ spatial ability through a widely accepted spatial visualization test. The learning activity consists of a virtual environment where some simple polyhedral shapes are shown and manipulated by moving, rotating and scaling them. The students participating in the experiment are divided into a control and an experimental group, carrying out the same learning activity with the only difference of the device used for the interaction: a traditional computer with screen, keyboard and mouse for the control group, and virtual reality goggles with a smartphone for the experimental group. To assess the experience, all the students have completed a spatial visualization test twice: just before performing the activities and four weeks later, once all the activities were performed. Specifically, we have used the well-known and widely used Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Rotation (PSVT-R, designed to test rotational visualization ability. The results of the test show that there is an improvement in the test results for both groups, but the improvement is significantly higher in the case of the experimental group. The conclusion is that the virtual reality learning activities have shown to improve the spatial ability of the experimental group.

  12. Improvement of The Ability of Junior High School Students Thinking Through Visual Learning Assisted Geo gbra Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvi, M.; Nurjanah

    2017-02-01

    This research is distributed on the issue of the lack of visual thinking ability is a must-have basic ability of students in learning geometry. The purpose of this research is to investigate and elucide: 1) the enhancement of visual thinking ability of students to acquire learning assisted with geogebra tutorial learning: 2) the increase in visual thinking ability of students who obtained a model of learning assisted with geogebra and students who obtained a regular study of KAM (high, medium, and low). This research population is grade VII in Bandung Junior High School. The instruments used to collect data in this study consisted of instruments of the test and the observation sheet. The data obtained were analyzed using the test average difference i.e. Test-t and ANOVA Test one line to two lines. The results showed that: 1) the attainment and enhancement of visual thinking ability of students to acquire learning assisted geogebra tutorial better than students who acquire learning; 2) there may be differences of visual upgrade thinking students who acquire the learning model assisted with geogebra tutorial earn regular learning of KAM (high, medium and low).

  13. Effect of chronotype and student learning time on mathematical ability based on self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, N.; El Akbar, R. R.; Hidayat, E.

    2018-05-01

    One of ways to improve students' learning ability is conduct a research, with purpose to obtain a method to improve students' ability. Research often carried out on the modification of teaching methods, uses of teaching media, motivation, interests and talents of students. Research related to the internal condition of students becomes very interesting to studied, including research on circadian rhythms. Every person in circadian rhythms has its own Chronotype, which divided into two types namely early type and night late type. Chronotype affects the comfort in activity, for example a person with Chronotype category of early type tends to be more comfort in daytime activities. The purpose of this study is to examine the conditions of students, related Chronotype suitable or appropriate for student learning time. This suitability then studied in relation to the ability of learning mathematics with self- regulated learning approach. This study consists of three stages; (i) student Chronotype measurement, (ii) data retrieval, and (iii) analysis of research results. The results show the relationship between the students' learning ability in mathematics to learning time corresponding to Chronotype.

  14. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted, Average- Ability, and Special Needs Students: A Multivariate Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyryt, Michael C.; Sandals, Lauran H.; Begoray, John

    1998-01-01

    Compared learning-style preferences of intellectually gifted, average-ability, and special-needs students on the Learning Style Inventory. Also examined the general differences among ability level and gender. Analyses indicated that gifted students preferred learning alone, being self-motivated, and using tactile learning approaches, and that…

  15. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  16. The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.

  17. Improving mathematical problem solving ability through problem-based learning and authentic assessment for the students of Bali State Polytechnic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, I. K.

    2018-01-01

    This research is aimed at determining: 1) the differences of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with problem-based learning model and conventional learning model, 2) the differences of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with authentic and conventional assessment model, and 3) interaction effect between learning and assessment model on mathematical problem solving. The research was conducted in Bali State Polytechnic, using the 2x2 experiment factorial design. The samples of this research were 110 students. The data were collected using a theoretically and empirically-validated test. Instruments were validated by using Aiken’s approach of technique content validity and item analysis, and then analyzed using anova stylistic. The result of the analysis shows that the students facilitated with problem-based learning and authentic assessment models get the highest score average compared to the other students, both in the concept understanding and mathematical problem solving. The result of hypothesis test shows that, significantly: 1) there is difference of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with problem-based learning model and conventional learning model, 2) there is difference of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with authentic assessment model and conventional assessment model, and 3) there is interaction effect between learning model and assessment model on mathematical problem solving. In order to improve the effectiveness of mathematics learning, collaboration between problem-based learning model and authentic assessment model can be considered as one of learning models in class.

  18. The effect of Missouri mathematics project learning model on students’ mathematical problem solving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, I.; Januar, R. L.; Purwanto, S. E.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to know the influence of Missouri Mathematics Project Learning Model to Mathematical Problem-solving Ability of Students at Junior High School. This research is a quantitative research and uses experimental research method of Quasi Experimental Design. The research population includes all student of grade VII of Junior High School who are enrolled in the even semester of the academic year 2016/2017. The Sample studied are 76 students from experimental and control groups. The sampling technique being used is cluster sampling method. The instrument is consisted of 7 essay questions whose validity, reliability, difficulty level and discriminating power have been tested. Before analyzing the data by using t-test, the data has fulfilled the requirement for normality and homogeneity. The result of data shows that there is the influence of Missouri mathematics project learning model to mathematical problem-solving ability of students at junior high school with medium effect.

  19. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  20. Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Self Regulation Learning of Yunior High Students by Using Reciprocal Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Qohar, Abdul; Sumarmo, Utari

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a posttest experiment control group design  by  using reciprocal teaching, conducted  in Indonesia University of Education to investigate students’ ability in mathematical communication and self regulated learning.  Subject of the study were 254 of 9th grade students from three junior high schools of high, medium, and low level in Bojonegoro, East Java.  The instruments of the study were an essay mathematical communication test, and a self regulated learn...

  1. WEB-BASED ADAPTIVE TESTING SYSTEM (WATS FOR CLASSIFYING STUDENTS ACADEMIC ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemu LEE,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.

  2. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Wagner, T; Gowan, C; Braithwaite, V A

    2017-08-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.L.; Wagner, Tyler; Gowan, C.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation.

  4. The Influence of Experience, Ability and Interest on e-Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverila, Matti; Barkhi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a research conducted to evaluate the effect of learning preconceptions, prior e-learning experience, ability and interest of students on their perceptions regarding the process of e-learning. We study the effectiveness of e-learning as it relates to the level of e-learning experience. The…

  5. Subtoxic lead exposure of the albino rat during different phases of development and its effects on the open-field behaviour and the learning ability as studied by discrimination tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhoeven, P

    1980-01-01

    Female Wistar rats received a lead diet of 1.38 g lead acetate/kg food or a normal diet, respectively and after 54 days they were mated. The young rats were exposed to lead either only diaplacentally until birth or postnatally in infancy and as adult animals by plumbiferous breast milk or diet, or pre- and postnatally until ablactation. At different instants we determined the blood-lead and the brain-lead levels, the d-aminolevulic acid dehydrase activity and the packed cell volume of the dams and the young animals. In addition the respective weight was registered. For the learning test the food was reduced to 80% of the individual food demand. In the open-field test we investigated the parameters ambulation, rearing, grooming and defaecation. Neither the dams nor the young rats showed any symptoms of lead intoxication. The weight before and during food deprivation did not present any group differences. In the lead-exposed dams and in the pre- and postnatally lead-exposed young rats the mean blood-lead level ranged between 25 and 31 ..mu..g/dl. In those animals exposed to lead postnatally, these concentrations were reached slowlier. The blood-lead level of those rats exposed to lead only prenatally or until ablactation had dropped to control values within some weeks. The brain-lead level of those animals exposed still after infancy, almost agreed with the corresponding blood-lead level. Whereas the packed cell volume did not reveal any group differences, the delta-aminolevulic acid dehydrase activity was found to be significantly reduced for those test animals, which underwent the longest lead exposure. The behaviour observed in the open-field tests did not reveal any significant group differences. Also with respect to the learning performance no differences between the groups of varying conditions could be found.

  6. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USERS´ ABILITIES: A CASE STUDY ON COMPUTING LEARNING IN AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Martins Judice

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature review shows minimum ability levels of Information Technology (IT resources in use are currently essential to administrators and to professionals overall. As effective as Internet may be, new milestones for economic competition and company survival are being created. It is thus required that individual IT abilities are continuously reformulated to be adequately and creatively used, and new information sources and tools actively generated, rather than passively adopted. In evaluating the evolution of the IT abilities’ acquisition in Brazil, students of Business & Administration from a university are investigated. By means of questionnaire and in-depth interview application, data were collected on students’ perceptions of acquired abilities and importance of IT competencies. Together, computing science teachers and a course coordinator views were assessed. Empirical results obtained revealed that students' IT abilities were concentrated on basic computing science functions. The integration of IT learning in classroom practices was deemed poor as compared to importance attributed. Students signalized self-sufficiency or knowledge attitudes which, as tested, have not been actually proved. Low learning results were observed on IT conceptual knowledge, indicating students’ impatience with learning without interaction, as in long-text readings or teacher-centered classes. Strong student resistance to electronic commerce was evidenced and associated to perceived risks on IT evolution.

  7. Influence of Problem-Based Learning Model of Learning to the Mathematical Communication Ability of Students of Grade XI IPA SMAN 14 Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, I. M.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of mathematical communication is one of the goals of learning mathematics expected to be mastered by students. However, reality in the field found that the ability of mathematical communication the students of grade XI IPA SMA Negeri 14 Padang have not developed optimally. This is evident from the low test results of communication skills mathematically done. One of the factors that causes this happens is learning that has not been fully able to facilitate students to develop mathematical communication skills well. By therefore, to improve students' mathematical communication skills required a model in the learning activities. One of the models learning that can be used is Problem Based learning model Learning (PBL). The purpose of this study is to see whether the ability the students' mathematical communication using the PBL model better than the students' mathematical communication skills of the learning using conventional learning in Class XI IPA SMAN 14 Padang. This research type is quasi experiment with design Randomized Group Only Design. Population in this research that is student of class XI IPA SMAN 14 Padang with sample class XI IPA 3 and class XI IPA 4. Data retrieval is done by using communication skill test mathematically shaped essay. To test the hypothesis used U-Mann test Whitney. Based on the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that the ability mathematical communication of students whose learning apply more PBL model better than the students' mathematical communication skills of their learning apply conventional learning in class XI IPA SMA 14 Padang at α = 0.05. This indicates that the PBL learning model effect on students' mathematical communication ability.

  8. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  9. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  10. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C.; Lotto, R. Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the “good news–bad news effect”), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9–26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings. PMID:24019466

  11. Intrauterine radiation effect upon development of the children's learning abilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajchev, R.; Rasheva, R.; Vylcheva, M.; Geleva, Ts.; Tersieva, M.; Aleksandrova, B.; Bajrakova, A.; Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M. N.; Chobanova, N.; Tsenova, T.

    1993-01-01

    A study is in progress since 1991-92 involving comprehensive examination of children born during the last quarter of 1986 and having been irradiated in April-May 1986 as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The aim is to detect in 6-year-old children some markers of specific learning difficulties that, most generally, may be designated as mental deficiency unless they are analyzed in a dedicated manner. The investigation covers 400 6-year-old children from four regions of Bulgaria. A methodology is applied for testing the development of nervous system, locomotor functions at practice level, some perceptual processes, linguistic and mathematical aptitudes, and some other mental processes (thinking memory, attention). The study is being conducted from both epidemiological and longitudinal point of view. The first stage has been completed, and some results obtained are presented. (author)

  12. Predicting Bobsled Pushing Ability from Various Combine Testing Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevicz, Curtis L; Ransone, Jack W; Bach, Christopher W

    2018-03-12

    The requisite combination of speed, power, and strength necessary for a bobsled push athlete coupled with the difficulty in directly measuring pushing ability makes selecting effective push crews challenging. Current practices by USA Bobsled and Skeleton (USABS) utilize field combine testing to assess and identify specifically selected performance variables in an attempt to best predict push performance abilities. Combine data consisting of 11 physical performance variables were collected from 75 subjects across two winter Olympic qualification years (2009 and 2013). These variables were sprints of 15-, 30-, and 60 m, a flying 30 m sprint, a standing broad jump, a shot toss, squat, power clean, body mass, and dry-land brake and side bobsled pushes. Discriminant Analysis (DA) in addition to Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate two cases (Case 1: Olympians vs. non-Olympians; Case 2: National Team vs. non-National Team). Using these 11 variables, DA led to a classification rule that proved capable of identifying Olympians from non-Olympians and National Team members from non-National Team members with 9.33% and 14.67% misclassification rates, respectively. The PCA was used to find similar test variables within the combine that provided redundant or useless data. After eliminating the unnecessary variables, DA on the new combinations showed that 8 (Case 1) and 20 (Case 2) other combinations with fewer performance variables yielded misclassification rates as low as 6.67% and 13.33% respectively. Utilizing fewer performance variables can allow governing bodies in many other sports to create more appropriate combine testing that maximize accuracy, while minimizing irrelevant and redundant strategies.

  13. An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khazaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.

  14. Effects of Cooperative Learning STAD on Mathematical Communication Ability of Elementary School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.

  15. On the Role of Cognitive Abilities in Second Language Vowel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarvand Mokari, Payam; Werner, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gains from training in the discrimination of L2 vowel pairs. However, there were no significant correlations between attention control, AM, PSTM, and gains from training. These findings suggest the potential role of inhibitory control in L2 phonological learning. We suggest that inhibitory control facilitates the processing of L2 sounds by allowing learners to ignore the interfering information from L1 during training, leading to better L2 segmental learning.

  16. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  17. Influence of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Diet can regulate gene expression via manifesting genetic style so as to make a correlation with senility and tumor onset of tissue organs.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function changes in mice and verify the correlation between functional changes and diet quantity.DESIGN:Completely randomized grouping design.SETTINGS:Three Gorges University Medical College;School of Medicine,Hubei Institute for Nationalities.MATERIALS:Eighty Kunming mice of 3 weeks old,grade Ⅱ,weighing 17 - 18 g and either gender,were selected from Animal Experimental Center,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology.The experimental animals were disposed according to ethical criteria.At one week after feeding,they were randomly divided into 4 groups,including over-diet group,quantitative-diet group,quantitative-limit diet group and over-limit diet group with 20 mice in each group.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Medical Experimental Center of Hubei Institute for Nationalities and the Department of Laboratory,Central Hospital of Hubei Enshi Autonomous Prefecture from April to June 2006.① Diet quantity of animals was > 6 g/d in the over-diet group,4 g/d in the quantitative-diet group,3.34 g/d in the quantitative-limit diet group and 1.8 g/d in the over-limit diet group,respectively.Mice in the four groups drank freely.②At 35 days after feeding,every 10 mice were randomly selected from each group and enclosed in the wide mouthed bottle (250 mL,containing sodalime) to observe and record survival time under normal pressure and hypoxic condition.Other mice were given step down test,shuttle box test and autonomic activity test.Step down test:The first step-down latency and error times within 5 minutes were used to evaluate learning ability and the memory ability was retested at 24 hours later.Shuttle box test:The shuttle-box latency and error times within 5 minutes were used to

  18. [Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on learning-memory ability and injured hippocampal neurons in depression rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wu-Ye; Jiao, Shuang; Lu, Jun; Tu, Ya; Song, Ying-Zhou; Wu, Qian; A, Ying-Ge

    2014-04-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Baihui" (GV 20)-"Yintang" (EX-HN 3) on changes of learning-memory ability and hippocampal neuron structure in chronic stress-stimulation induced depression rats. Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, EA and medication (Fluoxetine) groups, with 12 rats in each group. The depression model was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation (swimming in 4 degrees C water, fasting, water deprivation, reversed day and night, etc). Treatment was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Yintang" (EX-HN 3) for 20 min, once every day for 21 days. For rats of the medication group, Fluoxetine (3.3 mg/kg) was given by gavage (p.o.), once daily for 21 days. The learning-memory ability was detected by Morris water maze tests. The pathological and ultrastructural changes of the hippocampal tissue and neurons were assessed by H.E. staining, light microscope and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Compared to the normal group, the rats' body weight on day 14 and day 21 after modeling was significantly decreased in the model group (P learning-memory ability. Observations of light microscope and transmission electron microscope showed that modeling induced pathological changes such as reduction in hippocampal cell layers, vague and broken cellular membrane, and ultrastructural changes of hippocampal neurons including swelling and reduction of mitochondria and mitochondrial crests were relived after EA and Fluoxetine treatment. EA intervention can improve the learning-memory ability and relieving impairment of hippocampal neurons in depression rats, which may be one of its mechanisms underlying bettering depression.

  19. Learning to echolocate in sighted people: a correlational study on attention, working memory and spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkel, M R; van Lier, R; Steenbergen, B

    2017-03-01

    Echolocation can be beneficial for the orientation and mobility of visually impaired people. Research has shown considerable individual differences for acquiring this skill. However, individual characteristics that affect the learning of echolocation are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined individual factors that are likely to affect learning to echolocate: sustained and divided attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. To that aim, sighted participants with normal hearing performed an echolocation task that was adapted from a previously reported size-discrimination task. In line with existing studies, we found large individual differences in echolocation ability. We also found indications that participants were able to improve their echolocation ability. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between improvement in echolocation and sustained and divided attention, as measured in the PASAT. No significant correlations were found with our tests regarding working memory and spatial abilities. These findings may have implications for the development of guidelines for training echolocation that are tailored to the individual with a visual impairment.

  20. Does social environment influence learning ability in a family-living lizard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.

  1. A Dynamic Speech Comprehension Test for Assessing Real-World Listening Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Freeston, Katrina; Buchholz, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    Many listeners with hearing loss report particular difficulties with multitalker communication situations, but these difficulties are not well predicted using current clinical and laboratory assessment tools. The overall aim of this work is to create new speech tests that capture key aspects of multitalker communication situations and ultimately provide better predictions of real-world communication abilities and the effect of hearing aids. A test of ongoing speech comprehension introduced previously was extended to include naturalistic conversations between multiple talkers as targets, and a reverberant background environment containing competing conversations. In this article, we describe the development of this test and present a validation study. Thirty listeners with normal hearing participated in this study. Speech comprehension was measured for one-, two-, and three-talker passages at three different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and working memory ability was measured using the reading span test. Analyses were conducted to examine passage equivalence, learning effects, and test-retest reliability, and to characterize the effects of number of talkers and SNR. Although we observed differences in difficulty across passages, it was possible to group the passages into four equivalent sets. Using this grouping, we achieved good test-retest reliability and observed no significant learning effects. Comprehension performance was sensitive to the SNR but did not decrease as the number of talkers increased. Individual performance showed associations with age and reading span score. This new dynamic speech comprehension test appears to be valid and suitable for experimental purposes. Further work will explore its utility as a tool for predicting real-world communication ability and hearing aid benefit. American Academy of Audiology.

  2. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING STRATEGY AND READING INTEREST TO THE READING UNDERSTANDING ABILITY OF STUDENTS OF IAIN BUKIT TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influence of learning strategies and reading interest on the ability of reading comprehension of IAIN Bukittinggi students. The question posed is: Whether the discoveri learning strategy associated with learning interests is better than expository learning. The research population is a 5th semester student at the Department of Religious Education at IAIN Bukittinggi. Samples are taken in two classes where one class is taught by a discoveri strategy and the other is taught by an expository strategy. Data were analyzed by using t test (different test. The results show that discover learning strategies in high interest groups and low interest have higher learning outcomes than classes taught with expository strategies

  3. Abstraction ability as an indicator of success for learning computing science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2008-01-01

    Computing scientists generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for practicing computer science. We report on a three-year longitudinal study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on performance in computing science. Abstraction ability...... is operationalized as stages of cognitive development for which validated tests exist. Performance in computing science is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of ten courses of a bachelor's degree programme in computing science. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. We have investigated...... the positive impact overall, for two groupings of courses (a content-based grouping and a grouping based on SOLO levels of the courses' intended learning outcome), and for each individual course. Surprisingly, our study shows that there is hardly any correlation between stage of cognitive development...

  4. Infant Statistical-Learning Ability Is Related to Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-01-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests…

  5. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  6. Research on cultivating medical students' self-learning ability using teaching system integrated with learning analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.

  7. Robotics with Natural Language Comprehension and Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intellignece implications for knowledge retrivedO. Accession For NTIGRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced 0 Justifioation *5**.By I Distribution...through understanding and generalizing plans", "An approach to learning from observation", and " Artificial intelligence implications for knowledge

  8. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  9. Utilization of Illustrations during Learning of Science Textbook Passages among Low- and High-Ability Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannus; Hyönä

    1999-04-01

    Effects of illustrations on learning authentic textbook materials were studied among 10-year-old elementary school children of high and low intellectual ability. Experiment 1 showed that the presence of illustrations improved learning of illustrated text content, but not that of nonillustrated text content. Comprehension scores were improved by the presence of illustrations for high-ability children, but not for low-ability children. In Experiment 2, children's eye movements were measured during learning of illustrated textbook passages to study how children divide their attention between text and illustrations. The results suggest that learning is heavily driven by the text and that children inspect illustrations only minimally. High-ability students were more strategic in processing in the sense that they spent relatively more time on pertinent segments of text and illustrations. It is concluded that the learning of illustrated science textbook materials involves requirements that may be more readily met by more intellectually capable students. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Promoting Creative Thinking Ability Using Contextual Learning Model in Technical Drawing Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursid, R.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is influence; the differences in the results between students that learn drawing techniques taught by the Contextual Innovative Model (CIM) and taught by Direct Instructional Model (DIM), the differences in achievement among students of technical drawing that have High Creative Thinking Ability (HCTA) with Low Creative Thinking Ability (LCTA), and the interaction between the learning model with the ability to think creatively to the achievement technical drawing. Quasi-experimental research method. Results of research appoint that: the achievement of students that learned technical drawing by using CIM is higher than the students that learned technical drawing by using DIM, the achievement of students of technical drawings HCTA is higher than the achievement of students who have technical drawing LCTA, and there are interactions between the use of learning models and creative thinking abilities in influencing student achievement technical drawing.

  11. Analysis of mathematical literacy ability based on goal orientation in model eliciting activities learning with murder strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, R.; Waluya, S. B.; Masrukan

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research are (1) to analyze the learning quality of MEAs with MURDER strategy, (2) to analyze students’ mathematical literacy ability based on goal orientation in MEAs learning with MURDER strategy. This research is a mixed method research of concurrent embedded type where qualitative method as the primary method. The data were obtained using the methods of scale, observation, test and interviews. The results showed that (1) MEAs Learning with MURDER strategy on students' mathematical literacy ability is qualified, (2) Students who have mastery goal characteristics are able to master the seven components of mathematical literacy process although there are still two components that the solution is less than the maximum. Students who have performance goal characteristics have not mastered the components of mathematical literacy process with the maximum, they are only able to master the ability of using mathematics tool and the other components of mathematical literacy process is quite good.

  12. The Effectiveness of SSCS Learning Model with KNWS Strategy towards Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability and Self Confidence of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Kuntifatin Warda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Type of this study is quantitative. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of SSCS learning model with KNWS strategy towards mathematical creative thinking ability and self confidence of students. The populations of this study was students at grade VIII SMP Muhammadiyah 8 Semarang academic year 2016/2017. The sampling was done by cluster random sampling technique, which were chosen VIIIA as experiment class and VIIIC as control class. Data collection methods used documentation, a test, a questionnaire, and an observation. The result of this study stated that the mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students had reached the classical completeness, percentage of mastery learning on mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students was better than that percentage of the control class students, average of test result on mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students was better than that average of the control class students, average of self confidence score of the experiment class students was better than that average of the control class students, teacher ability and the learning activities at the experiment class students included in good category, response of the experiment class students to joint the learning is positive.

  13. GeoGebra Assist Discovery Learning Model for Problem Solving Ability and Attitude toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, V.; Sariyasa, S.; Ardana, I. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to describe the effet of GeoGebra utilization in the discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving ability and students’ attitude toward mathematics. This research was quasi experimental and post-test only control group design was used in this study. The population in this study was 181 of students. The sampling technique used was cluster random sampling, so the sample in this study was 120 students divided into 4 classes, 2 classes for the experimental class and 2 classes for the control class. Data were analyzed by using one way MANOVA. The results of data analysis showed that the utilization of GeoGebra in discovery learning can lead to solving problems and attitudes towards mathematics are better. This is because the presentation of problems using geogebra can assist students in identifying and solving problems and attracting students’ interest because geogebra provides an immediate response process to students. The results of the research are the utilization of geogebra in the discovery learning can be applied in learning and teaching wider subject matter, beside subject matter in this study.

  14. Effectiveness Of Education To Improve Ability Game For Children Learning Difficulties Additive (Study Case at SDN 1 Lamongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisaul Barokati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the child's learning disabilities who cannot do the sums 1-20. From roommates Researchers Gave test, the child cannot do the sums 1-20. This study aims to Prove the effectiveness of educational games for kids summation improves learning disabilities. Type of research is the Single Subject Research, with ABA design and the data analysis techniques using visual analysis chart. Measurement variables using a percentage of the number of questions answered the Correctly. From the results of this study indicate that effective educational games to Enhance the abilities of the sum of numbers for child learning disabilities in SDN 1 Lamongan So that educational games can be used as one solution to help improve the child's ability to sum numbers learning disabilities

  15. Differentiated Learning. Teaching English to Mixed-Ability Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcrimioara Năsui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is dedicated to one of the most important aspects of teaching nowadays- differentiated teaching and instruction for English language learners. Differentiation means directing teaching towards the interests and capacities of all pupils in a class. It is not a simple expedient for keeping pupils busy – although that may prove important – it is a consideration for overcoming any latent barriers to learning.

  16. Teacher response to learning disability: a test of attributional principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M D

    1997-01-01

    Attribution research has identified student ability and effort expended as causes of achievement outcomes that result in differing teacher affect, evaluative feedback, and expectation of future performance. Ninety-seven elementary-school general education teachers (84 women and 13 men) rated their responses to the test failures of hypothetical boys with and without learning disabilities. In most cases, greater reward and less punishment, less anger and more pity, and higher expectations of future failure followed the negative outcomes of the boys with learning disabilities, when compared with their nondisabled ability and effort matches, indicating that learning disability acts as a cause of achievement outcomes in the same way as ability and effort. This pattern of teacher affect and response can send negative messages that are often interpreted as low-ability cues, thus affecting students' self-esteem, sense of competence as learners, and motivation to achieve.

  17. DISCOVERY LEARNING APPROACH IN IMPROVING ARABIC ABILITY OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN RELIGIOUS TRAINING CENTRE OF MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrariah Amin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Discovery Learning can be defined as the learning that takes place when the student is not presented with subject matter in the final form, rather he/she is required to find out the concepts by him/her self. This research aims to describe and analyze discovery learning method to strategically improve the comprehension and reasoning ability of Arabic pre-service teachers, which can motivate and enhance their creativity in order to enrich their insight about Arabic teaching as well, especially those who are in training centre. This research was undertaken in two classes of Makassar Religious Training Centre during June-August 2016. The design of this research is experiment with discovery learning approach with randomized pretest-posttest control group design. It was done randomly when to choosing the participants to be experiment and control group. Based on hypothesis testing, discovery learning has positive effects on the pre-service teachers’ Arabic ability in training centre to understand and analyze Arabic. Therefore, based on two-variance analysis; control and experiment group, there is difference on teachers’ comprehension and reasoning ability in learning Arabic between experiment and control group by using discovery learning and conventional method.

  18. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  19. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…

  20. Egg incubation effects generate positive correlations between size, speed and learning ability in young lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua Johnstone; Lindström, Tom; Shine, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that body size and locomotor performance are targets of Darwinian selection in reptiles. However, much of the variation in these traits may derive from phenotypically plastic responses to incubation temperature, rather than from underlying genetic variation. Intriguingly, incubation temperature may also influence cognitive traits such as learning ability. Therefore, we might expect correlations between a reptile's size, locomotor speed and learning ability either due to selection on all of these traits or due to environmental effects during egg incubation. In the present study, we incubated lizard eggs (Scincidae: Bassiana duperreyi) under 'hot' and 'cold' thermal regimes and then assessed differences in hatchling body size, running speed and learning ability. We measured learning ability using a Y-maze and a food reward. We found high correlations between size, speed and learning ability, using two different metrics to quantify learning (time to solution, and directness of route), and showed that environmental effects (incubation temperature) cause these correlations. If widespread, such correlations challenge any simple interpretation of fitness advantages due to body size or speed within a population; for example, survivors may be larger and faster than nonsurvivors because of differences in learning ability, not because of their size or speed.

  1. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E

    2017-04-01

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D.; Finn, Amy S.; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2018-01-01

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual’s native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. PMID:27737775

  3. The influence of mathematics learning using SAVI approach on junior high school students’ mathematical modelling ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusna, H.; Heryaningsih, N. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine mathematical modeling ability who learn mathematics by using SAVI approach. This research was a quasi-experimental research with non-equivalent control group designed by using purposive sampling technique. The population of this research was the state junior high school students in Lembang while the sample consisted of two class at 8th grade. The instrument used in this research was mathematical modeling ability. Data analysis of this research was conducted by using SPSS 20 by Windows. The result showed that students’ ability of mathematical modeling who learn mathematics by using SAVI approach was better than students’ ability of mathematical modeling who learn mathematics using conventional learning.

  4. Ability to analyze the statement of a problem as a metasubject result of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Guruzhapov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide with the results of experimental research of younger school students ability to analyze and understand the missing terms of a mathematical problem as one of the components of metasubject educational outcomes. The pupils were offered tasks of the diagnostic technique developed by V.A. Guruzhapov, and aimed at assessing the relationships of varying quantities of items. The sample of subjects was 168 students of forms I-III of two Moscow schools. It was found that this technique can estimate the metasubject component of the educational process in the traditional system of education in terms of the analysis of the adequacy of the object display properties in its model. The validity of the methodology was tested in a training experiment conducted by L.N. Shilenkova. An analysis of tasks of another subject content than what was presented in diagnostic tasks was performed with younger students. After learning, the results of the experimental group students significantly improved. On this basis it is concluded that the proposed diagnostic tasks can be used to assess the ability of younger school students to analyze and understand the missing statements of the problem as one of the components of metasubject educational outcomes. The designed developing educational situation can be used in the practice of modern elementary school to enhance learning.

  5. Development of cyberblog-based intelligent tutorial system to improve students learning ability algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudin; Riza, L. S.; Putro, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    E-learning as a learning activity conducted online by the students with the usual tools is favoured by students. The use of computer media in learning provides benefits that are not owned by other learning media that is the ability of computers to interact individually with students. But the weakness of many learning media is to assume that all students have a uniform ability, when in reality this is not the case. The concept of Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) combined with cyberblog application can overcome the weaknesses in neglecting diversity. An Intelligent Tutorial System-based Cyberblog application (ITS) is a web-based interactive application program that implements artificial intelligence which can be used as a learning and evaluation media in the learning process. The use of ITS-based Cyberblog in learning is one of the alternative learning media that is interesting and able to help students in measuring ability in understanding the material. This research will be associated with the improvement of logical thinking ability (logical thinking) of students, especially in algorithm subjects.

  6. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, C.Z.; Ran, L.Y.; Li, J.P.; Guan, Z.Z. [Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang (China). Dept. of Pathology

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the mechanism of the decreased ability of learning and memory induced by coal burning fluorosis. Ten offspring SD rats aged 30 days, who were born from the mothers with chronic coal burning fluorosis, and ten offspring with same age from the normal mothers as controls were selected. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were evaluated by Morris Water Maze test. Cholinesterase activity was detected by photometric method. The expressions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at protein and mRNA levels were detected by Western blotting and Real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that in the rat offspring exposed to higher fluoride as compared to controls, the learning and memory ability declined; the cholinesterase activities in the brains were inhibited; the protein levels of alpha 3, alpha 4 and alpha 7 nAChR subunits were decreased which showed certain significant correlations with the declined learning and memory ability; and the mRNA levels of alpha 3 and alpha 4 nAChRs were decreased, whereas the alpha 7 mRNA increased. The data indicated that coal burning fluorosis can induce the decreased ability of learning and memory of rat offspring, in which the mechanism might be connected to the changed nAChRs and cholinesterase.

  7. THE LEARNING RESULT DIFFERENCE OF STUDENT TEACH BY USING ENHANCEMENT LEARNING MODEL OF STUDENT’S THINKING ABILITY WITH CONVENSIONAL MODEL FOR FORCE AND NEWTON LAWS MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derlina .

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to observe the difference of learning achievement between student who have been teach by Enhancement Learning Model of Student’s Thinking Ability and Conventional Model. This research was done at SMP Negeri 2 Gebang. Type of this research is quasi experiment. Research population is every student of grade VIII semester 2 SMP Negeri 2 Gebang. Research sample was taken by random sampling around 2 classes as 34 students for experiment class and 34 students for control class. Learning achievement of test objective 20 of multiple choice was done as an instrument. The experiment result of pretest average is 37.94 for experiment class and 36.82 for control class. Treatment was done to each class, post test average score is 73.38 for experiment class and for student who have been teach by conventional learning is 67.05. Hypothetical testing is tcalculate > ttabe i.e 3.459 > 1.66 with significance standard α = 0.05 and dk = 66. It means that Ha was accepted, so it may conclude that there is a difference of learning achievement between Enhancement Learning Model of Student’s Thinking Ability with Conventional Learning Model for Force and Newton Laws on Grade VIII SMP Negeri 2 Gebang Annual Year 2011/2012.

  8. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  9. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  10. Errors of Students Learning with React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Delsika Pramata; Darhim; Rosjanuardi, Rizky

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high…

  11. Culture-Based Contextual Learning to Increase Problem-Solving Ability of First Year University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo, Damianus Dao; Darhim; Kartasasmita, Bana G.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the differences in problem-solving ability between first-year University students who received culture-based contextual learning and conventional learning. This research is a quantitative research using quasi-experimental research design. Samples were the First-year students of mathematics education department;…

  12. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  13. Effect of simulation on the ability of first year nursing students to learn vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyikara, Evrim; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen

    2018-01-01

    The acquisition of cognitive, affective and psychomotor knowledge and skills are required in nursing, made possible via an interactive teaching method, such as simulation. This study conducted to identify the impact of simulation on first-year nursing students' ability to learn vital signs. A convenience sample of 90 first-year nursing students enrolled at a University, Ankara, in 2014-2015. Ninety students enrolled for lessons on the "Fundamentals of Nursing" were identified using a simple random sampling method. The students were taught vital signs theory via traditional methods. They were grouped into experimental 1, experimental 2 and control group, of 30 students each. Students in the experimental 1 group attended sessions on simulation and those in the experimental 2 group sessions on laboratory work, followed by simulation. The control group were taught via traditional methods and only attended the laboratory work sessions. The students' cognitive knowledge acquisition was evaluated using a knowledge test before and after the lessons. The ability to measure vital signs in adults (healthy ones and patients) was evaluated using a skill control list. A statistically significant difference was not observed between the groups in terms of the average pre-test scores on knowledge (p>0.050). Groups exposed to simulation obtained statistically significantly higher scores than the control group in post-test knowledge (psimulation to measure vital signs in healthy adults and patients was more successful than that the control group (pSimulation had a positive effect on the ability of nursing students to measure vital signs. Thus, simulation should be included in the mainstream curriculum in order to effectively impart nursing knowledge and skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of critical thinking ability of VII grade students based on the mathematical anxiety level through learning cycle 7E model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, E.; Waluya, S. B.; Kurniasih, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to know mastery learning of students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E, determine whether the critical thinking ability of the students with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model, and describe the students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level. The method is mixed method with concurrent embedded. The population is VII grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Kebumen academic year 2016/2017. Subjects are determined by purposive sampling, selected two students from each level of mathematical anxiety. Data collection techniques include test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. Quantitative data analysis techniques include mean test, proportion test, difference test of two means, difference test of two proportions and for qualitative data used Miles and Huberman model. The results show that: (1) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E achieve mastery learning; (2) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model; (3) description of students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level that is the lower the mathematical anxiety level, the subjects have been able to fulfil all of the indicators of clarification, assessment, inference, and strategies phases.

  15. What we think we learn from watching others: the moderating role of ability on perceptions of learning from observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nicola J; Coppola, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Despite increased interest in the processes guiding action observation and observational learning, we know little about what people think they learn from watching, how well perceptions of learning marry with actual ability and how ability perceptions develop across multiple observation trials. Based on common coding ideas, we would think that ability and perceptions of ability from watching should be well matched. We conducted two studies to answer these questions that involved repeated observation of a 2-ball juggling task. After each video observation, observers judged if they could perform the skill and gave a confidence score (0-100%). In Experiment 1, an Observe-only group was compared to an Observe + Physical practice and No-practice group. Both observer groups showed a better physical approximation of the juggling action after practice and in retention and their confidence increased in a linear fashion. Confidence showed a small, yet significant relationship to actual success. In Experiment 2, we limited physical practice to 5 attempts (across 50 observation trials). In general, people who had high perceptions of ability following a demonstration were overconfident, whereas those with lower perceptions of ability were accurate in their assessments. Confidence generally increased across practice, particularly for trials following observation rather than physical practice. We conclude that while perceptions of ability and actual ability show congruence across trials and individuals, observational practice increases people's confidence in their ability to perform a skill, even despite physical experiences to the contrary.

  16. The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther; Ladewig, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational...... in ten successive demonstrations, where a trained Demonstrator opened an operant device by pushing a sliding lid aside with the muzzle in order to obtain a food reward. Immediately after the demonstrations the Observer horses were given the opportunity to operate the device alone. Control horses (n = 11.......15). Analysis of investigative behaviour showed, however, that the demonstrations increased the motivation of the Observer horses to investigate the device. Subsequently, a similar experiment was performed in a practical setting with 44 test horses (mixed age, gender and breed). We used the same operant device...

  17. The Analysis of Geometrical Reasoning Ability Viewed from Self-Efficacy on Connected Mathematic Project (CMP Learning Etnomathematics-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Dwi Damaryanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the geometrical reasoning ability of the students viewed from the self-efficacy through the learning of  Connected Mathematic Project (CMP ethnomathematic-based. The type of this research was qualitative which was descriptive. To obtained the validity of the qualitative data, the checking technique used in this research was sources triangulation, which had been done by comparing the suitability of the obtained data from the results of the interview and the test. Population of this research was the students of grade VIII at SMP Negeri 1 Sidoharjo and the sample was the students from VIII A Class. At the final, 12 research subjects were chosen to represent the group of level 1 self-efficacy, level 2 self-efficacy, level 3 self-efficacy, level 4 self efficacy, level 5 self-efficacy, and level 6 self-efficacy. In this research, there was a finding which shows us that the students with high self-efficacy had low ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test, while the students with low self-efficacy had the ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test. The factors which affected the finding were the motivations and the interest of learning mathematics which was affecting the attitude of the students in the classroom.

  18. The importance of measurement invariance in neurocognitive ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive test batteries such as recent editions of the Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III/WAIS-IV) typically use nation-level population-based norms. The question is whether these batteries function in the same manner across different subgroups based on gender, age,

  19. THE EFFECT OF INQUIRY BASED LEARNING ON THE REASONING ABILITY OF GRADE VII STUDENTS ABOUT HEAT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. C. Damawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Inquiry Based Learningon the reasoning ability of grade 7 students about heat concept. This study is a quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent post-test only controls group design. Two groups of seventh grade students were included as samples, which receive the experimental class of Inquiry Based Learning treatment while the other group acted as a control group who received the learning process in accordance with the applicable provisions of the curriculum. The data collected in this study is the students reasoning ability which obtained from the test of reasoning ability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical parametric t-test. Results of independet research shows that there are significant differences in reasoning abilities between the experimental class and control class. In this research, the experiment class perform more better reasoning skills than the control class.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh Inquiry Based Learning terhadap kemampuan penalaran siswa kelas VII pada materi Kalor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan non-equivalent post-test only control group design.  Dua kelompok siswa kelas VII  dilibatkan sebagai sampel penelitian, dimana kelas eksperimen menerima perlakuan Inquiry Based Learning sementara kelompok lainnya bertindak sebagai kelas kontrol yang menerima proses pembelajaran sesuai dengan ketentuan kurikulum yang berlaku di sekolah tempat penelitian dilaksanakan. Data yang dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah kemampuan penalaran siswa yang diperoleh dari hasil tes kemampuan penalaran. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan statistik parametrik Independent t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan penalaran yang signifikan antara kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol Kelas eksperimen menunjukkan kemampuan penalaran yang lebih baik

  20. Computerized adaptive testing in computer assisted learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Matteucci, Mariagiulia; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; De Wannemacker, Stefan; Clarebout, Geraldine; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A major goal in computerized learning systems is to optimize learning, while in computerized adaptive tests (CAT) efficient measurement of the proficiency of students is the main focus. There seems to be a common interest to integrate computerized adaptive item selection in learning systems and

  1. DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ ABILITY OF MATHEMATICAL CONNECTION THROUGH USING OUTDOOR MATHEMATICS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Haji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study is to determine the achievement and improvement of students’ mathematical connectionability through using outdoor mathematics learning. 64 students from the fifth grade of Primary School at SDN 65 and SDN 67 Bengkulu City were taken as the sample of this study. While the method of the research used in this research is experiment with quasi-experimental designs non-equivalent control group. The results of the study are as follows: (1 There is an increasing ability found in mathematical connection of students whom taught by using outdoors mathematics learning is 0,53; (2 Based on statical computation that achievement of students’ ability of mathematical connection is taught by using outdoor mathematics learning score is 71,25. It is higher than the students score 66,25 which were taught by using the conventional learning. So as to improve students’ mathematical connection, teachers are suggested to use the outdoors mathematics learning

  2. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of picture of process (pp) on senior high school students’ collision concept learning activities and multirepresentation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarto; Indrawati; Wicaksono, I.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to describe the effect of PP collision concepts to high school students’ learning activities and multirepresentation abilities. This study was a quasi experimental with non- equivalent post-test only control group design. The population of this study were students who will learn the concept of collision in three state Senior High Schools in Indonesia, with a sample of each school 70 students, 35 students as an experimental group and 35 students as a control group. Technique of data collection were observation and test. The data were analized by descriptive and inferensial statistic. Student learning activities were: group discussions, describing vectors of collision events, and formulating problem-related issues of impact. Multirepresentation capabilities were student ability on image representation, verbal, mathematics, and graph. The results showed that the learning activities in the three aspects for the three high school average categorized good. The impact of using PP on students’ ability on image and graph representation were a significant impact, but for verbal and mathematical skills there are differences but not significant.

  4. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of low level prenatal beta-irradiation of tritiated water on postnatal behavior, learning and memory ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Zhou Xiangyan

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57 BL/6J strain mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups, were irradiated with exponentially decreasing doses of tritium beta-rays but group 1 (used as a control) by single injection of tritiated water (HTO) at their 12.5 th day of gestation. Offsprings of male, received accumulative doses of 0, 0.5, 1.10 or 0.30 Gy in uterus were trained or examined on learning and memory ability or with behavioral tests. Significant dose-response relationships for alternations in those test were found due to exposure to 0.10 Gy or above. These results indicate that exposure to HTO during the fetal period in mice results in dose-dependent alteration in postnatal behavior, learning and memory ability. 0.05-0.10 Gy exposure may represent a threshold for the experimental conditions of this research using these parameters

  6. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  7. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  8. Developmental song learning as a model to understand neural mechanisms that limit and promote the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sarah E

    2017-11-20

    Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning. Existing data will be discussed as they relate to Critical Period learning, and strategies for future studies to more directly address these questions will be considered. Birdsong learning is a powerful model for advancing knowledge of the biological intersections of maturation and experience. Lessons from its study not only have implications for understanding developmental song learning, but also broader questions of learning potential and the enduring effects of early life experience on neural systems and behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Q. Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each. The model group received 60% (v/v ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N and microglia (by Ib1 were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05 by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01, and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01 in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05, and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01 with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  10. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  11. Mathematical (Dis)abilities Within the Opportunity-Propensity Model: The Choice of Math Test Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Elke; Desoete, Annemie

    2018-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in mathematics learning by combining antecedent (A), opportunity (O), and propensity (P) indicators within the Opportunity-Propensity Model. Although there is already some evidence for this model based on secondary datasets, there currently is no primary data available that simultaneously takes into account A, O, and P factors in children with and without Mathematical Learning Disabilities (MLD). Therefore, the mathematical abilities of 114 school-aged children (grade 3 till 6) with and without MLD were analyzed and combined with information retrieved from standardized tests and questionnaires. Results indicated significant differences in personality, motivation, temperament, subjective well-being, self-esteem, self-perceived competence, and parental aspirations when comparing children with and without MLD. In addition, A, O, and P factors were found to underlie mathematical abilities and disabilities. For the A factors, parental aspirations explained about half of the variance in fact retrieval speed in children without MLD, and SES was especially involved in the prediction of procedural accuracy in general. Teachers' experience contributed as O factor and explained about 6% of the variance in mathematical abilities. P indicators explained between 52 and 69% of the variance, with especially intelligence as overall significant predictor. Indirect effects pointed towards the interrelatedness of the predictors and the value of including A, O, and P indicators in a comprehensive model. The role parental aspirations played in fact retrieval speed was partially mediated through the self-perceived competence of the children, whereas the effect of SES on procedural accuracy was partially mediated through intelligence in children of both groups and through working memory capacity in children with MLD. Moreover, in line with the componential structure of mathematics, our findings were dependent on the math task used. Different A, O

  12. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  14. Mathematical Representation Ability by Using Project Based Learning on the Topic of Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widakdo, W. A.

    2017-09-01

    Seeing the importance of the role of mathematics in everyday life, mastery of the subject areas of mathematics is a must. Representation ability is one of the fundamental ability that used in mathematics to make connection between abstract idea with logical thinking to understanding mathematics. Researcher see the lack of mathematical representation and try to find alternative solution to dolve it by using project based learning. This research use literature study from some books and articles in journals to see the importance of mathematical representation abiliy in mathemtics learning and how project based learning able to increase this mathematical representation ability on the topic of Statistics. The indicators for mathematical representation ability in this research classifies namely visual representation (picture, diagram, graph, or table); symbolize representation (mathematical statement. Mathematical notation, numerical/algebra symbol) and verbal representation (written text). This article explain about why project based learning able to influence student’s mathematical representation by using some theories in cognitive psychology, also showing the example of project based learning that able to use in teaching statistics, one of mathematics topic that very useful to analyze data.

  15. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  16. Learning selenium testing tools with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Gundecha, Unmesh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a quality testing professional, or a software or web application developer looking to create automation test scripts for your web applications, with an interest in Python, then this is the perfect guide for you. Python developers who need to do Selenium testing need not learn Java, as they can directly use Selenium for testing with this book.

  17. Analysis of mathematical problem-solving ability based on metacognition on problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Hadiyanti, R.

    2018-03-01

    Problem-solving is the primary purpose of the mathematics curriculum. Problem-solving abilities influenced beliefs and metacognition. Metacognition as superordinate capabilities can direct, regulate cognition and motivation and then problem-solving processes. This study aims to (1) test and analyzes the quality of problem-based learning and (2) investigate the problem-solving capabilities based on metacognition. This research uses mixed method study with The subject research are class XI students of Mathematics and Science at High School Kesatrian 2 Semarang which divided into tacit use, aware use, strategic use and reflective use level. The collecting data using scale, interviews, and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, and paired samples t-test. The result shows that the students with levels tacit use were able to complete the whole matter given, but do not understand what and why a strategy is used. Students with aware use level were able to solve the problem, be able to build new knowledge through problem-solving to the indicators, understand the problem, determine the strategies used, although not right. Students on the Strategic ladder Use can be applied and adopt a wide variety of appropriate strategies to solve the issues and achieved re-examine indicators of process and outcome. The student with reflective use level is not found in this study. Based on the results suggested that study about the identification of metacognition in problem-solving so that the characteristics of each level of metacognition more clearly in a more significant sampling. Teachers need to know in depth about the student metacognitive activity and its relationship with mathematical problem solving and another problem resolution.

  18. Description of Self-efficacy and Initial Cognitive Abilities on the Students’ Physics Learning of the Direct Current Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenudin; Maknun, J.; Muslim

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine description of self -efficacy and initial cognitive abilities on the students of MAN 1 Bandung (senior high school) in learning physics on the subject of electrical circuits Direct Current (DC) before they get academy ask assigned in the classroom. From the results of this research can be used as a reference to provide appropriate measures for the advancement of student learning. The theory used in this research is the theory of Bandura. The design in this study using case study and data collection is done by tests and questionnaires, sampling techniques used by random sampling, the study was conducted on 10th grade students of MAN 1 Bandung by the amount of students 35 participants. The results of data analysis showed that the percentage of students who have moderate self-efficacy amounted to 67.05 %, and cognitive ability 50 %, this shows that the process of learning that takes place in school before that junior high school is not much scientific implement processes that provide students the opportunity to discover new things, then learning approaches of right is Problem Based Learning (PBL).

  19. ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATIC REPRESENTATION ABILITY OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDED INQUIRY LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiati Yumiati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analysing the different on upgrade the student’s math representation that obtained the guided inquiry learning and conventional learning. This research conducted by applying experiment method with nonequivalent control group design at one school. Which becoming research subject are students of Dharma Karya UT Middle School at 8th Grade. 8-2 class selected as control class (19 students and 8-3 class selected as experiment class (20 students. Before and after learning process, two classes given the test of math representation with reliability is 0.70 (high category. The magnitude of the increasing in students’ math representation student group of guided inquiry learning group is 0.41 included as medium category. Meanwhile, the increasing students’ math representation student group of conventional learning is 0.26 included as low category. In conclusion, the hypothesis of the ability of the mathematical representation of students who learning with guided inquiry is better than students with conventional learning is accepted.

  20. Test Reviews: Ginsburg, H., & Baroody, A. (2003). "Test of Early Mathematics Ability--Third Edition." Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    The Test of Early Mathematics Ability--Third Edition (TEMA-3) is a norm-referenced parallel forms test intended to identify the level of mathematical ability for children aged 3 years 0 months through 8 years 11 months. According to the authors, the instrument can also be used as a criterion referenced or diagnostic tool for older students who are…

  1. Similarities and differences between learning abilities, "pure" learning disabilities, "pure" ADHD and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen

    2009-08-01

    This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.

  2. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  3. The Effects of Mathematical Modeling on Creative Production Ability and Self-Directed Learning Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Kim, Soojin

    2010-01-01

    What should we do to educate the mathematically gifted and how should we do it? In this research, to satisfy diverse mathematical and cognitive demands of the gifted who have excellent learning ability and task tenacity in mathematics, we sought to apply mathematical modeling. One of the objectives of the gifted education in Korea is cultivating…

  4. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Sayadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL…

  5. The effect on work ability of a tailored ergonomic learning program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Lund, Henrik; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The physical working conditions and the musculoskeletal health of industrial workers have an effect on their work ability. OBJECTIVE: The paper evaluates the effectiveness of an ergonomic learning program focused on the development of low strain working techniques. The project...

  6. Two New Empirically Derived Reasons To Use the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David F.; Williams, W. Larry; Follette, William C.

    2002-01-01

    Scores on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Wechsler Intelligences Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) were obtained for 30 adults with mental retardation. Correlations between the Vineland domains and ABLA were all significant. No participants performing below ABLA Level 6 were testable on the…

  7. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year

  8. Improving Junior High School Students' Mathematical Analogical Ability Using Discovery Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarif, Samsul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the influence of discovery learning method towards the mathematical analogical ability of junior high school's students. This is a research using factorial design 2x2 with ANOVA-Two ways. The population of this research included the entire students of SMPN 13 Jakarta (State Junior High School 13 of Jakarta)…

  9. Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Self Regulation Learning of Junior High Students by Using Reciprocal Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qohar, Abdul; Sumarmo, Utari

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a posttest experiment control group design by using reciprocal teaching, conducted in Indonesia University of Education to investigate students' ability in mathematical communication and self regulated learning. Subject of the study were 254 of 9th grade students from three junior high schools of high, medium,…

  10. 5E Mobile Inquiry Learning Approach for Enhancing Learning Motivation and Scientific Inquiry Ability of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ping-Han; Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn; Chang, Shih-Hui Gilbert; Kuo, Fan-Ray Revon

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many universities have opened courses to increase students' knowledge in the field of nanotechnology. These have been shown to increase students' knowledge of nanotechnology, but beyond this, advanced and applied nanotechnology courses should also focus on learning motivation and scientific enquiry abilities to equip students to…

  11. Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability of the Seventh Grade Students in Terms of Learning Styles to the Preview-Question-Read-Reflect-Recite-Review (PQ4R Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiatun Istiqomah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: (1 to know the effectiveness of PQ4R learning model in improving the creative thinking skills of the learners; (2 to know the classifications of the learners based on the levels of creative thinking skills; and (3 to describe the misconception which hampers the creative thinking skills at low level in  from the learning styles of the learners. The population in this study is the seventh grade students of SMP N 21 Semarang. The method in this study is mixed method research. Quantitative data analysis uses t-test, z-test, and normalized gain test. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction stages, data presentation, and conclusions. The results show: (1 PQ4R learning model is effective in improving the creative thinking ability of the learners; (2 the classifications of the learners based on the levels of creative thinking ability which have variations the are many of the learners who are different in each level; and (3 misconception which hampers the creative thinking skills at low level with the learning styles: (a visual meets four misconception indicators, (b auditorial meets three misconception indicators, and (c kinesthetic meets six misconception indicators.

  12. Developing an instrument to measure emotional behaviour abilities of meaningful learning through the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-09-01

    To identify items for a new instrument that measures emotional behaviour abilities of meaningful learning, according to Fink's Taxonomy. Meaningful learning is an active process that promotes a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and previous knowledge and produces a long-term change of knowledge and skills. To measure meaningful learning capability, it is very important in the education of health professionals to identify problems or special learning needs. For this reason, it is necessary to create valid instruments. A Delphi Study technique was implemented in four phases by means of e-mail. The study was conducted from April-September 2015. An expert panel consisting of ten researchers with experience in Fink's Taxonomy was established to identify the items of the instrument. Data were analysed for conceptual description and item characteristics and attributes were rated. Expert consensus was sought in each of these phases. An 87·5% consensus cut-off was established. After four rounds, consensus was obtained for validation of the content of the instrument 'Assessment of Meaningful learning Behavioural and Emotional Abilities'. This instrument consists of 56 items evaluated on a 6-point Likert-type scale. Foundational Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring and Learning How to Learn were the six major categories explored. This content validated tool can help educators (teachers, trainers and tutors) to identify and improve the strategies to support students' learning capability, which could increase their awareness of and/or responsibility in the learning process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Testing Methodology in the Student Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Tatiana N.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the research is to build methodologies to evaluate the student knowledge by testing. The author points to the importance of feedback about the mastering level in the learning process. Testing is considered as a tool. The object of the study is to create the test system models for defence practice problems. Special attention is paid…

  14. Improving students’ creative mathematical reasoning ability students through adversity quotient and argument driven inquiry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, W.; Wahyudin; Prabawanto, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role factors of Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction in improving mathematical creative reasoning ability from students’ who is a candidate for a math teacher. The study was designed in the form of experiments with a pretest-posttest control group design that aims to examine the role of Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) learning on improving students’ mathematical creative reasoning abilities. The population in this research was the student of mathematics teacher candidate in Cimahi City, while the sample of this research was 90 students of the candidate of the teacher of mathematics specified purposively then determined randomly which belong to experiment class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (1) Improvement the ability of mathematical creative reasoning of students’ who was a candidate for a math teacher who received Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction is better than those who received direct instruction is reviewed based on the whole; (2) There was no different improvement the ability of mathematical creative reasoning of students’ who is a candidate for a math teacher who received Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction and direct instruction was reviewed based on the type of Adversity Quotient (Quitter / AQ Low, Champer / AQ Medium, and the Climber / AQ High); (3) Learning factors and type of Adversity Quotient (AQ) affected the improvement of students’ mathematical creative reasoning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and AQ together in developing of students’ mathematical creative reasoning ability; (4) mathematical creative reasoning ability of students’ who is a candidate for math teacher had not been achieved optimally on the indicators novelty.

  15. Learning Digital Test and Diagnostics via Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Dietrich Wuttke

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An environment targeted to e-learning is presented for teaching design and test of electronic systems. The environment consists of a set of Java applets, and of web based access to the hardware equipments, which can be used in the classroom, for learning at home, in laboratory research and training, or for carrying out testing of students during exams. The tools support university courses on digital electronics, computer hardware, testing and design for testability to learn by hands-on exercises how to design digital systems, how to make them testable, how to build self-testing systems, how to generate test patterns, how to analyze the quality of tests, and how to localize faults in hardware. The tasks chosen for hands-on training represent simultaneously research problems, which allow to fostering in students critical thinking, problem solving skills and creativity.

  16. Discovery learning with hierarchy concept to improve analysis ability and study achievement hydrolysis subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuliatun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to applied Discovery Learning (DL by the support of hierarchy concept to improve analysis ability and chemistry study achievement in the Hydrolysis subject at eleventh-grade students of Science 1 of SMA N Karangpandan at the academic year of 2016/2017. This research is using Classroom Action Research which using two cycles. In each cycle has four steps of action, they are planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The research subject is the eleventh-grade students of science one which consists of 40 students. The data source is using teacher and students and the data were taken by interviewing, observing, documenting, testing, and using questionnaire. Data analysis technique is using descriptive qualitative analysis. Based on the research shows that the achievement of analysis cycle I am from 52,5% increase into 65% in the cycle II. Meanwhile, the rise in students’ achievement in cognitive aspect increase from 57,5% in cycle I to 75% in cycle II. Achievement in an affective aspect in cycle I am 90% become 92,5% in cycle II. Therefore, there is the increase meant of students number in this aspect although in cycle I all of the indicator has been reached.

  17. CALL AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING: A SOLUTION TO DEVELOP STUDENTS‟ LISTENING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsa Miranty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide some ideas both for English teachers and target learners about how to apply CALL and Cooperative Learning as the solution to develop students‘ listening activities in the classroom. Since teachers need to understand about students‘ needs, background, age and expectations when they learn English as the foreign language in the classroom. Therefore, the English teacher should provide environment which facilitates the children to have fun di the teaching learning process, nice atmosphere, comfort and enjoyable to learn English and practice it both in the classroom and in the laboratory. Furthermore, this paper will provide what the teachers should do related activities such as: listening to the songs, movies, cartoon by applying STAD (Students Teams – Achievement Divisions in the classroom in order to develop students‘ listening ability both in the classroom and laboratory.

  18. Triangular relationship between sleep spindle activity, general cognitive ability and the efficiency of declarative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lustenberger

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.

  19. On the relationships between generative encodings, regularity, and learning abilities when evolving plastic artificial neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tonelli

    Full Text Available A major goal of bio-inspired artificial intelligence is to design artificial neural networks with abilities that resemble those of animal nervous systems. It is commonly believed that two keys for evolving nature-like artificial neural networks are (1 the developmental process that links genes to nervous systems, which enables the evolution of large, regular neural networks, and (2 synaptic plasticity, which allows neural networks to change during their lifetime. So far, these two topics have been mainly studied separately. The present paper shows that they are actually deeply connected. Using a simple operant conditioning task and a classic evolutionary algorithm, we compare three ways to encode plastic neural networks: a direct encoding, a developmental encoding inspired by computational neuroscience models, and a developmental encoding inspired by morphogen gradients (similar to HyperNEAT. Our results suggest that using a developmental encoding could improve the learning abilities of evolved, plastic neural networks. Complementary experiments reveal that this result is likely the consequence of the bias of developmental encodings towards regular structures: (1 in our experimental setup, encodings that tend to produce more regular networks yield networks with better general learning abilities; (2 whatever the encoding is, networks that are the more regular are statistically those that have the best learning abilities.

  20. Evaluation of a Coaching Experiential Learning Project on OT Student Abilities and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative teaching methods to address emerging practice needs are critical components of effective occupational therapy education. Experiential learning strategies can enhance skill development and translation of knowledge into OT clinical practice. In addition, skills such as coaching may provide important links to health promotion practices. Thirty-two occupational therapy students took part in an experiential project to connect occupational engagement and health for a community of older adults. A pretest/posttest design was used to evaluate program outcomes in student perceived abilities, and narrative reflection papers provided postexperience qualitative information. The students improved in all 10 areas of abilities selfassessment with mean total scores from pretest (M = 42 improving significantly at posttest (M = 58. Themes from reflection papers indicated a positive response to experiential learning and a desire for more opportunities to prepare for clinical practice, including the use of interprofessional training. The students improved in their abilities to use coaching and health promotion strategies through the use of experiential learning methods. Outcomes suggest that experiential learning opportunities are an effective way to enhance student competencies in coaching, improve readiness for wellness programming, and increase student confidence in application of skills in future clinical practice.

  1. Mathematical Communication Ability by Grade VII Students Using a Themed Problem Based Learning with Scaffolding on Rectangle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Adi Saputro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research to test students' mathematical communication used themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL achieve mastery learning;to test students' mathematical communication that used the themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL; and to test students' mathematical communication for the low, medium group, and a high-group themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL. This type of research is quantitative research. The Population is seventh grade students of SMPN 22 Semarang and the sample class VII E, F and VII VII G. Used normality test, homogenity test, equality test on average, the proportion of one-party test, one way anova test, and scheffe test. The results showed that (1 Student’s mathematical communication ability using themed of PBLwith Scaffolding strategy,themed of PBL, and PBL achieve the completeness of learning, (2 there is a difference in the classroom using the themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL, as well as PBL, (3 For the low, medium, high and there is a difference in the classroom using the themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL.

  2. Exploring PCK ability of prospective science teachers in reflective learning on heat and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatin, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Learning can be planned by the person him/herself when he or she tries to reflect his/her learning. A study involving prospective science teachers in junior secondary schools was carried out to analyze their ability on Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in reflective learning after teaching practice. The study was focused especially in creating Pedagogical and Professional Repertoires (PaP-eRs) as part of resource-folios. PaP-eRs as a narrative writing in the learning activities are created by prospective science teachers after lesson plan implementation. Making the narrative writing is intended that prospective science teachers can reflect their learning in teaching. Research subjects are six prospective science teachers who are implementing "Program Pengalaman Lapangan" (PPL) in two junior secondary schools in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. All of them were assigned by supervisor teachers to teach VII grade students on certain topic "heat and its transfer". Instruments used as a means of collecting data in this study is PaP-eRs. Collected PaP-eRs were then analyzed using PaP-eRs analysis format as instruments for analysis. The result of analyzing PaP-eRs indicates that learning activities, which narrated, involve initial activities, core activities and final activities. However, any activity, which is narrated just superficial as its big line so the narration cannot be, used as reflective learning. It indicates that PCK ability of prospective science teachers in creating narrative writing (PaP-eRs) for reflective learning is still low.

  3. A New Look on the Development and Learning of Children with High Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Mattei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available When we approach the subject development and learning soon in them it comes the mind the process of education and specific learning of the pertaining to school environment. However we must have clearly that the development as well as learning is complex processes that involves the pertaining not only the school environment but the development of the physical, mental and social of the human being. The human being is not only intellect, is a complex being with strong cognitive and ambient support, of interactions, learnings and consequently development and evolution. This capacity to learn during all the life, exactly without being present in a pertaining school environment, is what in them it becomes only beings capable to be able to interpret, to reveal knowledge, to develop itself socially intellectual and, that is learning in potential. With regard to the children superendowed or carrying of high innumerable abilities doubts and contradictions thus permeat the relative aspects to its development and learning, different visions and perspectives are analyzed in order to contribute and to clarify aspects related to these children special, so that school and educators can assist in significant way these children potentializing his capacities.

  4. Genetic Tests for Ability?: Talent Identification and the Value of an Open Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy; Rich, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of genetic tests for performance in physical activity and sports practices. It investigates the terminology associated with genetics, testing, selection and ability as a means towards a socio-ethical analysis of its value within sport, education and society. Our argument suggests that genetic tests need not even be…

  5. Activity strengths of cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons are correlated with transgenerational inheritance of learning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulong; Ge, Rongjing; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Rui; Huang, Li; Zhao, Shidi; Guan, Sudong; Lu, Wei; Cui, Shan; Wang, Shirlene; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2017-12-22

    The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE). HLE male and female mice, HLE female and LLE male mice as well as HLE male and LLE female mice were cross-mated to have their first generation of offsprings, filials (F1). The onset of odorant-induced whisker motion appeared a sequence of high-to-low efficiency in three groups of F1 mice that were from HLE male and female mice, HLE female and LLE male mice as well as HLE male and LLE female mice. Activities related to glutamatergic neurons in barrel cortices appeared a sequence of high-to-low strength in these F1 mice from HLE male and female mice, HLE female and LLE male mice as well as HLE male and LLE female mice. Activities related to GABAergic neurons in barrel cortices appeared a sequence of low-to-high strength in these F1 mice from HLE male and female mice, HLE female and LLE male mice as well as HLE male and LLE female mice. Neuronal activity strength was linearly correlated to learning efficiency among three groups. Thus, the coordinated activities at glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons may constitute the cellular basis for the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability.

  6. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  7. Design and Development Computer-Based E-Learning Teaching Material for Improving Mathematical Understanding Ability and Spatial Sense of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.; Wibisono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to make a design and development computer-based e-learning teaching material for improving mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students. Furthermore, the particular aims are (1) getting teaching material design, evaluation model, and intrument to measure mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (2) conducting trials computer-based e-learning teaching material model, asessment, and instrument to develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (3) completing teaching material models of computer-based e-learning, assessment, and develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (4) resulting research product is teaching materials of computer-based e-learning. Furthermore, the product is an interactive learning disc. The research method is used of this study is developmental research which is conducted by thought experiment and instruction experiment. The result showed that teaching materials could be used very well. This is based on the validation of computer-based e-learning teaching materials, which is validated by 5 multimedia experts. The judgement result of face and content validity of 5 validator shows that the same judgement result to the face and content validity of each item test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense. The reliability test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense are 0,929 and 0,939. This reliability test is very high. While the validity of both tests have a high and very high criteria.

  8. A Proposed Functional Abilities Classification Tool for Developmental Disorders Affecting Learning and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental disorders affecting learning and behaviour (DDALB (e.g., attention, social communication, language, and learning disabilities, etc. require individualized support across multiple environments to promote participation, quality of life, and developmental outcomes. Support to enhance participation is based largely on individual profiles of functioning (e.g., communication, cognitive, social skills, executive functioning, etc., which are highly heterogeneous within medical diagnoses. Currently educators, clinicians, and parents encounter widespread difficulties in meeting children’s needs as there is lack of universal classification of functioning and disability for use in school environments. Objective: a practical tool for functional classification broadly applicable for children with DDALB could facilitate the collaboration, identification of points of entry of support, individual program planning, and reassessment in a transparent, equitable process based on functional need and context. We propose such a tool, the Functional Abilities Classification Tool (FACT based on the concepts of the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. FACT is intended to provide ability and participation classification that is complementary to medical diagnosis. For children presenting with difficulties, the proposed tool initially classifies participation over several environments. Then, functional abilities are classified and personal factors and environment are described. Points of entry for support are identified given an analysis of functional ability profile, personal factors, environmental features, and pattern of participation. Conclusion: case examples, use of the tool and implications for children, agencies, and the system are described.

  9. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  10. The Effects of Game-Based Learning on Mathematical Confidence and Performance: High Ability vs. Low Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Oskar; Chen, Sherry Y.; Wu, Denise H.; Lao, Andrew C. C.; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Many students possess low confidence toward learning mathematics, which, in turn, may lead them to give up pursuing more mathematics knowledge. Recently, game-based learning (GBL) is regarded as a potential means in improving students' confidence. Thus, this study tried to promote students' confidence toward mathematics by using GBL. In addition,…

  11. Literature Review: Validity and Potential Usefulness of Psychomotor Ability Tests for Personnel Selection and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    processing capabilities. Craik and Lockhart (1972), for example, investigated limitations In the ability to store Information In short-term storage...F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671...preferable to an information processing taxonomy for purposes of the current selection and classification research. i-irst, on a theoretical level

  12. The Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning Approach Based on Multiple Intelligences in Terms of Student’s Achievement, Mathematical Connection Ability, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, A.; Widjajanti, D. B.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of learning approach using problem-based learning based on multiple intelligences in developing student’s achievement, mathematical connection ability, and self-esteem. This study is experimental research with research sample was 30 of Grade X students of MIA III MAN Yogyakarta III. Learning materials that were implemented consisting of trigonometry and geometry. For the purpose of this study, researchers designed an achievement test made up of 44 multiple choice questions with respectively 24 questions on the concept of trigonometry and 20 questions for geometry. The researcher also designed a connection mathematical test and self-esteem questionnaire that consisted of 7 essay questions on mathematical connection test and 30 items of self-esteem questionnaire. The learning approach said that to be effective if the proportion of students who achieved KKM on achievement test, the proportion of students who achieved a minimum score of high category on the results of both mathematical connection test and self-esteem questionnaire were greater than or equal to 70%. Based on the hypothesis testing at the significance level of 5%, it can be concluded that the learning approach using problem-based learning based on multiple intelligences was effective in terms of student’s achievement, mathematical connection ability, and self-esteem.

  13. Journaling: a quasi-experimental study of student nurses' reflective learning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakude, L P; Bruce, J C

    2003-08-01

    The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning. The study design enabled comparisons between two groups: one group of students assigned to do journaling (experimental group) and another group of students (control group) who did not journal. The students in the experimental group were given a period of eight weeks to journal their clinical experiences. At the end of this period, both groups were given an exercise, based on a clinical situation, to analyse reflectively and a comparison made on their performance. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data and Fisher's Exact Test was used to determine the significance of differences observed within and between groups. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better in exploring alternatives of action (p < 0.10) and formulating responses in similar future situations (p < 0.05) during the process of reflection. There was no significant difference between the groups' scores with regard to their ability to describe the clinical experience, to explore their related feelings, to evaluate the experience and to interpret/create meaning for themselves. Recommendations are made for continued student support and guidance during clinical education if reflection is considered to enhance reflective, thoughtful nursing practice.

  14. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashgahi, Bahareh Molazem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening) has any impact on Iranian EFL learners' writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch. The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional…

  15. [Effects of grain-sized moxibustion on learning and memory ability and amyloid deposition of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chu, Jia-Mei; Gao, Ling-Ai; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Bao, Ye-Hua

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of grain-sized moxibustion at "Xinshu" (BL 15) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on memory-learning ability and amyloid deposition in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. seventeen amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 (APP+/PS 1+) double transgenic 6799 mice aged 3-4 weeks were randomly divided into model group (n = 9) and moxibustion group (n = 8). Nine wide-type (C 57 BL/6 J) female mice were used as the normal control group. Moxibustion (ignited grain-sized moxa cone) was applied to bilateral "Xinshu" (BL 15) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) for about 30 s, once a day for 9 courses (10 days constitute a therapeutic course, with 2 days' break between every two courses). Morris water maze tests were performed to detect the mice's learning-memory ability. The alterations of beta-amyloid deposition (number of the positive plaques) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were detected by using an imaging analysis system following Congo red staining of the cerebral tissue sections. Compared with the normal group, the average escape latency of place navigation tests was significantly increased (P memory ability after moxibustion. Results of Congo red staining of the cerebral tissue showed that there were many irregular, uneven staining positive plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD mice in the model group. Compared with the model group, the positive plaque numbers in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus were considerably reduced in the moxibustion group (P memory ability and restrain the formation of amyloid deposition in AD mice.

  16. Complex population response of dorsal putamen neurons predicts the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquitaine, Steeve; Piron, Camille; Abellanas, David; Loewenstein, Yonatan; Boraud, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Day-to-day variability in performance is a common experience. We investigated its neural correlate by studying learning behavior of monkeys in a two-alternative forced choice task, the two-armed bandit task. We found substantial session-to-session variability in the monkeys' learning behavior. Recording the activity of single dorsal putamen neurons we uncovered a dual function of this structure. It has been previously shown that a population of neurons in the DLP exhibits firing activity sensitive to the reward value of chosen actions. Here, we identify putative medium spiny neurons in the dorsal putamen that are cue-selective and whose activity builds up with learning. Remarkably we show that session-to-session changes in the size of this population and in the intensity with which this population encodes cue-selectivity is correlated with session-to-session changes in the ability to learn the task. Moreover, at the population level, dorsal putamen activity in the very beginning of the session is correlated with the performance at the end of the session, thus predicting whether the monkey will have a "good" or "bad" learning day. These results provide important insights on the neural basis of inter-temporal performance variability.

  17. The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children, 1997-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeini SM

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children in district 18 of Tehran educational organization were examined in the school year 1997-98. Other factors such as grade, nutritional status, breakfast eating habits and snack eating habits in the school were also studied. For this purpose 236 boys were selected by random sampling in 4 different schools. The children were randomly assigned to a group, with a low calorie snack (119 subjects, and a low-calorie control group (117 subjects, and then given 3 cognitive functions tests. The test were repeated after 4 months. The data were collected by questionnaires and included family socio-economic conditions, nutritional status and dietary habit of the children. Also, the grades of the major courses and scores of cognitive tests were collected, and the effects of treatment on the mean grades and scores differences were determined by T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Our findings are presented as follow: The experimental and control groups were similar in the initial assessment. 7.1% of the students were stunted based on height-for-age classification (NCHS. The intervention led to an increase in tests scores, but the increase was only significant in the case of the short-term memory test (P<0.03. The findings of the study showed that the intervention was effective on short-term memory and since short-term memory function in memorization process and retrieval of subjects form long-term memory and congenitive functions, we can conclude that the food intervention with an energy lower than 10% of recommended dietary needs increases learning ability level of the subjects. Stunting and the habit of eating breakfast were related to educational performance of students. Therefore implementation of such programs in the community, such as food intervention and nutritional education may be effective.

  18. Improvement of Students’ Ability to Analyzing Cases on Case Studies Through Journal and Learning Log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riska Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to improve the ability of students in guidance and counseling  to  analyzing the case through journals and learning logs This research is classroom action research consists of two cycles. The research phase consisted of planning, implementation, observation and reflection. The research subject are students in guidance and counseling while they are in sixth semester, totaling 20 people who were taking courses in Case Study. The research instrument is the observation guidelines, assessment rubrics and documentation of case studies in the form of journals and learning logs, and case study reports. The study was conducted collaboratively with student magister’s program guidance and counseling. The results showed that in cycle 1 students are able to identify cases, to develop ideas about the case, select and use instruments to analyze the cause of the problem. The results of the research cycle 2, showed 17 of the 20 students were able to analyze the cause of the problem, select the type of service and provide appropriate assistance in accordance with problem cases. Overall value obtained by the students in the subject of Case Studies also increased. In terms of the ability of explanation of the concept, the concept of truth and creativity, based on the ratings given by fellow students of average ability students were in either category, although there is less good, as are associated with the activity of the opinion and the quality of the opinions expressed.

  19. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  20. The effect of testing on skills learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten L; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In addition to the extrinsic effects of assessment and examinations on students' study habits, testing can have an intrinsic effect on the memory of studied material. Whether this testing effect also applies to skills learning is not known. However, this is especially interesting...... a prospective, controlled, randomised, single-blind, post-test-only intervention study, preceded by a similar pre- and post-test pilot study in order to make a power calculation. A total of 140 medical students participating in a mandatory 4-hour in-hospital resuscitation course in the seventh semester were...

  1. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  2. [Effect of selenium deficiency on the F344 inbred line offspring rats' neuro-behavior, ability of learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang-Li; Tian, Dong-Ping; Su, Min; Shen, Xiu-Na; Gao, Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To establish the selenium (Se) deficient animal model on F344 inbred line rats and observe the effects of a long-term Se-deficiency on the offspring's neuro-behavior, abilities of learning and memory. Feeding F344 inbred line rats on Se-deficient diet to establish Se-deficient animal model. For the offspring, the body weight, physiological indexes nervous reflections for growth and development were monitored during the early postnatal period. The Se-deficient diet contained less than 0.01 mg/kg and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood of the Se-deficient group rats is lower than the Se-normal group after feeding on Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. For the offspring, the birth weight and the body weight of Se-deficient group were obviously lower than the Se-normal group before weaning. Se-deficient offspring rats differed from Se-normal controls in lower scores in surface righting reflex (RR) test at postnatal 4th day after delivery, cliff avoidance test at postnatal 7th day and auditory acuity trial at postnatal 10th day respectively. But these differences disappear after a few days in the same tests. In addition, no significant differences between two groups in suspending test and walking ability test at postnatal 12th and 14th day. In open field test, Se-deficient male offspring stayed less time in the middle grid and moved less. In Morris water maze test, the Se-deficient offspring spent more time to find the hidden platform at the 6th and 9th training tests in the place navigation trial. Furthermore, the Se-deficient group spent less time in target quadrant when giving the spatial probe trial. A Se-deficient animal model have been established on F344 inbred line rats successfully. A long-term Se deficiency could retard the development of the offspring in uterus and after delivery. Se deficiency also decreased the offspring's abilities of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test and resulted in the male offspring's nervousness to new

  3. Improvement of metacognitive skills and students’ reasoning ability through problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryani, S.; Masfufah; Wijayati, N.; Kurniawan, C.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to know the influence of PBL application to the improvement of metacognitive skill and students’ reasoning ability on Constanta solubility product (Ksp). The research used mix method with concurrent triangulation strategy and pretest-posttest control group design. Metacognitive skills are known from the results of written tests and questionnaires with N-Gain analysis, t-test, whereas reasoning ability is known from observations and interviews with descriptive analysis. The results showed that the N-Gain effect of PBL on metacognitive skills is 0,59 with medium category and N-Gain value of PBL influence on reasoning ability is 0.71 with the high category. The steps in the PBL affect the metacognitive skills and can train learners to develop their reasoning skills in the solving problems.

  4. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  5. Influence Cooperative Learning Method and Personality Type to Ability to Write The Scientific Article (Experiment Study on SMAN 2 Students Ciamis Learning Indonesian Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.

  6. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  7. Deep Learning Questions Can Help Selection of High Ability Candidates for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, Jane; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Stein, John

    2009-01-01

    Selection of students for places at universities mainly depends on GCSE grades and predictions of A-level grades, both of which tend to favour applicants from independent schools. We have therefore developed a new type of test that would measure candidates' "deep learning" approach since this assesses the motivation and creative thinking…

  8. The developmental trajectory of children's auditory and visual statistical learning abilities: modality-based differences in the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Limor; Arnon, Inbal

    2017-09-12

    Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks and across modalities (e.g., auditory, visual), raising questions on the domain generality of SL. However, while SL is well established for infants and adults, only little is known about its developmental trajectory during childhood, leaving two important questions unanswered: (1) Is SL an early-maturing capacity that is fully developed in infancy, or does it improve with age like other cognitive capacities (e.g., memory)? and (2) Will SL have similar developmental trajectories across modalities? Only few studies have looked at SL across development, with conflicting results: some find age-related improvements while others do not. Importantly, no study to date has examined auditory SL across childhood, nor compared it to visual SL to see if there are modality-based differences in the developmental trajectory of SL abilities. We addressed these issues by conducting a large-scale study of children's performance on matching auditory and visual SL tasks across a wide age range (5-12y). Results show modality-based differences in the development of SL abilities: while children's learning in the visual domain improved with age, learning in the auditory domain did not change in the tested age range. We examine these findings in light of previous studies and discuss their implications for modality-based differences in SL and for the role of auditory SL in language acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kg35hoF0pw. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of creative mathematic thinking ability in problem based learning model based on self-regulation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munahefi, D. N.; Waluya, S. B.; Rochmad

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research identified the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) models based on Self Regulation Leaning (SRL) on the ability of mathematical creative thinking and analyzed the ability of mathematical creative thinking of high school students in solving mathematical problems. The population of this study was students of grade X SMA N 3 Klaten. The research method used in this research was sequential explanatory. Quantitative stages with simple random sampling technique, where two classes were selected randomly as experimental class was taught with the PBL model based on SRL and control class was taught with expository model. The selection of samples at the qualitative stage was non-probability sampling technique in which each selected 3 students were high, medium, and low academic levels. PBL model with SRL approach effectived to students’ mathematical creative thinking ability. The ability of mathematical creative thinking of low academic level students with PBL model approach of SRL were achieving the aspect of fluency and flexibility. Students of academic level were achieving fluency and flexibility aspects well. But the originality of students at the academic level was not yet well structured. Students of high academic level could reach the aspect of originality.

  10. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  11. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes

  12. Testing of spatial ability: construction and evaluation of a new instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 233-252 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spatial ability * testing * psychometrics Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  13. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  14. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  15. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  16. Development of a Culture Specific Critical Thinking Ability Test and Using It as a Supportive Diagnostic Test for Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a culture specific critical thinking ability test for 6, 7, and 8. grade students in Turkey and to use it as an assessment instrument for giftedness. For these purposes, item pool involving 22 items was formed by writing items focusing on the current and common events presented in (Turkish) media from…

  17. Prenatal exposure to nanosized zinc oxide in rats: neurotoxicity and postnatal impaired learning and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli, Feng; Junrong, Wu; Xuan, Lai; Yanli, Zhang; Limin, Wei; Jia, Liu; Longquan, Shao

    2017-04-01

    To examine the neurotoxicity of prenatal exposure to ZnO nanoparticles on rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by gavage. Toxicity was assessed including zinc biodistribution, cerebral histopathology, antioxidant status and learning and memory capability. A significantly elevated concentration of zinc was detected in offspring brains. Transmission electron microscope observations showed abnormal neuron ultrastructures. Histopathologic changes such as decreased proliferation and higher apoptotic death were observed. An obvious imbalanced antioxidant status occurred in brains. Adult experimental offspring exhibited impaired learning and memory behavior in the Morris water maze test compared with control groups. These adverse effects on offspring brain may cause impaired learning and memory capabilities in adulthood, particularly in female rats.

  18. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gregory

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning.

  19. The test ability of an adaptive pulse wave for ADC testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Xiaoqin; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    In the conventional ADC production test method, a high-quality analogue sine wave is applied to the Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC), which is expensive to generate. Nowadays, an increasing number of ADCs are integrated into a system-on-chip (SoC) platform design, which usually contains a digital

  20. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  1. Stochastic order in dichotomous item response models for fixed tests, research adaptive tests, or multiple abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1995-01-01

    Dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models can be viewed as families of stochastically ordered distributions of responses to test items. This paper explores several properties of such distributiom. The focus is on the conditions under which stochastic order in families of conditional

  2. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  3. Differential Constraints on the Working Memory and Reading Abilities of Individuals with Learning Difficulties and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…

  4. How Do Peers Impact Learning? An Experimental Investigation of Peer-To-Peer Teaching and Ability Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Kimbrough, Erik O.; McGee, Andrew; Shigeoka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Classroom peers are believed to influence learning by teaching each other, and the efficacy of this teaching likely depends on classroom composition in terms of peers' ability. Unfortunately, little is known about peer-to-peer teaching because it is never observed in field studies. Furthermore, identifying how peer-to-peer teaching is affected by ability tracking – grouping students of similar ability – is complicated by the fact that tracking is typically accompanied by changes in curriculum...

  5. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist

  6. Two Strains of Lymnaea stagnalis and the Progeny from Their Mating Display Differential Memory-Forming Ability on Associative Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Totani, Yuki; Nakamura, Ryota; Sakakibara, Manabu; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2017-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM) following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1) collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain. We asked whether the offspring of the Canadian TC1 and Dutch snails (i.e., filial 1 (F 1 ) cross snails) would have the superior memory ability and found, rather, that their memory ability was average like the Dutch snails. That is, the Canadian TC1 snails have superior ability for LTM formation following aerial respiratory operant conditioning, but the Dutch and the generated F 1 cross have average ability for memory forming. We next examined the Canadian TC1, Dutch and F 1 cross snails for their ability to learn and form memory following conditioned taste aversion (CTA). All three populations showed similar associative CTA responses. However, both LTM formation and the ratio of good-to-poor performers in the memory retention test were much better in the Dutch snails than the Canadian TC1 and F 1 cross snails. The memory abilities of the Canadian TC1 and F 1 cross snails were average. Our present findings, therefore, suggest that snails of different strains have different memory abilities, and the F 1 cross snails do not inherit the memory ability from the smart strain. To our knowledge, there have been a limited number of studies examining differences in memory ability among invertebrate strains, with the exception of studies using mutant flies.

  7. Two Strains of Lymnaea stagnalis and the Progeny from Their Mating Display Differential Memory-Forming Ability on Associative Learning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sunada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1 collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain. We asked whether the offspring of the Canadian TC1 and Dutch snails (i.e., filial 1 (F1 cross snails would have the superior memory ability and found, rather, that their memory ability was average like the Dutch snails. That is, the Canadian TC1 snails have superior ability for LTM formation following aerial respiratory operant conditioning, but the Dutch and the generated F1 cross have average ability for memory forming. We next examined the Canadian TC1, Dutch and F1 cross snails for their ability to learn and form memory following conditioned taste aversion (CTA. All three populations showed similar associative CTA responses. However, both LTM formation and the ratio of good-to-poor performers in the memory retention test were much better in the Dutch snails than the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails. The memory abilities of the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails were average. Our present findings, therefore, suggest that snails of different strains have different memory abilities, and the F1 cross snails do not inherit the memory ability from the smart strain. To our knowledge, there have been a limited number of studies examining differences in memory ability among invertebrate strains, with the exception of studies using mutant flies.

  8. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-04-27

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease), showing sensitivity to timing and rhythm deficits. Here we assessed the test-retest reliability of the BAASTA in 20 healthy adults. Participants were tested twice with the BAASTA, implemented on a tablet interface, with a 2-week interval. They completed 4 perceptual tasks, namely, duration discrimination, anisochrony detection with tones and music, and the Beat Alignment Test (BAT). Moreover, they completed motor tasks via finger tapping, including unpaced and paced tapping with tones and music, synchronization-continuation, and adaptive tapping to a sequence with a tempo change. Despite high variability among individuals, the results showed stable test-retest reliability in most tasks. A slight but significant improvement from test to retest was found in tapping with music, which may reflect a learning effect. In general, the BAASTA was found a reliable tool for evaluating timing and rhythm skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  10. Breast is best, but for how long? Testing breastfeeding guidelines for optimal cognitive ability

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Orla; Timmins, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development using longitudinal survey data. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months post-partum and a combination of complementary foods and breast milk thereafter. This study estimates non-parametric regression models to test whether these recommendations also hold for cognitive ability. Design. Longitudinal cohor...

  11. Enhancement of problem solving ability of high school students through learning with real engagement in active problem solving (REAPS) model on the concept of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulindar, A.; Setiawan, A.; Liliawati, W.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to influence the enhancement of problem solving ability before and after learning using Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model on the concept of heat transfer. The research method used is quantitative method with 35 high school students in Pontianak as sample. The result of problem solving ability of students is obtained through the test in the form of 3 description questions. The instrument has tested the validity by the expert judgment and field testing that obtained the validity value of 0.84. Based on data analysis, the value of N-Gain is 0.43 and the enhancement of students’ problem solving ability is in medium category. This was caused of students who are less accurate in calculating the results of answers and they also have limited time in doing the questions given.

  12. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Test-enhanced learning: the potential for testing to promote greater learning in undergraduate science courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Cynthia J; Biel, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Testing within the science classroom is commonly used for both formative and summative assessment purposes to let the student and the instructor gauge progress toward learning goals. Research within cognitive science suggests, however, that testing can also be a learning event. We present summaries of studies that suggest that repeated retrieval can enhance long-term learning in a laboratory setting; various testing formats can promote learning; feedback enhances the benefits of testing; testing can potentiate further study; and benefits of testing are not limited to rote memory. Most of these studies were performed in a laboratory environment, so we also present summaries of experiments suggesting that the benefits of testing can extend to the classroom. Finally, we suggest opportunities that these observations raise for the classroom and for further research. © 2015 C. J. Brame and R. Biel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. The external-internal loop of interference: two types of attention and their influence on the learning abilities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Kwan, Stephanie; Matzel, Louis D

    2014-12-01

    Attention is a component of the working memory system, and is responsible for protecting task-relevant information from interference. Cognitive performance (particularly outside of the laboratory) is often plagued by interference, and the source of this interference, either external or internal, might influence the expression of individual differences in attentional ability. By definition, external attention (also described as "selective attention") protects working memory against sensorial distractors of all kinds, while internal attention (also called "inhibition") protects working memory against emotional impulses, irrelevant information from memory, and automatically-generated responses. At present, it is unclear if these two types of attention are expressed independently in non-human animals, and how they might differentially impact performance on other cognitive processes, such as learning. By using a diverse battery of four attention tests (with varying levels of internal and external sources of interference), here we aimed both to explore this issue, and to obtain a robust and general (less task-specific) measure of attention in mice. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two factors (external and internal attention) that in total, accounted for 73% of the variance in attentional performance. Confirmatory factor analyses found an excellent fit with the data of the model of attention that assumed an external and internal distinction (with a resulting correlation of 0.43). In contrast, a model of attention that assumed one source of variance (i.e., "general attention") exhibited a poor fit with the data. Regarding the relationship between attention and learning, higher resistance against external sources of interference promoted better new learning, but tended to impair performance when cognitive flexibility was required, such as during the reversal of a previously instantiated response. The present results suggest that there can be (at least) two types of

  15. The reward of seeing: Different types of visual reward and their ability to modify oculomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermeier, Annegret; Gremmler, Svenja; Richert, Kerstin; Eckermann, Til; Lappe, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Saccadic adaptation is an oculomotor learning process that maintains the accuracy of eye movements to ensure effective perception of the environment. Although saccadic adaptation is commonly considered an automatic and low-level motor calibration in the cerebellum, we recently found that strength of adaptation is influenced by the visual content of the target: pictures of humans produced stronger adaptation than noise stimuli. This suggests that meaningful images may be considered rewarding or valuable in oculomotor learning. Here we report three experiments that establish the boundaries of this effect. In the first, we tested whether stimuli that were associated with high and low value following long term self-administered reinforcement learning produce stronger adaptation. Twenty-eight expert gamers participated in two sessions of adaptation to game-related high- and low-reward stimuli, but revealed no difference in saccadic adaptation (Bayes Factor01 = 5.49). In the second experiment, we tested whether cognitive (literate) meaning could induce stronger adaptation by comparing targets consisting of words and nonwords. The results of twenty subjects revealed no difference in adaptation strength (Bayes Factor01 = 3.21). The third experiment compared images of human figures to noise patterns for reactive saccades. Twenty-two subjects adapted significantly more toward images of human figures in comparison to noise (p vs. noise), but not secondary, reinforcement affects saccadic adaptation (words vs. nonwords, high- vs. low-value video game images).

  16. E-learning task analysis making temporal evolution graphics on symptoms of waves and the ability to solve problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdiana, L.; Widodo, W.; Nurita, T.; Fauziah, A. N. M.

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the ability of pre-service teachers to create graphs, solve the problem of spatial and temporal evolution on the symptoms of vibrations and waves. The learning was conducted using e-learning method. The research design is a quasi-experimental design with one-shot case study. The e-learning contained learning materials and tasks involving answering tasks, making questions, solving their own questions, and making graphs. The participants of the study was 28 students of Science Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The results obtained by using the e-learning were that the students’ ability increase gradually from task 1 to task 3 (the tasks consisted of three tasks). Additionally, based on the questionnaire with 28 respondents, it showed that 24 respondents stated that making graphs via e-learning were still difficult. Four respondents said that it was easy to make graphs via e-learning. Nine respondents stated that the e-learning did not help them in making graphs and 19 respondents stated that the e-learning help in creating graphs. The conclusion of the study is that the students was able to make graphs on paper sheet, but they got difficulty to make the graphs in e-learning (the virtual form).

  17. Hippocampal Structure Predicts Statistical Learning and Associative Inference Abilities during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Guarino, Katharine F; Schapiro, Anna C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Preston, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning and remembering across the lifespan, little is known about how the episodic memory system develops to support the extraction of associative structure from the environment. Here, we relate individual differences in volumes along the hippocampal long axis to performance on statistical learning and associative inference tasks-both of which require encoding associations that span multiple episodes-in a developmental sample ranging from ages 6 to 30 years. Relating age to volume, we found dissociable patterns across the hippocampal long axis, with opposite nonlinear volume changes in the head and body. These structural differences were paralleled by performance gains across the age range on both tasks, suggesting improvements in the cross-episode binding ability from childhood to adulthood. Controlling for age, we also found that smaller hippocampal heads were associated with superior behavioral performance on both tasks, consistent with this region's hypothesized role in forming generalized codes spanning events. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of examining hippocampal development as a function of position along the hippocampal axis and suggest that the hippocampal head is particularly important in encoding associative structure across development.

  18. ENHANCING STUDENTS’ READING ABILITY THROUGH INQUIRY BASED LEARNING TO EFL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnia Sari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IBT techniques is series of activities that involved maximally throughout the student's ability to search and investigate in a systematic, critical, logical, analytical, so that they can formulate their own discoveries with confidence the search of knowledge and understanding to satisfy curiosity. IBT technique is also supposed to the teachers be creative to set situations. This method used was quasi experimental design. The purposive sampling technique was used on this study. The data were collected by reading test. The collected data was analyzed by using paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The results showed that the students’ reading ability was improved and there was a significant difference between the students who were taught by using IBT and those who were not. With IBT technique encouraged students to take the initiative to have question the phenomenon, to conduct field observations, to analyze the data, and to draw conclusions. Thus, it is to integrate students and synergize various skills of language and different methods.

  19. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students’ Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student’s ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. Aim To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson’s coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. Results One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST’s subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in

  20. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students' Critical Thinking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran Soltani; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student's ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson's coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST's subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in the assessment of critical thinking abilities of medical

  1. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research.

  2. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  3. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS, which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait–correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M–1, that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994. These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  4. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-08-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait-correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M-1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  5. LESSONS LEARNED IN TESTING OF SAFEGUARDS EQUIPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, S.; Farnitano, M.; Carelli, J.; Hazeltine, J.; Bailey, D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards uses complex instrumentation for the application of safeguards at nuclear facilities around the world. Often, this equipment is developed through cooperation with member state support programs because the Agency's requirements are unique and are not met by commercially available equipment. Before approving an instrument or system for routine inspection use, the IAEA subjects it to a series of tests designed to evaluate its reliability. In 2000, the IAEA began to observe operational failures in digital surveillance systems. In response to the observed failures, the IAEA worked with the equipment designer and manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. An action plan was developed to correct the performance issues and further test the systems to make sure that additional operational issues would not surface later. This paper addresses the steps taken to address operation issues related to digital image surveillance systems and the lessons learned during this process

  6. Clinical implications of using the arm motor ability test in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Finnen, Lisa Rivera; Polistena, Caitlin

    2011-05-01

    To identify all published studies using the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT), a standardized, laboratory-based measure for selected upper extremity activities of daily living (ADLs); and to summarize its current uses and provide recommendations for its future use. An Ovid online search was performed using the terms "Arm Motor Ability Test" and "AMAT." The reference lists of all articles obtained were reviewed for additional studies not appearing in the literature search. In addition, the original manual for the use and administration of the AMAT was reviewed. All studies examining the psychometric properties of the AMAT or using the AMAT as an outcome measure were identified. Articles simply mentioning the AMAT without providing data and case reports or abstracts (other than those addressing a specific aspect of the scale of interest) were excluded. Studies were reviewed by the primary author. No formal system of quality review was used. The AMAT has been used as an outcome measure in stroke rehabilitation research examining upper extremity robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and cortical stimulation. The most recent version contains 10 ADL tasks, each of which is composed of 1 to 3 subtasks. Of the 3 domains originally proposed, only the "functional ability" domain is routinely assessed. Psychometric studies have demonstrated good reliability and at least reasonable construct validity. The instrument's sensitivity to change over time is less well established, and no recommendation can be made regarding a minimal clinically important difference. We recommend that the 10-item version of the AMAT and assessment of only the functional ability domain be adopted as standard going forward. Further research should include examination of sensitivity over time, minimal clinically important change, reliability and validity in the mid and lower range of scores, and in neurologic diagnoses other than stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  7. The effectiveness of nurses' ability to interpret basic electrocardiogram strips accurately using different learning modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Johnson, Kimberly; Robertson, Bethany; Barrett, Darcy T; Jarrell, Nicole M; Hunter, Donna; Mendoza, Inocencia

    2012-02-01

    Historically, the instructional method of choice has been traditional lecture or face-to-face education; however, changes in the health care environment, including resource constraints, have necessitated examination of this practice. A descriptive pre-/posttest method was used to determine the effectiveness of alternative teaching modalities on nurses' knowledge and confidence in electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation. A convenience sample of 135 nurses was recruited in an integrated health care system in the Southeastern United States. Nurses attended an instructor-led course, an online learning (e-learning) platform with no study time or 1 week of study time, or an e-learning platform coupled with a 2-hour post-course instructor-facilitated debriefing with no study time or 1 week of study time. Instruments included a confidence scale, an online EKG test, and a course evaluation. Statistically significant differences in knowledge and confidence were found for individual groups after nurses participated in the intervention. Statistically significant differences were found in pre-knowledge and post-confidence when groups were compared. Organizations that use various instructional methods to educate nurses in EKG interpretation can use different teaching modalities without negatively affecting nurses' knowledge or confidence in this skill. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Effects of exercise on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and ability of learning and memory after hippocampus lesion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHEN; Shan GONG; Li-Dong SHAN; Wei-Ping XU; Yue-Jin ZHANG; Shi-Yu GUO; Tadashi Hisamitsu; Qi-Zhang YIN; Xing-Hong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of exercise on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned adult rats. Methods Hippocampus lesion was produced by intrahippocampal microinjection of kainic acid (KA). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label dividing cells. Y maze test was used to evaluate the ability of learning and memory. Exercise was conducted in the form of forced running in a motor-driven running wheel. The speed of wheel revolution was regulated at 3 kinds of intensity: lightly running, moderately running, or heavily running. Results Hippocampus lesion could increase the number of BrdU-labeled DG cells, moderately running after lesion could further enhance the number of BrdU-labeled cells and decrease the error number (EN) in Y maze test,while neither lightly running, nor heavily running had such effects. There was a negative correlation between the number of DG BrdU-labeled cells and the EN in the Y maze test after running. Conclusion Moderate exercise could enhance the DG neurogenesis and ameliorate the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned rats.

  9. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Molazem Atashgahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening has any impact on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch.  The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional scores, among all the testers, only those whose scores were nearly within one standard deviation above or below the mean were selected as the participants of this study. After the assignment of the participants to the control and experimental groups- 30 students in each group- they were asked to write five-paragraph-essays on two topics. Such a pretest was given to both groups to test their initial writing ability. Once scoring of the students’ writings (five- paragraph essay was finished the two means of the groups were calculated and compared with each other through the t-test analysis. The result demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those two groups regarding the variable under investigation. Four sets of diagnostic tests were given to the experimental group every two weeks and after each test both the result of the exam and suitable feedback regarding students’ errors were given to them by the teacher, while the Current-Traditional Rhetoric method was administered in the control group. In the posttest which was run after giving the treatment and placebo to experimental group and control group respectively, students took another writing test with the same characteristics in administration, topics and scoring as the one in pretest. Thereafter, the significance of the difference between the obtained means of experimental and control groups in the posttest was determined through the t-test.  The result of the t-test analysis indicated a significant difference between the two groups which consequently rejected the null hypothesis of the study. Therefore, any

  11. Manganese-Disrupted Interaction of Dopamine D1 and NMDAR in the Striatum to Injury Learning and Memory Ability of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qifan; Deng, Yu; Yang, Xinxin; Bai, Ying; Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Wenxue; Wang, Can; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Zhaofa

    2016-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is widely regarded as a neurotoxic heavy metal that causes learning and memory deficits. Recently, it has been proved that the striatum is related to memory and learning ability. However, no previous study focused on the effect of Mn-induced learning and memory deficits on the striatum. This study aims to investigate the probable interaction of dopamine D1 receptor (DR1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), two cognition-related receptors in the striatum during Mn exposure. Mice are randomly divided into four groups, including control group, 12.5 mg/kg MnCl 2 group, 25 mg/kg MnCl 2 group, and 50 mg/kg MnCl 2 group. The mice receive intraperitoneal injections of 0, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg MnCl 2 once daily for 2 weeks. Then, learning and memory ability, pathological changes, expression, and interaction of DR1 and NMDAR are determined. It has been found that Mn disrupted spatial learning and memory ability of mice by Morris water maze test and the passive avoidance test. Pathological and ultrastructure were injured. Mn decreased the immunohistochemical activities, protein levels, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of DR1, NR1, and NR2A. Mn exposure inhibited interaction between DR1 and NMDAR in striatum by double immunofluorescent staining and co-immunoprecipitation. In conclusion, our study illustrated that Mn caused learning and memory dysfunction via injury of striatum and inhibition of interaction between DR1 and NMDAR in striatum.

  12. The Enhancement of Junior High School Students' Abilities in Mathematical Problem Solving Using Soft Skill-based Metacognitive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Murni, Atma; Sabandar, Jozua; S. Kusumah, Yaya; Kartasamita, Bana Goerbana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to know the differences of enhancement in mathematical problem solving ability (MPSA) between the students who received soft skill- based metacognitive learning (SSML) with the students who got conventional learning (CL). This research is a quasi experimental design with pretest-postest control group. The population in this study is the students of Junior High School in Pekanbaru city. The sample consist of 135 students, 68 of them are from the high-level...

  13. Superior short-term learning effect of visual and sensory organisation ability when sensory information is unreliable in adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ya; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Tsao, Hung-Ting

    2017-06-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts specialise in dynamic balance under sensory conditions of numerous somatosensory, visual, and vestibular stimulations. This study investigated whether adolescent rhythmic gymnasts are superior to peers in Sensory Organisation test (SOT) performance, which quantifies the ability to maintain standing balance in six sensory conditions, and explored whether they plateaued faster during familiarisation with the SOT. Three and six sessions of SOTs were administered to 15 female rhythmic gymnasts (15.0 ± 1.8 years) and matched peers (15.1 ± 2.1 years), respectively. The gymnasts were superior to their peers in terms of fitness measures, and their performance was better in the SOT equilibrium score when visual information was unreliable. The SOT learning effects were shown in more challenging sensory conditions between Sessions 1 and 2 and were equivalent in both groups; however, over time, the gymnasts gained marginally significant better visual ability and relied less on visual sense when unreliable. In conclusion, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts have generally the same sensory organisation ability and learning rates as their peers. However, when visual information is unreliable, they have superior sensory organisation ability and learn faster to rely less on visual sense.

  14. Machine Learning Approach for Prediction and Understanding of Glass-Forming Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y T; Bai, H Y; Li, M Z; Wang, W H

    2017-07-20

    The prediction of the glass-forming ability (GFA) by varying the composition of alloys is a challenging problem in glass physics, as well as a problem for industry, with enormous financial ramifications. Although different empirical guides for the prediction of GFA were established over decades, a comprehensive model or approach that is able to deal with as many variables as possible simultaneously for efficiently predicting good glass formers is still highly desirable. Here, by applying the support vector classification method, we develop models for predicting the GFA of binary metallic alloys from random compositions. The effect of different input descriptors on GFA were evaluated, and the best prediction model was selected, which shows that the information related to liquidus temperatures plays a key role in the GFA of alloys. On the basis of this model, good glass formers can be predicted with high efficiency. The prediction efficiency can be further enhanced by improving larger database and refined input descriptor selection. Our findings suggest that machine learning is very powerful and efficient and has great potential for discovering new metallic glasses with good GFA.

  15. An active-learning strategies primer for achieving ability-based educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Brenda L; Peeters, Michael J; Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan; Denetclaw, Tina H

    2011-11-10

    Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences.

  16. Validating a test to assess early childhood learners’ ability to perceive, express and appreciate emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Mestre Navas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Education, regardless of the school level, has an important mission in the goal of any educational project: socialising younger generations. However, it is also important to assess implemented programs by means of a valid, reliable measure of the progression of children’s’ cognitive and emotional development. Using a sample of 138 early childhood learners (aged from 3 to 6 this paper tested an instrument for assessing the ability to perceive, appreciate and express emotions (as defined by Mayer & Salovey’s model, 1997; 2007. Also, external criteria were developed by teachers on several issues related to children’s social and personal adaptation (school rules, achievement, impulsiveness, social acceptance of peers and hostility. Findings suggest that children from 3 to 6 years who obtain best scores in the perception and assessment of basic emotions are considered by their teachers to better adjust to school rules, to better control impulses, to achieve better academic performance and to be less problematic. It is also important to note that the study is at its initial stages and presents some limitations, as certain important variables such as personality and verbal ability are not controlled. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that children showed great enthusiasm in taking the test.

  17. Effects of Shenlong Decoction on Learning and Memory Abilities as well as SOD and MDA in Brain-aging Model Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi; Wang Fawei; Yang Minghui; Zheng Qingping; Wang Youjing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Brain aging (dementia) model mice were made by cervical subcutaneous injection of D-galactose solution.Learning and memory abilities were detected with water maze test and superoxide dismulase(SOD)activities and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents in the liver and brain were determined after intragastrical administration of Shenlong Decoction (参龙汤) for 6 weeks. The results indicated that the swimming time was shortened and the correct swimming times increased, SOD activity raised and MDA content decreased in the three Shenlong Decoction groups with different doses as compared with the model group. It is concluded that Shenlong Decoction has the effects of anti-free radical injuries and improving the learning and memory abilities of the brain-aging mice induced by D-galactose.

  18. Students' views of cooperative learning and group testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.

  19. Reliability characteristics and applicability of a repeated sprint ability test in male young soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Francini, Lorenzo; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness and reliability characteristics of a repeated sprint ability test considering 5 line sprints of 30-m interspersed with 30-s of active recovery in non-elite outfield young male soccer players. Twenty-six (age 14.9±1.2 years, height 1.72±0.12 cm......, body mass 62.2±5.1 kg) players were tested 48 hours and 7 days apart for 5x30-m performance over 5 trials (T1-T5). Short- (T1-T2) and long-term reliability (T1-T3-T4-T5) were assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and with typical error for measurement (TEM). Short- and long...... study revealed that the 5x30-m sprint test is a reliable field test in the short and long-term when the sum of sprint times and the best sprint performance are considered as outcome variables. Sprint performance decrements variables showed large variability across trials....

  20. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.

  1. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions).

  2. Mobile Learning Based Worked Example in Electric Circuit (WEIEC) Application to Improve the High School Students' Electric Circuits Interpretation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiannur, Mitra; Supahar

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the feasibility and effectivity of mobile learning based Worked Example in Electric Circuits (WEIEC) application in improving the high school students' electric circuits interpretation ability on Direct Current Circuits materials. The research method used was a combination of Four-D Models and ADDIE model. The…

  3. The application of brain-based learning principles aided by GeoGebra to improve mathematical representation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatna, Nanang

    2017-08-01

    The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in mathematics instruction will help students in building conceptual understanding. One of the software products used in mathematics instruction is GeoGebra. The program enables simple visualization of complex geometric concepts and helps improve students' understanding of geometric concepts. Instruction applying brain-based learning principles is one oriented at the efforts of naturally empowering the brain potentials which enable students to build their own knowledge. One of the goals of mathematics instruction in school is to develop mathematical communication ability. Mathematical representation is regarded as a part of mathematical communication. It is a description, expression, symbolization, or modeling of mathematical ideas/concepts as an attempt of clarifying meanings or seeking for solutions to the problems encountered by students. The research aims to develop a learning model and teaching materials by applying the principles of brain-based learning aided by GeoGebra to improve junior high school students' mathematical representation ability. It adopted a quasi-experimental method with the non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design and the 2x3 factorial model. Based on analysis of the data, it is found that the increase in the mathematical representation ability of students who were treated with mathematics instruction applying the brain-based learning principles aided by GeoGebra was greater than the increase of the students given conventional instruction, both as a whole and based on the categories of students' initial mathematical ability.

  4. Effect of Ability Grouping in Reciprocal Teaching Technique of Collaborative Learning on Individual Achievements and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumadi; Degeng, I Nyoman S.; Sulthon; Waras

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on effects of ability grouping in reciprocal teaching technique of collaborative learning on individual achievements dan social skills. The results research showed that (1) there are differences in individual achievement significantly between high group of homogeneous, middle group of homogeneous, low group of homogeneous,…

  5. Improving Teaching Quality and Problem Solving Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning in Differential Equations: A Lesson Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…

  6. Effects of Dispositional Ability Conceptions, Manipulated Learning Environments, and Intrinsic Motivation on Persistence and Performance: An Interaction Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Lee, Amelia M.; Solmon, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    The present study used an interaction approach to investigate how individuals' dispositions about ability as incremental or fixed (entity), manipulated learning environments, and intrinsic motivation affect persistence and performance on a challenging, novel motor skill. Seventy-two female college students who were assigned to either an…

  7. Influences of reduced masticatory sensory input from soft-diet feeding upon spatial memory/learning ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Keisuke; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tohma, Yuiko; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Tadashi; Kohno, Shinya; Ohtani, Junji; Tenjoh, Kaoru; Nakano, Mao; Kamada, Hiroko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2007-02-01

    It has been reported that reduction of masticatory afferent stimulation might influence learning and memory function. In order to clarify the influences of reduced masticatory sensory input on spatial memory/learning ability and neuropathological changes, we conducted the Morris water maze experiment and investigated the number of hippocampal neurons in association with the differences in masticatory afferent stimuli from hard- and soft-diet feeding in mice. The water maze experiment showed no significant difference in learning ability between 180-day-old solid- and powderdiet groups. Meanwhile, the ability was significantly reduced in the 360-day-old powder-diet group as compared with the age-matched solid-diet group. The total number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was significantly smaller in 360-day-old powder-diet group than in the remaining groups. These results demonstrate that reduction of masticatory afferent stimuli due to long-term soft-diet feeding may induce neuron loss in the hippocampus and reduced memory/learning ability.

  8. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.; Werner, C.M.; Knetemann, M.; Honing, H.

    Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence

  9. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  10. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Hayes, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Gradual Learning Algorithm (Boersma 1997) is a constraint ranking algorithm for learning Optimality-theoretic grammars. The purpose of this article is to assess the capabilities of the Gradual Learning Algorithm, particularly in comparison with the Constraint Demotion algorithm of Tesar and

  11. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Hayes, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Gradual Learning Algorithm (Boersma 1997) is a constraint-ranking algorithm for learning optimality-theoretic grammars. The purpose of this article is to assess the capabilities of the Gradual Learning Algorithm, particularly in comparison with the Constraint Demotion algorithm of Tesar and

  12. Utilizing constructivism learning theory in collaborative testing as a creative strategy to promote essential nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Barbara T; Satre, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    In nursing education, students participate in individual learner testing. This process follows the instructionist learning theory of a system model. However, in the practice of nursing, success depends upon collaboration with numerous people in different capacities, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and the ability to communicate with others. Research has shown that collaborative testing, a constructivism learning activity and a form of collaborative learning, enhances students' abilities to master these areas. Collaborative testing is a clear, creative strategy which constructivists would say supports the socio-linguistic base of their learning theory. The test becomes an active implementation of peer-mediated learning where individual knowledge is enhanced through problem solving or defense of an individual position with the collaborative method. There is criticism for the testing method's potential of grade inflation and for students to receive grade benefits with little effort. After a review of various collaborative testing methods, this nursing faculty implemented a collaborative testing format that addresses both the positive and negative aspects of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lithium chloride ameliorates learning and memory ability and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta activity in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengqiang Chen; Xuegang Luo; Quan Yang; Weiwen Sun; Kaiyi Cao; Xi Chen; Yueling Huang; Lijun Dai; Yonghong Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, Fmr1 knockout mice (KO mice) were used as the model for fragile X syndrome. The results of step-through and step-down tests demonstrated that Fmr1 KO mice had shorter latencies and more error counts, indicating a learning and memory disorder. After treatment with 30, 60, 90, 120, or 200 mg/kg lithium chloride, the learning and memory abilities of the Fmr1 KO mice were significantly ameliorated, in particular, the 200 mg/kg lithium chloride treatment had the most significant effect. Western blot analysis showed that lithium chloride significantly enhanced the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, an inactive form of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Fmr1 KO mice. These results indicated that lithium chloride improved learning and memory in the Fmr1 KO mice, possibly by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity.

  14. Test Ability of Chiller Post Re-functioning at The Facility of KH-IPSB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harahap, Sentot-Alibasya; M-Taufik-Arsyad; Djunaidi

    2006-01-01

    Chiller water unit (CWU) represent supplier of cool water for the system of ventilation, cooler of purification system irrigate canal (T.C) and pool (depository ponds) ex-fuel at facility of KH-IPSB3. Have been conducted by re-functioning of Chiller unit water by changing system conduct and control from electronic mode to mode of electric-mechanic and parts of damage other. A unit water chiller system have some component / appliance which way of its activity integrated one other, so that re-functioning of partial like in this time where some of component / appliance use old goods and some of using new material hence to get optimum activity at test ability of difficult chiller relative. At operation is old ones expected by optimum activity will be able to reach with an process which in phases and planed. (author)

  15. Impact of Cooperative Learning in Developing Students' Cognitive Abilities for Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorani, Bareerah Hafeez

    2014-01-01

    This study used an Action Research Method to investigate ways to improve the thinking and reasoning skills of grade eight science students in an under-resourced school in Karachi. The students' rote learning patterns were challenged using the schema provided by Blooms' taxonomy of learning domains. A cooperative learning environment was generated…

  16. Does a Strategy Training Foster Students' Ability to Learn from Multimedia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Gerjets, Peter; Stalbovs, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the general effectiveness of multimedia instruction, students do not always benefit from it. This study examined whether students' learning from multimedia can be improved by teaching them relevant learning strategies. On the basis of current theories and research on multimedia learning, the authors developed a strategy training for…

  17. Concurrent validity of the differential ability scales, second edition with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning in young children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Golden, Christine; Thurm, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of intelligence in young children with neurodevelopmental disorders are critical for making diagnoses, in characterizing symptoms of disorders, and in predicting future outcomes. The limitations of standardized testing for children with developmental delay or cognitive impairment are well known: Tests do not exist that provide developmentally appropriate material along with norms that extend to the lower reaches of ability. Two commonly used and interchanged instruments are the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a test of developmental level, and the Differential Ability Scales, second edition (DAS-II), a more traditional cognitive test. We evaluated the correspondence of contemporaneous MSEL and the DAS-II scores in a mixed sample of children aged 2-10 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), non-ASD developmental delays, and typically developing children across the full spectrum of cognitive ability. Consistent with published data on the original DAS and the MSEL, scores on the DAS-II and MSEL were highly correlated. However, curve estimation revealed large mean differences that varied as a function of the child's cognitive ability level. We conclude that interchanging MSEL and DAS-II scores without regard to the discrepancy in scores may produce misleading results in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of children with and without ASD, and, thus, this practice should be implemented with caution.

  18. Effect of single and fractionated x-irradiation on maze learning ability of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Isao

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-six-day-old male ddk mice at the starting of the investigation were used as subjects through the experiment for 64 weeks. After 15 days' preliminary training, and 16 times of weekly trial training using complete maze, 15 mice received a single 224 rads of x-rays (S group), another 15 mice received two 112 rads spaced two weeks apart (F group) and another 15 mice were sham-irradiated (Control group). Then those mice were tested on the multiple T-maze with nine-choice points and change of performance was observed in terms of errorchoices by giving one test trial a week. We introduced the concept of ''confusional trials'' as an index for surmising to what extent mice failed to exhibit good maze learning habits. In the results, the F group showed significantly worse performance than the two other groups at early stages, opposite to it the S group exhibited the same, but at late stages after irradiation. The worse performance of F group should be considered to be due to the psychological after-effect to fractionated irradiation and that for S group could be assumed to be due to the acceleration of aging by the irradiation. (auth.)

  19. The ability of ewes with lambs to learn a virtual fencing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, E I; Bergslid, I K; Bøe, K E; Sørheim, K M

    2017-11-01

    The Nofence technology is a GPS-based virtual fencing system designed to keep sheep within predefined borders, without using physical fences. Sheep wearing a Nofence collar receive a sound signal when crossing the virtual border and a weak electric shock if continuing to walk out from the virtual enclosure. Two experiments testing the functionality of the Nofence system and a new learning protocol is described. In Experiment 1, nine ewes with their lambs were divided into groups of three and placed in an experimental enclosure with one Nofence border. During 2 days, there was a physical fence outside the border, during Day 3 the physical fence was removed and on Day 4, the border was moved to the other end of the enclosure. The sheep received between 6 and 20 shocks with an average of 10.9±2.0 (mean±SE) per ewe during all 4 days. The number of shocks decreased from 4.38±0.63 on Day 3 (when the physical fence was removed) to 1.5±0.71 on Day 4 (when the border was moved). The ewes spent on average 3%, 6%, 46% and 9% of their time outside the border on Days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In Experiment 2, 32 ewes, with and without lambs, were divided into groups of eight and placed in an experimental enclosure. On Day 1, the enclosure was fenced with three physical fences and one virtual border, which was then increased to two virtual borders on Day 2. To continue to Day 3, when there was supposed to be three virtual borders on the enclosure, at least 50% of the ewes in a group should have received a maximum of four shocks on Day 2. None of the groups reached this learning criterion and the experiment ended after Day 2. The sheep received 4.1±0.32 shocks on Day 1 and 4.7±0.28 shocks on Day 2. In total, 71% of the ewes received the maximum number of five shocks on Day 1 and 77% on Day 2. The individual ewes spent between 0% and 69.5% of Day 1 in the exclusion zone and between 0% and 64% on Day 2. In conclusion, it is too challenging to ensure an efficient learning

  20. Selective Attention is a Primary Determinant of the Relationship between Working Memory and General Learning Ability in Outbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolata, Stefan; Light, Kenneth; Grossman, Henya C.; Hale, Gregory; Matzel, Louis D.

    2007-01-01

    A single factor (i.e., general intelligence) can account for much of an individuals' performance across a wide variety of cognitive tests. However, despite this factor's robustness, the underlying process is still a matter of debate. To address this question, we developed a novel battery of learning tasks to assess the general learning abilities…

  1. Comparison of the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shaohua; Yu, Ping

    2017-03-01

    To explore and compare the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning methods, unfolding nursing case and usual nursing case, implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability. 122 undergraduate nursing students in four classes were taught the subject of medical nursing for one year. Two classes were randomly assigned as the experimental group and the other two the control group. The experimental group received the lectures presenting unfolding nursing cases and the control group was taught the usual cases. Nineteen case-based lectures were provided in 8 months in two semesters to each group. The two groups started with a similar level of critical thinking ability as tested by the instrument of Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese version (CTDI-CV). After receiving 19 case-based learning lectures for 8 months, both groups of students significantly improved their critical thinking ability. The improvement in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (with the average total score of 303.77±15.24 vs. 288.34±13.94, plearning in lectures. Unfolding nursing cases appear to be significantly more effective than the usual nursing cases in developing undergraduate nursing students' critical thinking ability in the subject of medical nursing. Further research can implement the unfolding nursing cases in other nursing subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model to simulate contributing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, S. G.; Spence, C.

    2016-06-01

    A dry climate, the prevalence of small depressions, and the lack of a well-developed drainage network are characteristics of environments with extremely variable contributing areas to runoff. These types of regions arguably present the greatest challenge to properly understanding catchment streamflow generation processes. Previous studies have shown that contributing area dynamics are important for streamflow response, but the nature of the relationship between the two is not typically understood. Furthermore, it is not often tested how well hydrological models simulate contributing area. In this study, the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model, was tested to determine if it could simulate contributing area. The study focused on the St. Denis Creek watershed in central Saskatchewan, Canada, which with its considerable topographic depressions, exhibits wide variation in contributing area, making it ideal for this type of investigation. MESH-PDMROF was able to replicate contributing area derived independently from satellite imagery. Daily model simulations revealed a hysteretic relationship between contributing area and streamflow not apparent from the less frequent remote sensing observations. This exercise revealed that contributing area extent can be simulated by a semi-distributed hydrological model with a scheme that assumes storage capacity distribution can be represented with a probability function. However, further investigation is needed to determine if it can adequately represent the complex relationship between streamflow and contributing area that is such a key signature of catchment behavior.

  3. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  4. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Werner, Carola M; Knetemann, Myrthe; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-05-01

    Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels. To control for sequential learning of the order of the different sounds, we used temporally regular (isochronous) and jittered rhythmic sequences. The order of sounds was identical in both conditions, but only the regular condition allowed for the perception of a beat. Unexpected intensity decrements were introduced on the beat and offbeat. In the regular condition, both beat perception and sequential learning were expected to enhance detection of these deviants on the beat. In the jittered condition, only sequential learning was expected to affect processing of the deviants. ERP responses to deviants were larger on the beat than offbeat in both conditions. Importantly, this difference was larger in the regular condition than in the jittered condition, suggesting that beat perception influenced responses to rhythmic events in addition to sequential learning. The influence of beat perception was present both with and without attention directed at the rhythm. Moreover, beat perception as measured with ERPs correlated with musical abilities, but only when attention was directed at the stimuli. Our study shows that beat perception is possible when attention is not directed at a rhythm. In addition, our results suggest that attention may mediate the influence of musical abilities on beat

  5. CALL AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING: A SOLUTION TO DEVELOP STUDENTS‟ LISTENING ABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Delsa Miranty

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to provide some ideas both for English teachers and target learners about how to apply CALL and Cooperative Learning as the solution to develop students‘ listening activities in the classroom. Since teachers need to understand about students‘ needs, background, age and expectations when they learn English as the foreign language in the classroom. Therefore, the English teacher should provide environment which facilitates the children to have fun di the teaching learning proces...

  6. Analysis of the ability of junior high school students’ performance in science in STEM project-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, A.; Sinaga, P.; Suwarma, I. R.

    2018-05-01

    The challenges in 21st century demands the high competitiveness. The way of thinking ability, determine how it work ability and choose instrument be part of the skills will need in the 21st century. The competence it can be supported by learning involving the student performance skills. Based on the preliminary studies at one junior high school in Bandung found that the learning involving of performance skill is low.This is supported by data from respondent in received the opportunity to make devise a sketch in of learning especially based on practices or projects, the results are 75 % students said rarely and 18,75 % students said never. In addition seen also how the student activities in project based learning in class the results stated that 68,75 % of students said less, and 6.25 % of students said never. Therefore, we did a result to uncover profile performance on the design process and the performance process of junior high school student performances to the matter optical by using STEM project based learning. From this result. From the research obtained the average score classes in the activities of the design process is as much as 2,49 or dipersentasikan become 62,41 % are in the good category and the average score classes in the process of the performance of activities receive is 3,13 or 78,28 % are in the good category.

  7. EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL AND LOGICAL THINKING ABILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhyar Lubis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students. Who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning, to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students? Who can think logically high is better than the students who have the potential to think logically low, analyze whether there is an interaction between scientific inquiry learning model with logical thinking skills to students' science process skills. This research is a quasi-experimental design with the two-group pretest-posttest design. The study population is all students of class X SMA Negeri 4 Padangsidimpuan semester II academic year 2016/2017. The The research instrument consists of two types: science process skills instrument consists of 10 questions in essay form which has been declared valid and reliable, and the instrument ability to think logically in the form of multiple choice is entirely groundless and complements (combination. The resulting data, analyzed by using two path Anava. The results showed that science process skills of students who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning. Science process skills of students who can think logically high are better than the students who can think logically low, and there is an interaction between learning model scientific inquiry and conventional learning with the ability to think logically to improve students' science process skills.

  8. Development Mathematic Assessment to Increase Mathematical Prerequisite Ability on The Student with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiansyah, S. T. U.; Nanang, F.; Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce about mathematic assessment is a process of obtaining data or information about the mastery of a student's mathematical skills as an ingredient in preparing a learning program. With this mathematics assessment can be known obstacles, difficulties and needs of students especially in the field of mathematic, so that the learning program will be in accordance with the potential students because it is tailored to what is required of students. This research study was conducted at elementary school of inclusive precisely at SDN Sukagalih I Bandung City based learning in setting of inclusive education. This research study is motivated by the existence of a first-grade student who has disabilities learning in mathematics, the ability of the mathematical prerequisite mastery of the classification of objects by color. The results of the research can provide a profile picture of student data information, the data obtained from the results of the development of systematic and formal mathematical assessment. After doing the development of mathematics assessment then the teacher gets important related information: 1. process the analysis of students’ learning needs, especially in the field of mathematics, 2. preparing the learning program planning according to student learning needs, 3. Designing procedural of method remedial program.

  9. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  10. Optimizing Multiple-Choice Tests as Learning Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeri Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Although generally used for assessment, tests can also serve as tools for learning--but different test formats may not be equally beneficial. Specifically, research has shown multiple-choice tests to be less effective than cued-recall tests in improving the later retention of the tested information (e.g., see meta-analysis by Hamaker, 1986),…

  11. The Relationship between Learning Style, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Kubilay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…

  12. How We View Young Children with Diverse Abilities: What Canada Can Learn From Reggio Emilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the Canadian school system's image of children with diverse abilities aged 0-6-years old, and critiques this image in light of that held in the municipal early education system in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The argument is made that the Canadian image of young children with diverse abilities has its roots in modernism and sees them…

  13. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  14. Impact of Chess Training on Mathematics Performance and Concentration Ability of Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Markus; Niesch, Harald; Steffen, Olaf; Ernst, Baerbel; Loeffler, Markus; Witruk, Evelin; Schwarz, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of chess in mathematics lessons for children with learning disabilities based on lower intelligence (IQ 70-85). School classes of four German schools for children with learning disabilities were randomly assigned to receive one hour of chess lesson instead of one hour of regular mathematics lessons…

  15. University EFL Learners' Perceptions of Their Autonomous Learning Responsibilities and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razeq, Anwar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness of university students for autonomous learning of English as a foreign language. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. The study assessed learners' readiness for autonomous learning across three dimensions: a) learners' perceptions of their educational responsibilities; b) learners' abilities…

  16. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  17. The Relationship between Social-Emotional Learning Ability and Perceived Social Support in Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurlu, Üzeyir; Sevgi-Yalin, Hatun; Yavuz-Birben, Fazilet

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between social-emotional learning skills and perceived social support of gifted students. Based on this relationship, the authors also examined to what extent social and emotional learning skills were predictive of social support. In addition, gender variables were compared in social and emotional…

  18. The Effects of Prior-Knowledge and Online Learning Approaches on Students' Inquiry and Argumentation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Kai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of students' prior science knowledge and online learning approaches (social and individual) on their learning with regard to three topics: science concepts, inquiry, and argumentation. Two science teachers and 118 students from 4 eighth-grade science classes were invited to participate in this research. Students…

  19. Looking Forward: Games, Rhymes and Exercises To Help Children Develop Their Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heider, Molly

    The range of games, rhymes, songs, and exercises for children collected in this book are based on Rudolf Steiner's educational philosophy and are designed to lay the foundation for sound later learning. The book's chapters are: (1) "Learning Aids"; (2) "The Early Years"; (3) "Foot Exercises: Kindergarten or Class I, 5-7…

  20. Testing protects against proactive interference in face-name learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-06-01

    Learning face-name pairings at a social function becomes increasingly more difficult the more individuals one meets. This phenomenon is attributable to proactive interference--the negative influence of prior learning on subsequent learning. Recent evidence suggests that taking a memory test can alleviate proactive interference in verbal list learning paradigms. We apply this technique to face-name pair learning. Participants studied four lists of 12 face-name pairings and either attempted to name the 12 faces just studied after every list or did not. Recall attempts after every list improved learning of the fourth list by over 100%. Moreover, no reduction in learning of face-name pairings occurred from list 1 to list 4 for participants who attempted to name studied faces between lists. These results suggest that testing oneself on the names of a group of new acquaintances before moving on to the next group is an effective mnemonic technique for social functions.

  1. The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.

  2. The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children, 1997-98

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Naeini SM; Jazayeri SA; Moghaddam Banaem N; Afrooz Gh.A; Behboodi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children in district 18 of Tehran educational organization were examined in the school year 1997-98. Other factors such as grade, nutritional status, breakfast eating habits and snack eating habits in the school were also studied. For this purpose 236 boys were selected by random sampling in 4 different schools. The children were randomly assigned to a group, with a low calorie snack (119 sub...

  3. Instruments evaluating the self-directed learning abilities among nursing students and nurses: a systematic review of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bressan, Valentina; Palese, Alvisa

    2017-11-25

    Modern healthcare institutions are continuously changing, and Self-Directed Learning (SDL) abilities are considered a prerequisite for both nursing students and nurses in order to be proactive about these demanding challenges. To date, no systematic reviews of existing instruments aimed at detecting and critically evaluating SDL abilities have been published. Therefore, the aims of this review are: 1) identify the instruments for assessment of SDL abilities among nursing students and nurses; 2) critically evaluate the methodological studies quality; and 3) compare the psychometric properties of the available instruments. A psychometric-systematic-review was performed. CDSR, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, PROSPERO, SCOPUS databases were searched without restrictions in time and setting. All primary studies involving nursing students or nurses, written in English and aimed at validating SDL assessment tools, were included. Studies retrieved were evaluated according to the COnsensus-based-Standards for the selection of health Measurement-INstruments (COSMIN) panel. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by researchers independently. Eleven studies were included and four tools based on Knowles's theory have emerged: 1) the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale; 2) the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education; 3) the Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning, and 4) the Self-Directed Learning Instrument. A few psychometric properties have been considered in each study, from two to four out of the ten required. The quality of the methodologies used was in general, from fair to poor with the exception of one instrument (the Self-Directed-Learning-Instrument). The psychometric proprieties that emerged across the tools were good in general: the Cronbach α was from 0.73 to 0.91; structural validities have also reported good indexes both in the explorative and in the confirmative factor analyses. On the basis of the findings

  4. Instruments evaluating the self-directed learning abilities among nursing students and nurses: a systematic review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cadorin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern healthcare institutions are continuously changing, and Self-Directed Learning (SDL abilities are considered a prerequisite for both nursing students and nurses in order to be proactive about these demanding challenges. To date, no systematic reviews of existing instruments aimed at detecting and critically evaluating SDL abilities have been published. Therefore, the aims of this review are: 1 identify the instruments for assessment of SDL abilities among nursing students and nurses; 2 critically evaluate the methodological studies quality; and 3 compare the psychometric properties of the available instruments. Methods A psychometric-systematic-review was performed. CDSR, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, PROSPERO, SCOPUS databases were searched without restrictions in time and setting. All primary studies involving nursing students or nurses, written in English and aimed at validating SDL assessment tools, were included. Studies retrieved were evaluated according to the COnsensus-based-Standards for the selection of health Measurement-INstruments (COSMIN panel. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by researchers independently. Results Eleven studies were included and four tools based on Knowles’s theory have emerged: 1 the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale; 2 the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education; 3 the Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning, and 4 the Self-Directed Learning Instrument. A few psychometric properties have been considered in each study, from two to four out of the ten required. The quality of the methodologies used was in general, from fair to poor with the exception of one instrument (the Self-Directed-Learning-Instrument. The psychometric proprieties that emerged across the tools were good in general: the Cronbach α was from 0.73 to 0.91; structural validities have also reported good indexes both in the explorative and in the confirmative

  5. Lessons Learned in Software Testing A Context-Driven Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaner, Cem; Pettichord, Bret

    2008-01-01

    Decades of software testing experience condensed into the most important lessons learned.The world's leading software testing experts lend you their wisdom and years of experience to help you avoid the most common mistakes in testing software. Each lesson is an assertion related to software testing, followed by an explanation or example that shows you the how, when, and why of the testing lesson. More than just tips, tricks, and pitfalls to avoid, Lessons Learned in Software Testing speeds you through the critical testing phase of the software development project without the extensive trial an

  6. Lessons learned in testing of Safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Susan; Farnitano, Michael; Carelli, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Upgrade Travel Funding' - This subtask provides funding for the upgrade of DIS equipment installed in the field; E.125.3, 'DIS Radiation Field Characterization' - This subtask provides for the procurement by the IAEA of radiation measurement equipment and technical assistance for the characterization of radiation conditions in the locations where DIS will be installed. This will help the IAEA ensure that the design specifications for the equipment are consistent with the location where the instrument will be used; E.125.4, 'DIS Design Limit Testing and Advise to Strengthen IAEA's Current Equipment Qualification Criteria' - Under this subtask, Wyle Laboratories and Quanterion Solutions will conduct SDIS design limit testing, including harsh environmental testing and accelerated aging, to determine the expected lifetime and produce a design limit report to include maximum operating environment vs. design limit analysis. Additionally, this task will include the development of a strengthened environmental qualification test plan and reliability and maintainability definition methodology for all safeguards equipment. The implementation of new equipment by the Department of Safeguards is costly. Expected costs associated with the implementation of equipment include capital costs, training and in some cases travel. The cost is dramatically increased when operational issues arise due to the costs of studying the issues, modifying and upgrading the equipment and additional travel. The U.S. Support Program believes that the IAEA's Division of Safeguards Technical Support (SGTS) must strengthen its equipment-testing program to ensure that the equipment it approves for inspection use is reliable and will not place additional burden on the Department of Safeguards' maintenance and inspection staff. The U.S. Support Program recognizes that SGTS already requires a series of fundamentally important and revealing tests, but we believe that additional tests should be added to the testing

  7. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Predictive ability of machine learning methods for massive crop yield prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gonzalez-Sanchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for agricultural planning purposes is the accurate yield estimation for the numerous crops involved in the planning. Machine learning (ML is an essential approach for achieving practical and effective solutions for this problem. Many comparisons of ML methods for yield prediction have been made, seeking for the most accurate technique. Generally, the number of evaluated crops and techniques is too low and does not provide enough information for agricultural planning purposes. This paper compares the predictive accuracy of ML and linear regression techniques for crop yield prediction in ten crop datasets. Multiple linear regression, M5-Prime regression trees, perceptron multilayer neural networks, support vector regression and k-nearest neighbor methods were ranked. Four accuracy metrics were used to validate the models: the root mean square error (RMS, root relative square error (RRSE, normalized mean absolute error (MAE, and correlation factor (R. Real data of an irrigation zone of Mexico were used for building the models. Models were tested with samples of two consecutive years. The results show that M5-Prime and k-nearest neighbor techniques obtain the lowest average RMSE errors (5.14 and 4.91, the lowest RRSE errors (79.46% and 79.78%, the lowest average MAE errors (18.12% and 19.42%, and the highest average correlation factors (0.41 and 0.42. Since M5-Prime achieves the largest number of crop yield models with the lowest errors, it is a very suitable tool for massive crop yield prediction in agricultural planning.

  9. Detection of improvement in the masticatory function from old to new removable partial dentures using mixing ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, A; Fueki, K; Ohyama, T

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the Mixing Ability Test to detect improvement of masticatory function in subjects on transition from old to new removable partial dentures. Thirty-two subjects (seven males, 25 females, mean age 65.0 years) with distal extension partially edentulous area in mandible and/or maxilla participated in the study. The following reasons were presented for replacing the old removable partial dentures with new ones: fracture and/or poor fitness of retainers, extraction of abutment teeth, poor fitness of denture base, severe wear of artificial teeth and request for metal base dentures. Masticatory function with old and new removable partial dentures after an adaptation period (mean 27.4 weeks) was evaluated by the Mixing Ability Test. Subjects were asked to masticate five two-coloured wax cubes with each removable partial denture. Mixing Ability Index was obtained from the colour mixture and shape of the masticated cubes. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference of Mixing Ability Indexes between old and new removable partial dentures. The mixing ability indexes with new removable partial dentures (mean+/- s.d.: 0.70+/- 0.68) was significantly higher (Premovable partial dentures (-0.11+/-1.13). The results suggest that the Mixing Ability Test was capable of detecting improvement in masticatory function with new removable partial dentures.

  10. Differential constraints on the working memory and reading abilities of individuals with learning difficulties and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also completed independent measures of the processing and storage operations involved in each working memory span task and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The results showed that despite an equivalent level of working memory span, the relative importance of the constraints on working memory differed between the groups. In addition, working memory span was not closely related to word recognition or sentence comprehension performance in the LD group. These results suggest that the working memory span performance of LD and TD individuals may reflect different working memory limitations and that individuals with generalized learning difficulties may approach cognitive tasks in a qualitatively different way from that of typically developing individuals.

  11. Toetsen als Leerinterventie. Samenvatten in het Testing Effect Paradigma [Tests as learning interventions. Summarization in the testing effect paradigma investigated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, July). Toetsen als leerinterventie. Samenvatten in het testing effect paradigma onderzocht [Tests as learning interventions. Summarization in the testing effect paradigma investigated]. Presentation for Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam.

  12. Putting the Testing Effect to the Test. Why and When is Testing effective for Learning in Secondary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H. (2014, 11 April). Putting the testing effect to the test. Why and when is testing effective for learning in secondary school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands

  13. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement within a Sample of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math…

  14. Global, Broad, or Specific Cognitive Differences? Using a MIMIC Model to Examine Differences in CHC Abilities in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the relations between learning disabilities and different levels of latent cognitive abilities, including general intelligence (g), broad cognitive abilities, and specific abilities based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of intelligence (CHC theory). Data from the "Differential Ability…

  15. The six-spot-step test - a new method for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Melissa; Jensen, Henrik B; Ravnborg, Mads

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the Six-Spot-Step-Test (SSST) is more suitable for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy than the Timed-25-Foot-Walking test (T25FW). METHOD: In the SSST, participants have to walk as quickly as possible across a field...... of effect size, standardized response means and relative efficiency. Both ambulation tests correlated moderately to PGIC. CONCLUSION: The SSST may be superior to the T25FW in terms of dynamic range, floor effect and responsiveness which makes the SSST a possible alternative for monitoring walking ability...

  16. Estimation of an Examinee's Ability in the Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing Program IRT-CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a program to estimate an examinee's ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee?占퐏 ability immediately at the end of test.

  17. Recent Developments in Language Assessment and the Case of Four Large-Scale Tests of ESOL Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys recent developments and validation activities related to four large-scale tests of L2 English ability: the iBT TOEFL, the IELTS, the FCE, and the TOEIC. In addition to describing recent changes to these tests, the paper reports on validation activities that were conducted on the measures. The results of this research…

  18. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound on spatial learning and memory ability and the ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwu, Yong-chang; Tian, Jin-zhou; Shi, Jing

    2011-02-01

    To study the effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound (YSW) on spatial learning and memory ability in rats with sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD) and the ultrastructural basis of the hippocampal neurons. A rat model of SAD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats were divided into six groups: sham-operation group, model group, donepezil control group, and YSW low, medium and high dose groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the corresponding drugs by gavage for two months. Meanwhile, the model group and the sham-operation group were given the same volume of distilled water by gavage once a day for two months. The Morris water maze was adopted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. The place navigation test and the spatial probe test were conducted. The escape latency, total swimming distance and swimming time in the target quadrant of the rats were recorded. Also, the hippocampus tissues of rats were taken out and the ultrastructure of hippocampus neurons were observed by an electron microscope. In the place navigation test, compared with the model group, the mean escape latency and the total swimming distance of the donepezil group and the YSW low, medium and high dose groups were significantly shortened (Pmicroscope also confirmed the efficacy of the drug treatment. Chinese herbal medicine YSW compound can improve spatial learning and memory impairment of rats with SAD. The ultrastructural basis may be that it can protect the microtubule structures of hippocampal neurons and prevent nerve axons from being damaged.

  19. Assessing the Ability of Vegetation Indices to Identify Shallow Subsurface Water Flow Pathways from Hyperspectral Imagery Using Machine Learning: Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, K.; Byers, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow underground water flow pathways expressed as slight depressions are common in the land surface. Under conditions of saturated overland flow, such as during heavy rain or snow melt, these areas of preferential flow might appear on the surface as very shallow flowing streams. When there is no water flowing in these ephemeral channels it can be difficult to identify them. It is especially difficult to discern the slight depressions above the subsurface water flow pathways (SWFP) when the area is covered by vegetation. Since the soil moisture content in these SWFP is often greater than the surrounding area, the vegetation growing on top of these channels shows different vigor and moisture content than the vegetation growing above the non-SWFP area. Vegetation indices (VI) are used in visible and near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imagery to enhance biophysical properties of vegetation, and so the brightness values between vegetation atop SWFP and the surrounding vegetation were highlighted. We performed supervised machine learning using ground-truth class labels to determine the conditional probability of a SWFP at a given pixel given either the spectral distribution or VI at that pixel. The training data estimates the probability distributions to a determined finite sampling accuracy for a binary Naïve Bayes classifier between SWFP and non-SWFP. The ground-truth data provides a test bed for understanding the ability to build SWFP classifiers using hyperspectral imagery. SWFP were distinguishable in the imagery within corn and grass fields and in areas with low-lying vegetation. However, the training data is limited to particular types of terrain and vegetation cover in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia and this would limit the resulting classifier. Further training data could extend its use to other environments.

  20. Team-Based Testing Improves Individual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the same test again, following the process of team-based testing (TBT), in teams in which the members reached consensus for each question and answered…

  1. Mathematical Communication Ability by Grade VII Students Using a Themed Problem Based Learning with Scaffolding on Rectangle Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Didik Adi Saputro; Masrukan Masrukan; Arief Agoestanto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of research to test students' mathematical communication used themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL achieve mastery learning;to test students' mathematical communication that used the themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL; and to test students' mathematical communication for the low, medium group, and a high-group themed of PBL with scaffolding, themed of PBL and PBL. This type of research is quantitative research. The Population is seventh grade studen...

  2. Metacognitive Ability Relationship with Test Result of Senior High School of Biology Teacher Competence in Sijunjung District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, A.; Fadilah, M.; Ichsani, W.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to reveal how the relationship between metacognitive ability and the test result of biology teacher competence in Sijunjung District. The population of this descriptive research were all high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District, and sample is all teachers who are members of the population, which is 23 biology teachers. The instrument used in this research are a questionnaire of research on teacher's metacognitive ability and document about teacher competence test result. The questionnaire was validated first by two lecturers of biology and one lecturer of English. Data analysis using Pearson Product Moment's. Based on the results of research and discussion that have been described, it can generally be concluded that there is a low relationship between metacognitive ability with competence test results of high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District. Partially, the relationship of metacognitive ability with the test result of professional competence of biology teacher showed significant result, with correlation coefficient 0,46 and t table 1,72 while titung 2,37. The contribution of metacognitive ability to the competence test result of the teacher is 21.6%, while the other 78.4% have not been revealed in this research.

  3. SIRT1 Regulates Cognitive Performance and Ability of Learning and Memory in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models. In addition, future research directions in this field are discussed, including therapeutic potential of its activator, resveratrol, and application of other compounds in cognitive improvement. Our findings suggest that SIRT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  5. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple…

  6. An Operational Definition of Learning Disabilities (Cognitive Domain) Using WISC Full Scale IQ and Peabody Individual Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, Beatrice White; Gilmore, Doug

    An operational index of discrepancy between ability and achievement using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was tested with 50 male and 10 female legally identified learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 9 years 2 months). Use of the index identified 74% of the males and 30% of the…

  7. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  8. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Learning-Memory Ability and Brain Glucose Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Using Morris Water Maze and Micro-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes progressive hippocampus dysfunctions leading to the impairment of learning and memory ability and low level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus. What is more, there is no effective treatment for AD. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial and protective effects of electroacupuncture in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8. Method. In the electroacupuncture paradigm, electroacupuncture treatment was performed once a day for 15 days on 7.5-month-old SAMP8 male mice. In the normal control paradigm and AD control group, 7.5-month-old SAMR1 male mice and SAMP8 male mice were grabbed and bandaged while electroacupuncture group therapy, in order to ensure the same treatment conditions, once a day, 15 days. Results. From the Morris water maze (MWM test, we found that the treatment of electroacupuncture can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8 mouse, and from the micro-PET test, we proved that after the electroacupuncture treatment the level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus was higher than normal control group. Conclusion. These results suggest that the treatment of electroacupuncture may provide a viable treatment option for AD.

  9. A Shifting Landscape: Using Tablets to Support Learning in Students with Diverse Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Anne; Hughes, Janette

    2018-01-01

    As technology becomes a larger part of people's everyday lives, it is logical to think that it should also become a part of the learning process. The use of tablets in classrooms is becoming an area of interest as researchers are trying to understand what the benefits are--if any--to using these devices. This article gives an overview of some of…

  10. Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…

  11. Learning Vocabulary through E-Book Reading of Young Children with Various Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today's classroom, many children's e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration…

  12. Extending Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for Racially, Linguistically, and Ability Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorius, Kathleen A. King; Santamaría Graff, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses a research-based reading intervention called peer-assisted learning strategies in reading (PALS) and includes practical suggestions for educators concerned with literacy as a tool to reposition and empower students of color, English learners, and students with disabilities in schools and society. Following a rationale…

  13. iPad versus Handwriting: Pilot Study Exploring the Writing Abilities of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkett, Julie K.; Benevides, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Written expression is an essential skill to actively function in today's society. For many learners, especially those with a learning disability (LD), writing can be a source of frustration. Technology in its various forms, holds promise to assist students in this area. The current study examines the role that tablet technology, specifically,…

  14. Blocking in children's causal learning depends on working memory and reasoning abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormack, T.; Simms, V.; McGourty, J.; Beckers, T.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 99 children completed a causal learning task that was an analogue of the food allergy paradigm used with adults. The cue competition effects of blocking and unovershadowing were assessed under forward and backward presentation conditions. Children also answered questions probing their

  15. Using Reflection to Assess Students Ability to Learn and Develop Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather M.; Burk, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Leadership skill development has been identified as an important element of future leisure service professionals academic preparation. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to utilize in-depth course reflection and service-learning to assess whether undergraduate students enrolled in a leadership course were meeting the leadership objectives set…

  16. Health Care and a Child's Ability To Learn: A Survey of Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter/Novelli PR Agency, Chicago, IL.

    In an effort to inform the debate on the effect of health care on children's readiness to learn, a study was conducted of the perceptions of 250 kindergarten through grade 3 teachers and 250 teachers in fourth through sixth grades concerning the relationship between their students' health and academic performance. Interviews were conducted via…

  17. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM, understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009. To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  18. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  19. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  20. Learned Helplessness: The Effect of Failure on Test-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Hwang, Chi-En; Copella, Margaret; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined learned helplessness and its effect on test taking. Students were given one of two tests; the first began with extremely difficult questions and the other started with easy questions. The researchers hypothesized that those who took the test beginning with difficult questions would become easily frustrated and possibly doubt…

  1. Testing as an inevitable instrument in today's language learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the foregoing analysis, we have unequivocably declared that testing or assessment is an inevitable instrument in present day's language learning environment and that testing is the other side of teaching itself. In teaching any aspect of language, learner must be tested to determine the progress made so far as well as ...

  2. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reprocessing ability of high density fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.; Belieres, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a new high density fuel is becoming a key issue for Research Reactors operators. Such a new fuel should be a Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) fuel with a high density, to improve present in core performances. It must be compatible with the reprocessing in an industrial plant to provide a steady back-end solution. Within the framework of a work group CEA/CERCA/COGEMA on new fuel development for Research Reactors, COGEMA has performed an evaluation of the reprocessing ability of some fuel dispersants selected as good candidates. The results will allow US to classify these fuel dispersants from a reprocessing ability point of view. (author)

  4. How Design of Online Learning Materials can Accommodate the Heterogeneity in Student Abilities, Aptitudes and Aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Simon; Hardy, Judy; Hill, Jon; McKain, David; University of Gloucestershire

    2008-01-01

    We describe the challenges facing higher education in terms of the heterogeneity of the cohort of students that arrive at university. The reasons why such diversity exists are many: students differ widely in terms of their preparedness for study at university, their degree choice aspirations and the issue of motivation for study of a particular subject. We illustrate how well-designed e-learning course materials can support many of the particular facets of heterogeneity by offering an inheren...

  5. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  6. Journaling: A quasi-experimental study of student nurses’ reflective learning ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fakude

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning.

  7. Comparison of peer-tutoring learning model through problem-solving approach and traditional learning model on the cognitive ability of grade 10 students at SMKN 13 Bandung on the topic of Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, A. Z.; Wahyu, W.; Kurnia

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to find out the improvement of cognitive ability of students on the implementation of cooperative learning model of peer-tutoring by using problem-solving approach. The research method used is mix method of Sequential Explanatory strategy and pretest post-test non-equivalent control group design. The participants involved in this study were 68 grade 10 students of Vocational High School in Bandung that consisted of 34 samples of experimental class and 34 samples of control class. The instruments used include written test and questionnaires. The improvement of cognitive ability of students was calculated using the N- gain formula. Differences of two average scores were calculated using t-test at significant level of α = 0.05. The result of study shows that the improvement of cognitive ability in experimental class was significantly different compared to the improvement in the control class at significant level of α = 0.05. The improvement of cognitive ability in experimental class is higher than in control class.

  8. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tongue...

  9. Collaborative testing as a learning strategy in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Sheryl S

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nurses to work collaboratively as members of interprofessional health care teams on behalf of patients. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision making, and group processing skills. This study incorporated a quasi-experimental design with a comparison group to examine the effect of collaborative testing as a learning strategy on student learning and retention of course content as well as group process skills and student perceptions of their learning and anxiety. The setting was a baccalaureate nursing program; the sample consisted of two groups of senior students enrolled in Medical-Surgical Nursing II. Student learning, as measured by unit examination scores, was greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Retention of course content, as measured by final examination scores, was not greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Student perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, with students reporting increased learning as a result of the collaborative testing experiences. Despite the lack of data to support increased retention, collaborative testing may be a learning strategy worth implementing in nursing education. Students reported more positive interactions and collaboration with their peers, skills required by the professional nurse.

  10. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-55 ISSN 1612-4782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Spatial ability * Navigation skill * Working memory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.340, year: 2015

  11. Isolation and testing the cholesteral reduction ability (in-vitro) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which positively affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Studies have shown probiotic activities of Lactococci isolated from dairy foods, which include the ability to inhibit the growth of other bacteria and the reduction of cholesterol. However, there is ...

  12. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  13. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  14. Improving ability measurement in surveys by following the principles of IRT: The Wordsum vocabulary test in the General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken; Haertel, Edward; Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Survey researchers often administer batteries of questions to measure respondents' abilities, but these batteries are not always designed in keeping with the principles of optimal test construction. This paper illustrates one instance in which following these principles can improve a measurement tool used widely in the social and behavioral sciences: the GSS's vocabulary test called "Wordsum". This ten-item test is composed of very difficult items and very easy items, and item response theory (IRT) suggests that the omission of moderately difficult items is likely to have handicapped Wordsum's effectiveness. Analyses of data from national samples of thousands of American adults show that after adding four moderately difficult items to create a 14-item battery, "Wordsumplus" (1) outperformed the original battery in terms of quality indicators suggested by classical test theory; (2) reduced the standard error of IRT ability estimates in the middle of the latent ability dimension; and (3) exhibited higher concurrent validity. These findings show how to improve Wordsum and suggest that analysts should use a score based on all 14 items instead of using the summary score provided by the GSS, which is based on only the original 10 items. These results also show more generally how surveys measuring abilities (and other constructs) can benefit from careful application of insights from the contemporary educational testing literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personal skills and abilities in curriculum development planning for Project Oriented and Problem-Based Learning (POPBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author is giving examples on an approach to include the personal competences in the initial phase of the planning process for a change towards project organized and problem-based learning ? POPBL. A model is presented on how to have trainees recognize the necessity to include...... professional competences as well as personal competences in a new POPBL based curriculum. The article continues by giving an example of a possible method to be used in the developing of a curriculum where the personal skills and abilities are an active and equally valued as the development of the students...

  16. Students' Attitude toward and Acceptability of Computerized Adaptive Testing in Medical School and their Effect on the Examinees' Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Young Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An examinee's ability can be evaluated precisely using computerized adaptive testing (CAT, which is shorter than written tests and more efficient in terms of the duration of the examination. We used CAT for the second General Examination of 98 senior students in medical college on November 27, 2004. We prepared 1,050 pre-calibrated test items according to item response theory, which had been used for the General Examination administered to senior students in 2003. The computer was programmed to pose questions until the standard error of the ability estimate was smaller than 0.01. To determine the students' attitude toward and evaluation of CAT, we conducted surveys before and after the examination, via the Web. The mean of the students' ability estimates was 0.3513 and its standard deviation was 0.9097 (range -2.4680 to +2.5310. There was no significant difference in the ability estimates according to the responses of students to items concerning their experience with CAT, their ability to use a computer, or their anxiety before and after the examination (p>0.05. Many students were unhappy that they could not recheck their responses (49%, and some stated that there were too few examination items (24%. Of the students, 79 % had no complaints concerning using a computer and 63% wanted to expand the use of CAT. These results indicate that CAT can be implemented in medical schools without causing difficulties for users.

  17. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Mutational analysis and genetic cloning of the agnostic locus, which regulates learning ability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresleni, A I; Savvateeva, E V; Peresleni, I V; Sharagina, L M

    1997-01-01

    P-insertion mutations were obtained and localized by in situ methods at the agnostic gene (agn: 1-38.9; 11AB) in Drosophila. All agn mutants showed a wide spectrum of pleiotropic effects: an EMS-induced mutation of the agn-ts398 improved the ability to develop a conditioned defensive response and increased the activity of cAMP metabolic enzymes; spontaneous mutation of agnX1 showed morphological defects of the brain. P-insertion mutations were used to clone the gene; a restriction map of 80 kb in length was determined, and the insertion was localized to a fragment of 9 kb.

  19. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-01-01

    Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...... a validation framework and guiding principles applicable across earth science disciplines for testing the capability of models to project future climate change and its impacts. Model test schemes comprising split-sample tests, differential split-sample tests and proxy site tests are discussed in relation...... to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best available proxy data...

  20. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  1. Concurrent Validity of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with the WISC-R: EMR Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jack A.; Sanville, David

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJTCA) to educable mentally retarded children (N=30). Results showed significant mean differences between WISC-R and WJTCA full-scale standard scores, providing implications for placement of children in classes for the…

  2. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-01-01

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease),

  3. The effectiveness of test-enhanced learning depends on trait test anxiety and working-memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Pu, Xiaoping

    2012-09-01

    Despite being viewed as a better way to enhance learning than repeated study, it has not been clear whether repeated testing is equally effective for students with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The current study examined whether test-enhanced learning would be equally beneficial to participants with varied working-memory capacity (WMC) and trait test anxiety (TA). Chinese-English bilingual undergraduates in Hong Kong were recruited as participants. They acquired Swahili-English word pairs (half via repeated study and half via repeated testing) and performed a delayed cued-recall test for all pairs about one week after the acquisition phase. Their WMC and TA were estimated by Unsworth, Heitz, Schrock, and Engle's (2005) operation-span task and the Chinese version of Spielberger's (1980) Test Anxiety Inventory, respectively. We replicated the typical testing effect: Participants performed better for pairs in the repeated-testing condition than those in the repeated-study condition. Regression analyses showed that, (a) relative to other participants, those with lower WMC and higher TA made more intralist intrusion errors (i.e., recalling a wrong English translation to a Swahili word cue) during the acquisition phase, and (b) the testing effect was negatively correlated with TA for participants with lower WMC, but was not correlated with TA for participants with higher WMC. This demonstrates a boundary condition for the use of test-enhanced learning. Implications of these findings for theories of the testing effect (e.g., Pyc & Rawson's, 2010, mediator-effectiveness hypothesis) and their application in classroom settings are discussed.

  4. Learning real-life cognitive abilities in a novel 360°-virtual reality supermarket: a neuropsychological study of healthy participants and patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Philip; Kohsik, Agnes; Flentge, David; Dyck, Eugen; Botsch, Mario; Winter, York; Markowitsch, Hans J; Bien, Christian G; Piefke, Martina

    2013-04-23

    To increase the ecological validity of neuropsychological instruments the use of virtual reality (VR) applications can be considered as an effective tool in the field of cognitive neurorehabilitation. Despite the growing use of VR programs, only few studies have considered the application of everyday activities like shopping or travelling in VR training devices. We developed a novel 360°-VR supermarket, which is displayed on a circular arrangement of 8 touch-screens--the "OctaVis". In this setting, healthy human adults had to memorize an auditorily presented shopping list (list A) and subsequently buy all remembered products of this list in the VR supermarket. This procedure was accomplished on three consecutive days. On day four, a new shopping list (list B) was introduced and participants had to memorize and buy only products of this list. On day five, participants had to buy all remembered items of list A again, but without new presentation of list A. Additionally, we obtained measures of participants' presence, immersion and figural-spatial memory abilities. We also tested a sample of patients with focal epilepsy with an extended version of our shopping task, which consisted of eight days of training. We observed a comprehensive and stable effect of learning for the number of correct products, the required time for shopping, and the length of movement trajectories in the VR supermarket in the course of the training program. Task performance was significantly correlated with participants' figural-spatial memory abilities and subjective level of immersion into the VR. Learning effects in our paradigm extend beyond mere verbal learning of the shopping list as the data show evidence for multi-layered learning (at least visual-spatial, strategic, and verbal) on concordant measures. Importantly, learning also correlated with measures of figural-spatial memory and the degree of immersion into the VR. We propose that cognitive training with the VR supermarket program

  5. Effect of catalpol on senile plaques and spatial learning and memory ability in amyloid-β protein precursor/presenilin 1 double transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether catalpol affects senile plaque formation and spatial learning and memory ability in the amyloid-βprotein precursor/presenilin 1(APP/PS1)double transgenic mice.Methods

  6. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  7. EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE ABILITY TO USE MEASURING INSTRUMENT STUDENT LEARNING THROUGH MEDIA MACROMEDIA FLASH IN CLASS X MECHANICAL MACHINING SMK 1 SEDAYU ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Hananto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the effect of instructional media makromedia flash in improving the students practical skill on subjects Measure Measuring Precision Mechanics class X Mechanical Engineering SMK 1 Sedayu Academic Year 2012/2013. This study included in Classroom Action Research (CAR. This study was conducted in two cycles, in 1 cycle has 3 times with the research subjects are class X students of SMK 1 Sedayu TPm totaling 32 students. The data were obtained from observations during learning activities by using observation sheets, tests, documents and photographs. Results obtained were analyzed with descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that the ability of the students to practice using instructional media on subjects macromedia flash Measuring with Precision Mechanical Measuring Instrument has increased as follows: the initial capabilities obtained an average value of 65.9 after treatment in the first cycle the average value becomes 76.1. While the values obtained in the second cycle to 84.8 average. Based on the study results, the authors suggest that teachers improve the application of instructional media in learning macromedia flash so the ability to practice and student achievement will increase.

  8. Academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety of the underestimated student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Errorless learning and social problem solving ability in schizophrenia: an examination of the compensatory effects of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshner, Anna F; Tom, Shelley R; Kern, Robert S

    2013-03-30

    Compensatory approaches to cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia aim to improve functioning by bypassing or compensating for impaired areas of cognition. At present, there is little empirical evidence that these approaches actually compensate for neurocognitive impairments in improving community functioning. This study examined the effects of errorless learning (EL), a compensatory cognitive rehabilitation approach, on social problem solving ability in schizophrenia. The study included 60 outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants received a baseline battery to assess explicit and implicit memory functioning. Participants were stratified according to gender and level of memory functioning and then randomized to EL or symptom management training. Training was conducted over two days lasting a total of 6h for each group. Assessment of social problem-solving ability, using the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS), was conducted after completion of training and at a 3-month follow-up without further intervention. Results from hierarchical multiple regression and analysis of covariance each supported the compensatory effects of training. These findings indicate that EL facilitates learning of new skills across varying levels of memory impairment. Future efforts may aim to explore the specific neurocognitive mechanisms involved in EL. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Generating pseudo test collections for learning to rank scientific articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Meij, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo test collections are automatically generated to provide training material for learning to rank methods. We propose a method for generating pseudo test collections in the domain of digital libraries, where data is relatively sparse, but comes with rich annotations. Our intuition is that

  11. Learned Helplessness, Test Anxiety, and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness of 82 children in third grade and later in fifth grade. Results indicate that teacher reports of helplessness had the strongest and most consistent relation to concurrent achievement and to achievement test scores two years later. (RJC)

  12. A Serious Flaw in the Collegiate Learning Assessment [CLA] Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Possin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Collegiate Learning Assessment Test (CLA has become popular and highly recommended, praised for its reliability and validity. I argue that while the CLA may be a commendable test for measuring critical-thinking, problem-solving, and logical-reasoning skills, those who are scoring students’ answers to the test’s questions are rendering the CLA invalid.

  13. Effects of a Problem-based Structure of Physics Contents on Conceptual Learning and the Ability to Solve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Martí, Albert; Martínez Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2012-05-01

    A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a 'problem-based structure' of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering undergraduates taking physics. A number of tests and questionnaires were administered to a group of students following a traditional lecture-based instruction, as well as to another group that was following an instruction scheme based on the proposed approach and the teaching materials developed ad hoc. The results show that students following the new method can develop scientific reasoning habits in problem-solving skills, and show gains in conceptual learning, attitudes and interests, and that the effects of this approach on learning are noticeable several months after the course is over.

  14. Improvement in Generic Problem-Solving Abilities of Students by Use of Tutor-less Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Hurren, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was originally introduced in medical education programs as a form of small-group learning, but its use has now spread to large undergraduate classrooms in various other disciplines. Introduction of new teaching techniques, including PBL-based methods, needs to be justified by demonstrating the benefits of such techniques over classical teaching styles. Previously, we demonstrated that introduction of tutor-less PBL in a large third-year biochemistry undergraduate class increased student satisfaction and attendance. The current study assessed the generic problem-solving abilities of students from the same class at the beginning and end of the term, and compared student scores with similar data obtained in three classes not using PBL. Two generic problem-solving tests of equal difficulty were administered such that students took different tests at the beginning and the end of the term. Blinded marking showed a statistically significant 13% increase in the test scores of the biochemistry students exposed to PBL, while no trend toward significant change in scores was observed in any of the control groups not using PBL. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that use of tutor-less PBL in a large classroom leads to statistically significant improvement in generic problem-solving skills of students. PMID:23463230

  15. The students' ability in the mathematical literacy for uncertainty problems on the PISA adaptation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Anggoro, Ant. Yudhi

    2017-08-01

    One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students' solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for uncertainty problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 66.67% of students reached level 3. For the second uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 44.44% of students achieved level 4, and 33.33% of students reached level 3. For the third uncertainty problem in the adapting test n, 38.89% of students achieved level 5, 11.11% of students reached level 4, and 5.56% of students achieved level 3. For the part a of the fourth uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 72.22% of students reached level 4 and for the part b of the fourth uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 83.33% students achieved level 4.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of acupuncture for improving learning and memory ability in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Yu; Liang, Shuang; Yu, Mei-Ling; Fu, Shu-Ping; Chen, Xia; Lu, Sheng-Feng

    2016-08-19

    Memory loss is the most prominent symptoms of brain aging, but there is currently no evidence-based treatment strategy. Acupuncture has been widely used in China and the effectiveness for improving learning and memory has been mentioned in previous studies. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for improving learning and memory in animal experiments. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Ovid Medline(R), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) and Wanfang data Information Site to collect studies published up to December 2015. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measure is Morris water maze. A meta-analysis was conducted according to the Cochrane systematic review method by using RevMan 5.3 software. Forty-two studies involving 944 animals were included. The quality score of the studies ranged from 2 to 8, with a mean of 5.3. Meta-analysis results showed that 24 studies reported significant effect of acupuncture for decreasing escape latency (-3.00, 95 % CI: -3.78 ~ -2.23, P learning and memory ability in animal models, suggesting it as a candidate therapy for memory loss of aged brain.

  17. The effectiveness of signaling principle in virtual reality courseware towards achievement of transfer learning among students with different spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Ahmad, Awaatif

    2017-10-01

    Past research revealed that students and society, in general, are relatively under-skilled in performing the practice of Islamic funeral management which is one of the "ibadah fardu kifayah" (a legal obligation that must be discharged by the Muslim community as a whole) in Islam. Participation among youth in managing funerals is relatively low, partly due to the ineffectiveness of the instructional approach. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the signaling principle in virtual reality courseware pertaining to the topic of Islamic Funeral Management in the Islamic Education subject to ensure the accomplishment of transfer learning among students with different spatial abilities. The study comprises of two phases namely the courseware development phase and treatment phase. The courseware development employs the Instructional Design Model by Alessi and Trollip. Besides that, the courseware is integrated with components of CLE, principles in Theory of CATLM and signaling principle in multimedia learning. The sample consisted of 130 Form Two students who were selected randomly from four Malaysian secondary schools. They were divided into two experimental groups with 63 students in group one and 67 students in group two. The experimental group one used VR courseware without the signaling principle (VRTI) while experimental group two used the VR courseware with the signaling principle (VRDI). The experiment lasted for three weeks. ANOVA was utilised to analyse the data from this research. The findings showed significant differences between students who used VRDI in the transfer of learning compared to students who used VRTI.

  18. Perceptual Learning Style and Learning Proficiency: A Test of the Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzig, Gregory P.; Arbuthnott, Katherine D.

    2006-01-01

    Given the potential importance of using modality preference with instruction, the authors tested whether learning style preference correlated with memory performance in each of 3 sensory modalities: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. In Study 1, participants completed objective measures of pictorial, auditory, and tactile learning and learning…

  19. The Effect of Formative Testing and Self-Directed Learning on Mathematics Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Satriani, Retni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of formative testing and self-directed learning on mathematics learning outcomes. The research was conducted at an elementary school in central Jakarta during the 2014/2015 school year. Seventy-two fourth-grade students who were selected using random sampling participated in this study. Data…

  20. Measuring organizational learning. Model testing in two Romanian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Luciana Guţă

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature associates organizational learning with superior organization performance. If we refer to the academic environment, we appreciate that it can develop and reach better levels of performance through changes driven from the inside. Thus, through this paper we elaborate on a conceptual model of organizational learning and we test the model on a sample of employees (university teachers and researchers) from two Romanian universities. The model comprises the process of org...

  1. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  2. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari

    2011-01-01

    Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...

  3. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  4. Assessment and Stability of Early Learning Abilities in Preterm and Full-Term Infants across the First Two Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive…

  5. Development of Analytical Thinking Ability and Attitudes towards Science Learning of Grade-11 Students through Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM Education) in the Study of Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkaew, Patcharee; Sukhummek, Boonnak; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical thinking abilities and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education integrated with a problem-based learning in the study of stoichiometry. The research tools consisted of a pre- and post-analytical…

  6. Relation of Native-Language Reading and Spelling Abilities to Attitudes toward Learning a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Katrinda Wills; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid…

  7. The role of ability, motivation, and opportunity to work in the transition from work to early retirement--testing and optimizing the Early Retirement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    Determinants in the domains health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors may influence early retirement through three central explanatory variables, namely, the ability, motivation, and opportunity to work. Based on the literature, we created the Early Retirement Model. This study aims to investigate whether data support the model and how it could be improved. Employees aged 58-62 years (N=1862), who participated in the first three waves of the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) were included. Determinants were assessed at baseline, central explanatory variables after one year, and early retirement after two years. Structural equation modeling was applied. Testing the Early Retirement Model resulted in a model with good fit. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors were related to the ability, motivation and/or opportunity to work (significant β range: 0.05-0.31). Lower work ability (β=-0.13) and less opportunity to work (attitude colleagues and supervisor about working until age 65: β=-0.24) predicted early retirement, whereas the motivation to work (work engagement) did not. The model could be improved by adding direct effects of three determinants on early retirement, ie, support of colleagues and supervisor (β=0.14), positive attitude of the partner with respect to early retirement (β=0.15), and not having a partner (β=-0.13). The Early Retirement Model was largely supported by the data but could be improved. The prolongation of working life might be promoted by work-related interventions focusing on health, work ability, the social work climate, social norms on prolonged careers, and the learning environment.

  8. The Trail Making test: a study of its ability to predict falls in the acute neurological in-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Bilal Akhter; Bussas, Matthias; Doogan, Catherine; Waller, Denise; Saverino, Alessia; Király, Franz J; Playford, E Diane

    2018-05-01

    To determine whether tests of cognitive function and patient-reported outcome measures of motor function can be used to create a machine learning-based predictive tool for falls. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary neurological and neurosurgical center. In all, 337 in-patients receiving neurosurgical, neurological, or neurorehabilitation-based care. Binary (Y/N) for falling during the in-patient episode, the Trail Making Test (a measure of attention and executive function) and the Walk-12 (a patient-reported measure of physical function). The principal outcome was a fall during the in-patient stay ( n = 54). The Trail test was identified as the best predictor of falls. Moreover, addition of other variables, did not improve the prediction (Wilcoxon signed-rank P Test data (Wilcoxon signed-rank P test of cognitive function, the Trail Making test.

  9. Differences in route-learning performance and correlations among abilities between persons with and without Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eDavis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments are reported that evaluated route learning of youth with DS, youth with Intellectual Disability and not DS (ID, and typically developing children (TD matched on Mental Age (MA. In both experiments, participants learned routes with eight choice-points presented via computer. Several objects were placed along the route that could be used as landmarks. Participants were shown the correct route once and then were asked retraced the route without assistance. In Experiment 1 we found that the TD children and ID participants performed very similarly. They learned the route in the same number of attempts, committed the same number of errors while learning the route, and recalled approximately the same number of landmarks. The participants with DS performed significantly worse on both measures of navigation (attempts and errors and also recalled significantly fewer landmarks. In Experiment 2, we attempted to reduce TD and ID vs DS differences by focusing participants’ attention on the landmarks. Half of the participants in each group were instructed to identify the landmarks as they passed them the first time. The participants with DS again committed more errors than the participants in the ID and TD groups in the navigation task. In addition, they recalled fewer landmarks. While landmark identification improved landmark memory for both groups, it did not have a significant impact on navigation. Participants with DS still performed more poorly than did the TD and ID participants. Of additional interest, we observed that the performance of persons with DS correlated with different ability measures than did the performance of the other groups. The results the two experiments point to a problem in navigation for persons with DS that exceeds expectations based solely on intellectual level.

  10. Modeling learning and memory using verbal learning tests: results from ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Brandt, Jason; Tommet, Doug; Marsiske, Michael; Jones, Richard N

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) into initial recall and learning across trials using latent growth models. Trial-level increases in words recalled in the AVLT and HVLT at each follow-up visit followed an approximately logarithmic shape. Over the 5-year study period, memory training was associated with slower decline in Trial 1 AVLT recall (Cohen's d = 0.35, p = .03) and steep pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning (d = 1.56, p learning, d = 3.10, p memory-trained group had a higher level of recall than the control group through the end of the 5-year study period despite faster decline in learning. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which training benefits memory and expands current knowledge by reporting long-term changes in initial recall and learning, as measured from growth models and by characterization of the impact of memory training on these components. Results reveal that memory training delays the worsening of memory span and boosts learning.

  11. The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G

    2014-07-01

    A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.

  12. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  13. The test ability of fish Tawes to leachate garbage dump (TPA) Benowo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliardi AR, N. R.; Wiyanti, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    Leachate is a liquid from waste containing elements of dissolved and suspended elements. Garbage collected at the landfill site contains organic, inorganic and heavy metal substances. If the rains will produce leachate with mineral content, organic and heavy metals. When the condition or leachate flow in let to the soil surface can cause negative effects to the surrounding environment including for humans. Toxicity test it was conducted to determine the level of leachate toxicity of the test animals living in surface water located around of the “TPA Benowo”. In this study using Tawes fish with length between 4-6 cm. In this toxicity test is done in 2 stages, namely: range finding test, the search for this range is obtained 0% concentrations (as control) 0,3%; 0,6%; 0,9%; 0,12% and 0,15%. The next stage of toxicity acute test, at this stage of toxicity concentration do smaller again that is: 0,18%; 0,36%; 0,54%; 0,72% and 0,9%. The results obtained LC50 value of 0,385%, while eyes, brown stomach skin.

  14. Learning effect and test-retest variability of pulsar perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetat, Maria Letizia; Zeppieri, Marco; Parisi, Lucia; Johnson, Chris A; Sampaolesi, Roberto; Brusini, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    To assess Pulsar Perimetry learning effect and test-retest variability (TRV) in normal (NORM), ocular hypertension (OHT), glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes. This multicenter prospective study included 43 NORM, 38 OHT, 33 GON, and 36 POAG patients. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry and Pulsar Contrast Perimetry using white stimuli modulated in phase and counterphase at 30 Hz (CP-T30W test). The learning effect and TRV for Pulsar Perimetry were assessed for 3 consecutive visual fields (VFs). The learning effect were evaluated by comparing results from the first session with the other 2. TRV was assessed by calculating the mean of the differences (in absolute value) between retests for each combination of single tests. TRV was calculated for Mean Sensitivity, Mean Defect, and single Mean Sensitivity for each 66 test locations. Influence of age, VF eccentricity, and loss severity on TRV were assessed using linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. The learning effect was not significant in any group (analysis of variance, P>0.05). TRV for Mean Sensitivity and Mean Defect was significantly lower in NORM and OHT (0.6 ± 0.5 spatial resolution contrast units) than in GON and POAG (0.9 ± 0.5 and 1.0 ± 0.8 spatial resolution contrast units, respectively) (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.04); however, the differences in NORM among age groups was not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P>0.05). Slight significant differences were found for the single Mean Sensitivity TRV among single locations (Duncan test, PPulsar Perimetry CP-T30W test did not show significant learning effect in patients with standard automated perimetry experience. TRV for global indices was generally low, and was not related to patient age; it was only slightly affected by VF defect eccentricity, and significantly influenced by VF loss severity.

  15. A test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS: Normative data and psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eArcara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2 and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total. Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts’ evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient’s cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The

  16. The challenge of cross-cultural assessment--The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarsh, Barbara; Alant, Erna

    2006-01-01

    A culturally appropriate test, The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children (TATE-ZC), was developed to measure verbal problem solving skills of rural, Zulu-speaking, primary school children. Principles of 'non-biased' assessment, as well as emic (culture specific) and etic (universal) aspects of intelligence formed the theoretical backdrop. In addition, specific principles relating to test translation; test content; culturally appropriate stimulus material; scoring procedures and test administration were applied. Five categories of abstract thinking skills formed the basis of the TATE-ZC. These were: (a) Explaining Inferences, (b) Determining Cause, (c) Negative Why Questions, (d) Determining Solutions and (e) Avoiding Problem. The process of test development underwent three pilot studies. Results indicate that the TATE-ZC is a reliable and valid test for the target population. A critical analysis of the efficacy of creating a test of verbal reasoning for children from the developing world concludes the article. As a result of this activity (1) the participant will have a clearer understanding of the principles that need to be followed when developing culturally appropriate test material; (2) the participant will understand the process of developing culturally appropriate test material for non-mainstream cultures; (3) the participant will be able to apply the process and principles to other cross-cultural testing situations.

  17. Prepharmacy predictors of success in pharmacy school: grade point averages, pharmacy college admissions test, communication abilities, and critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D D; Bond, C A

    2001-07-01

    Good admissions decisions are essential for identifying successful students and good practitioners. Various parameters have been shown to have predictive power for academic success. Previous academic performance, the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT), and specific prepharmacy courses have been suggested as academic performance indicators. However, critical thinking abilities have not been evaluated. We evaluated the connection between academic success and each of the following predictive parameters: the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) score, PCAT score, interview score, overall academic performance prior to admission at a pharmacy school, and performance in specific prepharmacy courses. We confirmed previous reports but demonstrated intriguing results in predicting practice-based skills. Critical thinking skills predict practice-based course success. Also, the CCTST and PCAT scores (Pearson correlation [pc] = 0.448, p critical thinking skills in pharmacy practice courses and clerkships. Further study is needed to confirm this finding and determine which PCAT components predict critical thinking abilities.

  18. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  19. Higher-Order Asymptotics and Its Application to Testing the Equality of the Examinee Ability Over Two Sets of Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2018-06-27

    In educational and psychological measurement, researchers and/or practitioners are often interested in examining whether the ability of an examinee is the same over two sets of items. Such problems can arise in measurement of change, detection of cheating on unproctored tests, erasure analysis, detection of item preknowledge, etc. Traditional frequentist approaches that are used in such problems include the Wald test, the likelihood ratio test, and the score test (e.g., Fischer, Appl Psychol Meas 27:3-26, 2003; Finkelman, Weiss, & Kim-Kang, Appl Psychol Meas 34:238-254, 2010; Glas & Dagohoy, Psychometrika 72:159-180, 2007; Guo & Drasgow, Int J Sel Assess 18:351-364, 2010; Klauer & Rettig, Br J Math Stat Psychol 43:193-206, 1990; Sinharay, J Educ Behav Stat 42:46-68, 2017). This paper shows that approaches based on higher-order asymptotics (e.g., Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox, Inference and asymptotics. Springer, London, 1994; Ghosh, Higher order asymptotics. Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Hayward, 1994) can also be used to test for the equality of the examinee ability over two sets of items. The modified signed likelihood ratio test (e.g., Barndorff-Nielsen, Biometrika 73:307-322, 1986) and the Lugannani-Rice approximation (Lugannani & Rice, Adv Appl Prob 12:475-490, 1980), both of which are based on higher-order asymptotics, are shown to provide some improvement over the traditional frequentist approaches in three simulations. Two real data examples are also provided.

  20. Assessing The Representative And Discriminative Ability Of Test Environments For Rice Breeding In Malaysia Using GGE Biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of outstanding rice genotype for target environments is complicated by genotype environment interactions. Using genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction GGE Biplot software fifteen rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations representing the major rice producing areas in peninsula Malaysia in two cropping seasons to i identify ideal test environment for selecting superior rice genotype and ii identify discriminative and representative ability of test locations. Genotypes locations years and genotypes by environment interaction effect revealed high significant difference P 0.01 for number of tillers per hill grains per panicle grain weight per hill and yield per hectare. Grain yield per hectare had a non-repeatable crossover pattern that formed a complex and single mega-environment. Based on the crossover pattern a set of cultivars were selected for the whole region on the merit of mean performance and their stability analysis. The tested environments were divided into two mega-environments. An ideal test environment that measures the discriminative and representative ability of test location reveal that environment Sekinchan SC is the best environment while Kedah KD and Penang PN can also be considered as favorable environment whereas Serdang SS and Tanjung Karang TK were the poorest locations for selecting genotypes adapted to the whole region. This study serves a reference for genotypes evaluation as well as identification of test locations for rice breeding in Malaysia.

  1. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Nonionizing radiation is emitted from electronic devices, such as smartphones. In this study, we intended to elucidate the effect of electromagnetic radiation from smartphones on spatial working memory and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Both male and female mice were randomly separated into two groups (radiated and control) and the radiated group was exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 9 weeks and 11 weeks for male and female mice, respectively. Spatial working memory was examined with a Y maze, and proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells were examined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine administration and immunohistochemical detection. When spatial working memory on a Y maze was examined in the 9(th) week, there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation score on the Y maze between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation. However, immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in exposed animals. Next, to test the effect of recovery following chronic radiation exposure, the remaining female mice were further exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 2 more weeks (total 11 weeks), and spontaneous alternation was tested 4 weeks later. In this experiment, although there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation scores, the number of arm entry was significantly increased. These data indicate that although chronic electromagnetic radiation does not affect spatial working memory and hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation it can mediate astrocyte activation in the hippocampus and delayed hyperactivity-like behavior.

  2. Evaluation of the Sealing Ability of Three Obturation Techniques Using a Glucose Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Olczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different canal filling techniques. Sixty-four roots of extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=16 and 2 control groups (n=8. The root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC group, continuous wave condensation technique using the Elements Obturation Unit® (EOU group, and ProTaper obturators (PT group. For the negative control group, 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction as in the CLC group, and the teeth were covered twice with a layer of nail varnish (NCG group. Another 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction, but without sealer, and these were used as the positive control (PCG group. A glucose leakage model was used for quantitative evaluation of microleakage for 24 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks. No significant difference in the cumulative amount of leakage was found between the three experimental groups at all observation times. The lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha can guarantee a similar seal of canal fillings as can be achieved by using thermal methods, in the round canals.

  3. Arithmetic Abilities in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Performance on French ZAREKI-R Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    2018-01-01

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ("Calculation and…

  4. Limited ability of the proton-pump inhibitor test to identify patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Jones, Roger; Vakil, Nimish

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy often is assessed to determine whether patients' symptoms are acid-related and if patients have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), although the accuracy of this approach is questionable. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the PPI test...

  5. The analysis of student’s critical thinking ability on discovery learning by using hand on activity based on the curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiani, E.; Waluya, S. B.; Masrukan

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine (1) the effectiveness of Discovery Learning model by using Hand on Activity toward critical thinking abilities, and (2) to describe students’ critical thinking abilities in Discovery Learning by Hand on Activity based on curiosity. This study is mixed method research with concurrent embedded design. Sample of this study are students of VII A and VII B of SMP Daarul Qur’an Ungaran. While the subject in this study is based on the curiosity of the students groups are classified Epistemic Curiosity (EC) and Perceptual Curiosity (PC). The results showed that the learning of Discovery Learning by using Hand on Activity is effective toward mathematics critical thinking abilities. Students of the EC type are able to complete six indicators of mathematics critical thinking abilities, although there are still two indicators that the result is less than the maximum. While students of PC type have not fully been able to complete the indicator of mathematics critical thinking abilities. They are only strong on indicators formulating questions, while on the other five indicators they are still weak. The critical thinking abilities of EC’s students is better than the critical thinking abilities of the PC’s students.

  6. The impact of an interprofessional problem-based learning curriculum of clinical ethics on medical and nursing students' attitudes and ability of interprofessional collaboration: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Chan, Te-Fu; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chin, Chi-Chun; Chou, Fan-Hao; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2013-09-01

    Clinical ethic situations in modern multiprofessional healthcare systems may involve different healthcare professions who work together for patient care. The undergraduate interprofessional education of clinical ethics would help to incubate healthcare students' ability of interprofessional collaboration in solving ethical problems. However, the impact from an interprofessional educational model on student's attitudes and confidence of interprofessional collaboration should be carefully evaluated during the process of curricular development. This study aimed to conduct a pilot interprofessional PBL curriculum of clinical ethics and evaluate the curricular impact on interprofessional students' attitude and confidence of collaborative teamwork. Thirty-six medical and nursing students volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into three groups (medical group, nursing group, and mixed group). Tutors were recruited from the Medical School and the College of Nursing. The pilot curriculum included one lecture of clinical ethics, one PBL case study with two tutorial sessions, and one session of group discussion and feedback. A narrative story with multiple story lines and a multiperspective problem analysis tool were used in the PBL tutorials. The students' self-evaluation of learning questionnaire was used to evaluate students' learning of clinical ethics and interprofessional collaborative skills and attitude. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach α, and the criterion-related validity of the questionnaire was evaluated through associations between the dimension scores with the student group by one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) test and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (HSD) comparison. There was significant difference among different groups in students' ability and attitudes about "interprofessional communication and collaboration" (p = 0.0184). The scores in the mixed group (37.58 ± 3.26) were higher

  7. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Nur Arivina; Masrukan Masrukan; Ardhi Prabowo

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this research are: (1) Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2) to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3) test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik o...

  8. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  9. Relationship Between Jumping Ability, Agility and Sprint Performance of Elite Young Basketball Players: A Field-Test Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p177   The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sprint, agility and jump performance of elite young basketball players. Sixteen elite national level young male basketball players participated in this study. The jumping ability of each player was determined using countermovement jump (CMJ), and broad long jump (BLJ). The agility T test (TT) and Illinois agility test (IAT) were assessed to determine the agilit...

  10. Influence of impulsivity-reflexivity when testing dynamic spatial ability: sex and g differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M Angeles; Hernández, José Manuel; Rubio, Victor; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, José

    2007-11-01

    This work analyzes the possibility that the differences in the performance of men and women in dynamic spatial tasks such as the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R; Santacreu & Rubio, 1998), obtained in previous works, are due to cognitive style (Reflexivity-Impulsivity) or to the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO) that the participants implement. If these differences are due to cognitive style, they would be independent of intelligence, whereas if they are due to SATO, they may be associated with intelligence. In this work, 1652 participants, 984 men and 668 women, ages between 18 and 55 years, were assessed. In addition to the SODT-R, the "Test de Razonamiento Analitico, Secuencial e Inductivo" (TRASI [Analytical, Sequential, and Inductive Reasoning Test]; Rubio & Santacreu, 2003) was administered as a measure of general intelligence. Impulsivity scores (Zi) of Salkind and Wright (1977) were used to analyze reflexivity-impulsivity and SATO. The results obtained indicate that (a) four performance groups can be identified: Fast-accurate, Slow-inaccurate, Impulsive, and Reflexive. The first two groups solve the task as a function of a competence variable and the last two as a function of a personality variable; (b) performance differences should be attributed to SATO; (c) SATO differs depending on sex and intelligence level.

  11. The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board Cognitive Ability Test: Børge Prien's Prøve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Hartmann, Peter V W; Pedersen, Christoffer H; Bertelsen, Mette

    2011-04-01

    The Danish Draft Board has used the same test for assessing general cognitive ability, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP), for over 50 years during which time all men on reaching the age of 18 become liable for conscription. Data from the test has, over the decades, been used in numerous and wide-ranging research studies. Nonetheless, owing to the special circumstances of its administration, some psychometric properties, which are generally assessed for psychological tests, have not previously been investigated for the BPP. First, since the test is only used at the assessment phase, retesting with the BPP occurs only rarely and under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, its Test-Retest reliability has hitherto not been documented. Second, questions have often been raised as to whether the validity of the BPP is undermined by either a lack of motivation and under-performing among some of the men taking the test, being, as they are, compelled to do so, and/or by gradual obsolescence of the test over the decades of its use. We here present findings from three new studies to show that (a) the BPP has a satisfactory Test-Retest reliability, r=0.77, (b) BPP test scores are not positively associated with expressed attitude to being called upon to serve conscription and (c) the correlation between the BPP and a measure of educational level has remained stable (at about 0.5) through the last two decades. Taken together these three findings further support the continuing value of the BPP in research relating to cognitive ability. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. Problem-Based Learning (PBL and Student Interest in STEM Careers: The Roles of Motivation and Ability Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie LaForce

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Amid growing concerns about the future of the U.S. economy and workforce, educators and policymakers alike have increasingly emphasized the need to expand the number of students interested in, qualified for and actually pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM. The current study draws on survey responses from a sample of 3852 high school students at inclusive STEM schools across the U.S. to investigate how project- and problem-based learning (PBL may work to address this need. Multivariate regression results indicate that student ratings of PBL are associated with interest in pursuing a career in STEM, as well as with intrinsic motivation for science and students’ ability beliefs for both science and math. Further, mediation analysis using Hayes’ (2014 MEDIATE macro suggests that science intrinsic motivation and ability beliefs mediate the relationship between perceived PBL experiences and student interest in a future STEM career (IFSC. Our results highlight the important potential of PBL for increasing student STEM attitudes and interest in future STEM careers. As one of the only large-scale quantitative analyses of its kind, this study provides critical information for educators, school administrators and policymakers as they continue to seek effective ways of encouraging students to pursue STEM careers.

  13. Unique and shared validity of the "Wechsler logical memory test", the "California verbal learning test", and the "verbal learning and memory test" in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, Christoph; Wietzke, Jennifer; Lutz, Martin T

    2009-12-01

    This study was set-up to evaluate the construct validity of three verbal memory tests in epilepsy patients. Sixty-one consecutively evaluated patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or extra-temporal epilepsy (E-TLE) underwent testing with the verbal learning and memory test (VLMT, the German equivalent of the Rey auditory verbal learning test, RAVLT); the California verbal learning test (CVLT); the logical memory and digit span subtests of the Wechsler memory scale, revised (WMS-R); and testing of intelligence, attention, speech and executive functions. Factor analysis of the memory tests resulted in test-specific rather than test over-spanning factors. Parameters of the CVLT and WMS-R, and to a much lesser degree of the VLMT, were highly correlated with attention, language function and vocabulary. Delayed recall measures of logical memory and the VLMT differentiated TLE from E-TLE. Learning and memory scores off all three tests differentiated mesial temporal sclerosis from other pathologies. A lateralization of the epilepsy was possible only for a subsample of 15 patients with mesial TLE. Although the three tests provide overlapping indicators for a temporal lobe epilepsy or a mesial pathology, they can hardly be taken in exchange. The tests have different demands on semantic processing and memory organization, and they appear differentially sensitive to performance in non-memory domains. The tests capability to lateralize appears to be poor. The findings encourage the further discussion of the dependency of memory outcomes on test selection.

  14. Validity and Relative Ability of 4 Balance Tests to Identify Fall Status of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alda; Silva, Alexandre; Oliveira, Ana; Cruz, Joana; Machado, Ana; Jácome, Cristina

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), the Mini-BESTest, and the Brief-BESTest are useful tests to assess balance; however, their clinimetric properties have not been studied well in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study compared the validity and relative ability of the BBS, BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest to identify fall status in older adults with T2D. This study involved a cross-sectional design. Sixty-six older adults with T2D (75 ± 7.6 years) were included and asked to report the number of falls during the previous 12 months and to complete the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. The BBS and the BESTest were administered, and the Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest scores were computed based on the BESTest performance. Receiver operating characteristics were used to assess the ability of each balance test to differentiate between participants with and without a history of falls. The 4 balance tests were able to identify fall status (areas under the curve = 0.74-0.76), with similar sensitivity (60%-67%) and specificity (71%-76%). The 4 balance tests were able to differentiate between older adults with T2D with and without a history of falls. As the BBS and the BESTest require longer application time, the Brief-BESTest may be an appropriate choice to use in clinical practice to detect fall risk.

  15. Effect of collaborative testing on learning and retention of course content in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaz, Mozhgan; Momennasab, Marzieh; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh

    2015-10-01

    Collaborative testing is a learning strategy that provides students with the opportunity to learn and practice collaboration. This study aimed to determine the effect of collaborative testing on test performance and retention of course content in nursing students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 84 students enrolled in the course of Medical-Surgical 2 in Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters. The control group consisting of 39 students participated in the first mid-term exam in an individual format. The intervention group, on the other hand, consisted of 45 students who took the test in a two-stage process. The first stage included an individual testing, while the second stage was a collaborative one given in groups of five individuals chosen randomly. Four weeks later, in order to investigate retention of the course content, both groups took part in the second mid-term exam held individually. The study findings showed significant difference between the mean scores in the intervention group in the Fall 2013 semester (p=0.001). Besides, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the tests mean scores (p=0.001). Moreover, retention of course content improved in the collaborative group (p=0.001). The results indicated an increase in test performance and a long-term learning enhancement in collaborative testing compared with the traditional method. Collaborative testing, as an active learning technique and a valuable assessment method, can help nursing instructors provide the alumni with strong problem-solving and critical thinking abilities at healthcare environments.

  16. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  17. Uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying learning from tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan L Liu

    Full Text Available People learn better when re-study opportunities are replaced with tests. While researchers have begun to speculate on why testing is superior to study, few studies have directly examined the neural underpinnings of this effect. In this fMRI study, participants engaged in a study phase to learn arbitrary word pairs, followed by a cued recall test (recall second half of pair when cued with first word of pair, re-study of each pair, and finally another cycle of cued recall tests. Brain activation patterns during the first test (recall of the studied pairs predicts performance on the second test. Importantly, while subsequent memory analyses of encoding trials also predict later accuracy, the brain regions involved in predicting later memory success are more extensive for activity during retrieval (testing than during encoding (study. Those additional regions that predict subsequent memory based on their activation at test but not at encoding may be key to understanding the basis of the testing effect.

  18. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  19. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  20. Relationship Between Jumping Ability, Agility and Sprint Performance of Elite Young Basketball Players: A Field-Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p177   The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sprint, agility and jump performance of elite young basketball players. Sixteen elite national level young male basketball players participated in this study. The jumping ability of each player was determined using countermovement jump (CMJ, and broad long jump (BLJ. The agility T test (TT and Illinois agility test (IAT were assessed to determine the agility, and 20-m sprint time was also measured to determine sprint performance. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis indicated moderate correlation between training age and IAT (r = -0.57; p = 0.021. Strong correlations were found between CMJ and BLJ (r = 0.71; p = 0.002, and between TT and IAT (r = 0.70; p = 0.002. Similarly, 20-m sprint time was strong correlated with CMJ (r = -0.61; p = 0.011, BLJ (r = -0.76; p = 0.001, TT (r = 0.77; p = 0.001, and IAT (r = 0.68; p = 0.003. In addition, CMJ was strongly correlated with TT (r = -0.60; p = 0.013, and IAT (r = -0.64; p = 0.007, and also strong correlation between BLJ with TT (r = -0.85; p = 0.001 and IAT (r = -0.76; p = 0.001. The findings of the present study indicated significant correlation between sprint and agility, jumping ability and sprint performance and between jumping ability and agility performance in basketball players. Therefore, the results suggest that sprint, agility and jumping ability share common physiological and biomechanical determinants.

  1. A Machine Learning Approach to Test Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahmcke, Christina Mackeprang

    2007-01-01

    been tested, and a more thorough statistical foundation is required. We propose to use logic-statistical modelling methods for machine-learning for analyzing existing and manually marked up data, integrated with the generation of new, artificial data. More specifically, we suggest to use the PRISM...... system developed by Sato and Kameya. Based on logic programming extended with random variables and parameter learning, PRISM appears as a powerful modelling environment, which subsumes HMMs and a wide range of other methods, all embedded in a declarative language. We illustrate these principles here...

  2. A comparison of the efficacy of test-driven learning versus self-assessment learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaohua; Canty, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compared self-assessment and test-driven learning in two groups of students who studied the same subject. Methods This was a randomized comparative experimental study. The subjects were 259 first-quarter students who were divided into a test group and a self-assessment group based on the methods they used for their learning assessments. We measured the scores and difficulty levels of 3 formal written exams. Students' attitudes toward self-assessment or test-driven learning were surveyed. Results The mean scores of exam 1, exam 2, and a summative exam were 34 (±6), 32 (±8), and 44 (±6) for the self-assessment group, respectively, with corresponding scores of 33 (±6), 33 (±7), 43 (±6) for the test group. There were no significant differences in the mean scores on all 3 tests between the two groups (p > .05). Of the students in the self-assessment group, 64% scored at least 90%, whereas 47% of students in the test group answered at least 90% of the questions correctly (p self-assessment and tests could have a significant impact on students' learning, but each offers different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:23957317

  3. Red mold rice ameliorates impairment of memory and learning ability in intracerebroventricular amyloid beta-infused rat by repressing amyloid beta accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2007-11-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide related to the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) damaged neurons and further resulted in dementia. Monascus-fermented red mold rice (RMR), a traditional Chinese medicine as well as health food, includes monacolins (with the same function as statins) and multifunctional metabolites. In this study, ethanol extract of RMR (RE) was used to evaluate neuroprotection against Abeta40 neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Furthermore, the effects of dietary administration of RMR on memory and learning abilities are confirmed in an animal model of AD rats infused with Abeta40 into the cerebral ventricle. During continuous Abeta40 infusion for 28 days, the rats of test groups were administered RMR or lovastatin. Memory and learning abilities were evaluated in the water maze and passive avoidance tasks. After sacrifice, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were collected for the examination of AD risk factors. The in vitro results clearly indicate that RE provides stronger neuroprotection in rescuing cell viability as well as repressing inflammatory response and oxidative stress. RMR administration potently reverses the memory deficit in the memory task. Abeta40 infusion increases acetylcholinesterase activity, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation and decreases total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase activity in brain, but these damages were potently reversed by RMR administration, and the protection was more significant than that with lovastatin administration. The protection provided by RMR is able to prevent Abeta fibrils from being formed and deposited in hippocampus and further decrease Abeta40 accumulation, even though Abeta40 solution was infused into brain continuously. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. eLearning Mobile App for Android and Ios "English Grammar Learn & Test"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Georgiana FODOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is aiming to present the architecture and few elements from the developing cycle of "English Grammar Learn & Test" app. This is an e-learning tool for people who want to improve their English Grammar and Vocabulary. The app was approved by Google Play and Apple Store and it is available for free on both platforms as following: Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.labsterzz.english_tests iOS: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/english-grammar-learn-test/id1126468980 The app already reached350.000 users, it is rated at 4.43out of maximum 5.0 in Google Play Store. Since mid-June 2016, we launched the app also in the Apple Store iOS devices.

  5. Effects of age, gender, education and race on two tests of language ability in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitz, Beth E; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Bilt, Joni Vander; Gao, Sujuan; Saxton, Judith; Hall, Kathleen S; Ganguli, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests, including tests of language ability, are frequently used to differentiate normal from pathological cognitive aging. However, language can be particularly difficult to assess in a standardized manner in cross-cultural studies and in patients from different educational and cultural backgrounds. This study examined the effects of age, gender, education and race on performance of two language tests: the animal fluency task (AFT) and the Indiana University Token Test (IUTT). We report population-based normative data on these tests from two combined ethnically divergent, cognitively normal, representative population samples of older adults. Participants aged > or =65 years from the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) and from the Indianapolis Study of Health and Aging (ISHA) were selected based on (1) a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0; (2) non-missing baseline language test data; and (3) race self-reported as African-American or white. The combined sample (n = 1885) was 28.1% African-American. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to model the effects of demographic characteristics on test scores. On both language tests, better performance was significantly associated with higher education, younger age, and white race. On the IUTT, better performance was also associated with female gender. We found no significant interactions between age and sex, and between race and education. Age and education are more potent variables than are race and gender influencing performance on these language tests. Demographically stratified normative tables for these measures can be used to guide test interpretation and aid clinical diagnosis of impaired cognition.

  6. Towards Intelligence and Flexibility of Learning and Knowledge Testing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerijus AUKSTAKALNIS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment are based on the flexible educational model and allows to implement an adaptive control of the enhanced learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level, his state of cognition and subject learning history. The enhanced learner knowledge model specifies how the cognition state of the user will be achieved step by step. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The use case actions specification is used as a basis to set the requirements for service software specification and attributes of learning objects respectively. The paper presents the enhanced architecture of the student self-evaluation and on-line assessment system TestTool. The system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented self-instructional and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.

  7. A New Proposal for Learning Curve of TEP Inguinal Hernia Repair: Ability to Complete Operation Endoscopically as a First Phase of Learning Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hasbahceci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exact nature of learning curve of totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia and the number required to master this technique remain controversial. Patients and Methods. We present a retrospective review of a single surgeon experience on patients who underwent totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. Results. There were 42 hernias (22 left- and 20 right-sided in 39 patients with a mean age of 48.8±15.1 years. Indirect, direct, and combined hernias were present in 18, 12, and 12 cases, respectively. The mean operative time was 55.1±22.8 minutes. Peritoneal injury occurred in 9 cases (21.4%. Conversion to open surgery was necessitated in 7 cases (16.7%. After grouping of all patients into two groups as cases between 1–21 and 22–42, it was seen that the majority of peritoneal injuries (7 out of 9, 77.8%, P=0.130 and all conversions (P=0.001 occurred in the first 21 cases. Conclusions. Learning curve of totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair can be divided into two consequent steps: immediate and late. At least 20 operations are required for gaining anatomical knowledge and surgical pitfalls based on the ability to perform this operation without conversion during immediate phase.

  8. Lessons Learned in Designing and Implementing a Computer-Adaptive Test for English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Burston

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the lessons learned in designing and implementing a computer-adaptive test (CAT for English. The early identification of students with weak L2 English proficiency is of critical importance in university settings that have compulsory English language course graduation requirements. The most efficient means of diagnosing the L2 English ability of incoming students is by means of a computer-based test since such evaluation can be administered quickly, automatically corrected, and the outcome known as soon as the test is completed. While the option of using a commercial CAT is available to institutions with the ability to pay substantial annual fees, or the means of passing these expenses on to their students, language instructors without these resources can only avail themselves of the advantages of CAT evaluation by creating their own tests.  As is demonstrated by the E-CAT project described in this paper, this is a viable alternative even for those lacking any computer programing expertise.  However, language teaching experience and testing expertise are critical to such an undertaking, which requires considerable effort and, above all, collaborative teamwork to succeed. A number of practical skills are also required. Firstly, the operation of a CAT authoring programme must be learned. Once this is done, test makers must master the art of creating a question database and assigning difficulty levels to test items. Lastly, if multimedia resources are to be exploited in a CAT, test creators need to be able to locate suitable copyright-free resources and re-edit them as needed.

  9. Road Testing Graduate Attributes and Course Learning Outcomes of an Environmental Science Degree via a Work-Integrated Learning Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Graduate attributes and course learning outcomes are an integral part of higher education in Australia. Testing the performance of graduates in the workplace with regard to graduate attributes and course learning outcomes is a not a common occurrence. This study has road tested the graduate attributes and course learning outcomes of a bachelor…

  10. Embryonic skeleton development and neonatal learning and memory ability of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium: Differences of administration occasion and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling Peng; Yuhua Zhu; Ankang Hu; Xiaorong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    through electric mare method. Determine their study ability according to their correct rate of 90% or above of arrival at the safe area in 20 s. After they finally learned to arrive at the safe area correctly, test them once more in 24 hours and record the correct rate of 15 times.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of malformation in fetus and ability of learning and memory in one-month rats.RESULTS: A total of 80 female rats were anesthetized in this experiment. Totally 490 immature rats were tested with maze testing machine and 196 fetuses were stained with alizarin red S to observe the development of their skeleton. However, one of the 80 female rats was led to death because of overdose. ① Malformation experiment: Learning ability of second anesthesia group was evidently different from the control group while the other two groups were not in the electric mare method. The fetal skeleton malformation rate of three experimental groups was 87.0%, 60.9% and 17.9%, respectively, while it was 5.6% in the control group. ②Electric mare method: Times of rats which arrived at the safe regions were respectively 49.0±31.0, 68.0±35.0,47.0±31.0 and 44.0±21.0 in early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group; and then, there was significant difference between the second anesthesia group and the control group (P < 0.05). Exact rates of memory of rats were respectively (64.36±14.35)%, (62.15±18.33)%, (54.19±12.28)% and (68.24±15.91)% in early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group; and then, there were no significant differences as compared with the control group (P> 0.05).CONCLUSION: The influence of anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium is obvious in fetal skeleton development and learning and memory ability.

  11. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  12. Can the ability to adapt to exercise be considered a talent-and if so, can we test for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Craig; Kiely, John

    2017-11-29

    Talent identification (TI) is a popular and hugely important topic within sports performance, with an ever-increasing amount of resources dedicated to unveiling the next sporting star. However, at present, most TI processes appear to select high-performing individuals at the present point in time, as opposed to identifying those individuals with the greatest capacity to improve. This represents a potential inefficiency within the TI process, reducing its effectiveness. In this article, we discuss whether the ability to adapt favorably, and with a large magnitude, to physical training can be considered a talent, testing it against proposed criteria. We also discuss whether, if such an ability can be considered a talent, being able to test for it as part of the TI process would be advantageous. Given that such a capacity is partially heritable, driven by genetic variation between individuals that mediate the adaptive response, we also explore whether the information gained from genetic profiling can be used to identify those with the greatest capacity to improve. Although there are some ethical hurdles which must be considered, the use of genetic information to identify those individuals with the greatest capacity appears to hold promise and may improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of contemporary TI programmes.

  13. The ability of modified star excursion balance test to differentiate between women athletes with and without chronic ankle instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Razeghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is one functional clinical test that widely used to assess dynamic balance in patients with ankle injuries. Since the ability of this test to detect impairments between athletes with and without chronic ankle instability(CAI is not clear, the aim of present study was to determine if the modified SEBT could detect reach deficits in patients with unilateral CAI. A convenience sample of thirty elite and sub elite women athletes were selected and assigned into two groups: CAI group (Mean ± SD: age: 25±3.5 years; height: 1.68±0.09 m; weight: 62.7±7.3kg, and healthy controls (Mean ± SD: age: 26±4.2 years; height: 1.69±0.05 m; weigh t: 62.7±7.3 kg.The dynamic balance test was obtained using modified SEBT from both limbs of each participant. The independent sample t-test was used for both between group and within group inter-limb comparisons. There was no significant difference in any directions of modified SEBT between two groups in both limbs. No significant interlimb differences were also observed within both groups. The modified SEBT may not enough sensitive to differentiate between athletes with and without CAI. Other factors such as ankle range of motion, muscle strength and pain intensity should be considered for better interpretation of the SEBT results.

  14. Neural correlates of testing effects in vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Gesa S E; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Fernández, Guillén; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-09-01

    Tests that require memory retrieval strongly improve long-term retention in comparison to continued studying. For example, once learners know the translation of a word, restudy practice, during which they see the word and its translation again, is less effective than testing practice, during which they see only the word and retrieve the translation from memory. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying this striking testing effect. Twenty-six young adults without prior knowledge of Swahili learned the translation of 100 Swahili words and then further practiced the words in an fMRI scanner by restudying or by testing. Recall of the translations on a final memory test after one week was significantly better and faster for tested words than for restudied words. Brain regions that were more active during testing than during restudying included the left inferior frontal gyrus, ventral striatum, and midbrain areas. Increased activity in the left inferior parietal and left middle temporal areas during testing but not during restudying predicted better recall on the final memory test. Together, results suggest that testing may be more beneficial than restudying due to processes related to targeted semantic elaboration and selective strengthening of associations between retrieval cues and relevant responses, and may involve increased effortful cognitive control and modulations of memory through striatal motivation and reward circuits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different levels of dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats%不同剂量补锌对大鼠体重和学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 李积胜

    2004-01-01

    [Objective]:To investigate the effect of increasing dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats.[Methods]Zinc supplemental diet contained 200, 400, 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc,respectively.Y-labyrinth test was applied to exam the learning and memory function of rats.[Results]Significantly greater weight gain was observed in rats fed with 400 mg/kg zinc diet than in rats fed with 200 mg/kg zinc diet(P<0.05). During the early experiment, lower weight increments were notably observed in rats with 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc supplementation than that in control group, respectively. But the influence on weight relief became weaker in pace with time on the whole. Learning and memory function for rats were strikingly improved at level of 200 mg/kg zinc diet compared with the control level(P<0.05), and were damaged in varying degrees at higher(except 1 600 mg/kg) zinc supplementation levels in feeds, among which,800 mg/kg zinc dosage had produced obviously lesion for learning ability in rats compared with normal, 200 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc levels(P<0.05, respectively).[Conclusion]These results suggest that different levels of zinc supplementation have some incompletely parallel effects on the growth, memory and capacity to learn in rats.

  16. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  17. Experential Learning Group Investigation as Effort to Developt Environmental Literacy Ability at 5th Grade Students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuswa Istikomayanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of learning tools for Environmental Education to develop students' environmental literacy skills are indispensable. Methods of research and development using 4-D Thiagarajan (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate. The result of the development of the device include syllabi, lesson plans, modules, and assessment instruments tested in class IV A Lesson Study by performing well. The trial results actually (validation testing with pre-experiment (class IV B can improve the literacy skills of students include aspects of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and skills and habituation. The trial results actually (class IV B obtained N-Score Gain knowledge and attitude tests of 0.64 (medium, and N-Gain Score of the attitude scale questionnaire 0.67 (moderate. While aspects of the student's skills include practical activities seed, move into the growing medium, and the practice of making compost with N-Gain Score of 0.54 (medium and 0.69 (moderate. Activity habituation maintain plants and credible form of checks compost with N-Gain Score of 0.48 (moderate. The results of research and development is expected to be utilized by the school and can be distributed to other schools

  18. Environmental change enhances cognitive abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.

  19. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  20. The Effects of Self-Regulatory Learning through Computer-Assisted Intelligent Tutoring System on the Improvement of EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Ahmad; Sarkhosh, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the effects of self-regulatory learning through computer-assisted intelligent tutoring system on the improvement of speaking ability. The participants of the study, who spoke Azeri Turkish as their mother tongue, were students of Applied Linguistics at BA level at Pars Abad's Azad University, Ardebil,…

  1. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Perceptions of Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine the levels of critical thinking disposition and perception of problem-solving ability of pre-service teachers. The second aim was to compare the effects of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking dispositions and perceptions of…

  2. The impact of an interprofessional problem-based learning curriculum of clinical ethics on medical and nursing students' attitudes and ability of interprofessional collaboration: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical ethic situations in modern multiprofessional healthcare systems may involve different healthcare professions who work together for patient care. The undergraduate interprofessional education of clinical ethics would help to incubate healthcare students' ability of interprofessional collaboration in solving ethical problems. However, the impact from an interprofessional educational model on student's attitudes and confidence of interprofessional collaboration should be carefully evaluated during the process of curricular development. This study aimed to conduct a pilot interprofessional PBL curriculum of clinical ethics and evaluate the curricular impact on interprofessional students' attitude and confidence of collaborative teamwork. Thirty-six medical and nursing students volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into three groups (medical group, nursing group, and mixed group. Tutors were recruited from the Medical School and the College of Nursing. The pilot curriculum included one lecture of clinical ethics, one PBL case study with two tutorial sessions, and one session of group discussion and feedback. A narrative story with multiple story lines and a multiperspective problem analysis tool were used in the PBL tutorials. The students' self-evaluation of learning questionnaire was used to evaluate students' learning of clinical ethics and interprofessional collaborative skills and attitude. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach α, and the criterion-related validity of the questionnaire was evaluated through associations between the dimension scores with the student group by one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA test and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (HSD comparison. There was significant difference among different groups in students' ability and attitudes about “interprofessional communication and collaboration” (p = 0.0184. The scores in the mixed group (37

  3. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  4. Student Perceptions of Sectional CT/MRI Use in Teaching Veterinary Anatomy and the Correlation with Visual Spatial Ability: A Student Survey and Mental Rotations Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisser, Peter J; Carwardine, Darren

    2017-11-29

    Diagnostic imaging technology is becoming more advanced and widely available to veterinary patients with the growing popularity of veterinary-specific computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Veterinary students must, therefore, be familiar with these technologies and understand the importance of sound anatomic knowledge for interpretation of the resultant images. Anatomy teaching relies heavily on visual perception of structures and their function. In addition, visual spatial ability (VSA) positively correlates with anatomy test scores. We sought to assess the impact of including more diagnostic imaging, particularly CT/MRI, in the teaching of veterinary anatomy on the students' perceived level of usefulness and ease of understanding content. Finally, we investigated survey answers' relationship to the students' inherent baseline VSA, measured by a standard Mental Rotations Test. Students viewed diagnostic imaging as a useful inclusion that provided clear links to clinical relevance, thus improving the students' perceived benefits in its use. Use of CT and MRI images was not viewed as more beneficial, more relevant, or more useful than the use of radiographs. Furthermore, students felt that the usefulness of CT/MRI inclusion was mitigated by the lack of prior formal instruction on the basics of CT/MRI image generation and interpretation. To be of significantly greater use, addition of learning resources labeling relevant anatomy in tomographical images would improve utility of this novel teaching resource. The present study failed to find any correlation between student perceptions of diagnostic imaging in anatomy teaching and their VSA.

  5. Development and pilot testing of a questionnaire to determine the ability and willingness of health personnel accompanying perinatal bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Domínguez Santarén

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The care that parents receive around the time of a loss has a huge impact on their perception of what happened and on their ability to cope. Good care cannot remove the pain and devastation that the loss of a pregnancy or the death of a baby can bring, but can promote healing.Methodology: Creation and pilot study for a questionnaire to determinate the capacity and willingness of perinatal bereavement support from staff in hospitalization and delivery room services in Zaragoza and Jaca who care for couples with a perinatal death.Statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis is made of the difficulties and limitations of this support staff is performing. Psychometric tests were conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire by calculating Cronbach´s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient. For the analysis of construct validity, we performed the principal components factorial analysis (PCFA through the Varimax rotation system.Results. The qualitative analysis of open-ended responses indicates a lack of knowledge about this type of mourning and social and communication tools that often precludes effective accompaniment. We obtained a Cronbach alpha value of 0.835 overall questionnaire, which indicates high internal consistency or coherence among the items and relatively high CCI indicates good stability over time with significance p<,001. Making appropriate modifications could assess the ability and willingness of workers.

  6. Avaliação das habilidades auditivas em crianças com alterações de aprendizagem Evaluating auditory abilities in children with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Maria Pelitero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo (ASPA e no Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test (PSI, de crianças com alteração de Aprendizagem da Leitura e Escrita e sem este tipo de alteração. MÉTODOS: participaram da pesquisa 28 crianças na faixa etária de 8 a 12 anos, do sexo masculino e feminino. Os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE para a categorização dos grupos de estudo e controle, e, para avaliação das habilidades auditivas foram aplicados a ASPA e o Teste PSI. RESULTADOS: não foi observada associação estatisticamente significante entre o desempenho nos testes de Processamento Auditivo (PA e o grupo com dificuldades de aprendizagem, apesar de ter sido verificada maior frequência de alterações no grupo de estudo em relação ao grupo controle, em todos os testes. Na ASPA, o teste em que se observou maior número de alterações foi o Teste de Memória Sequencial Verbal, contudo, o Teste de Memória Sequencial Não-verbal foi o que mostrou maior diferença entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes no desempenho na Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo (ASPA e no Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test (PSI, das crianças com alteração de Aprendizagem da Leitura e Escrita e sem alteração.PURPOSE: to compare performance of children with or without alterations in reading and writing skills acquisition in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT and the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI tests. METHODS: twenty-eight female and male children aged 8-12 took part in this study. The subjects did the Academic Achievement Test (TDE in order to be placed in the study group or control group and, for the assessment of hearing abilities, they took the SAPT and the PSI tests. RESULTS: no statistically significant association was found between performances in tests for hearing processing

  7. Analysis of Students Ability on Creative Thinking Aspects in terms of Cognitive Style in Mathematics Learning with CORE Model Using Constructivism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Konita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE menggunakan pendekatan konstruktivisme dapat mencapai ketuntasan klasikal; mengetahui rata-rata hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE menggunakan pendekatan konstruktivisme lebih dari 75; mendeskripsikan gaya kognitif siswa dalam menjawab masalah dan kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dalam pembelajaran matematika. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kombinasi (mixed methods. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X SMAN 6 Semarang. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1 hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE pendekatan konstruktivisme mencapai ketuntasan klasikal; (2 rata-rata hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE pendekatan konstruktivisme lebih dari 75; (3 catatan waktu karakterikstik gaya kognitif reflektif terlambat namun frekuensi menjawab paling sedikit, sedangkan catatan waktu karakterikstik gaya kognitif implusif tercepat namun frekuensi menjawab paling banyak; (4 Kelompok siswa gaya kognitif reflektif memenuhi komponen berpikir kreatif yaitu fleksibilitas dan kebaruan serta kelompok siswa gaya kognitif implusif memenuhi komponen berpikir kreatif fleksibel dalam menjawab masalah.   The purpose of this research is to determine learning outcomes in the aspect of creative thinking abilities with CORE model use a constructivist approach achieve mastery of classical, determine the mean result of learning on aspect of creative thinking abilities with CORE learning model use a constructivist approach is more than 75, to describe the characteristics of the cognitive styles of students in answering problems, and describe the creative thinking abilities based on cognitive style. This research is combined (mixed methods. The study population was class X SMAN 6 Semarang. The result of this research showed

  8. What Specific Science Abilities and Skills Are Romanian Students Developing during Primary Education? A Comparison with the Abilities Tested by the TIMSS 2011 Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciascai, Liliana; Dulama, Maria-Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The results of Romanian students at international comparative TIMSS and PISA tests have constantly proven to be unsatisfactory. The present paper aims at analyzing the school syllabi "Mathematics and Environment exploration", "Environmental Education" and "Natural Sciences" studied during primary education in Romania…

  9. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, J.Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant

  10. Test Framing Generates a Stability Bias for Predictions of Learning by Causing People to Discount their Learning Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Robert; Hines, Jarrod C.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    People estimate minimal changes in learning when making predictions of learning (POLs) for future study opportunities despite later showing increased performance and an awareness of that increase (Kornell & Bjork, 2009). This phenomenon is conceptualized as a stability bias in judgments about learning. We investigated the malleability of this effect, and whether it reflected people’s underlying beliefs about learning. We manipulated prediction framing to emphasize the role of testing vs. studying on memory and directly measured beliefs about multi-trial study effects on learning by having participants construct predicted learning curves before and after the experiment. Mean POLs were more sensitive to the number of study-test opportunities when performance was framed in terms of study benefits rather than testing benefits and POLs reflected pre-existing beliefs about learning. The stability bias is partially due to framing and reflects discounted beliefs about learning benefits rather than inherent belief in the stability of performance. PMID:25067885

  11. A novel test for evaluating horses' spontaneous visual attention is predictive of attention in operant learning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C; Sébilleau, M; Houdebine, M; Bec, P; Hausberger, M; Henry, S

    2017-08-01

    Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: 'overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and 'fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus. The individual attention characteristics remained consistent over time (after 6 months, Spearman correlation test, P attentional skills was assessed by comparing the results, for the same horses, with those obtained in both a 'classical' experimental attention test the 'five-choice serial reaction time task' (5-CSRTT) and a work situation (lunge working context). Our results revealed that (i) individual variations remained consistent across tests and (ii) the VAT attention measures were not only predictive of attentional skills but also of learning abilities. Differences appeared however between the first day of testing and the following test days: attention structure on the second day was predictive of learning abilities, attention performances in the 5-CSRRT and at work. The VAT appears as a promising easy-to-use tool to assess animals' attention characteristics and the impact of different factors of variation on attention.

  12. Beta-Test Data On An Assessment Of Textbook Problem Solving Ability: An Argument For Right/Wrong Grading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen; Marx, Jeffrey D.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an assessment of students' ability to solve standard textbook style problems and are currently engaged in the validation and revision process. The assessment covers the topics of force and motion, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy at a level consistent with most calculus-based, introductory physics courses. This tool is discussed in more detail in an accompanying paper by Marx and Cummings. [1] Here we present preliminary beta-test data collected at four schools during the 2009/2010 academic year. Data include both pre- and post-instruction results for introductory physics courses as well as results for physics majors in later years. In addition, we present evidence that right/wrong grading may well be a perfectly acceptable grading procedure for a course-level assessment of this type.

  13. Acute effects of two different initial heart rates on testing the Repeated Sprint Ability in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, B; Briotti, G; Tozzo, N; Partipilo, F; Taraborelli, M; Zeppetella, A; Padulo, J; D'Ottavio, S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effects of two different initial heart rates intensities when testing the repeated sprint ability (RSA) performances in young soccer players. Since there are many kinds of pre-match warm-ups, we chose to take as an absolute indicator of internal load the heart rate reached at the end of two different warm-up protocols (60 vs. 90% HRmax) and to compare the respective RSA performances. The RSA tests were performed on fifteen male soccer players (age: 17.9±1.5 years) with two sets of ten shuttle-sprints (15+15 m) with a 1:3 exercise to rest ratio, in different days (randomized order) with different HR% (60 & 90% HRmax). In order to compare the different sprint performances a Fatigue Index (FI%) was computed, while the blood lactate concentrations (BLa-) were measured before and after testing, to compare metabolic demand. Significant differences among trials within each sets (Psoccer player operates during a real match. This background may be partially reproduced by warming up protocols that, by duration and metabolic commitment, can reproduce conveniently the physiological conditions encountered in a real game (e.g. HRmax≈85-95%; BLa->4 mmol/L(-1)).

  14. Global, broad, or specific cognitive differences? Using a MIMIC model to examine differences in CHC abilities in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the relations between learning disabilities and different levels of latent cognitive abilities, including general intelligence (g), broad cognitive abilities, and specific abilities based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of intelligence (CHC theory). Data from the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II) were used to create a multiple-indicator multiple cause model to examine the latent mean differences in cognitive abilities between children with and without learning disabilities in reading (LD reading), math (LD math), and reading and writing(LD reading and writing). Statistically significant differences were found in the g factor between the norm group and the LD groups. After controlling for differences in g, the LD reading and LD reading and writing groups showed relatively lower latent processing speed, and the LD math group showed relatively higher latent comprehension-knowledge. There were also some differences in some specific cognitive abilities, including lower scores in spatial relations and numerical facility for the LD math group, and lower scores in visual memory for the LD reading and writing group. These specific mean differences were above and beyond any differences in the latent cognitive factor means.

  15. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  16. Assessing the Ability of Vegetation Indices to Identify Shallow Subsurface Water Flow Pathways from Hyperspectral Imagery Using Machine Learning: Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, J. M.; Doctor, K.

    2017-12-01

    A common application of the satellite and airborne acquired hyperspectral imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum is the assessment of vegetation. Various absorption features of plants related to both water and chlorophyll content can be used to measure the vigor and access to underlying water sources of the vegetation. The typical strategy is to form hand-crafted features from the hyperspectral data cube by selecting two wavelengths to form difference or ratio images in the pixel space. The new image attempts to provide greater contrast for some feature of the vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a widely used example formed from the ratio of differences and sums at two different wavelengths. There are dozens of these indices that are ostensibly formed using insights about the underlying physics of the spectral absorption with claims to efficacy in representing various properties of vegetation. In the language of machine learning these vegetation indices are features that can be used as a useful data representation within an algorithm. In this work we use a powerful approach from machine learning, probabilistic graphical models (PGM), to balance the competing needs of using existing hydrological classifications of terrain while finding statistically reliable features within hyperspectral data for identifying the generative process of the data. The algorithm in its simplest form is called a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier and can be constructed in a data-driven estimation procedure of the conditional probability distributions that form the PGM. The Naïve Bayes model assumes that all vegetation indices (VI) are independent of one another given the hydrological class label. We seek to test its validity in a pilot study of detecting subsurface water flow pathways from VI. A more sophisticated PGM will also be explored called a tree-augmented NB that accounts for the probabilistic dependence between VI features. This methodology provides a

  17. Fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and history of falls in elderly women: a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihlborg, A; Englund, M; Åkesson, K; Gerdhem, P

    2015-08-01

    In a large cohort of elderly women followed for 10 years, we found that balance, gait speed, and self-reported history of fall independently predicted fracture. These clinical risk factors are easily evaluated and therefore advantageous in a clinical setting. They would improve fracture risk assessment and thereby also fracture prevention. The aim of this study was to identify additional risk factors for osteoporosis-related fracture by investigating the fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and self-reported history of falls. In the population-based Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study (OPRA), 1044 women were recruited at the age of 75 and followed for 10 years. At inclusion, knee extension force, standing balance, gait speed, and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined. Falls the year before investigation was assessed by questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine fracture hazard ratios (HR) with BMD, history of fracture, BMI, smoking habits, bisphosphonate, vitamin D, glucocorticoid, and alcohol use as covariates. Continuous variables were standardized and HR shown for each standard deviation change. Of all women, 427 (41%) sustained at least one fracture during the 10-year follow-up. Failing the balance test had an HR of 1.98 (1.18-3.32) for hip fracture. Each standard deviation decrease in gait speed was associated with an HR of 1.37 (1.14-1.64) for hip fracture. Previous fall had an HR of 1.30 (1.03-1.65) for any fracture; 1.39 (1.08-1.79) for any osteoporosis-related fracture; and 1.60 (1.03-2.48) for distal forearm fracture. Knee extension force did not show fracture predictability. The balance test, gait speed test, and self-reported history of fall all hold independent fracture predictability. Consideration of these clinical risk factors for fracture would improve the fracture risk assessment and subsequently also fracture prevention.

  18. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  19. A novel test for evaluating horses' spontaneous visual attention is predictive of attention in operant learning tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C.; Sébilleau, M.; Houdebine, M.; Bec, P.; Hausberger, M.; Henry, S.

    2017-08-01

    Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: `overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and `fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus. The individual attention characteristics remained consistent over time (after 6 months, Spearman correlation test, P work situation (lunge working context). Our results revealed that (i) individual variations remained consistent across tests and (ii) the VAT attention measures were not only predictive of attentional skills but also of learning abilities. Differences appeared however between the first day of testing and the following test days: attention structure on the second day was predictive of learning abilities, attention performances in the 5-CSRRT and at work. The VAT appears as a promising easy-to-use tool to assess animals' attention characteristics and the impact of different factors of variation on attention.

  20. Survey of Opinions on the Primacy of "g" and Social Consequences of Ability Testing: A Comparison of Expert and Non-Expert Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Charles, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of "g" and the social implications of ability testing, and compares their responses to the views of a group of non-expert psychologists. Results indicate expert consensus that "g" is an important, non-trivial determinant (or at least…

  1. Optimizing multiple-choice tests as tools for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeri L; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    Answering multiple-choice questions with competitive alternatives can enhance performance on a later test, not only on questions about the information previously tested, but also on questions about related information not previously tested-in particular, on questions about information pertaining to the previously incorrect alternatives. In the present research, we assessed a possible explanation for this pattern: When multiple-choice questions contain competitive incorrect alternatives, test-takers are led to retrieve previously studied information pertaining to all of the alternatives in order to discriminate among them and select an answer, with such processing strengthening later access to information associated with both the correct and incorrect alternatives. Supporting this hypothesis, we found enhanced performance on a later cued-recall test for previously nontested questions when their answers had previously appeared as competitive incorrect alternatives in the initial multiple-choice test, but not when they had previously appeared as noncompetitive alternatives. Importantly, however, competitive alternatives were not more likely than noncompetitive alternatives to be intruded as incorrect responses, indicating that a general increased accessibility for previously presented incorrect alternatives could not be the explanation for these results. The present findings, replicated across two experiments (one in which corrective feedback was provided during the initial multiple-choice testing, and one in which it was not), thus strongly suggest that competitive multiple-choice questions can trigger beneficial retrieval processes for both tested and related information, and the results have implications for the effective use of multiple-choice tests as tools for learning.

  2. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the research of enzyme production levels observed cellulase produced by bacteria in the digestive tract of the isolation of the Snail (Achatina fulica. Isolation of bacteria based on the ability of bacteria to grow on CMC media. The purpose of this study was to determine cellulase activity by cellulolytic bacteria. Some bacterial isolates were identified as cellulolytic bacteria, they were KE-B1, KE-B2, KE-B3, KE-B4, KE-B5, and KE-B6. Isolates KE-B6 was the best isolates. Furthermore KE-B6 isolates were grown on media production to determine the pattern of growth and enzyme activity. Measurement of cell growth was conducted by inoculating starter aged 22 hours at CMC production of liquid medium. Cellulase enzyme activity measurements was performed by the DNS method. The results showed that the highest activity by new isolate bacteria KE-B6 and its value of the activity of 0.4539 U/mL, growth rate (µ 0.377/hour and generation time (g 1.84 hour. This research expected cellulase of producing bacteria were easy, inexpensive and efficient. This enzyme can be used as an enzyme biolytic once expected to replace expensive commercial enzyme. The biotylic enzyme can be applied to strains improvement (protoplast fusion.How to CiteWijanarka, W., Kusdiyantini, E. & Parman, S. (2016. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 386-392. 

  3. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Test del PWC 170 adaptado para determinar la capacidad de trabajo especial en beisbolistas escolares / Adapted PWC 170 test to determine special work abilities in school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiel López-Leal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se adaptó el test de PWC 170, según el método de Karpman modificado para el bateo, con el propósito de determinar la capacidad de trabajo especial durante este ejercicio en beisbolistas de la categoría 9-10 años del área deportiva Julio Antonio Mella, ciudad de Camagüey, Cuba. Se estudiaron 15 atletas. Como métodos se emplearon la revisión bibliográfica sobre el proceso de control de preparación del deportista y el control médico deportivo, además se realizó la entrevista a entrenadores y la observación de clases. De su aplicación se obtuvo como resultado una alta correlación entre ambas experiencias y buena estabilidad, además de positivas valoraciones de todos los indicadores por parte de los entrenadores; de ahí que consideren efectiva esta prueba para evaluar objetivamente la capacidad de trabajo especial en beisbolistas escolares de Camagüey. Abstract The PWC 170 test was adapted, according to Karpman’s model modified for batting, with the purpose of determining special work abilities during the game in 9-10 years old baseball players of Julio Antonio Mella sports area, Camagüey city, Cuba. The sample was of 15 athletes. Some of the scientific methods used were bibliographic revision on the control process of the athletes training, coach interviews and class observation. As a result the author detected a high correlation of experiences, good stability and positive coach assessment on every indicator. Therefore, this test was considered effective to objectively evaluate special work abilities in school baseball players from Camagüey.

  5. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  6. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Castro-Vale

    Full Text Available Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72. The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions to 91% (happiness expressions. The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001, which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  7. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  8. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  9. Influence of open- and closed-book tests on medical students' learning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT Two learning approaches are consistently distinguished in the literature: deep and surface learning. The deep learning approach is considered preferable. Open-book tests are expected to stimulate deep learning and to offer a possible way of handling the substantial growth in medical

  10. Effects of ginsenoside of stem and leaf combined with choline on learning and memory ability of rat models with Alzheimer diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Yunsheng Gao; Yuyun Zhu; Hongxia Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central adrenergic nerve and 5-serotonergic nerve can influence central cholinergic nerve on learning and memory and make easy for study; however, ginsenoside of stem and leaf (GSL) can improve functions of central adrenergic nerve; moreover, 5-serotonergic nerve and the combination with choline can produce synergistic effect and enhance learning and memory ability so as to improve learning and memory disorder of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of GSL combining with choline on learning and memory of AD model rats.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design and controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Pharmacological Department of Medical College of Jilin University from October 1996 to January 1997. Forty healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sham-injury group, model group, GSL group, choline group and combination group, with 8 rats in each group. Main medications: GSL with the volume more than 92.8% was provided by Department of Chemistry, Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University. Panaxatriol, the main component, was detected with thin layer scanning technique and regarded as the index of GSL quality [(55±1)%, CV= 2%, n= 5]. Choline was provided by the Third Shanghai Laboratory Factory.METHODS: 150 nmol quinolinic acid was used to damage bilateral Meynert basal nuclei of adult rats so as to establish AD models. Rats in GSL, choline and combination groups were intragastric administrated with 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days before operation. Rats in sham-injury group and model group were perfused with the same volume of distilled jumped up safe platform when they were shocked with 36 V

  11. Black Ink and Red Ink (BIRI) Testing: A Testing Method to Evaluate Both Recall and Recognition Learning in Accelerated Adult-Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rodgers, Jacci L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose, develop, and evaluate the black ink-red ink (BIRI) method of testing. This approach uses two different methods within the same test administration setting, one that matches recognition learning and the other that matches recall learning. Students purposively define their own tradeoff between the two approaches. Evaluation of the method…

  12. The Ability of the Coping Competence Questionnaire to Predict Resilience against Learned Helplessness among Undergraduate College Students: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Cindy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Coping Competence Questionnaire (CCQ), based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, was designed to assess a general stress resistance versus a propensity towards learned helplessness with a brief, 12-item self-report questionnaire. In this study the CCQ was administered to 247 undergraduate students, who were then paired, in groups…

  13. Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value of the Berg Balance Scale and the 10 meter walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Liljehult, Jacob; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2017-11-01

    Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg Balance Scale and 57 were tested with 10 meter walk test. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no statistical significance in favour of the 10 meter walk test. Berg Balance Scale showed an ability to predict walking ability 4-8 months after admission. The risk of dying within a year was 6.9 times higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more intensive specialized neurorehabilitation efforts early in the disease course.

  14. Inquiry-Based Learning for a Virtual Learning Community to Enhance Problem-Solving Ability of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasitchai, Ong-art; Khlaisang, Jintavee

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth in collaborative and interactive virtual learning communities integrating innovative digital technologies and contemporary learning frameworks is contributing enormously to the use of e-learning in higher education in the twenty-first century. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a virtual learning…

  15. Genetic Performance and General Combining Ability of Oil Palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera Tested on Inland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Saleh, G.; Kushairi, A.; Latif, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm−1 yr−1 with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm−1 yr−1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem. PMID:22701095

  16. Genetic Performance and General Combining Ability of Oil Palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera Tested on Inland Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Noh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm−1 yr−1 with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm−1 yr−1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247, P3 (0.174/498, P11 (0.182/308 were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247, P10 (0.182/348, and P11 (0.182/308 were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B. The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem.

  17. A Detailed Research Study of Learning and Teaching Core Chemical Engineering to a High Standard in a Mixed-Ability Small Class in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    A detailed study of learning and teaching (L&T) of chemical engineering distillation to a mixed-ability small class of 13 students who are ordinarily full-time in-house employees in industry is reported. The course consisted of 9 × 2-h lectures (18 hours) and 9 × 2-h tutorials (18 hours). It was delivered over nine business days "in…

  18. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  19. Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Ability to Use Non-native Tone for Word Learning Deteriorates by the Second Year After Birth

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    Liquan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported a non-native word learning advantage for bilingual infants at around 18 months. We investigated developmental changes in infant interpretation of sounds that aid in object mapping. Dutch monolingual and bilingual (exposed to Dutch and a second non-tone-language infants’ word learning ability was examined on two novel label–object pairings using syllables differing in Mandarin tones as labels (flat vs. falling. Infants aged 14–15 months, regardless of language backgrounds, were sensitive to violations in the label–objects pairings when lexical tones were switched compared to when they were the same as habituated. Conversely at 17–18 months, neither monolingual nor bilingual infants demonstrated learning. Linking with existing literature, infants’ ability to associate non-native tones with meanings may be related to tonal acoustic properties and/or perceptual assimilation to native prosodic categories. These findings provide new insights into the relation between infant tone perception, learning, and interpretative narrowing from a developmental perspective.

  20. A detailed research study of learning and teaching core chemical engineering to a high standard in a mixed-ability small class in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    A detailed study of learning and teaching (L&T) of chemical engineering distillation to a mixed-ability small class of 13 students who are ordinarily full-time in-house employees in industry is reported. The course consisted of 9 × 2-h lectures (18 hours) and 9 × 2-h tutorials (18 hours). It was delivered over nine business days in situ in an established distillery. The purpose was to (re)learn core distillation of ethanol-water mixes at the level of higher education of a bachelor programme. There was 90% broad agreement that the course encouraged more learning. Students (40%) felt the course was too mathematical, however. Pointedly, there was good agreement (63%) that the course stimulated communication with each other professionally, and customers of the distillery. Results overall provide good evidence that students valued their L&T. The experimental design(s) could be readily applied to a range of fields of knowledge.