WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning 21st century

  1. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  2. Affinity Spaces and 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses video games as "attractors" to "affinity spaces." It argues that affinity spaces are key sites today where people teach and learn 21st Century skills. While affinity spaces are proliferating on the Internet as interest-and-passion-driven sites devoted to a common set of endeavors, they are not new, just…

  3. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  4. 21st Century leadership skills for learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Floor; Evers, Arnoud; Geijsel, Femke; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal: to prepare pupils for a life in a society that requires 21st century skills and actions Immediate focus: teachers and principals develop 21st century skills in the practice of their work → together with researchers principals co-create tools to support teacher learning.

  5. Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st century | Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st Century. The different challenges facing foreign language lecturers are considered as well as the different methods used to teach a foreign language. Technology and multimedia are proposed not only as tools and supports but also as a possible solution. With the change ...

  6. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  7. Inquiry and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last eight years, the primary focus in schools has been on passing standardized tests based on a core curriculum. The emphasis on learning content is in direct contrast to the world outside the school walls where the technological capability to provide access to content, i.e., information at lightning speed, already exists. In fact,…

  8. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholano, Helen B.

    2017-01-01

    Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Pre-service teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT…

  9. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Boholano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Preservice teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT resources both hardware and software, and curricula must be designed to promote a collaborative learner-centered environment to which students will relate and respond. This study determines the 21st century skills possessed by the pre-service teachers in terms of social networking. Pre-service teachers use computers in very advanced ways, but educators must remember that they still need guidance to use technology safely and effectively. Through social media the pre-service teachers can use a multitude of applications, including Web 2.0, for their projects. Smart social networking requires critical-thinking skills and the ability to integrate and evaluate real-world scenarios and authentic learning skills for validation.

  10. Designing blended learning interventions for the 21st century student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2017-06-01

    The learning requirements of diverse groups of students in higher education challenge educators to design learning interventions that meet the need of 21st century students. A model was developed to assist lecturers, especially those that are new to the profession, to use a blended approach to design meaningful learning interventions for physiology. The aim of the model is to encourage methodical development of learning interventions, while the purpose is to provide conceptual and communication tools that can be used to develop appropriate operational learning interventions. A whole brain approach that encourages challenging the four quadrants is encouraged. The main arguments of the model are to first determine the learning task requirements, as these will inform the design and development of learning interventions to facilitate learning and the assessment thereof. Delivery of the content is based on a blended approach. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape......, both, theoretically and through an explorative study: Theoretically we draw from visual culture (Buhl, 2012;Bourriaud, 2002; Mitchell, 2002), learning (Dohn, 2002) and digital media studies (Ejsing-Duun, 2011). The explorative case study is focused on the use of the mobile application Draw Something...... (Buhl and Ejsing-Duun, 2013), along with other current apps. In a case study we take them as examples of how technology facilitates our meeting with the world though the senses and how we decode and negotiate social aesthetic expressions. The intent of the article is to suggest and discuss an aesthetic...

  12. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  13. Developing 21st Century Chemistry Learning through Designing Digital Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Ah-Nam; Osman, Kamisah

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian "Kimia" (Chemistry) Digital Games (MyKimDG) module on students' achievement and motivation in chemistry as well as 21st century skills. Chemistry education in Malaysia should put greater emphasis on combination of cognitive, sociocultural and motivational aspects to…

  14. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th

  15. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  16. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require…

  17. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  18. Science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) as mathematics learning approach in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaturrahmah, Naila; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-08-01

    This 21st century demands competent human resources in science, technology, engineering design and mathematics so that education is expected to integrate the four disciplines. This paper aims to describe the importance of STEM as mathematics learning approach in Indonesia in the 21st century. This paper uses a descriptive analysis research method, and the method reveals that STEM education growing in developed countries today can be a framework for innovation mathematics in Indonesia in the 21st century. STEM education integrate understanding of science, math skills, and the available technology with the ability to perform engineering design process. Implementation of mathematics learning with STEM approach makes graduates trained in using of mathematics knowledge that they have to create innovative products that are able to solve the problems that exist in society.

  19. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  20. Leveraging 21st Century Learning & Technology to Create Caring Diverse Classroom Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutton, Tanya

    2018-01-01

    Creating diverse caring classroom environments, for all students, using innovative technology, is the impetus of this article. Administrators and teachers in many states have worked to integrate 21st Century Learning Outcomes and Local Control and Accountability Plans (LCAP) into daily teaching and learning. These initiatives are designed to…

  1. Closing the 21st-Century Knowledge Gap: Reconceptualizing Teaching and Learning to Transform Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Anne-Liisa; Grant, Ginger; Golnaraghi, Golnaz

    2018-01-01

    The 21st century is seeing dramatic shifts in the business environment. In order for organizations to adapt to these shifts, they must be more flexible and learning oriented. To thrive in this environment, organizational leaders must facilitate and build the capacity for learning throughout the organization. Organizational leadership is looking…

  2. Orchestrating 21st Century Learning in Higher Education: A Perspective on Student Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Kiili, Carita; Smith, Blaine E.

    2017-01-01

    For universities to meet the 21st-century learning needs of today's students, it is important they allow students to take an active role in developing pedagogy and sharing their perspective. This paper introduces design-based research aiming to develop a pedagogic approach to support technology-enhanced learning practices at the university level…

  3. Developing 21st Century Skills through a Constructivist-Constructionist Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Ah-Nam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology innovation and 21st century skills are increasingly important in the 21st century workplace. The purpose of this study is to propose an instructional strategy that develop constructivist-constructionist learning environment that simultaneously develop chemistry knowledge and 21st century skills. Based on constructivist and constructionist learning theories, we identified three central guiding principles for this study: (1 engage students in discovery and problem solving task through teamwork, (2 provide opportunities for communicating ideas, and (3 involve students in the process of design. An intervention module, Malaysian Kimia (chemistry Digital Game known as MyKimDG, was developed as a mechanism for creating the learning environment. In this study, students were required to work collaboratively to design educational media that help their peers who face difficulty in learning particular concept. They were guided to go through the IDPCR (Inquiry, Discover, Produce, Communicate and Review phases. It is hypothesized that MyKimDG can create learning environment that allows students to deepen subject content knowledge and practice various 21st century skills in real situation. This study employed quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest control group design. Results suggest that this approach is able to improve the acquisition of chemistry knowledge and high productivity skill.

  4. Teaching and Learning Jewish History in the 21st Century: New Priorities and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2018-01-01

    New 21st-century circumstances in the Jewish world--including the changing nature of Jewish identification, the retreat from identity and continuity as singular aims of Jewish education, the democratization of Jewish learning opportunities, increased emphasis on informal and experiential Jewish education activities, and demonstrable interest among…

  5. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  6. Eastman Kodak Company: 21st Century Learning Challenge. Volunteer Resource Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Wanda M.; And Others

    The Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge is a companywide, 10-year corporate commitment to improve mathematics, science, and technology achievement for all students in the communities around Kodak's manufacturing plants. The Rochester (New York) initiative for which this training manual is presented is a partnership among Kodak, the Rochester…

  7. Mindful Strengths Development: Leveraging Students' Strengths for 21st Century Learning and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanious, Christy M.

    2012-01-01

    The continuous change characterizing 21st century society has significant implications for higher education. Educators and business leaders increasingly recognize that education within and preparation for a context of change requires learning environments fostering openness, flexibility, and engagement with other ideas and people. Such…

  8. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  9. Promoting Children's Learning through Technology Literacy: Challenges to School Librarians in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejikeme, Anthonia N.; Okpala, Helen N.

    2017-01-01

    In today's world of technological revolution, children need to be encouraged to be ready to acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century. This paper presents an overview of the application of technologies in children's learning environment which apparently will give them the opportunity of making use of their thinking skills in order…

  10. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  11. Environmental literacy with green chemistry oriented in 21st century learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarlis, Ibnu, Suhadi; Rahayu, Sri; Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the design of chemistry subject with green chemistry oriented to improve students' environmental literacy as one of the important requirements of 21st century learning. This research used R&D design which consisted of four stages, i.e. preliminary study, the study of literature, development of materials, and expert and empirical validation. This article presents the results of preliminary study and the study of literature. It can be concluded from the results of an analysis that environmental literacy is one of the important components of learning outcomes which should be pursued in 21st century teaching. Philosophy of green chemistry plays an important role to reduce and prevent pollution of environment. Principles of green chemistry can be integrated into learning environment as learning outcomes or nurturant effects of learning.

  12. Learning design for science education in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary technological and social developments demand transformation of educational practices. Teachers and schools are no longer fountains of knowledge that fill students with information. Rather, their primarily role is to equip students with new literacies, competencies for productive use of information technology, and sufficient disciplinary-specific bases of conceptual knowledge. This requires changes toward student-centered practices. In such contexts, teachers are designers of learning; therefore lesson planning is replaced with a concept of ‘learning design.’ This paper introduces the RASE (Resources-Activity-Support-Evaluation learning design model developed as a framework to assist teachers in designing learning modules. Central to RASE is the emphasis on the design of activities where students engage in using resources and in the production of artifacts that demonstrate learning. The paper also emphasizes the importance of ‘conceptual models’ as a special type of educational multimedia resource, and its role in assisting learning and application of concepts, as opposed to the ‘information transfer’ models. RASE is beginning to emerge as a powerful framework for transformation of teachers and their traditional practices to contemporary, relevant student-centered practices. The model is also an effective framework for productive uses of information technology in education.

  13. Student Perceptions of a 21st Century Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Henke, Jacqueline N.; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella D.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are increasingly building or remodeling classrooms to be flexible spaces that support learner-centered instruction. However, little is known about the actual impact of these spaces on student outcomes. Using a mixed method design, this study examined student perceptions of a flexible learning space on student learning…

  14. A global learning-centered approach to higher education: workplace development in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tasso Eira de Aquino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the 21st century economy requires corporations, organizations, and professionals to face a common challenge: diverse individuals need consistent motivation towards building competences that increase personal marketability using a combination of higher education and professional development. This article represents an evolving report summary and non-traditional learning-centered approach focusing on adult competences necessary for succeeding in the competitive global marketplace of the 21st century. The purpose of this article is to understand the needs of constantly changing employer demands in the work environment. Exploring contemporary approaches related to skill development, adult education, and learning processes, will be the path towards higher levels of professional success. This article will provide readers with an enlightening discussion focusing on the necessary adult skills and competencies professionals need to succeed in the global marketplace.

  15. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  16. Constructing Learning-by-Doing Pedagogical Model for Delivering 21st Century Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Frache

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates (UAE is dedicated to establishing the best teaching and learning environment for students and staff across all higher education institutions. To heed this call, the engineering division adopted the Learning-by-Doing (LBD pedagogical philosophy for 21st Century education at the heart of its strategic directions. This study intends to explore how LBD is understood and practiced in UAE colleges and how 21st Century skills can be explicitly incorporated into its engineering curriculum by using constructive alignment as a pattern for instructional design. This work intends to investigate the general question: “What constructively aligned Learning-by-Doing pedagogical model, with the incorporation of 21st Century skills, needs to be developed to effectively teach and prepare engineering students at the Higher College of Technology, UAE for successful long-term employment in the global working economy?”. Using mixed method research design and input from its major stakeholders, student survey questionnaires, engineering instructors and dean structured interviews, overt class observation and syllabi examination have all been utilized for data triangulation. In conclusion, the study developed a collaborative LBD model tailor-fitted to the institution’s engineering program and to UAE’s culture.

  17. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  18. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies,

  19. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  20. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  1. Higher Order Thinking Skills as Effect of Problem Based Learning in the 21st Century Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Widiawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the responses of learners to learning using a scientific approach in Problem Based Learning integrated with the inculcation of critical thinking, communicative, collaboration; and creative (4C skills in 21st century learning. The design of this study is true experiment by using posttest only control design. The sample of the research is vocational school students selected by using cluster random sampling technique in Surakarta, Indonesia. The techniques of collecting data are using tests whose validity, reliability, level of difficulty, and the discrimination index have been tested. The data obtained are then tested using t test. The result of the research shows that higher order thinking skills of experimental class students learning using scientific approach in Problem Based Learning which is integrated with the inculcation of 4C skills are higher than those of the control class that are learning using scientific approach in Think-Pair-Share which is integrated with the inculcation of 4C skills.

  2. 77 FR 43864 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Development of a 21st Century Corrections Learning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... levels of responsibility and job descriptions; (3) A narrative describing existing workplace learning...--Development of a 21st Century Corrections Learning Professional Competency Model AGENCY: National Institute of... Corrections Learning Professional Competency Model. This project will identify the workplace learning...

  3. Earthquake: Game-based learning for 21st century STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Abigail Christine

    To play is to learn. A lack of empirical research within game-based learning literature, however, has hindered educational stakeholders to make informed decisions about game-based learning for 21st century STEM education. In this study, I modified a research and development (R&D) process to create a collaborative-competitive educational board game illuminating elements of earthquake engineering. I oriented instruction- and game-design principles around 21st century science education to adapt the R&D process to develop the educational game, Earthquake. As part of the R&D, I evaluated Earthquake for empirical evidence to support the claim that game-play results in student gains in critical thinking, scientific argumentation, metacognitive abilities, and earthquake engineering content knowledge. I developed Earthquake with the aid of eight focus groups with varying levels of expertise in science education research, teaching, administration, and game-design. After developing a functional prototype, I pilot-tested Earthquake with teacher-participants (n=14) who engaged in semi-structured interviews after their game-play. I analyzed teacher interviews with constant comparison methodology. I used teachers' comments and feedback from content knowledge experts to integrate game modifications, implementing results to improve Earthquake. I added player roles, simplified phrasing on cards, and produced an introductory video. I then administered the modified Earthquake game to two groups of high school student-participants (n = 6), who played twice. To seek evidence documenting support for my knowledge claim, I analyzed videotapes of students' game-play using a game-based learning checklist. My assessment of learning gains revealed increases in all categories of students' performance: critical thinking, metacognition, scientific argumentation, and earthquake engineering content knowledge acquisition. Players in both student-groups improved mostly in critical thinking, having

  4. From 21st century skills to 21st century human being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Jørgensen, Tobias Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus of the presenta...... CLD and we must take the next step, where we stop thinking about skills and competencies and start thinking and acting on the fundamental existential implication of the 21st century. What we need now is not more 21st century skills, but 21st century human beings....

  5. Enhancement of collaboration activities utilizing 21st century learning design rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Dave D.; Gargar, Clare V., Lady; Nallano, Gerlett Grace D.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.

    2018-01-01

    Twenty first century learners have incredibly diverse learning interests, needs, and aspirations. Engaging middle school students and sculpting successful, confident, and creative learners is a constant endeavor for educators [4]. In the 21st century classroom environments in which students can develop the skills they need in workplace. Collaboration occurs when students work together to create, discuss challenge and develop deeper critical thinking. In today's workplace, collaboration is essential as only few tasks are completed alone (Calgary and Park, 2016). The collaborative project-based curriculum used in this classroom develops the higher order thinking skills, effective communication skills, and knowledge of technology that students will need in the 21st century workplace. The study therefore aims to promote collaboration skills among learners as it is deemed as one of the top 21st century skills. Collaborative learning unleashes a unique intellectual and social synergy. This study aims to enhance the collaborative skills of students through conducting collaboration activities in learning the Ecosystem. This research utilizes pretest-posttest and employs descriptive research designs. It uses modified activities about the lesson on Ecosystem and utilizes a Collaboration Rubric to rate the modified activities. The activities were rated by ten In-Service teachers and there are 105 students who participated in doing the activities. The paired t-test is then used to analyze the data. The In-Service teachers evaluated the 1st and 2nd adapted activity and are rated as fair. Thus, the modified activities were enhanced since the ratings of each activity did not meet the criterion of the collaboration rubric. As for the 3rd adapted activity is rated as excellent and is ready for implementation. The evaluators provided comments and suggestions such as producing colored pictures on the activities, omitting some questions, and making the words simpler to enhance the

  6. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  7. 21st Century Security Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian ARION

    2010-01-01

    We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers ...

  8. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  9. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.

  10. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  11. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  12. Reading for Learning: Literacy Supports for 21st-Century Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Louis M.; Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. work force is changing. Professional and related occupations and service occupations will be the fastest-growing sectors for the foreseeable future. Both demand strong communication skills for sharing complex ideas across diverse communities. In addition, the 21st-century economy will require its members to think creatively and critically…

  13. Investigating the Key Attributes to Enhance Students' Learning Experience in 21st Century Class Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Fui-Theng; Neo, Mai; Hew, Soon Hin

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century marks the beginning of digital age with the extensive use of digital media, mobile devices, and Internet resources. Recent studies found that this digital era has expanded the landscape of student experiences, and educational technologies as well as increased the educator's awareness on embracing technologies to promote effective…

  14. Assessing STEM content learning: using the Arctic's changing climate to develop 21st century learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G. R.; Durkin, S.; Moran, A.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years the U.S. federal government has called for an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in the educational system to ensure that there will be sufficient technical expertise to meet the needs of business and industry. As a direct result of this STEM emphasis, the number of outreach activities aimed at actively engaging these students in STEM learning has surged. Such activities, frequently in the form of summer camps led by university faculty, have targeted primary and secondary school students with the goal of growing student interest in STEM majors and STEM careers. This study assesses short-term content learning using a climate module that highlights rapidly changing Arctic climate conditions to illustrate concepts of radiative energy balance and climate feedback. Hands-on measurement of short and longwave radiation using simple instrumentation is used to demonstrate concepts that are then related back to the "big picture" Arctic issue. Pre and post module questionnaires were used to assess content learning, as this learning type has been identified as the basis for STEM literacy and the vehicle by which 21st century learning skills are usually developed. In this instance, students applied subject knowledge they gained by taking radiation measurements to better understand the real-world problem of climate change.

  15. Elementary School Teachers' Beliefs about the Role of Technology in 21st-Century Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, LaToya J.; Gibson, Philip; Cotten, Shelia R.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advancements have led to changes in the expectations placed on K-12 teachers. Teachers are now expected to better equip students with 21st-century skills, making it important to understand teachers' beliefs about the role of technology in teaching and learning and the skills their students need to be successful. Using a qualitative…

  16. Learner Dashboards a Double-Edged Sword? Students' Sense-Making of a Collaborative Critical Reading and Learning Analytics Environment for Fostering 21st-Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei-Ling Tan, Jennifer; Koh, Elizabeth; Jonathan, Christin; Yang, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The affordances of learning analytics (LA) tools and solutions are being increasingly harnessed for enhancing 21st century pedagogical and learning strategies and outcomes. However, use cases and empirical understandings of students' experiences with LA tools and environments aimed at fostering 21st century literacies, especially in the K-12…

  17. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  18. Enhancement of knowledge construction activities utilizing 21st century learning design rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoche, Margarette Anne U.; Taladua, Janica Mae M.; Panal, Geicky Pearl C.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Myrna, H. Lahoylahoy

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to enhance knowledge construction activities on its design particularly the objectives, support materials, student activities and assessment tools. Activities from the 2nd Quarter of Science Learners Material were the basis in the adaptation of activities. The adapted activities were evaluated by the In-service Science teachers and undergone modification by the researchers based on the teacher's comments and suggestions. It was then evaluated, revised, and validated, tried-out using the 21st CLD Rubric. Subjects of the study were 110 students from Grade 7-B, Grade 7-D, Grade 7-F in Geronima Cabrera National High School, Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte during the academic year 2016-2017, the study to determine their learning capabilities investigated by the use of Knowledge Construction Activities in the 21st Century Classroom, to investigate how the lessons were understood and appreciated by students, to stimulate interpretation, analysis, synthesizing, or evaluating ideas and develop critical thinking. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from the students' scores in three activities. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of students. Mean scores between the pretest and posttest showed a mean difference of 3.35, thus the null hypothesis was rejected. It could be concluded with sufficient evidence to show that the students had basically low prior knowledge about the topic ecosystem. A significant difference was seen in the pretest and posttest, scores of the activities and Ecosystem model results after the implementation phase that a knowledge construction type of activity was better than the traditional one for it promoted meaningful learning and active engagement of students. Based on the results, it was clear that the use of knowledge construction activities had an effect on student's achievement in comparison to traditional teaching method. Thus, it was

  19. Reliability and Validity of Michigan School Libraries for the 21st Century Measurement Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Natosha N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Michigan School Libraries for the 21st Century Measurement Benchmarks (SL21). The instrument consists of 19 items with three subscales: Building the 21st Century Learning Environment Subscale, Teaching for 21st Century Learning Subscale, and Leading the Way to 21st Century…

  20. Exploring The Moon through a 21st Century Learning Environment of Interactive Whiteboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Lunar exploration has an important role to play in inspiring students to hone their skills and understanding, as well as encouraging them to pursue careers in science, technology engineering and math (STEM). Many of NASA's current lunar educational materials do not dynamically engage the whole learner or effectively address 21st Century skills. We present examples of several dynamic lunar science activities for use on interactive white boards. These activities are replicable and incorporate NASA mission-derived sampling and analysis techniques. Building on a highly visual and tactile workforce, it is imperative that today's classrooms keep up with technologies that are the media of modern life. Interactive white boards offer a coordinated curricula and supporting resources that are immediately usable in most classrooms across America. Our dynamic classroom materials are rich in scientific processes, meet the national standards of learning in STEM, and are teacher-vetted for content and usability. Incorporating educational activities created from the NASA Lunar Science Institute team activities, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Educator's Guide, and more current NASA lunar missions, we offer three dynamic modules for use on an interactive white board. SMART activities implement the mastery teaching model, employing instructional strategies so that all students can achieve the same level of learning. Our goal is to provide educators with multiple resources for teaching their students about the Moon and engaging their interest in pursuing STEM in the future. In addition to background information, inquiry-oriented lessons allow students to gather information and data directly through the Internet. For example, with the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better identify, discern and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the M3 imaging spectrometer are incorporated into

  1. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  2. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  4. 21st Century Learning Skills Embedded in Climate Literacy Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Blaney, L.

    2011-12-01

    Trilling and Fadel's "21st Century Learning Skills" defines a vision of how to infuse an expanded set of skills, competencies and flexibilities into the classroom. Among these skills are global awareness, health and environmental literacy. The authors contend that in order for our students to compete, they will need critical thinking and problem solving skills, communication and collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Students will also need to be digital savvy. This poster outlines a program of preparing teachers to implement inquiry-based modules that allow students to exercise hypothetical deductive reasoning to address climate literacy issues such as: the Dust Bowl, thermohaline circulation, droughts, the North Atlantic Oscillation, climate variability and energy challenges. This program is implemented through the Earth System Science Education Alliance. ESSEA supports the educational goal of "attracting and retaining students in science careers" and the associated goal of "attracting and retaining students in science through a progression of educational opportunities for students, teachers and faculty." ESSEA provides long-duration educator professional development that results in deeper content understanding and confidence in teaching global climate change and science disciplines. The target audience for this effort is pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers. The ESSEA program develops shared educational resources - including modules and courses - that are based on NASA and NOAA climate science and data. The program is disseminated through the ESSEA Web site: http://essea.courses.strategies.org. ESSEA increases teachers' access to high-quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. Started in 2000 and based on online courses for K-12 teachers, ESSEA includes the participation of faculty at 45 universities and science centers. Over 3,500 pre- and in-service K-12 teachers have completed ESSEA courses. In addition to 21st

  5. 21st Century Cell Culture for 21st Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-17

    There is no good science in bad models. Cell culture is especially prone to artifacts. A number of novel cell culture technologies have become more broadly available in the 21st century, which allow overcoming limitations of traditional culture and are more physiologically relevant. These include the use of stem-cell derived human cells, cocultures of different cell types, scaffolds and extracellular matrices, perfusion platforms (such as microfluidics), 3D culture, organ-on-chip technologies, tissue architecture, and organ functionality. The physiological relevance of such models is further enhanced by the measurement of biomarkers (e.g., key events of pathways), organ specific functionality, and more comprehensive assessment cell responses by high-content methods. These approaches are still rarely combined to create microphysiological systems. The complexity of the combination of these technologies can generate results closer to the in vivo situation but increases the number of parameters to control, bringing some new challenges. In fact, we do not argue that all cell culture needs to be that sophisticated. The efforts taken are determined by the purpose of our experiments and tests. If only a very specific molecular target to cell response is of interest, a very simple model, which reflects this, might be much more suited to allow standardization and high-throughput. However, the less defined the end point of interest and cellular response are, the better we should approximate organ- or tissue-like culture conditions to make physiological responses more probable. Besides these technologic advances, important progress in the quality assurance and reporting on cell cultures as well as the validation of cellular test systems brings the utility of cell cultures to a new level. The advancement and broader implementation of Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) is key here. In toxicology, this is a major prerequisite for meaningful and reliable results, ultimately

  6. Public health in the 21st century: working differently means leading and learning differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Rethmeier, Kenneth A; Lueddeke, George; Smith, Tony; Malho, André; Otok, Robert; Stankunas, Mindaugas

    2014-12-01

    Public health needs to adapt to the complex context of 21st century Europe. Unquestionably, leaders for health require new skills to face a myriad of wicked problems and challenges that are at a critical juncture for potential improvements. Public health curricula are traditionally oriented around core educational disciplines, and there is little room for developing students' leadership capabilities within the context of public health. The aim is to present the meaning of contemporary public health leadership based on qualitative research and propose a curriculum model for contemporary public health leadership. A series of in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with six European public health leaders from a variety of countries and professional backgrounds. The interviews recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis was undertaken to identify themes within the data. Five common themes that help to inform future leadership capacity arose from the interviews: the inner path of leadership, the essence of leadership, new types of leadership, future leaders' imperatives functioning within a complex and uncertain European public health context. The leadership thematic model makes an important contribution to defining public health leadership in Europe and can help to guide the content development of public health leadership curricula. The authors assert that a new 'integrative inquiry-based learning model', with leadership as a central component, will allow schools and departments of public health across Europe to be able to ensure that tomorrow's public health leaders are adequately trained and prepared for the challenges they will face. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Stable Funding for Innovation and Continuous Improvement. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Harris, Erin

    2012-01-01

    As the only federal funding stream that provides dedicated funds for afterschool programs across the country, the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative plays an important role in supporting the innovation that takes place in afterschool programs. Social innovation has been defined as "a novel solution to a social…

  8. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom through Animated Storytelling - Challenges and Potentials for Arts-integration in 21st. Century Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    educators aware of the importance of integrating digital creativity in the teaching of the curriculum. However, in order to facilitate the integration of arts-based learning into the curriculum - not only as a subject but as a pathway to learning - new tools, competencies and mindsets are needed. This paper...... as a creative pathway to learning in primary education.......Creativity has been termed one of the most important skills of the 21st. Century classroom. While a traditional approach to education has not had a big emphasis on creativity in most subjects, the emerging learner-centered paradigm, as well as learners’ everday use of media, is making many...

  9. Elementary Science Instruction: Examining a Virtual Environment for Evidence of Learning, Engagement, and 21st Century Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry K. Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the effectiveness of a virtual world curriculum for teaching elementary students complex science concepts and skills. Data were collected using pre- and post-content tests and a student survey of engaged learning, An additional survey collected teacher observations of 21st century competencies conducive to learning. The study involved a five-day intervention of fifteen 4th grade students in a small Midwestern school using a virtual science computer game from Arizona State University. Thirty elementary teachers from Australia, England, and the United States were surveyed on classroom observations of their elementary students working in the virtual world environment. Research questions guiding the virtual learning study were: (1 do pre- and post-content tests show significant learning in the virtual environment; (2 are students academically engaged during the learning process; and (3 are students actively demonstrating relevant 21st century competencies. The study supports prior research in game-based learning showing measureable learning results, highly engaged, motivated students, and observations of student behaviors conducive to learning science in school, namely collaboration, problem solving, critical thinking/inquiry, global awareness, and technology use.

  10. Using the learning management evaluation model for advancing to life skills of lower secondary students in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansaart, Preecha; Suikraduang, Arun; Panya, Piyatida

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to develop the Learning Management Evaluation Model (LMEM) for advancing to lower secondary students of their life skills in the 21st century with the Research & Development process technique. The research procedures were administered of four steps that composed of analyze, the synthetic indicator to assess learning to advance to their life skills in the 21st century by the 4-educational experts were interviewed. The LMEM model was developed by the information from the first draft format and the educational experts to check a suitability and feasibility of the draft assessment form with a technical symposium multipath characteristics to find consensus dimensional (Multi-Attribute Consensus Reaching: MACR) by 12 specialists who provided the instruction in the form of Assessment and Evaluation Guide (AEG) was brought to five the number of professionals who ensure the proper coverage, a clear assessment of the manual before using the AEG. The LMEM model was to trial at an experiment with different schools in the Secondary Educational Office Area 26 (Maha Sarakham) whereas taught at the upper secondary educational school with the sample consisted of 7 schools with the purposive sampling was selected. Assessing the LMEM model was evaluated the based on the evaluation criteria of the educational development. The assessor was related to the trial consisted of 35 evaluators. Using the interview form with the rubric score and a five rating scale level was analyzed; the qualitative and quantitative data were used. It has found that: The LMEM evaluation model of learning to advance to life skills of students in the 21st century was a chart structure that ties together of 6 relevant components of the evaluation such as; the purpose of the assessment, the evaluation focused assessment methods, the evaluator, the evaluation technique, and the evaluation criteria. The evaluation targets were to assess the management of learning, the factors

  11. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  12. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  13. Development strategies for science learning management to transition in the 21st century of Thailand 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedaman, Pornchai; Buraphan, Khajornsak; Yuenyong, Chokchai; Suksup, Charoen; Kraisriwattana, Benchalax

    2018-01-01

    Science learning management aims to analyze the development strategies for science learning management to transition in the 21st Century of Thailand 4.0. Is qualitative study employed review of documentary, questionnaire both to the participatory action learning with the teachers intwenty-five Secondary education area offices in the basic education of Thailand. The participants were cluster sampling random of each 150 persons. Data analysis includes data reduction, data organization, data interpretation to conclusion. The main of this study were to a creating innovation, links and access to technology as well as to the changes. It is very important for needs to be learning management for effective of science subject in the educational. Led to the plan to driven for the science learning management were a success in the 21st century, spanning strategy were converted of practical the steps throughinstitutional research and development to solve problems in changing identity, reorientation, paradigm shifted, transformation of cultural to propel the country for first world Nation in the elements were "6R12C3E".

  14. Problem-based learning: a strategic learning system design for the education of healthcare professionals in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2009-05-01

    -making process. Implementation of PBL can be a daunting task and will require detailed and careful planning, together with a significant commitment on the part of educators given the responsibility to implement PBL in an institution. PBL can offer a more holistic, value-added, and quality education to energize student learning in the healthcare professions in the 21st century. Successful implementation of PBL can therefore help to nurture in students the development of desired "habits of mind, behavior, and action" to become the competent, caring, and ethical healthcare professionals of the 21st century. Thus, PBL can contribute to the improvement of the healthcare of a nation by healthcare professionals, but we need to do it right.

  15. Examining the 21st Century Classroom: Developing an Innovation Configuration Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.; Mason, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Despite it being the second decade of the 21st century, there still exists a range of definitions of what a 21st century learning environment is. This can be troublesome for teacher educators as we strive to prepare teachers for environments we can't clearly describe. In order to describe a 21st century learning environment, we developed an IC Map…

  16. Morphing into a 21st Century Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Forces that will affect trainers into the next century include rapid change, information overload, globalization, downsizing, empowerment, and remote worksites. Key characteristics of a 21st-century trainer include performance orientation, technical skills, social skills, self-employability, bilingualism, and international competence. (JOW)

  17. Materials for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, David

    2017-01-01

    The book is a general text that shows how materials can contribute to solving problems facing nations in the 21st century. It is illustrated with diverse applications and highlights the potential of existing materials for everyday life, healthcare and the economies of nations. There are 13 chapters and a glossary of 500 materials with their descriptions, historical development, their use or potential use and a range of references. Specific areas include synthetic polymers (e.g. nylon), natural polymers (e.g. proteins, cellulose) and the role of materials in the development of digital computers and in healthcare. Solid-state lighting, energy supplies in the 21st century, disruptive technologies and intellectual property, in particular patents, are discussed. The book concludes by asking how the 21st century will be characterised. Will it be the Silicon Age, Genomic Age or New Polymer Age, as examples?

  18. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  19. 21st CENTURY LEARNING: IS ICT REALLY INTEGRATED IN EFL CLASSROOM OR MERELY SEGREGATED OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Ovilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 21st century, along with the rapid development of technology, the teachers begin to involve Information and Communication Technology (ICT in EFL learning. However, the case arises whether the use of ICT is really integrated or merely segregated outside the classroom. This study was a case study which attempted to see the practice of integrating ICT in EFL classroom, particularly in Charis School?a private Junior High School in Malang, and to investigate the students� and teacher�s perceptions toward the learning process. The instruments were interview guide, observation sheet, and questionnaire. The results of this study showed that the teacher was aware to integrate ICT in EFL classroom and the students showed positive attitudes in the learning process.

  20. EDUCATION REFORMS TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY SKILLS: TRANSFORMING STUDENTS' LEARNING EXPERIENCES THROUGH EFFECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Wambui Njui

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on learning environments with a view to making recommendations on how teachers could create effective and high-quality learning environments that provide learners with transformative learning experiences as they go through the process of education. An effective learning environment is critical because quality education, which is essential to real learning and human development, is influenced by factors both inside and outside the classroom. Learning institutions ...

  1. Innovative Collaborative Learning Strategies for Integrated Interactive E-Learning in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant challenge for online programs, instructional designers and instructors to tailor eLearning materials for different learning styles. We examined this issue by closely looking at the innovative interactive learning models at the previous AACE Conferences (Son & Goldstone, 2011, Son & Goldstone, 2012, Son & Simonian,…

  2. Towards a 21st century ready curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloon, N.G.J.; Hammer, M.H.M.; Brahimi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education is generally viewed upon as being important for economic growth in the 21st century. Teaching entrepreneurship however seems to need another approach than regular education to fulfill the professional and ever changing needs. In this perspective active

  3. 21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

  4. Coal into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Plenary lecture to the conference addresses coal technologies with improved environmental performance to serve 21st century needs. The US DoE recognises the need for 'premium' processes for all stages of the fuel cycle. This has led to a research focus on fundamental science and technology

  5. Fostering Students' 21st Century Skills through Project Oriented Problem Based Learning (POPBL) in Integrated STEM Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Husin, Wan Nor Fadzilah; Mohamad Arsad, Nurazidawati; Othman, Oziah; Halim, Lilia; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Osman, Kamisah; Iksan, Zanaton

    2016-01-01

    Students nowadays need to be equipped with twenty first century skills in order to ensure their competitiveness in this era of globalization, especially in the science and technology sector. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the changes of 21st century skills among students after participating in an integrated Science, Technology,…

  6. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  7. 21st Century Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1995-01-01

    Technology can extend human memory and improve performance, but bypassing human intelligence has its dangers. Cognitive apprenticeships that compress learning experiences, provide coaching, and allow trial and error can build complex problem-solving skills and develop expertise. (SK)

  8. Examining the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning on Cultivating the 21st Century Skills among High School Students in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Syan; Ma, Jung-Tsan; Kuo, Karen Yi-Chwen; Chou, Chien-Tzu Candace

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with Project-Based Learning strategy in a global context on the aspects of both fostering learning community of practices and nurturing the 21st century skills. For collecting empirical data, the study implements and administers an online international project-based…

  9. Rethinking Teacher Education: Synchronizing Eastern and Western Views of Teaching and Learning to Promote 21st Century Skills and Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith; Hu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to share findings with educators across disciplines of how to incorporate an eastern and western blended philosophy of teaching and learning to promote 21st century skills and global perspectives. Drawing from a previous self-study of their views of teaching and learning between Chinese and American cultures, the two…

  10. Analysis of sustainable leadership for science learning management in the 21st Century under education THAILAND 4.0 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedaman, Pornchai; Buaraphan, Khajornsak; Pimdee, Paitoon; Yuenyong, Chokchai; Sukkamart, Aukkapong; Suksup, Charoen

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to study and analyze the 21st Century of sustainable leadership under the education THAILAND 4.0 Framework, and factor analysis of sustainable leadership for science learning. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches in collecting data including a questionnaire survey, a documentary review and a Participatory Action Learning (PAL). The sample were sampling purposively. There were 225 administrators of Primary and Secondary Education Area Offices throughout Thailand. Out of 225, 183 (83.33%) and 42 (16.67%) respondents were the administrators of Primary and Secondary Education Offices, respectively. The quantitative data was analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis including mean, standard deviation. Also, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to analyze the factors associated with sustainable leadership under the education THAILAND 4.0 Framework. The qualitative data was analyzed by using three main stages, i.e., data reduction, data organization, data interpretation to conclusion. The study revealed that sustainable leadership under the education THAILAND 4.0 Framework needs to focus on development, awareness of duty and responsibility, equality, moral and knowledge. All aspects should be integrated together in order to achieve the organizational goals, good governance culture and identity. Importantly, there were six "key" elements of sustainable leadership under the education THAILAND 4.0 framework: i) Professional Leadership Role, ii) Leadership Under Change, iii) Leadership Skills 4.0 in the 21st Century, iv) Development in the Pace With Change, v) Creativity and Creative Tension, and vi) Hold True Assessments. The CFA showed that the six key elements of sustainable leadership under the education THAILAND 4.0 framework by weight of each elements were significant at the .01 significance level.

  11. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  12. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC.

  13. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st century rural teaching and learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Botha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the experiences gained in participating in an Information and Communication Technology for Rural Education (ICT4RED initiative, as part of a larger Technology for Rural Education project (TECH4RED in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation, design and application of an innovative teacher professional development course for rural teachers, enabling them to use tablets to support teaching and learning in their classrooms. The course, as outcome, is presented as a Teacher Tablet Toolkit, designed to meet the challenges inherent to the 21st century rural technology enhanced teaching and learning environment. The paper documents and motivates design decisions, derived from literature and adapted through three iterations of a Design Science Research Process, to be incorporated in the ICT4RED Teacher Professional Development Course. The resulting course aims to equip participating teachers with a toolkit consisting of technology hardware, pragmatic pedagogical and technology knowledge and skills, and practice based experience. The significance of game design elements such as simulation and fun, technology in need rather than in case, adequate scaffolding and a clear learning path with interim learning goals are noted.

  14. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  15. The 21st Century Skills and Job Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa-alisbo, Mark Anthony Cenas

    2017-01-01

    The Philippines' Department of Education through the implementation of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) is pursuing a package of policy reforms to further improve education. One of its reforms is the K-12 Program which has opened the way to the mandated 21st Century Skills. These include Learning and Innovation; Information, Media…

  16. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  17. Enhancing student engagement through the affordances of mobile technology: a 21st century learning perspective on Realistic Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Aibhín; Tangney, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    Several recent curriculum reforms aim to address the shortfalls traditionally associated with mathematics education through increased emphasis on higher-order-thinking and collaborative skills. Some stakeholders, such as the US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the UK Joint Mathematical Council, advocate harnessing the affordances of digital technology in conjunction with social constructivist pedagogies, contextual scenarios, and/or approaches aligned with Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). However, it can be difficult to create technology-mediated, collaborative and contextual activities within a conventional classroom setting. This paper explores how a combination of a transformative, mobile technology-mediated approach, RME, and a particular model of 21st century learning facilitates the development of mathematics learning activities with the potential to increase student engagement and confidence. An explanatory case study with multiple embedded units and a pre-experimental design was conducted with a total of 54 students in 3 schools over 25 hours of class time. Results from student interviews, along with pre-test/post-test analysis of questionnaires, suggest that the approach has the potential to increase student engagement with, and confidence in, mathematics. This paper expands on these results, proposing connections between aspects of the activity design and their impact on student attitudes and behaviours.

  18. ASIE Model: An Innovative Instructional Design Model for Teachers in Enhancing and Sustaining the Quality of the 21st Century Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Md Zain

    2017-01-01

    An effective and systematic design of instruction will determine the quality of learning and teaching practices. Hence, instructional design models are required, to move from just adopting a standard approach to developing models that have an impact on learners' profiles, creating a much better learning experience, skills, and knowledge both in the classroom and online. The 21st Century Learning Framework requires learners to develop their thinking skills, communication skills, collaborating ...

  19. 21st centuries skill implication on educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrahatnolo, T.; Munoto

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify skill needed in 21st centuries and its implication on Indonesia’s educational system. This research found that the 21st centuries skill application has more measurable benefits in some sections of life, such as critical thinking and problem solving, initiative, creativity, and entrepreneurship, communication, teamwork, metacognition (change of mindset), digital literature. This study applied qualitative data analysis. The data were taken from different sources and literature. The analysis showed that The 21st centuries education concept’s implementation can be applied in the curriculum of the required subject that is addressed to achieve learning and innovation skills competence and also technology and information media skills competence. While supporting subject group directed to achieve life and career skills competence. All subjects are the derivation from core subject 3R, which are reading, writing, and arithmetic. Based on the description above, it can be concluded that 21st centuries skill needs; (1) a life planning; (2) flexibility and adaptability; (3) initiative and self-management (4) entrepreneurship; (5) social and cultural interaction; (6) productivity and accountability; (7) leadership; (8) critical thinking, (9) problem solving; (10) communication; (11) collaboration and teamwork; (12) lifelong learning; and (13) digital literation.

  20. Mobile Learning and the Visual Web, Oh My! Nutrition Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing how our program participants learn in school and for their personal improvement. Extension educators who deliver nutrition program will want to be aware of the technology trends that are driving these changes. Blended learning, mobile learning, the visual Web, and the gamification of health are approaches to consider…

  1. Learning from Objects: A Future for 21st Century Urban Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Dorothea

    2009-01-01

    In this technological age, where mind and body are increasingly disconnected in the classroom, object-based learning--along with strong museum-school partnerships--provide many benefits for student learning. In this article, the author first outlines some of the special mind-body connections that object-based learning in museums affords learners…

  2. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  3. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  4. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...... from around the world on how SRTs are made available within different cultural, socio-economic and regulatory settings as well as how people in these settings perceive and make use of new possibilities for selective reproduction as they envision and try to form their future family lives....

  5. The Intersectionality of Leadership and Service-Learning: A 21st-Century Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wendy; Pigza, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    This chapter provides a theoretical orientation to the intersections of the theory and practice of leadership and service-learning. It articulates a set of values to guide leadership educators in their service-learning practice. The authors advocate a critical approach that fosters social justice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. A Generational Opportunity: A 21st Century Learning Content Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a collaboratively developed, open marketplace for network-based learning and research content for the higher education community. It explores how available technologies and standards can facilitate a new knowledge creation industry for higher education learning content that engages all stakeholders in new ways. The Advisory…

  7. Perception of mathematics teachers on cooperative learning method in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Nurshahira Alwani Mohd; Maat, Siti Mistima

    2017-05-01

    Mathematics education is one of the branches to be mastered by students to help them compete with the upcoming challenges that are very challenging. As such, all parties should work together to help increase student achievement in Mathematics education in line with the Malaysian Education Blueprint (MEB) 2010-2025. Teaching methods play a very important role in attracting and fostering student understanding and interested in learning Mathematics. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the perceptions of teachers in carrying out cooperative methods in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Participants of this study involving 4 teachers who teach Mathematics in primary schools around the state of Negeri Sembilan. Interviews are used as a method for gathering data. The findings indicate that cooperative methods help increasing interest and understanding in the teaching and learning of mathematics. In conclusion, the teaching methods affect the interest and understanding of students in the learning of Mathematics in the classroom.

  8. Reinventing medical teaching and learning for the 21st century: Blended and flipped strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Miles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid increase in the integration of flipped and blended modes of learning into Australian university classrooms. In the move to realize the benefits of these modes of delivery, universities are spending a great deal of time focusing on course redesign and upskilling teachers to assist in the adoption of these new methods of instruction. Large-scale blended learning projects have been completed at The University of Newcastle, Australia. One such project has been the integration of flipped and blended learning strategies into the redesign of the 1st year medical science course as part of a total undergraduate medical curriculum redesign. This course involves a large number of lecturers from a wide variety of disciplines. This involved not only the redesign of this course but also the introduction of new teaching materials and learning objects. To ensure success, this work required input from three groups: the academics teaching the course, the students taking the course, and the instructional designers who create the learning objects. The University of Newcastle, Australia, was instrumental in introducing problem-based learning (PBL to medical schools in Australian universities with its initial intake of medical students in 1978 and continues the use of this methodology as its primary teaching approach. As the current project develops, it has become apparent the pioneering work previously undertaken to implement PBL, in fact, had incorporated many of the pedagogical principles and strategies of what is now considered blended learning in the flipped classroom (albeit without the technology components. This paper argues that our teachers and students will more easily adapt to the requirements inherent in blended or flipped learning due to previous familiarity with PBL strategies.

  9. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    , auditory and verbal with a fluency with digital tools. There is an interest to teach multimodal literacy in open schooling, while bridging informal and formal learning in hybrid environments, that is involving collaboration with libraries and museums. Designs for multimodal learning with animation may have......This paper will present the preliminary findings from a R&D project on developing 21st. Century literacies in a digital Storylab at a public library, doing digital animated storytelling, in collaboration with municipal schools. It will explore the implications for the approach to digital story......-based learning for learner’s engagement, motivation and multimodal learning in a mixed methods study based on surveys, interviews and observations. The key literacy skills needed for 21st. Century learners have shifted from a predominant focus on verbal text towards multimodal literacies, that combine the visual...

  10. 21st Century Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, Scott; Chamblee, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a theoretical framework that has enjoyed widespread applications as it applies to the integration of technology in the teaching and learning process. This paper reviews the background for TPACK, discusses some of its limitations, and reviews and introduces a new theoretical framework, 21st…

  11. Before Coffee, Facebook: New Literacy Learning for 21st Century Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Audra K.; Beck, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    And so a middle school language arts teacher begins her Saturday. Before coffee, Facebook. In this themed issue on professional development in an era of nick.com, the authors propose that teachers' new literacy learning is as close as their own screens. Teachers, too, live literate lives online in this new age of composition, with impulses to…

  12. Supporting 21st-Century Teaching and Learning: The Role of Google Apps for Education (GAFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuah, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    The future of higher education is likely to be driven by to the willingness to adapt and grow with the use of technologies in teaching, learning, and research. Google Apps for Education (GAFE) is a powerful cloud-computing solution that works for students regardless of their location, time, or the type of device being used. GAFE is used by…

  13. Language Learning for the 21st Century: Challenges for the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    1993-01-01

    The American phenomenon of pervasive monolingualism is considered, and potential implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement are described. Five second-language learning/teaching areas are projected: language for specific purposes; obligatory language study; exchange programs; technological advances; and information resources.…

  14. Using Assistive Technology in Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Rufus Olanrewaju; Liman, Nalado Abubakar; Longpoe, Patricia Kwalzoom

    2015-01-01

    This paper was written to expose the meaning, benefits, and answer why the use of assistive technology for children with learning disabilities. The paper discussed the various types of assistive technology devices that were designed and used to solve written language, reading, listening, memory and mathematic problems of children with learning…

  15. Operationalizing the 21st Century Learning Skills Framework for the NASA Mission to Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Burgess; Research, MSI; Evaluation Team; Interactive Videoconferences Teamlt/p>, MSI

    2013-06-01

    Internal evaluators working with the NASA Mission to Mars program, an out-of-school collaborative videoconferencing program at the Museum of Science and Industry Chicago (MSI), developed an observation protocol to collect evidence about the collaborative learning opportunities offered by the program’s unique technology. Details about the protocol’s development are discussed, along with results of the pilot observations of the program.

  16. Health care in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L R

    1996-01-01

    Our primary agenda for the 21st Century is the reinvention of America. We must reinvent democracy, capitalism, entrepreneurism, and community. Indeed, we must recreate all of our major social institutions. This includes health care. A design for a new society requires a new design for health care. In fact, health care enjoys a special privilege in this regard. It is the gateway to total societal redesign. Health is the common denominator in any society. If you loose your health you cannot work, you cannot play, you cannot study; and, if you lose it sufficiently, you cannot even pray. Health and well-being create the foundation for all other constructive human endeavors. Therefore, the design of healthy communities is the necessary first step in the redesign of total human habitats. This massive redesign effort will take a century. However, it will be launched in the next few years.

  17. A review of biotransport education in the 21st century: lessons learned from experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; D'Souza, Gavin A; Rylander, Christopher; Devireddy, Ram

    2014-11-01

    The field of bioengineering is relatively new and complex including multiple disciplines encompassing areas in science and engineering. Efforts including the National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) and VaNTH Engineering Research Center in Bioengineering Educational Technologies have been made to establish and disseminate knowledge and proven methods for teaching bioengineering concepts. Further, the summer bioengineering conference (SBC), sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) Bioengineering Division, was established to provide a meeting place for engineering educators and students having common interests in biological systems. Of the many subdisciplines of bioengineering, biotransport is a key subject that has wide applicability to many issues in engineering, biology, medicine, pharmacology, and environmental science, among others. The absence of standard content, guidelines, and texts needed for teaching biotransport courses to students motivated the Biotransport committee of ASME's Bioengineering Division to establish a biotransport education initiative. Biotransport education workshop sessions were conducted during the SBC 2011, 2012, and 2013 as part of this initiative. The workshop sessions included presentations from experienced faculty covering a spectrum of information from general descriptions of undergraduate biotransport courses to very detailed outlines of graduate courses to successful teaching techniques. A list of texts and references available for teaching biotransport courses at undergraduate and graduate levels has been collated and documented based on the workshop presentations. Further, based on individual teaching experiences and methodologies shared by the presenters, it was noted that active learning techniques, including cooperative and collaborative learning, can be useful for teaching undergraduate courses while problem based learning (PBL) can

  18. Learning Science in the 21st century - a shared experience between schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Tânia; Soares, Rosa; Ruas, Fátima

    2015-04-01

    Problem Based Learning is considered an innovative teaching and learning inquiry methodology that is student centered, focused in the resolution of an authentic problem and in which the teacher acts like a facilitator of the work in small groups. In this process, it is expected that students develop attitudinal, procedural and communication skills, in addition to the cognitive typically valued. PBL implementation also allows the use of multiple educational strategies, like laboratorial experiments, analogue modeling or ICT (video animations, electronic presentations or software simulations, for instance), which can potentiate a more interactive environment in the classroom. In this study, taken in three schools in the north of Portugal, which resulted from the cooperation between three science teachers, with a 75 individuals sample, were examined students' opinions about the main difficulties and strengths concerning the PBL methodology, having as a common denominator the use of a laboratorial experiment followed by an adequate digital software as educational resource to interpret the obtained results and to make predictions (e.g. EarthQuake, Virtual Quake, Stellarium). The data collection methods were based on direct observation and questionnaires. The results globally show that this educational approach motivates students' towards science, helping them to solve problems from daily life and that the use of software was relevant, as well as the collaborative working. The cognitive strand continues to be the most valued by pupils.

  19. The Workforce for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry O'Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In today’s changing economy, economic growth depends on career and technical programs for skill training. Background: This study discusses the key area in promoting individual learning and skill training and discusses the importance of career education and training as a way of promoting economic growth. Methodology\t: This study uses a qualitative study approach to investigate and report on the status and influence of Workforce Education and Development and its economic importance. Contribution: This report contributes to the knowledge base common to all work settings that can solve many human performance problems in the workplace. Findings: This study also justifies and validates the ideas on the importance of workforce education and development in the 21st century as a way of developing economic growth and providing learning to make individuals competitive in the global economy. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: For practitioners, this study suggests that we must always have discussions of what leads to career success and understanding that there is not enough high-skill/high-wage employment to go around. Therefore, developing these skills requires a decision about a career or related group of jobs to prepare to compete for them; we have to provide training needed in order to be competitive in global economy. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers have to develop strategies to promote career direction with willingness to evaluate the level of academic interest, level of career focus and readiness for life away from home (attitudes, skills and knowledge of self. Impact on Society: Institutions must regularly evaluate curriculum to reflect the rapid technological changes and the globalization of world markets that reflect their mission and develop students’ mindset to always think big and think outside the box in order to be competitive in the global market. Change is external, transition is internal. It is important

  20. Combining Human and Machine Learning to Map Cropland in the 21st Century's Major Agricultural Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Debats, S. R.; Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.; Gower, D.; McRitchie, D.; Searchinger, T.; Thompson, D. R.; Wood, E. F.; Zeng, L.

    2016-12-01

    In the coming decades, large areas of new cropland will be created to meet the world's rapidly growing food demands. Much of this new cropland will be in sub-Saharan Africa, where food needs will increase most and the area of remaining potential farmland is greatest. If we are to understand the impacts of global change, it is critical to accurately identify Africa's existing croplands and how they are changing. Yet the continent's smallholder-dominated agricultural systems are unusually challenging for remote sensing analyses, making accurate area estimates difficult to obtain, let alone important details related to field size and geometry. Fortunately, the rapidly growing archives of moderate to high-resolution satellite imagery hosted on open servers now offer an unprecedented opportunity to improve landcover maps. We present a system that integrates two critical components needed to capitalize on this opportunity: 1) human image interpretation and 2) machine learning (ML). Human judgment is needed to accurately delineate training sites within noisy imagery and a highly variable cover type, while ML provides the ability to scale and to interpret large feature spaces that defy human comprehension. Because large amounts of training data are needed (a major impediment for analysts), we use a crowdsourcing platform that connects amazon.com's Mechanical Turk service to satellite imagery hosted on open image servers. Workers map visible fields at pre-assigned sites, and are paid according to their mapping accuracy. Initial tests show overall high map accuracy and mapping rates >1800 km2/hour. The ML classifier uses random forests and randomized quasi-exhaustive feature selection, and is highly effective in classifying diverse agricultural types in southern Africa (AUC > 0.9). We connect the ML and crowdsourcing components to make an interactive learning framework. The ML algorithm performs an initial classification using a first batch of crowd-sourced maps, using

  1. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  2. Energy strategy for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis in the report is placed on how to cope with the stringent situation of energy resources in Japan when the energy demands are rising with the advance of economies. For the future, countermeasures must be taken in time and on firm basis. The characteristics of respective energy resources are clarified, and on this basis, review is made on the energy supplies up to the beginning of the 21st century. In the above connection, the following measures are taken up: promotion of energy saving, stable supply of petroleum, development and utilization of substitute energies, development of technologies for new energies, enhancement in the location of power stations, and securing of the necessary funds. In conclusion, it points out the need for further efforts on overall energy measures and the need for full co-ordination of the energy policy with the social situation. (Mori, K.)

  3. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  4. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...... are not digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison...... of the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  5. Radiology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.L.; Seltzer, S.E.; Gore, J.C.; Heiiman, R.S.; Abrams, H.L.; Davis, K.A.; Henkelman, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  6. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  7. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  8. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement ofregional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards.

  9. 77 FR 32391 - Building a 21st Century Digital Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of May 23, 2012 Building a 21st Century Digital Government Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... century digital Government that delivers better digital services to the American people. Today, the CIO is releasing that strategy, entitled ``Digital Government: Building a 21st Century Platform to Better Serve the...

  10. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  11. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  12. Education for Employment in Nigeria in the 21st Century: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined education for employment in Nigeria in the 21st Century. This paper therefore looked at the demand of workplace employment skills, learning skills, literacy skills and life skills. This paper concludes by advocating how to teach 21st Century employment skills, how to guarantee gainful employment, and ...

  13. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  14. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  15. Vaccines for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  16. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  17. Aligning Business and Education: 21st Century Skill Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles L., Jr.; Kresyman, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore stakeholder perceptions concerning four key 21st century skills required for graduates to be successful in today's workplace, and to report on common themes surrounding how a post-secondary school in the Southwest United States is preparing graduates with predominant 21st Century skills: interpersonal…

  18. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  19. 21ST-CENTURY TEACHERS: THE STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Norahmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues regarding the demands of creative, innovative, and professional teachers are certainly on the concern of stakeholders and practitioners in education. Substantial efforts were conducted by the government to meet the 21st-century teachers having the four competencies required for being a teacher and coping with the needs of modern education. A survey research was conducted to collect respondents’ opinion as the main source of data to describe whether the 21st-century teachers are on the demands and to gain information that the students have a similar perception to teacher’s competencies required by the government. Seventy-five questionnaires related to the competencies were given to students of English Education Study Program of 2013 to 2016. The questionnaires were aimed at collecting written information dealing with what the students perceived towards the activities implemented by teachers in the process of teaching and learning. The result of questionnaire analysis revealed that most students expected the 21st-century teachers to have skills in teaching and in connecting it with the development of today’s technology and today’s student characteristics. The data also showed that the students constructed the same characteristics of teacher’s competencies required by the government regarding pedagogy, personality, sociality, and professionality.

  20. Learning Management Guidelines for Social Studies towards Thai Citizenship, ASEAN Citizenship, World Citizenship for the 21st Century Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipada Phinla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Contempolary global society is witnessing on extensive competition and cooperation among countries that leads to regional integration to strengthen their common political, social, economic and cultural aspirations. Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia region, has joined other 9 members of ASEAN for the establishment of the ASEAN Community in 2015 The aim of the establishment is For enhancing liberalization of trades among the country members, the arrangements are reflected in the efforts to cope with the change through the civil education system. Education is recognized as a key mechanism in the development of a perfect human being physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually. Therefore, to prepare for learners in the 21st century to become Thai Citizenship, ASEAN Citizenship, World Citizenship, it is important for teachers to develop learners inorder to meet the social aspirations and lead a happy and peaceful life in the society.

  1. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R

    2009-01-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  2. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  3. Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-04-01

    'Engineering Toxins for 21st Century Therapies' (9-10 September 2010) was part of the Royal Society International Seminar series held at the Kavli International Centre, UK. Participants were assembled from a range of disciplines (academic, industry, regulatory, public health) to discuss the future potential of toxin-based therapies. The meeting explored how the current structural and mechanistic knowledge of toxins could be used to engineer future toxin-based therapies. To date, significant progress has been made in the design of novel recombinant biologics based on domains of natural toxins, engineered to exhibit advantageous properties. The meeting concluded, firstly that future product development vitally required the appropriate combination of creativity and innovation that can come from the academic, biotechnology and pharma sectors. Second, that continued investigation into understanding the basic science of the toxins and their targets was essential in order to develop new opportunities for the existing products and to create new products with enhanced properties. Finally, it was concluded that the clinical potential for development of novel biologics based on toxin domains was evident. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  4. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  5. Pediatrics in 21st Century and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21 st century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  6. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  7. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  8. ASIE Model: An Innovative Instructional Design Model for Teachers in Enhancing and Sustaining the Quality of the 21st Century Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Md Zain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective and systematic design of instruction will determine the quality of learning and teaching practices. Hence, instructional design models are required, to move from just adopting a standard approach to developing models that have an impact on learners' profiles, creating a much better learning experience, skills, and knowledge both in the classroom and online. The 21st Century Learning Framework requires learners to develop their thinking skills, communication skills, collaborating skills and enhancing their creativity, (4Cs towards establishing "globally competitive learners." An Integral ASIE Instructional Design Model is an innovative 21st Century teachers' designing tool that provides a solution to the above challenges. The Model assist teachers in Planning, Utilizing and Sharing (PLUS instructions with others across nations. It promotes the Professional Learning Community practices where educationist, stakeholders, parents, and corporates work collaboratively ensuring its quality and sustainability in addressing the future employability issues of the learners. Results from 5 Likert Scales Questionnaires given to teachers in workshops and pilot project conducted, shows positive views on the model.

  9. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  10. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  11. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  12. Integration of the "Americas" in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimaraes, Milton

    2001-01-01

    Through a program of comprehensive research and detailed analysis, the paper presents current and proposed steps for the Integration of the Americas in the 21st Century within the time frame agreed...

  13. The development of learning competency and skills for the 21st century to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in students grade 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedaman, Pornchai; Kinboon, Nittayaporn; Suksup, Chareon; Kinboon, Wutcharapong

    2018-01-01

    The teaching strategies of append were the technological pedagogical content knowledge; TPCK. This description knowledge in a content to corresponds of a effective teaching. This article aims to address the relevance of; 1) the learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment in the students grade 11, 2) the effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in the students grade 11 were the passing score of a percentage 80 upwards (EI.), and 3) the attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches for 9teachers of third schools were the participatory action research (PAR) in collecting data including a instructional, a testing, and a questionnaire surveywith 33 students grade 11 of Phuwiengwittayakom school. The participants werecluster random sampling. The data analysis of descriptive statistical, percentage, mean average, standard deviation. The findings in the study were to learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment on TK, PK, CK, and TCK at a excellent levels (X¯ = 3.62, 3.57, 3.54, 3.51) respectively, and PCK, TPK,TPCK at a good levels (X¯ = 3.36, 3.23, 3.17) respectively. The effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in 30 students grade 11 were the passing score (EI.) of a percentage at 90.91. The attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11 at a high levels (X¯ =3.29). In addition of the students grade 11 to understanding of the importance were a local learning resources including the value integrating technology of the knowledge technology and to choose the right were create of an effective information.

  14. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  15. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  16. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2000-01-01

    international solar and renewable energy professional societies, in identifying the range and level of teaching materials required for use at schools and universities. This has resulted in many new books and teaching packages involving multi media presentation materials becoming available on the open market. Availability of computer software packages, originally developed for research purposes, has led to the introduction of solar system simulation into many engineering and architectural courses. Finally, as we move into the arena of the virtual school or university of the twenty first century, there is no doubt that more and more teaching and learning material will be made available free of charge on the world wide web, and that students worldwide will eventually have ease of access to academic and commercial information on a scale unimaginable only a few years ago. (Author)

  17. The Concept Framework of Structural Equation model of Mobile Cloud Learning Acceptance for Higher Education Students in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyatorn Amornkitpinyo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research’s part is in the structural equation model of mobile cloud learning acceptance for higher education students in the 21st century as its objective is to synthesize and design the framework of this model. The methods of this research are divided into 2 parts which are synthesis, combining it to process the mode and designing framework concept. The findings of this research are as the following: 1. Basic digital literacy, Information Quality and Social Cloud are included in the model as the exogenous latent variables. 2. Satisfaction and TAM model (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are included as the mediating latent variables. 3. Actual Use is the outcome of the model’s latent variable.

  18. Critical information literacy as core skill for lifelong STEM learning in the 21st century: reflections on the desirability and feasibility for widespread science media education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Grace Reid and the late Stephen Norris argue in this issue the urgent need for widespread Science Media Education (SME) as an integral part of formal and informal science education. SME is to achieve two goals: First, allow learners to critically evaluate any media as a source for scientific information by understanding the socio-economic and socio-cultural context of how and why news and entertainment media are created, and secondly, utilize media as a legitimate and productive source for science education and science learning. While laudable, I will argue that SME as an integral part of STEM education is unrealistic, and offer instead that the broader concept of Information Literacy might be more easily achieved within the current strong movement to conceptualize STEM education via science and engineering practices and within the broad goals of strengthening learners' 21st century skills.

  19. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  20. Individual Learning Account Pilot Initiative: A Learning Tool for the 21st Century. Report to the OPM Director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Task Force on Federal Training Technology, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) evaluated the feasibility of individual learning accounts (ILAs) as an approach to workforce development. Thirteen federal agencies volunteered to participate in the initiative. Together, they conducted a total of 17 pilot tests. Some pilot tests included all employees in the agency. Others targeted…

  1. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity."

  2. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  3. Enrichment into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the future of the enrichment services market into the next century. It is estimated that demand for enrichment services will reach 31 million SWU by the end of the century and remain constant for the following 10 years. The current world enrichment capacity is 44 million SWU, or some 50% ahead of the demand. This oversupply is projected to continue into the next century, but in spite of this, several suppliers are planning new enrichment facilities. HEU as a source of enriched uranium is examined. Overall, long-term prices for enrichment services are expected to decline in the coming decade

  4. Rhizomatic Learning: “As… When… and If…” A Strategy for the ASEAN Community in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with developments in the ASEAN region. In particular, it focuses on demands generated by the goal to build an ASEAN Community characterized by great diversity amongst member countries. The demands created by this diversity are exacerbated by the immense changes taking place in the 21st century, such as unprecedented richness of information and communication systems, unprecedented mobility and the technological empowerment of ordinary people to create or find their own personal solutions in a just in time, just enough and just for me fashion. This leads to the conclusion that learning needs will be vastly different, individual and largely unpredicted and unpredictable. This realisation implies the necessity to develop adaptable, flexible, yet intellectually coherent learning frameworks which will provide the necessary guidance for creating appropriate learning environments. The article proceeds to construct such a framework on the basis of a five-point analysis of how human perception, understanding and knowledge-construction operate. It then develops a learning structure based on the generation of personal learning environments (PLEs connected to a networked information technology infrastructure which is essentially rhizomatic in nature (i.e. where learners determine the ways that they navigate through information and feedback mechanisms to construct personally-relevant and appropriate knowledge. The article ends with a short scenario to illustrate the workings of this structure and concludes with some remarks about current research in the area in both Asia and Europe

  5. The play approach to learning in the context of families and schools: an alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, K A; Gallahue, D L; Gruen, G E; Tridle, M; Bewley, N; Steele, K

    1995-10-01

    An alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education centers on understanding and developing skill in implementing a play approach to learning about healthful eating and promoting active play in the context of the child, the family, and the school. The play approach is defined as a process for learning that is intrinsically motivated, enjoyable, freely chosen, nonliteral, safe, and actively engaged in by young learners. Making choices, assuming responsibility for one's decisions and actions, and having fun are inherent components of the play approach to learning. In this approach, internal cognitive transactions and intrinsic motivation are the primary forces that ultimately determine healthful choices and life habits. Theoretical models of children's learning--the dynamic systems theory and the cognitive-developmental theory of Jean Piaget--provide a theoretical basis for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century. The ultimate goal is to develop partnerships of children, families, and schools in ways that promote the well-being of children and translate into healthful life habits. The play approach is an ongoing process of learning that is applicable to learners of all ages.

  6. AHEAD OF THE GAME: ADOPTING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING APPROACHES SUPPORTED BY VIDEO-BASED WEB CONFERENCING TECHNOLOGY IN A ROMANIAN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING MILITARY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula CHARBONNEAU-GOWDY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent major political uprisings are indicating the extent to which social learning Web 2.0 technologies, can infl uence change in informal learning settings. Recognition and a discussion of the potential of that infl uence in formal learning settings have only just begun. This article describes a study of an international distance learning project in 2004, using a variety of Web 2.0 technologies, including video-based web conferencing, that sought to initiate and respond to this urgent need for dialogue in the research. Self-selected participants took part in a 5-week English as a foreign language (EFL program, a joint NATO sponsored Canadian and Romanian Ministry of Defense-supported initiative. Clear evidence of linguistic knowledge construction and of important changes to participants’ learner identities, indicates the power of these technologies to support the kind of learning that can lead to the development of global citizens and the skills they will increasingly require in the 21st century.

  7. Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need for Curricula Review. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Marketing had over the years served the dominant function of bridging the gap between production and consumption through a conceptualized, well structured programme of academic ...

  8. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  9. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these

  10. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  11. Cybercare: Combining Healthcare and Cyberspace in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosen, J

    2001-01-01

    ... physician and a cybercare vision of a new healthcare system We will then predict what type of large-scale medical disaster would prompt the creation of a cybercare healthcare system Finally, we discuss the challenges to be faced in the 21st century.

  12. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  13. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  14. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  15. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  16. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  17. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  18. European governance challenges in 21st century bio-engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van R.; Stemerding, D.; Est, van R.; Stemerding, D.

    2012-01-01

    This Final Report discussed four case studies (whole genome sequencing, neuromodulation, biocybernetic adaptation and standardization in synthetic biology) focusing on particular developments in the four fields of 21st-century bio-engineering that were explored more extensively in the earlier

  19. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  20. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  1. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  2. Weather, Climate, Web 2.0: 21st Century Students Speak Climate Science Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Cheryl White; Kennedy, Teresa; Odell, Michael R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) employ extensive scaffolding that results in cognitive load reduction and allows students to learn in complex domains. Hybrid teacher professional development models (PDM) using 21st century social collaboration tools embedding PBL and IL shows promise as a systemic approach for increasing…

  3. Tendencies in evolution of 21st century management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Buble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical paradigm of management formulated over century ago started to receive substantial critics already in the second half of 20th century. First attack on the paradigm appeared by the end of 1960s when the environment finally started to be treated as an important element of management. The second significant attack appeared in 1978 when Tom Peters (1978 developed the concept of eight principles of excellence which were in complete contradiction with the principles of classical paradigm of management. Peter Senge created further deflection from the paradigm in the 1990 with the concept of learning organization, while in the same year Michael Hammer and James Champy founded the thesis of organization of work around processes, as opposed to organization around tasks. At the beginning of 21st century a significant attack on the traditional paradigm of management was carried out by Peter Drucker who pointed out the changes which will emerge and their implications on enterprise, its organization and management. The greatest attack on classical paradigm of management was carried out by Gary Hamel (2007, stating that many management principles and systems are based on inadequate paradigm(s, and therefore manager's innovations represent ultimate source of competitive advantages. All of this led some authors to ask themselves a question: Is the end of management on the way? In search for an answer to this question, this paper shows that the end of management has not come, but its future is yet to be devised.

  4. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  5. [Plica polonica in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, A; Pierriard-Wolfensberger, J; Harms, M

    2000-03-01

    We describe a young man presenting with dreadlocks. There are remarkable similarities with the so called plica polonica, that historically had been treated with long courses of mercury. Apparently very important in the 18th century, the interest for this hair-disorder appears to be lost in specialized medical literature. In contrast dreadlocks, a recent hairstyle are frequently encountered. Lack of other sources various websites provide dermatologists with answers to questions regarding complications. Fortunately a simply haircut is today treatment enough.

  6. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  7. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  8. A Computer-based 21st Century Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannathon Sangarun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a prototype computer-based reading comprehension program. It begins with a short description, at a general level, of theoretical issues relating to the learning of comprehension skills in a foreign/second language learning. These issues cover such areas as personal meaning-making on the basis of individual differences and the need for individualized intervention to maximize the comprehension process. Modern technology facilitates this process and enables simultaneous support of large numbers of students. Specifically, from a learning perspective, the program focuses on students’ personal understandings while, from a reading perspective, the construction of meaning is based on an interactive model where both high-level (global, inferential structures are elicited/studied as well as low-level structures (e.g. vocabulary, grammar. These principles are strengthened with research findings from studies in awareness and language processing based on eye-movement analysis. As part of its reading comprehensions focus, the system also has a strong commitment to the development of critical thinking skills, recognized as one of the most important 21st Century skills. The program is then described in detail, including its ability to store students’ responses and to be administered through standard learning management systems. Finally, an outline of planned future developments and enhancements is presented.

  9. Space Biology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  10. Neutron physics entering the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of present-day neutron physics are neutron-aided investigations of fundamental interactions and symmetries, high excited states of nuclei, crystalline and magnetic structures, dynamic excitations in solids and liquids over a wide range of energies. The state-of-art and perspectives of the solution of most topical and principle problems of neutron physics are analyzed. The main conclusion is that neutron physics provides rich information for nuclear particle physics, physics of nucleus, condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and earth sciences. In the next century, however, new higher flux neutron sources must be created. By the year 2010 the number of nuclear reactors used for physical research will reduce to 10-15 reactors over the world. Trends in the development of neutron sources are analyzed. The possibilities of leading neutron research centers in the world are considered and most promising projects of neutron sources are discussed. (author)

  11. John Dewey in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Morgan K.

    2017-01-01

    John Dewey was a pragmatist, progressivist, educator, philosopher, and social reformer (Gutek, 2014). Dewey's various roles greatly impacted education, and he was perhaps one of the most influential educational philosophers known to date (Theobald, 2009). Dewey's influence on education was evident in his theory about social learning; he believed…

  12. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  13. Promoting the 21st century scientific literacy skills through innovative chemistry instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Students need to be equipped with the 21st century skills/capabilities to ensure their competitiveness in the knowledge era. So, it is imperative that education at school should be changed in order to fulfill the need. However, there is not any specified approach on how to educate young students for the 21st century capabilities. Regardless the impediment for ts exist, we need to construct an innovative instruction that can develop the students' 21st century skills by incorporating the skills needed, based on contemporary theory of learning, necessary context of learning and appropriate assessment in a chemistry subject matter. This paper discuss the feasible skills to be promoted through chemistry course. Those skills/capabilities are scientific literacy, higher order thinking, communicationand collaboration and curiosity. The promoted are called the 21st century scientific literacy skills in which it emphasis on scientific literacy and embedded the other 21st century skills into the innovative chemistry instruction. The elements involve in the instruction such as inquiry and constructivist approach, nature of science, contemporary/socioscientific issues, critical thinking (higher order thinking).

  14. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  15. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  16. Learning to make change : developing innovation competence for recreating the African university of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibwika, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is concern that the present education designed for the 19 th century andan industrialmachinery no longer suits the complex problems of the post-industrial 21 st century. Complexity arises out of the fused

  17. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  18. Water in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechota, Thomas C

    2013-02-08

    This research project focused on sustainability issues in the southwest U.S. with an emphasis on water and energy. The efforts were directed through the UNLV Urban Sustainability Office with the funding used to develop a sustainability strategic plan; conduct extensive community outreach in the greater metropolitan area; provide seed money for multidisciplinary research teams to conduct studies in the areas of ecological, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability leading to community-based solutions; and to provide service-learning opportunities for UNLV graduate and undergraduate students. The research advanced understanding of urban and regional water issues with a particular focus on climate change and climate variability in the southwest. In addition, various events were held to promote discussion on energy, water, and sustainability discussions in the community. The impact of this research was broad dissemination of research through 13 peer-reviewed publications, learning opportunities for countless students as a result of class room equipment upgrades (see report for upgrade details), and new research funding for further advancement of these research efforts.

  19. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  20. Public support for medical research in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P M

    2000-01-01

    Key public policies that have contributed to the rise of modern medical research in the 20th Century are reviewed, focusing especially on the United States and the post-World War II period. Drawing on this history, the question is posed: "Are these policies sufficient to insure vigorous medical research in the 21st Century?" Although radical policy changes are not needed, several proposals for policy and medical research portfolio redirection are offered, including a rebalancing of public supported research in all fields of science that contribute to medical advances. Medical research must also invest in a national and international information infrastructure that will allow the linking of researchers, clinical experimenters, practicing physicians, and the public in ways heretofore not imagined. Medical researchers must be leaders and advocates for the whole research enterprise in the 21st Century.

  1. Enabling Pedagogy and Andragogy for 21st-Century Sign Language Users and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann-Shores, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Enabling pedagogy and andragogy is discussed as a form of lifelong learning in which learners attain competences and skills as children (pedagogy) and as adults (andragogy) that enable them to engage in independent learning in the 21st century. Throughout the article the author avoids as much as possible the labels "deaf" and…

  2. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Renewal. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...

  3. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  4. Sustainable Nuclear Energy for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Concerns over energy resource availability, energy security and climate change suggest an important role for nuclear power in supplying sustainable energy in the 21st century. The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was initiated in 2000 by a resolution of the IAEA General Conference to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. It is a mechanism for IAEA Member States that have joined the project as INPRO members to collaborate on topics of joint interest. By 2010, INPRO membership had grown to 30 countries and the European Commission. The results of INPRO's activities, however, are made available to all IAEA Member States

  5. In Vitro Toxicity testing in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin L Roggen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council (NRC article Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy (National Research Council, 2007 was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound.Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modelling tools for e.g. system biology, physiologically-based modelling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the 21st century.

  6. The neural crest migrating into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Marianne E.; Simões-Costa, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    From the initial discovery of the neural crest over 150 years ago to the seminal studies of Le Douarin and colleagues in the latter part of the 20th century, understanding of the neural crest has moved from the descriptive to the experimental. Now, in the 21st century, neural crest research has migrated into the genomic age. Here we reflect upon the major advances in neural crest biology and the open questions that will continue to make research on this incredible vertebrate cell type an important subject in developmental biology for the century to come. PMID:26970616

  7. A review on Anticipated Breakthrough Technologies of 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    This review discuss strategic management of thirteen most anticipated possible technology breakthroughs of 21st century which are substantially affect the life style of living beings in the world like (1) Nanotechnology-based human life comfort, (2) High speed computation through optical computers, (3) Embedded Intelligence, (4) HIV Antivirus, (5) Pseudo Senses - Sensation of existence through virtual reality and through artificial environment, (6) Off Planet Production in micro-gravity, (7) ...

  8. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  9. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  10. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  11. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  12. Competences for science teaching at the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Patrícia; Paixão, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a contribution to the conceptual and terminological clarification of the concept of teaching competence, as well as for the identification of a competencial framework of competences for science teaching at a primary education level, having in mind educating citizens for the 21st century as scientific literates. The proposed framework was developed based on an intensive literature review and on the contributions emerging from a shared reflection between researchers in scien...

  13. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  14. Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, Alex J.

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Dragt of the University of Maryland is one of the Institutional Principal Investigators for the SciDAC Accelerator Modeling Project Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology whose principal investigators are Dr. Kwok Ko (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and Dr. Robert Ryne (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). This report covers the activities of Dr. Dragt while at Berkeley during spring 2002 and at Maryland during fall 2003

  15. Designing vaccines for the 21st century society

    OpenAIRE

    Oretta eFinco; Rino eRappuoli

    2014-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the 21st century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human imm...

  16. Representing health and illness: thoughts for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2011-06-01

    The on-going discussion about a new empiricism in the study of the medical humanities has lead to a misapprehension about the problems attendant to representing health and illness. The difficulty in understanding the politics of health and illness as well as the concomitant new aestheticism that has arisen concerning its representation demands a rethinking of these categories in the 21st century. Obesity can provide a model for the importance of this problem today.

  17. Proceedings from the Service-Learning Strand. NCA 2001 Summer Conference: Engaging 21st Century Communication Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael F.; Levin, Shirlee; Weintraub, Sara Chudnovsky

    At its essence, service-learning is a pedagogical practice that links meaningful community service with course objectives. Service-learning is a credit-bearing, educational experience in which students participate in organized service activities that meet identified community needs and reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain…

  18. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Design Capacities for Web-Based 21st Century New Culture of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Tan, Lynde; Deng, Feng; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an established body of work arguing that teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is necessary for designing ICT-integrated lessons, little is known about the relationships among teachers' beliefs about learning, their design dispositions, learning design practices and TPACK. Critical inquiry in this aspect…

  19. AAAC&U's Integrative Liberal Learning and the CAS Standards: Advising for a 21st Century Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rich

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Colleges and Universities presented and promoted integrative liberal learning as a collaborative goal that all institutions of higher education must strive to achieve. The similarities between the goals of integrative liberal learning and the Standards for Academic Advising by the Council for the Advancement of…

  20. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  1. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st century rural teaching and learning environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available systems should benefit from the opportunities offered by mobile phone access. 2. Research context Unisa’s ODL policy is entrenched in providing open learning, student support, flexibility in methods and criteria for assessing learning process... in an environment of their choice. Mobile phones have been used for providing students with interfaces for assignment completion, submission, and receiving feedback. Many of the mobile based assessment systems are multiple choice based and there are also...

  2. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, N.N.

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  3. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  4. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  5. The flipped classroom stimulates greater learning and is a modern 21st century approach to teaching today's undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, C J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-07-01

    Many classrooms in higher education still rely on a transformative approach to teaching where students attend lectures and earn course grades through examination. In the modern age, traditional lectures are argued by some as obsolete and do not address the learning needs of today’s students. An emerging pedagogical approach is the concept of the flipped classroom. The flipped classroom can simply be described as students viewing asynchronous video lectures on their own and then engaging in active learning during scheduled class times. In this study, we examined the flipped classroom teaching environment on student learning gains in an Introduction to Equine Science course. Students (n = 130) were asked to view 7.5 h of recorded lectures divided into 8 learning modules, take online quizzes to enforce lecture viewing, take 3 in-class exams, and prepare to participate in active learning during scheduled class times. Active learning approaches included individual activities, paired activities, informal small groups, and large group activities. When compared to students in the traditional lecture format in earlier years, students in the flipped format scored higher on all 3 exams (P flipped format students were asked to take the Cornell Critical Thinking Exam (version X). Scores improved from the pretest (50.8 ± 0.57) to the posttest (54.4 ± 0.58; P flipped course, no correlations were found with student performance and interactions with online content. Students were asked in class to evaluate their experiences based on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The flipped classroom was ranked as an enjoyable learning experience with a mean of 4.4 ± 0.10, while students responded positively to other pointed questions. In formal course evaluations, flipped format students ranked the following higher (P flipped classroom proved to be a positive learning experience for students. As the classroom continues to modernize, pedagogical approaches

  6. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Prandini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  7. Science Notebooks for the 21st Century. Going Digital Provides Opportunities to Learn "with" Technology Rather than "from" Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lori; Paek, Seungoh; Taoka, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Students of today are digital natives who for the most part come to school with experiences that may surpass those of their teachers. They use tablet computers and other devices in their personal lives and are eager to use them in the classroom. For teachers, this means they must integrate technology in ways that allow their students to learn with…

  8. A Benchmarking Exercise for quality blended learning. A challenge for European Universities in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comba, Valentina Elvira; Ossiannilsson, Ebba; Landgren, Lena

    2010-01-01

    -xellence spørgsmålenene til de deltagende universiteters blended learning kontekst. Der gøres rede for indsamling af data og formulering af svar i kapitel fire, hvor der også reflekteres over udfordringerne og fordelene ved den valgte tilgang. Kapitel fem præsenterer benchmarking undersøgelsens overordnede konklusioner...

  9. Preparing Teens for Success: Building 21st Century Skills through a 4-H Work-Based Learning Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread concern that youth lack the skills essential for job success and are entering the workplace unprepared. To address issues of workforce preparation, Extension educators at an urban 4-H education center created the Job Experience and Training (JET program, a work-based learning program for teens. JET is conducted over a six-month period, culminating in an eight-week summer work experience in collaboration with a local park district. Supervisors and teens completed a performance appraisal measure based on SCANS workforce skills at two points during the program. Both teens and supervisors provided written comments addressing teens’ strengths and areas for growth, as well as comments on their satisfaction with the program itself. Overall, the experience appears to have produced improvements in teens’ workforce skills, as evidenced by their own self-assessment and that of their supervisors. We conclude with implications for conducting work-based learning programs.

  10. Neuroscience and education: an ideal partnership for producing evidence-based solutions to Guide 21(st) Century Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Thomas J; Magsamen, Susan H

    2010-09-09

    Neuro-Education is a nascent discipline that seeks to blend the collective fields of neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, and education to create a better understanding of how we learn and how this information can be used to create more effective teaching methods, curricula, and educational policy. Though still in its infancy as a research discipline, this initiative is already opening critical new dialog between teachers, administrators, parents, and brain scientists. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparing Teens for Success: Building 21st Century Skills through a 4-H Work-Based Learning Program

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa M. Ferrari; Nate Arnett; Graham Cochran

    2008-01-01

    There is widespread concern that youth lack the skills essential for job success and are entering the workplace unprepared. To address issues of workforce preparation, Extension educators at an urban 4-H education center created the Job Experience and Training (JET) program, a work-based learning program for teens. JET is conducted over a six-month period, culminating in an eight-week summer work experience in collaboration with a local park district. Supervisors and teens completed a perform...

  12. An Unfinished Symphony: 21st Century Teacher Education Using Knowledge Creating Heutagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Jean; Newman, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Globalisation has changed the way most people live, work and study in the 21st century. Teachers and teacher educators, like other professionals, must embrace these changes to be effective in their jobs and one ongoing change is the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for lifelong learning. In this paper we describe how one group…

  13. The Next Frontier in Making Disciples: 21st-Century Technology Use in CCCU Member Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented opportunity exists for Christian colleges and universities to utilize 21st-century technology and the impact of globalization to broaden the use of distance learning for missional purposes through their educational offerings. Some institutions offer open education that allows those with Internet access to take courses at no cost…

  14. Seven Steps to Heaven: Time and Tide in 21st Century Contemporary Music Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Annie K.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout the time of my teaching career, the tide has exposed changes in the nature of music, students and music education. This paper discusses teaching and learning in contemporary music at seven critical stages of 21st century music education: i) diverse types of undergraduate learners; ii) teaching traditional classical repertoire and skills…

  15. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  16. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  17. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  18. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  19. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  20. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  1. Risk Assessment in the 21st Century - Conference Abstract ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the past ~50 years, risk assessment depended almost exclusively on animal testing for hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Originally sound and effective, with increasing dependence on chemical tools and the number of chemicals in commerce, this traditional approach is no longer sufficient. This presentation provides an update on current progress in achieving the goals outlined in the NAS reports: “Toxicology Testing in the 21st Century”, “Exposure Science in the 21st Century”, and most recently, “Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations.” The presentation highlights many of the advances lead by the EPA. Topics covered include the evolution of the mode of action concept into the chemically agnostic, adverse outcome pathway (AOP), a systems-based data framework that facilitates integration of modifiable factors (e.g., genetic variation, life stages), and an understanding of networks, and mixtures. Further, the EDSP pivot is used to illustrate how AOPs drive development of predictive models for risk assessment based on assembly of high throughput assays representing AOP key elements. The birth of computational exposure science, capable of large-scale predictive exposure models, is reviewed. Although still in its infancy, development of non-targeted analysis to begin addressing the exposome is presented, as is the systems-based AEP that integrates exposure, toxicokinetics and AOPs into a comprehensive framework

  2. Competing power-generating technologies for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, G. K.

    1994-04-01

    Several new and advanced power-generating systems are presently being developed, e.g., fuel cells, advanced heat pumps, high-performance gas turbines. An analysis of these systems is presented and is based on projections of comparative studies and relevant trends. For advanced systems, a trade-off between efficiency gain and projected development cost is crucial. Projections for market conditions in the 21st century and, in particular, environmental issues are made in order to assess market-entry opportunities. Results from various case studies indicate challenging opportunities in process and metallurgical industries; several process-integrated configurations are being studied.

  3. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  4. Higher Education Leadership: Challenge of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutjipto Sutjipto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, higher education (HE will play a very crucial role; in spite of its limited resources, HE should be able to respond to the challenges caused by the very fast advancement of technology. For this purpose managers of HE should be professional, those who are prepared to become the managers, so that they reflect wide perspectives, good attitudes, and quality skills in managing the HE in such a competitive era. Higher education leadership is expected to make use of the system and opportunity to improve its performance

  5. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  6. Buildings for the 21st Century, Fall 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-10-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The fall issue includes information on weatherization, Boise's geothermal heating system, the BTS Core Databook, the Solar Decathlon, a Rebuild America partnership, the BigHorn Home Improvement Center, AIA's Top Ten Buildings, a sub-CFL procurement program, the U.S. investment in energy efficient research, new efficiency standards, PNNL's building software, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  7. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  8. Safety of nuclear power plants in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.; Novakova, H.; Rydzi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Discussing the disaster of March 2011 which had a destroying effect on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the article presents an overview of the impacts of the earthquake and tsunami on the nuclear power plants in the region, outlines the defence-in-depth concept, and describes the design of the affected BWR type reactors and the accident event sequences leading to the reactor core damage and radioactivity release into the environment. The proposed measures for enhancing nuclear reactor safety in the 21st century are highlighted. (orig.)

  9. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  10. 21st Century Power Partnership: September 2016 Fellowship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rambau, Prudence [Eskom, Pretoria (South Africa); Mdhluli, Sipho [Eskom, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2017-09-29

    This report details the 21st Century Power Partnership fellowship from September 2016. This Fellowship is a follow-up to the Technical Audit of Eskom's Medium- and Long-term Modelling Capabilities, conducted by U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in April 2016. The prospect and role of variable renewable energy (vRE) in South Africa poses new modelling-related challenges that Eskom is actively working to address by improving the fidelity of PLEXOS LT and ST models.

  11. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  12. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  13. The direction of cloud computing for Malaysian education sector in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Jazurainifariza; Rahman, M. Nordin A.; Kadir, M. Fadzil A.; Shamsudin, Syadiah Nor; Saany, Syarilla Iryani A.

    2017-08-01

    In 21st century, technology has turned learning environment into a new way of education to make learning systems more effective and systematic. Nowadays, education institutions are faced many challenges to ensure the teaching and learning process is running smoothly and manageable. Some of challenges in the current education management are lack of integrated systems, high cost of maintenance, difficulty of configuration and deployment as well as complexity of storage provision. Digital learning is an instructional practice that use technology to make learning experience more effective, provides education process more systematic and attractive. Digital learning can be considered as one of the prominent application that implemented under cloud computing environment. Cloud computing is a type of network resources that provides on-demands services where the users can access applications inside it at any location and no time border. It also promises for minimizing the cost of maintenance and provides a flexible of data storage capacity. The aim of this article is to review the definition and types of cloud computing for improving digital learning management as required in the 21st century education. The analysis of digital learning context focused on primary school in Malaysia. Types of cloud applications and services in education sector are also discussed in the article. Finally, gap analysis and direction of cloud computing in education sector for facing the 21st century challenges are suggested.

  14. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  15. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  16. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  17. PLACE IDENTITY IN 21ST CENTURY ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Sun (Sunny Choi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the built environment brought about by economic and cultural globalization have resulted in a blurring of national identities worldwide. Consequently, place identity has emerged as a central concern for setting the 21st century urban development agenda. This paper examines the ways in which specific aspects of urban typology relate with cultural engagements and meanings within old and new, in terms of the transferable values of place identity, particularly within South East and Far East Asian countries. Firstly, the theoretical and practical key concepts for design ideology are described in relation to the value of place identity within contemporary urban forms. These key concepts are then operationalized in order to identify the implementation of the role of place identity, not only within architectural typology, but also through a cultural sense of space and time; a hybrid typological language. The focus of this paper is to explore how the role of place identity in physical built form relates with design qualities and cultural engagement, and how the needs of local culture can be incorporated, sustained and developed alongside contemporary architecture and rapid urban development. The paper provides a critical reflection and discussion of 21st Century architecture in South Korea, particularly how the locally situated and informed might be reconciled with the global aspirations of the contemporary city.

  18. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  19. Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro James A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific history has had a profound effect on the theories of evolution. At the beginning of the 21st century, molecular cell biology has revealed a dense structure of information-processing networks that use the genome as an interactive read-write (RW memory system rather than an organism blueprint. Genome sequencing has documented the importance of mobile DNA activities and major genome restructuring events at key junctures in evolution: exon shuffling, changes in cis-regulatory sites, horizontal transfer, cell fusions and whole genome doublings (WGDs. The natural genetic engineering functions that mediate genome restructuring are activated by multiple stimuli, in particular by events similar to those found in the DNA record: microbial infection and interspecific hybridization leading to the formation of allotetraploids. These molecular genetic discoveries, plus a consideration of how mobile DNA rearrangements increase the efficiency of generating functional genomic novelties, make it possible to formulate a 21st century view of interactive evolutionary processes. This view integrates contemporary knowledge of the molecular basis of genetic change, major genome events in evolution, and stimuli that activate DNA restructuring with classical cytogenetic understanding about the role of hybridization in species diversification.

  20. New concept of siting in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Katsuma; Otsubo, Fumiharu; Kumagai, Shigeru

    1995-01-01

    The New Concept of Siting in the 21st Century -- the theme of this paper -- is the concept of a new siting technology which combines the application of man - made islands (offshore), underground (steep mountains along the sea), and quaternary ground with the symbiosis with local communities. It is intended not only for promotion of the construction of nuclear power plants but also for the development of a 'new community', including the inducement of enterprises to the construction site and the promotion of new industries at the site. In studying the new concept, it is necessary to select model areas, discuss design and construction methods, and make a rough calculation of construction cost. In addition, we plan to estimate economic effects of the new concept on the construction site area. During 1993, we discussed appropriate physical conditions (topographic feature, geological structure, etc.) and geographical conditions (population density, national parks, fishing right, etc.) for the application of the siting technology giving consideration to the concept symbiosis with local communities. At present, the estimations of construction cost and future effects of new siting technology on local communities are carried on to study the new concept of siting in the 21st century. (author)

  1. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  2. The nuclear fuel cycle in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.

    2004-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century and contemplate the deployment of Generation III+ machines and the development of Generation IV systems, the fuel cycle within which these reactors are to operate has become a predominant consideration. The four challenges to nuclear development of the 21st century of economics, safety, sustainability through spent fuel management and efficient fuel utilization, and proliferation resistance increasingly involve the front and back ends of the fuel cycle equally if not more than the design of the reactor which has reached a far higher level of maturity. It is tempting to accept the closed cycle with its promise of effective waste management as inevitable. The central questions, however, are the characteristics of the desired closed cycle, the relative advantages of thermal versus fast spectrum closed cycles, the character and pace of the transition to a closed cycle, and finally the most central question as to whether the closed cycle is indeed more desirable a choice than is an open cycle. The desired closed fuel cycle for the long term around which this paper is based is full actinide recycle with natural uranium feed and only fission products discharged to an ultimate waste repository. It is concluded that a major international research and development program to achieve this fuel cycle is important to pursue. However, the need to decide for the closed cycle and deploy it is not pressing for the next several decades. (author)

  3. Creating a 21st-century intelligent health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newt, Gingrich; Nancy, Desmond

    2008-02-01

    In most areas of life, Americans enjoy the ease and convenience offered by advances in technology, communications, and transportation. Every day we experience the 21st-century model of America, which is one of effectiveness, accuracy, speed, flexibility, efficiency, lower cost, more choices, and greater achievement. We can shop online, compare prices for goods and services, and when decisions need to be made, we have access to a wide array of information sources to assist in making those decisions. In short, Americans enjoy great latitude in our power to determine what is best for us. This is not, however, the case when it comes to health and healthcare. In our current healthcare system, individuals are dependent on a structure that has resisted the natural progress and modernization achieved by market-oriented, 21st-century industries. The information age has been leaving health behind. Although it is the nature of a science- and technology-based entrepreneurial free market to provide more choices of higher quality at lower cost, in the healthcare sector, prices continue to rise, quality is inconsistent, and individuals lack the information, incentives, and power to make choices.

  4. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  5. The 21st century skills with model eliciting activities on linear program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handajani, Septriana; Pratiwi, Hasih; Mardiyana

    2018-04-01

    Human resources in the 21st century are required to master various forms of skills, including critical thinking skills and problem solving. The teaching of the 21st century is a teaching that integrates literacy skills, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and mastery of ICT. This study aims to determine whether there are differences in the effect of applying Model Elliciting Activities (MEAs) that integrates 21st century skills, namely 4C and conventional learning to learning outcomes. This research was conducted at Vocational High School in the odd semester of 2017 and uses the experimental method. The experimental class is treated MEAs that integrates 4C skills and the control class is given conventional learning. Methods of data collection in this study using the method of documentation and test methods. The data analysis uses Z-test. Data obtained from experiment class and control class. The result of this study showed there are differences in the effect of applying MEAs that integrates 4C skills and conventional learning to learning outcomes. Classes with MEAs that integrates 4C skills give better learning outcomes than the ones in conventional learning classes. This happens because MEAs that integrates 4C skills can improved creativity skills, communication skills, collaboration skills, and problem-solving skills.

  6. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Serageldin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor

  7. Developing 21st century skills in chemistry classrooms: Opportunities and challenges of STEAM integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinugrahaningsih, Tritiyatma; Rahmawati, Yuli; Ridwan, Achmad

    2017-08-01

    The paper portrays the first year of two-year study in integration Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM) in chemistry learning. The research focused on developing 21st-century skills of chemistry students in secondary schools. The 21st-century skills as a set of abilities that students need to develop in facing the future challenge which involves learning, literacy, and life skills. The study was conducted in two secondary schools both public and private school in topics of hydrocarbon, petroleum, solubility, and acid base in year 10 and 11. The qualitative methodology was applied to explore the students' learning experiences and understanding the research context. Data was collected through observation, interview, reflective journal, and 21st-century rubric. The STEAM approach was integrated through modification of project-based learning model. The students had opportunities to develop their own projects by integrating chemistry and STEAM principles to their project. The results show that students have developed their critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, collaboration and argumentation skills, leadership and responsibility, information and literacy skills. The researchers faced the challenges of integrating STEAM within the chemistry curricula, empowering students, and managing the teaching and time resources. Students have started to challenge their critical and creative thinking within the existing learning environments. Integrating STEAM into chemistry learning has developed students' 21st-century skills in those three areas. Teachers also learned to develop their competencies for being facilitators and agents of change, in addition to skills development in dealing with students' differences.

  8. Prospects for competitive nuclear power into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.; Sasaki, T.; Thexton, H.E.

    1986-10-01

    Nuclear power stations committed today will be commissioned in the mid- to late-1990s and will operate for most of their lives in the 21st century. Utilities considering the nuclear option for new increments of capacity are, therefore, required to make judgements now on the competitiveness of nuclear plants well beyond the turn of the century. Reactors committed for mid-1990 startup could have a lifetime competitive cost advantage of 20% to 80% over coal-fired plants in most NEA areas studied except for some parts of North America where low cost coal is available. Nuclear plants would retain an economic advantage in most countries even if they were to be used for load-following with resultant lifetime capacity (load) factors as low as about 60% (or even lower in many countries). Uranium resources are sufficiently large that fuel supply should not constrain nuclear power development well into the 21st century, as long as uranium prices provide a market incentive for continued exploration and mine development. Uranium prices seem unlikely to rise to a level which would remove nuclear's advantage within the next several decades. There is apparently no technological reason why the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle (spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposal of high level waste) and decommissioning of reactors should constrain further deployment of nuclear power. While the costs of these activities appear high in absolute terms, they will be relatively low per unit of electricity generated. Thus, even though there remain uncertainties regarding these future costs, they should have little impact on electricity consumers. (author)

  9. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  10. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  11. Radiation processing technology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyuki Hagiwara

    1997-01-01

    The address discusses the following issue - towards the 21st century, we are required more and more to create innovative technologies to solve problems about environment, energy, natural resources, materials, health care, food and others which are the great concern to human beings. For the radiation processing technology to survive, it will be required to provide answers to those problems. The use of radiation of polymer modification will remain as an important field of the radiation application. Some other promising polymer processing can be cited as those which will grow in near future; for environment technology - polymeric fibers grafted with ion exchange residues to remove toxic metals for cleaning industrial waste water; For health care technology - crosslinked polyvinylalcohol hydrogel for wound dressing (irradiation of hydrogel); For high performance materials technology - less toxic crosslinked natural rubber latex (irradiation of emulsion), abrasion resistant crosslinked PTFE (irradiation at high temperature)

  12. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline, and combined, cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... each constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, grief and memorialization. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with material and symbolic 'death...... design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  13. Rectal route in the 21st Century to treat children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannin, Vincent; Lemagnen, Gilles; Gueroult, Pascale; Larrouture, Denis; Tuleu, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    The rectal route can be considered a good alternative to the oral route for the paediatric population because these dosage forms are neither to be swallowed nor need to be taste-masked. Rectal forms can also be administered in an emergency to unconscious or vomiting children. Their manufacturing cost is low with excipients generally regarded as safe. Some new formulation strategies, including mucoadhesive gels and suppositories, were introduced to increase patient acceptability. Even if recent paediatric clinical studies have demonstrated the equivalence of the rectal route with others, in order to enable the use of this promising route for the treatment of children in the 21st Century, some effort should be focused on informing and educating parents and care givers. This review is the first ever to address all the aforementioned items, and to list all drugs used in paediatric rectal forms in literature and marketed products in developed countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.

    2002-09-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  15. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W.; Britton, Keith E.; Hall, Anne V.

    2002-01-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  16. 21st Century Socialism: Making a State for Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Artz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela has built mass organizations of workers and communities that have erratically challenged class and market relations—verifying that taking political power is difficult but essential to fundamental social change and that capitalist cultural practices complicate the revolutionary process. This work identifies components of state power, separating state apparatus (government as a crucial site for instituting social change. The case of democratic, participatory communication and public media access is presented as central to the successes and problems of Venezuelan 21st century socialism. Drawing on field research in community media in Caracas, the essay highlights some of the politico-cultural challenges and class contradictions in producing and distributing cultural values and social practices for a new socialist hegemony necessary for fundamental social change.

  17. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  18. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Perception toward Hands-on Lab Activity and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. H.; Risdianto, E.; Sutarno, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the hands-on lab activities and 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers at a university in Bengkulu. The respondents of this study were 113 students who have been finished and were following the laboratory course. The research instrument was questionnaire. The explored aspects of laboratory activities were motivation, the importance of laboratory activities, equipment, laboratory activities process, suitability of curriculum, assessment, laboratory design, and the 21st century skills training. The 21st century skills explored consist of learning and innovation skills, life and careers skills, and media, information and technology skills. The data obtained will be analyzed descriptively. Based on the results of data analysis was obtained that they have a good perception toward the aspect of motivation, the importance of hands-on lab activities, and laboratory activities process; and the perception was fair for other aspects. The lowest perception score was obtained in the aspects of the 21st century skills training. This result was in accordance with the 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers which were still in moderate category. So it is necessary to develop a model of laboratory activities design that can training and enhancing the 21st century skills for pre-service physics teachers.

  19. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National... evaluate and make improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The... proposes clearance of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation. The 60-day Notice for...

  20. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: Framing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Johnson, Ann

    2017-05-01

    The NASN Code of Ethics upholds that it is the responsibility of the school nurse to maintain competency and pursue personal and professional growth. Designing professional development activities that are relevant and support the needs of the school nurse can be a challenge. The Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice provides a model rooted in evidence-based standards of practice that can be utilized to assess an existing professional development program and identify gaps in learning opportunities. Nurse leaders can use the Framework for 21st Century Nursing Practice to provide a roadmap toward a professional development program that will be meaningful to school nurse staff, help restore or maintain joy in their practice, and allow them to achieve the goal of advancing the well-being, academic success, and lifelong achievement and health of students.

  1. STEM-21CS Module: Fostering 21st Century Skills through Integrated STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaqikah Mohamad Khalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia calls for a society that is highly knowledgeable in the field of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM and equipped with 21st century skills to provide professional workforce that can compete globally. The application of a STEM interdisciplinary approach and teaching and learning (T&L strategies such as problem-based and inquiry-based learning are proposed in development of the STEM-21CS Module in order to foster 21st century skills in the existing science curricula. A majority of real-world issues today are interdisciplinary in which they require students to comprehend the need to integrate multiple disciplines to solve them. STEM-21CS Module allows students to master scientific knowledge and subsequently master other disciplinary skills. It is aimed at improving students’ abilities to enrich their knowledge through hands-on and minds-on activities. The field of engineering requires the knowledge of product design and inventive problem solving skills. The integration of information technology in T&L is recommended in meeting the current needs of the Net Generation. Besides that, mathematics plays a vital role in providing computational tools, especially in analysing data. The STEM-21CS Module is expected to nurture 21st century skills such as digital era literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, and spiritual and noble values among Malaysian students.

  2. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.

  3. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  4. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  5. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  6. Exploring the Influence of 21st Century Skills in a Dual Language Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Christine R.

    2016-01-01

    Preparing students as 21st century learners is a key reform in education. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills developed a framework that identifies outcomes needed for successful implementation of rigorous standards. The Dual Language (DL) program was identified as a structure for reform with systems and practices which can be used to prepare…

  7. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education... announces a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES...

  8. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are August 27-28, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to...

  9. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of... of Agriculture intends to renew the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture...

  10. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  11. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Y. TUCKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  12. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  13. Raising Keynes: A General Theory for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Marglin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keynes’s General Theory argues there is no self-regulating mechanism that guarantees full employment. Keynes’s vision has been distorted by mainstream Keynesians to mean that it is the warts on the body of capitalism, not capitalism itself, that are the problem: frictions and imperfections and rigidities may interfere with the mechanism for self-regulation that inheres in the perfectly competitive model. This distortion has two supposed corollaries, first, that the more the economy resembles the textbook model of perfect competition, the less likely are lapses from full employment; second, that since imperfections are limited to the short run, so are lapses from full employment.Keynes was unable to convince the economics profession that the problem is capitalism; that the warts, real though they are, obscure a more fundamental problem. The reason is that Keynes lacked the mathematical tools to substantiate his vision. This paper deploys tools that were unavailable to Keynes, in order to lay the foundations of a Keynesian macroeconomics for the 21st century. Keywords: Keynes, Dynamic vs static models, Flexprice adjustment, Fixprice adjustment, JEL codes: B22, B41, E12

  14. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  15. Sharing data under the 21st Century Cures Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mary A; Guerrini, Christi J; Bollinger, Juli M; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    On 13 December 2016, President Obama signed the 21st Century Cures Act ("the Act") into law. Many of its provisions support the creation of an "Information Commons," an ecosystem of separate but interconnected initiatives that facilitate open and responsible sharing of genomic and other data for research and clinical purposes. For example, the Act supports the National Institutes of Health in mandating data sharing, provides funding and guidance for the large national cohort program now known as All of Us, expresses congressional support for a global pediatric study network, and strengthens patient access to health information. The Act also addresses potential barriers to data sharing. For example, it makes the issuance of certificates of confidentiality automatic for federally funded research involving "identifiable, sensitive" information and strengthens the associated protections. At the same time, the Act exacerbates or neglects several challenges, for example, increasing complexity by adding a new definition of "identifiable" and failing to address the financial sustainability of data sharing and the scope of commercialization. In sum, the Act is a positive step, yet there is still much work to be done before the goals of broad data sharing and utilization can be achieved.

  16. Increasing climate whiplash in 21st century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. L.; Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.; Hall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Temperate "Mediterranean" climate regimes across the globe are particularly susceptible to wide swings between drought and flood—of which California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012-2016 to extreme wetness during 2016-2017 provides a dramatic example. The wide-ranging human and environmental impacts of this recent "climate whiplash" event in a highly-populated, economically critical, and biodiverse region highlight the importance of understanding weather and climate extremes at both ends of the hydroclimatic spectrum. Previous studies have examined the potential contribution of anthropogenic warming to recent California extremes, but findings to date have been mixed and primarily drought-focused. Here, we use specific historical California flood and drought events as thresholds for quantifying long-term changes in precipitation extremes using a large ensemble of multi-decadal climate model simulations (CESM-LENS). We find that greenhouse gas emissions are already responsible for a detectable increase in both wet and dry extremes across portions of California, and that increasing 21st century "climate whiplash" will likely yield large increases in the frequency of both rapid "dry-to-wet" transitions and severe flood events over a wide range of timescales. This projected intensification of California's hydrological cycle would seriously challenge the region's existing water storage, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure—even absent large changes in mean precipitation.

  17. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-03-18

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  18. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  19. Rethinking Approaches to Strategic Stability in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a two-day conference on rethinking approaches to strategic stability in the 21st century on October 20-21, 2016 in Livermore, CA. The conference was jointly convened by Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and was held in partnership with the United States Department of State’s Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance. The conference took place at LLNL’s Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) and included a range of representatives from U.S. government, academic, and private institutions, as well as representatives from U.S. allies in Europe and Asia.The following summary covers topics and discussions from each of the panels. It is not intended to capture every point in detail, but seeks to outline the range of views on these complex and inter-related issues while providing a general overview of the panel topics and discussions that took place. The conference was held under the Chatham House rule and does not attribute any remarks to any specific individual or institution. The views reflected in this report do not represent the United States Government, Department of State, or the national laboratories.

  20. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  1. Mega-History and the 21st century singularity puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akop P. Nazaretyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of calculations carried out independently by the Australian, Russian and American re- searchers have demonstrated that a crucial global polyfurcation is expected near the middle of the 21st century. This result is drawn by extrapolating into the future the logarithmic acceleration law, which involves the phase transitions in the evolution of biosphere and anthroposphere. The paper investigates the palliatives of the planetary civilization beyond the big evolutionary Singularity in the context of Mega-history and complexity theory worldviews. It gives the mathematical deduction a universal ground and besides, helps involve some recent discoveries in psychology and cultural anthropology to tracing the forecasting attractors and scenarios. The destiny of the Earth (as well as any other planetary civilization may conclusively depend on whether or not the intellectual ac- tor succeeds in developing his inner regulation to balance the potentially unlimited developments in technological power. Particularly, this includes overcoming the macro-group identities, religious and quasi-religious ideologies, which always suggest a friend-or-foe discrimination matrix.

  2. The 21st Century Cures Act: pharmacoeconomic boon or bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to entry in healthcare markets constitute one of the overriding concerns of health economists. The recent enactment of the 21st Century Cures Act in the United States reduces statutory entry barriers to the discovery, development, testing, and licensing of drugs and medical devices. Drug and device makers also see the burdensome and time-consuming requirements of the Food and Drug Administration?s approval process as key barriers to lowering the costs of their products, considering it takes a decade of research amounting to $1 billion just to bring a single drug to the market. Along with novel opportunities for medical product innovation and faster treatment of diseases, the expedited approval process carries with it contentious challenges involving the safety, efficacy and value of drugs and devices. The ensuing trade-offs and unintended consequences of such a regulatory game-changer bring to the fore one of the most enduring debates between medicine and economics: Whether - or to what extent - cost and efficiency factors affect clinical inquiry into possible solutions to human illnesses. The practical and theoretical contributions of pharmacoeconomics should enlighten contemporary and future issues and discussions surrounding the implementation of this landmark legislation. After all, despite its undeniably good intent and far-reaching significance, no law can ever be perfect.

  3. Risk Assessment in the 21st Century | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the past ~50 years, risk assessment depended almost exclusively on animal testing for hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Originally sound and effective, with increasing dependence on chemical tools and the number of chemicals in commerce, this traditional approach is no longer adequate. This presentation provides an update on current progress in achieving the goals outlined in the NAS report on Toxicology Testing in the 21st Century, highlighting many of the advances lead by the EPA. Topics covered include the evolution of the mode of action framework into a chemically agnostic, adverse outcome pathway (AOP), a systems-based data framework that facilitates integration of modifiable factors (e.g., genetic variation, life stages), and an understanding of networks, and mixtures. Further, the EDSP pivot is used to illustrate how AOPs drive development of predictive models for risk assessment based on assembly of high throughput assays representing AOP key elements. The birth of computational exposure science, capable of large-scale predictive exposure models, is reviewed. Although still in its infancy, development of non-targeted analysis to begin addressing exposome also is presented. Finally, the systems-based AEP is described that integrates exposure, toxicokinetics and AOPs into a comprehensive framework. For the past ~50 years, risk assessment depended almost exclusively on animal testing for hazard identification and dose-response as

  4. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  5. Nuclear fuel concept for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Schoessow, G.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous paper, the author presented his rationale for the fuel cycle for the 21st century. This cycle, driven by both environmental and economic factors, required that the fuel should be able to operate in a range from 90 000 MWd/tonne of heavy metal and above. Such an operation would require the development of a cladding material that would not undergo waterside corrosion at these ultrahigh burnups. The University of Florida is proposing a new fuel arrangement that the authors feel meets the demands of high burnup and provides a safer fuel assembly. It is believed that the liquid-metal bond concept combined with a silicon carbide composite cladding and the collapsible fission gas plenum offers outstanding potential for ultrahigh burnup fuels while providing a potentially ultrasafe reactor operation. Efforts at various facilities are under way to determine the radiation stability of silicon carbide fuel and to fabricate SiC materials that will provide the radiation stability needed. Other parameters offer strong incentives to successfully develop silicon carbide as a cladding material

  6. Korean nuclear reactor strategy for the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byong Whi; Shin, Young Kyun

    1991-01-01

    The system analysis for Korean nuclear power reactor option is made on the basis of reliability, cost minimization, finite uranium resource availability and nuclear engineering manpower supply constraints. The reference reactor scenarios are developed considering the future electricity demand, nuclear share, current nuclear power plant standardization program and manufacturing capacity. The levelized power generation cost, uranium requirement and nuclear engineering professionals demand are estimated for each reference reactor scenarios and nuclear fuel cycle options from the year 1990 up to the year 2030. Based on the outcomes of the analysis, uranium resource utilization, reliability and nuclear engineering manpower requirements are sensitive to the nuclear reactor strategy and associated fuel cycle whereas the system cost is not. APWR, CANDU: FBR strategy is to be the best option for Korea. However, APWR, CANDU: Passive Safe Reactor (PSR) vFBR strategy should be also considered as a contingency for growing national concerns on nuclear safety and public acceptance deterioration in the future. FBR development and establishment of related fuel cycle should be started as soon as possible considering the uranium shortage anticipated between 2007 and 2032. It should be noted that the increasing use of nuclear energy to minimize the greenhouse effects in the early 21st century would accelerate the uranium resource depletion. The study also concludes that the current level of nuclear engineering professionals employment is not sufficient until 2010 for the establishment of nuclear infrastructure. (Author)

  7. World energy strategies into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In mid-1990s, tighter oil supply and firmer and higher price will be projected due to the declining production in non-OPEC countries. The OPEC members have the oil production capacity of 30 million barrels a day, but last year, OPEC produced 17 million barrels a day. World oil demand was down about 600,000 barrels a day due primarily to the continued substitution with natural gas, coal and nuclear power. The conclusion of the UK coal strike also contributed to the drop of the demand for residual fuel oil. Economic growth was too sluggish to offset the substitution effect. The crude oil production from non-OPEC sources has increased, but low price will reverse the trend of non-OPEC production. Energy supply will be ample to meet the projected demand through the next decade. The annual growth rate of less than 2 % was forecast for the primary energy demand in non-communist world, assuming the economic growth of 3 % a year worldwide. The trend of the use of natural gas, coal and nuclear power is discussed. At the beginning of the 21st century, world energy will be supplied 42 % by oil, 18 % by natural gas, 24 % by coal and 8 % by nuclear power. (Kako, I.)

  8. A reflection on faculty diversity in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, JoAnn

    2017-11-01

    The 21st century is nearly two decades old, and the faculty ranks at our educational institutions remain sparsely diverse. While educational institutions are continually being challenged to increase the diversity of their faculty, progress is slow. This essay offers a perspective on the importance of diversity in our educational institutions as well as on the traditional metrics that our institutions use to evaluate faculty in hiring, promotion, and tenure. I also reflect on how my life experiences as a person of color provided me with the skills needed to succeed as an academic in science and inspired me to dedicate myself to work to increase the representation of women and people of color in science and in our educational institutions to create an inclusive environment for all members of the scientific community. © 2017 Trejo. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Korom, I.; Kis, E.; Varga, J.; Olah, J.; Kemeny, L.; Rasko, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the "ideal candidates"for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  10. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  11. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  12. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  13. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  14. The hateful patient revisited: Relevance for 21st century medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Ulman, Anne-Marie; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    While the practice of medicine has changed over the years, including technological advances, access to medical information, and the narrowing of socio-economic and educational gaps between the clinician and his/her patients, the importance of the doctor-patient relationship has not diminished over time. This can be a very rewarding interaction. However, many physicians experience a great deal of anger, inadequacy and frustration, and much of the actual practice of medicine may become a burden rather than a source of satisfaction. Physicians may encounter a subset of patients who engender strong negative feelings, despair and even downright malice. An understanding of the "hateful patient" can therefore be very informative to the physician. Several categories of such patients may be described, and sensitivity to the phenomenon will lead to improved physician well-being, less self-destructive patient behavior and a lower risk of litigation. Several factors may assist the 21st century physician in managing the "hateful patient" in an empathic manner and in making some sense of why the patient has resorted to negative response patterns. Ultimately, a failure to consider these issues will result in poorer medical care and, no less important, reduced satisfaction of both patients and doctors. The intention of this article is to revisit the concept and to place it in the context of contemporary medical practice.

  15. Legal Aspects of Sleep Medicine in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Hoque, Romy; Collop, Nancy A

    2018-05-08

    Multiple manifestations of sleep disorders may interact with the law making it important to increase awareness of such interactions among clinicians. Patients with excessive sleepiness may have civil (and in some states criminal) liability if they fall asleep while driving and cause a motor vehicle accident. Employers may be held vicariously liable due to the actions of sleepy employees. Hence awareness of causes of excessive sleepiness such as sleep deprivation and OSA is increasing among trucking, railroad, and other safety sensitive occupations. Interestingly, litigation related to perioperative complications due to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is more frequent than non-operative issues such as a failure to diagnose OSA. Parasomnia associated sleep-related violence (SRV) represents a challenge to clinicians, as they may be asked to consider parasomnia as a possible contributing, mitigating, or exculpatory factor in criminal proceedings. Clinicians should also familiarize with the legal and regulatory aspects of running an independent sleep laboratory. Sleep telemedicine practice using 21 st century technology has opened novel and unique challenges to existing laws. In this review, we shall cover the most common interactions between sleep disorders and the law including the challenges of excessive sleepiness and driving; other legal issues involving patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and the liabilities associated with parasomnia disorder. We shall also cover some practical legal aspects involving independent sleep laboratories and the field of sleep telemedicine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments: The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes” are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs, which have an independent history of development within a culture; and The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions. Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

  17. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This chapter shows the threat that the T2DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of T2DM is in Saudi Arabia. T2DM is very high in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with T2DM will double in 2030. In the economically advanced countries the increase will be about 50% in 2030. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of T2DM worldwide. The main cause of T2DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity in Europe and USA. In the North America and European Union countries obesity is considered to be responsible for up to 70-90% of T2DM in adult population. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to T2DM is not completely known but it may be related to several biochemical factors such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances.

  19. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  20. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  1. (ICT) and Teacher Education in the 21st Century Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) and Teacher Education in the 21st ... The teacher is one of the most important factors in the business of teaching and ... inadequate facilities as factors that can impair ICT use in teachers training.

  2. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy towards the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    This paper takes a broad look at the current situation surrounding Japanese nuclear power policy and discusses the necessity of nuclear power from the three angles of the Japanese energy policy: energy security, environmental protection, and economic growth. Moreover, the paper examines a set of issues involved in Japanese nuclear power policy and presents guidelines for the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes as we head into the 21st century. (1) Energy security: Nuclear power, which is considered a quasi-home-grown energy, is necessary in Japan in order to turn the fragile energy supply structure into a stable one. In this light, the significance of establishing a nuclear fuel cycle and pressing ahead with research and development on fast breeder reactor technology and nuclear fusion is discussed. (2) Environmental protection: Nuclear power does not produce any greenhouse gas in the power generation process. Thus, nuclear power has a central role to play in order for Japan to achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets agreed upon in the COP3 Kyoto Protocol. Furthermore, the necessity of nuclear power as a means of carrying out measures to arrest global warming not only in the near future but also in the intermediate and distant futures is emphasized. (3) Economic growth: The nuclear power generation system can complete successfully with other power generating technologies in terms of power cost per energy unit. In addition, nuclear power offers many advantages over other forms of energy. For example, the cost of nuclear power is stable because fuel costs account for a smaller percentage of overall costs. Besides these advantages of nuclear power, this paper discusses fast breeder reactors and nuclear fusion as next-generation nuclear energy technologies, both of which are the focus of current research and development efforts. In contrast to the above strengths, the nuclear power industry is confronted by a number of issue that must be solved

  3. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  4. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    to address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  5. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  6. Public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Public support for nuclear energy in the next millennium will depend on the extent to which two essential qualities are exercised now by industry and governments. These qualities are leadership and vision. However, a fear of leadership in supporting nuclear energy afflicts government officials and legislators and many industry stakeholders as well. The paper examines a root cause of this fear of leadership, namely the use of an incomplete and outdated model of public opinion on nuclear energy. The old model leads to the conclusion that expressing support for nuclear energy is politically risky. Yet a new, more complete, model of public opinion on nuclear energy is readily available from the social science research. By underestimating various types of support that exist, the old model causes stakeholders in the industry to believe that their position is unpopular. This may make them reluctant to lead the way in speaking out. Thus, politicians and government officials hear most from a small opposition. Leadership in speaking out and advocating solutions is not sufficient for assuring public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century. Under the umbrella of sustainable development, opinion leaders worldwide are assessing energy sources on the basis of ethical and environmental considerations, not just economics. Leaders in the nuclear industry for years have made a strong case for nuclear energy as a moral imperative, based on the absence of emissions and the preservation of natural resources. This case can and must be developed through active participation in world movements, by listening to all views, and by helping to define what is sustainable and just for future generations. (author)

  7. Preparing for the 21st century: introducing a service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    While China's strong population policy remains unchanged, the State Family Planning (FP) Commission is experimenting with innovations designed to improve service delivery and promote gender equity. China entered demographic transition with a large population base which obviated the luxury of achieving the transition gradually over time. Because mortality rates have dropped dramatically and there is a large cohort of people of reproductive age, China adds 14-15 million people to its population each year. Were it not for the FP program, China's current population of 1.2 billion would be about 300 million higher. Economic reform has meant that most Chinese people have their basic needs met and can strive to improve the quality of their lives. These same reforms have weakened the collective systems of financing reproductive health systems, however, and new systems of local support must be found. China's Agenda 21, which sets goals for the 21st century, cites the education of girls and women as a key step to achieving a sustainable population size. In addition to an emphasis on reproductive health, China is initiating programs in adolescent health, sex education, and AIDS prevention. China's National FP Program for 1995-2000 emphasizes these changes and identifies a strong information, education, and communication component as a priority. Innovations, such as a participatory approach to training grassroots workers in interpersonal skills and counseling, are being field tested as a preliminary step toward full implementation. Training workshops are also being held to prepare FP leaders to uphold FP laws and protest the rights of the public.

  8. Re-architecting oral healthcare for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Vivek; Yamamoto, John; Yale, Kenneth

    2018-07-01

    The convergent forces of rising costs, growing consumerism, expensive new treatments, sociodemographic shifts and increasing health disparities are exerting intense and unsustainable pressures on healthcare systems. As with the other health domains, these disruptive forces demand new approaches and delivery models for oral healthcare. Technological innovations and practices borrowed from the e-commerce and tech sectors could facilitate the move to a sustainable 21st century oral healthcare system, one that delivers high-quality, value-based care to wider groups of patients. The broad reach of mobile technologies and changing digital lifestyles provide unique opportunities for using remote monitoring and self-care tools to reinforce preventive oral hygiene behaviours. By leveraging big data analytics and insights gleaned from the use of sensor-enabled oral care devices, providers will be able to engage patients more effectively and deliver timely, personalized behavioural nudges to support optimal oral health. Dental insurers and payers will need to reinvent their business models to incentivize dental providers and patients who embrace the digital-dentistry paradigm. This could involve increasing reimbursements for mHealth-delivered preventive dental services and holding individuals accountable for behaviours that put them at higher risk for dental disease. While Dentistry 1.0 was defined largely by the treatment of established dental disease, Dentistry 2.0 portends a new era of patient-centric, technology-enabled, outcomes-driven, and prevention-focused oral healthcare delivery with significant individual, provider and societal benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-Lived Digital Data Collections Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Collections: Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century40 LoNG-LiVED DiGiTAL DATA CoLLECTioNS AND LARGE FACiLiTiES Workshop participants drew...Long-Lived Digital Data Collections: Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century NSB-05-40 Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Long-Lived Digital Data Collections Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. A Scale Development for 21st Century Skills of Primary School Students: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, S. Dilek Belet; Atalay, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a measurement tool to assess 21st Century learning and innovation skills of primary school students. Study data was collected from 632 fourth grade students in five different primary schools during 2014-2015 academic year and data obtained from 609 fourth grade students were utilized in the study.…

  11. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…

  12. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  13. When Will We Ever Learn? The After Action Review, Lessons Learned and the Next Steps in Training and Educating the Homeland Security Enterprise for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    such as emergent learning , experiential learning , and sense-making. It then ties these theories and concepts together into an emergency learning ...edition, loc. 3409–3414. 107 David Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice...shows us that our theory needs developing again. And the process continues. Fundamental in the Kolb model is the role of action in any learning

  14. Sustainability: The Next 21st Century Workplace Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    At Virginia Beach City Public Schools (VBCPS), the three pillars of sustainability--environmental, economical and social--are very much on the minds of educators and administrators. It is so much that the school system has selected sustainability as one of its 21-century skills--one that all 68,751 students in the system must learn. This selection…

  15. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  16. World Future Mapping and Scenarios for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vareikis Egidijus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to describe the methods of future studies, its possibilities and limitations, as well as to make some predictions about the real picture of the development of the 21st century. However, the planning is still not very reliable, and far from a “road map” framework. Thus, future studies are still balancing between science and scientific/artistic fiction. The set of methods of future investigation permits one to compose a few or even up to dozens of medium term or long term scenarios of the world’s future. There are a few well-proven laws of social and economic development as well as some partially predictable phenomena in the area of environment, biology, human ethic, etc. No future planning is secure from unpredictable phenomena – “black swans” – and their impact, nor secure from “political decisions” that destroy natural developments in society. So no one scenario can pretend to be absolutely right. The most frequent future scenarios are based on the wish to implement a copy of an existing “happy nation”, to fight undesirable trends, and create some kind of “dream society” while stimulating positives and inhibiting negative trends. The final version of a scenario depends also upon the “human factors”, e.g. knowledge, stereotypes of thinking, as well as the wishes of those who are financing the project. Generally they are “happy end” projects. This makes scenarios rather useless. Only the independent experts that present more realistic and reliable scenarios can help in the planning of medium term and long term futures. Currently many scenarios foresee the so-called American or European way of development, which is in fact the continuation of the existing world order. There is a growing number of publications about the emergence of China (and Russia as a great power as well as possibilities of a New Caliphate, New Messiah or new Orwellian style regimes.

  17. Cancer risk among 21st century blood transfusion recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T O; Cairns, B J; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Beral, V

    2017-02-01

    Some carcinogenic viruses are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. Intensive viral screening of transfused blood now exists in most countries. In the UK, high-sensitivity nucleic acid amplification tests for hepatitis C virus were introduced in 1999 and it was thought that this would reduce, and possibly eliminate, transfusion-related liver cancer. We aimed to investigate cancer risk in recipients of blood transfusion in 2000 or after. A total of 1.3 million UK women recruited in 1998 on average were followed for hospital records of blood transfusion and for cancer registrations. After excluding women with cancer or precancerous conditions before or at the time of transfusion, Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks of 11 site-specific cancers for women with compared to without prior blood transfusion. During follow up, 11 274 (0.9%) women had a first recorded transfusion in 2000 or after, and 1648 (14.6%) of them were subsequently diagnosed with cancer, a mean 6.8 years after the transfusion. In the first 5 years after transfusion there were significant excesses for most site-specific cancers examined, presumably because some had preclinical cancer. However, 5 or more years (mean 8 years) after blood transfusion, there were significant excess risks only for liver cancer (adjusted relative risk = 2.63, 95%CI 1.45-4.78) and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (adjusted relative risk = 1.74, 1.21-2.51). When analyses were restricted to those undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, the commonest procedure associated with transfusion, these relative risks were not materially altered. In a large cohort of UK women, transfusions in the 21st century were associated with long-term increased risks of liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Some of these malignancies may have been caused by carcinogenic agents that are not currently screened for in transfused blood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society

  18. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  19. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  20. Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory angle. ... a team is about understanding human relation, that is, the manager understanding the ... The problem ranges from membership isolation to lack of communication and ...

  1. 21st century skills needed by students in technical and vocational education and training (TVET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Reeve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Those involved in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET must properly prepare their students to live and work in the 21st Century. This preparation includes providing students with a solid knowledge and skills in the discipline being studied and developing instruction based on contemporary educational thinking and practices. It also means providing them with important skills needed in 21st Century. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to important and “key” 21st Century Skills that the author believes are needed by students enrolled in TVET programs and to provide suggestions on how to build these skills into TVET programs. In this paper, the following “key” 21st Century Skills were reviewed: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM; Problem-Solving; and the Four 4Cs: Critical Thinking, Communication, Collaboration, & Creativity.

  2. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  3. New frontiers of nuclear physics in 21st century--a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunjin

    2000-01-01

    Different opinions about prospects of the development of nuclear physics in the 21st century are displayed, and indicating great opportunities and challenges faced by nuclear physicists in the future are analyzed in detail

  4. Who will keep the public healthy?: educating public health professionals for the 21st century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebbie, Kristine M; Rosenstock, Linda; Hernandez, Lyla M

    2003-01-01

    ...? Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? provides an overview of the past, present, and future of public health education, assessing its readiness to provide the training and education needed to prepare men and women to face 21st century challenges...

  5. A 21st Century Navy Vision: Motivating Sailors to Achieve Maximum Warfighting Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, John

    2001-01-01

    ... the organization to provide a flexible mix of enhanced motivators to the 21st Century warriors. This manuscript begins with a review of motivational theory before launching into an assessment of today's Navy...

  6. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  7. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    2007-01-01

    as with NSAIDs also represent newer technological developments of the 21st century. What started out as drugs to control inflammation, pain and fever in the last two centuries now has exploded to reveal an enormous range and type of anti-inflammatory agents and discovery of new therapeutic targets to treat a whole range of conditions that were never hitherto envisaged.

  8. Geometric Calculus -- Engineering Mathematics for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    HITZER, Eckhard MS

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats important questions at the interface of mathmatics and the engineering science. It starts off with a quick quotation tour through 2300 years of mathmatical history. At the beginning of the 21 century,technology has developed beyond every expectation. But do we also learn and practice an adequately modern form of mathmatics? The papaer argues that this role is very likely to be played by universal geometric calculus. The fundamental geometric product of vectors is introduced....

  9. Results from the INMM International Workshop on Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Chris A.; Tolk, Keith M.; Keel, Frances; LaMontagne, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) held an International Workshop on 'Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century' on June 6-11, 2010 at the Oak National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The National Nuclear Security Administration Offices of Non-proliferation Research and Development and Office of Nuclear Safeguards sponsored the event. The workshop focused on determining concepts and needs for 21st century containment and surveillance (C/S) systems that support International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards and future arms control agreements. Panel discussions from subject matter experts and international practitioners provided the daily topical theme of the following areas of C/S: authentication, tagging, sealing, containment verification, and surveillance systems. Each panel discussion was followed with a question and answer session with the audience and an afternoon breakout session. The facilitated breakout sessions were used to compile and determine future needs. Individuals attending the workshop included C/S experts and practitioners; IAEA and arms control inspectors, technology providers, vendors, students and individuals with an interest in or desire to learn about future C/S system needs. The primary goal for the workshop was to produce a document that details the future research and development needs for C/S systems that support nuclear safeguards and arms control missions. This paper will present a compilation of the information obtained from breakout sessions at the workshop. (author)

  10. The economic impact of climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The national version of FUND3. 6 is used to backcast the impacts of climate change to the 20th century and extrapolate to the 21st century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water

  11. The challenges of crop production in Nigeria for the 21st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation of Nigeria's fast disappearing wealth of genetic resources as a basis for development of crop idiotypes was seen as a great debt owed to the future generation. Biotechnology, like the Green Revolution of the 20th century, was identified as probably the unfolding revolutionary technology for the 21st century, ...

  12. The politics of plasticity: Sex and gender in the 21st century brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinherenbrink, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The Politics of Plasticity examines how sex and gender are imag(in)ed in the 21st century brain. At the beginning of this century, the idea that the brain is plastic (i.e. that its structure and function change throughout life) began to replace the idea that adult brains are fixed. The claim that

  13. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  14. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  15. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  16. Management Accounting as a Knowledge Based Organization Value Driver for the 21st Century Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraban Marius Costin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century information and information technology revolution has made its mark onclassical business functions like business support services. Management accounting, a still youngbusiness activity has transformed from reactive cost determination focus to proactive valuecreating and considerate resource business driver. Management accounting is on the way toasserting itself as a proactive business value driver for the modern 21st century businessorganizations. The present paper is presenting the arguments that support the transformation ofmanagement accounting from the “bean counter” score keeping role to value driver supported byknowledge, the prime commodity of the 21st century business environment. Managementaccounting is the business partner that delivers reliable and accurate data and information for thebusiness decision process that is more and more influenced globalization, internationalization andaccelerating and dynamic markets. Can modern companies afford to disregard the dormant valuedrivers from within their own business organization?

  17. An Interdisciplinary Approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM to Enhance 21st Century Skills in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chuo Hiong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM is suggested to develop 21st century skills in the Malaysian context. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub discipline skills. Students master factual knowledge of biology and skills of the 21st century simultaneously. The two main teaching and learning strategies applied in BTEM are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning. Students are exposed to real world problems that require them to undergo inquiry processes to discover the inventive solutions. The content knowledge of biology adheres to the Malaysian Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools. The essence of engineering is inventive problem solving. Incorporation of information communication technologies in teaching and learning will be able to fulfil the needs of the current Net Generation. Mathematics plays an important role as computational tools, especially in analysing data. The highlighted 21st century skills in BTEM include digital literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, and spiritual and noble values.

  18. ICT CHALLENGES IN THE 21ST CENTURY BUSINESS ENGLISH UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lustigová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the nature of the study, the objectives of this paper are to demonstrate practical approach to using ICT tools in teaching Business English to university-level students. By offering specific examples for efficient integration of selected technologies within undergraduate classroom the study concentrates on practical and yet motivated solutions to many issues faced by the university teachers and students within the teaching-learning process. The study explores the importance of establishing an authentic business context via the invaluable help of ICT tools. This authentic context facilitates smooth acquisition of language proficiency and multitude of other skills for students’ future career use. Based on actual classroom teaching/research, this study demonstrates that meaningful use of ICT tools allows the 21st century Business English teachers and students to keep pace with the ever-changing business world.

  19. Proceeding of 29th domestic symposium on computational science and nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    As the 29th domestic symposium of Atomic Energy Research Committee, the Japan Welding Engineering Society, the symposium was held titled as Computational science and nuclear energy in the 21st century'. Keynote speech was delivered titled as 'Nuclear power plants safety secured by computational science in the 21st century'. Three speakers gave lectures titled as 'Materials design and computational science', 'Development of advanced reactor in the 21st century' and 'Application of computational science to operation and maintenance management of plants'. Lectures held panel discussion titled as 'Computational science and nuclear energy in the 21st century'. (T. Tanaka)

  20. TEACHER EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES FOR HOLISTIC QUALITY AND RELEVANT TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Wambui Njui

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on selected pedagogical practices with a view to making recommendations on how teacher training colleges in Kenya could employ collaborative pedagogies in instruction in order to nurture teacher trainees with knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that prepare them to effectively facilitate learning in schools after pre-service training. Collaborative pedagogies have the advantage of developing learners with 21st century skills such as creativity, critical think...

  1. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  2. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.; Battisti, D. S.; Beachy, R. N.; Cooper, P. J M; Fischhoff, D. A.; Hodges, C. N.; Knauf, V. C.; Lobell, D.; Mazur, B. J.; Molden, D.; Reynolds, M. P.; Ronald, P. C.; Rosegrant, M. W.; Sanchez, P. A.; Vonshak, A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century's demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact

  3. Developing Operational Leaders for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prickett, Shawn

    2003-01-01

    .... This will not change as we transform our military throughout the 21th Century. The development of operational leaders will continue to be a significant challenge for our military in the coming years...

  4. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    2010-02-11

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Rites of Passage, Aboriginal Education and Learning for the 21st Century: Walkabout as a Radical-and Workable-Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blane DESPRS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Walkabout Program is an alternative and experiential learning practice that helps students to develop necessary skills for authentic learning and real world preparation through the completion of six learning passages. This aboriginal-based program celebrates the vital transition-or passage-from adolescence to adulthood. The six learning passages include philosophical, practical, emotional/physical/spiritual challenge, career exploration, community/global response, and creative endeavour. Although its primary focus is to challenge First Nations educators to rethink status quo schooling, the Program has equally beneficial opportunities for all students.

  6. Innovative Methodologies for 21st Century Learning, Teaching and Assessment: A Convenience Sampling Investigation into the Use of Social Media Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The advent of the Web as a social technology has created opportunities for the creation of informal learning environments, which have potential for innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment. However, as Wolfe (2001) admonishes, "contrary to the rhetoric of cheerleaders, the Web places greater demands on students than…

  7. Thermal power - emerging scenario in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, Keshav

    2000-01-01

    The developing countries have to ensure that their development in the new millennium is supported by a strong infrastructure to meet the challenges of this century where survival would be of the fittest. In India, globalization of economy will be the main thrust in this century. Today self reliance and determination is needed to develop, adopt and implement new technologies which are more efficient and eco-friendly. The economy of the country calls for a higher rate of growth in the power infrastructure. To ensure the momentum of 7 per cent overall growth in the economy, India need about 12-14 per cent growth in power generation. In power sector, selection of resources, systems, fuel options and appropriate technology would be major determinants that will decide the success for sustained development in the new century

  8. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  9. Public libraries in the 21 st century: issues for concern in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues surrounding the establishment and development of public libraries in Nigeria are captured in this piece of writing. The paper particularly discusses the origin and growth of public libraries, objectives and role of public libraries in Nigeria. It further looked at public libraries in the 21st century; problems and prospects of ...

  10. Webquest 2.0: Best Practices for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, WebQuests have grown in popularity in educational environments. In order to effectively implement a WebQuest in the classroom, best pedagogical practices must be employed; however, these best WebQuest practices should reflect the exigent 21st century skills students need to be successful, productive members of the global…

  11. Evolving Technologies Require Educational Policy Change: Music Education for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renee

    2013-01-01

    There is growing discussion among education and government authorities on rethinking education in the 21st century. This increasing area of interest has come in response to the evolution of technology and its effect on the future needs and requirements of society. Online applications and social networking capabilities have accelerated in…

  12. The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Ester; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; de Haan, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Innovation starts with people, making the human capital within the workforce decisive. In a fast-changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digital skills drive organizations' competitiveness and innovation capacity. Although such skills are seen as crucial, the digital aspect integrated with

  13. Radiation curing--new technology of green industries facing 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianguo; Teng Renrui

    2000-01-01

    The development of radiation curing was simply reviewed and the mechanism of UV curing and EB curing, the equipment and materials used in the radiation curing were also introduced. Compared with ordinary curing, the radiation curing has advantages of energy saving, high effectiveness and little pollution. It is a new technology of green industries facing the 21st century

  14. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...... Rein•Hagen’s cultural historical significance....

  15. Special issue: engineering toxins for 21st-century therapies: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-12-01

    This special issue on 'Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies' provides a critical review of the current state of multifaceted aspects of toxin research by some of the leading researchers in the field. It also highlights the clinical potential and challenges for development of novel biologics based on engineered toxin derived products. © 2011 The Author Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  16. California Energy Systems for the 21st Century 2016 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boutelle, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weed, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-25

    The California Energy Systems for the 21st Century (CES-21) Program is a public-private collaborative research and development program between the California Joint Utilities1 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this annual report is to provide the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC or Commission) with a summary of the 2016 progress of the CES-21 Program.

  17. Propaganda Art from the 20th to the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study by artist Jonas Staal explores the development of propaganda art from the 20th to the 21st century. Staal defines propaganda as the performance of power by means of the equation propaganda = power + performance. Through his work as a propaganda researcher and practice as a

  18. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the United States Department of Agriculture...

  19. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the United States Department of Agriculture...

  20. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  1. Panel - Ethics in modern universities of technology : Challenges of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hills, Penelope; Hillerbrand, Rafaela; Rip, Arie; Sunderland, Mary; Taebi, Behnam; Werker, Claudia; Wineberg, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of the 21st century will fully reflect on universities of technology. The world population is growing while we pursue higher levels of global well-being. The increasing energy demands and the resulting problems of climate change will be only two of the many major challenges humanity

  2. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  3. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  4. Early 21st century spatially detailed elevation changes of Jammu and Kashmir glaciers (Karakoram–Himalaya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of studies indicate the regional heterogeneity of the glacier elevation and mass changes in high-mountain Asia in the early 21st century, little is known about these changes with high spatial detail for some of the regions. In this study we present respective glacier elevation a...

  5. Love, Peace, and Wisdom in Education: A Vision for Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Author Jing Lin contends that there is a great need for educators to reconceptualize education in the 21st century. Here, she discusses the danger of global wars, environmental breakdown, moral vacuum and nihilism in society, and the problems in current debates on school reform. This book calls for a school that facilitates the formation of a…

  6. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raquel A.; Burgess, Neil David; Cabeza, Mar

    2012-01-01

    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate...

  7. A Genealogy of the "Future": Antipodean Trajectories and Travels of the "21st Century Learner"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn; Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, from the particular positioning of educational researchers working in Australia, we unpack the figure of the "21st century learner" from both broad and specific perspectives. The paper begins with a policy genealogy that traces this figure through networks of documents, events and bodies that transcend borders and…

  8. Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century--Framing the Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Amelia M.; Powers, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, the guest editors of the EPAA Special Issue on "Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century": a) introduce the background, history, and context of community colleges in the larger higher education landscape; b) summarize the three research papers and two video commentaries that were…

  9. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  10. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  11. A Study on establishment of air preservation policy strategy in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Kyu; Yoon, Jung Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    For the air preservation and entire global environmental preservation in 21st century, it was implemented as a pre-work to maintain clean and clear air quality and to prepare a preventive air preservation policy. This study was focused on proposing the basic strategy of air preservation policy by deriving problems and evaluating actual results. 34 refs., 2 figs., 43 tabs.

  12. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savickas, M.L.; Nota, L.; Rossier, J.; Dauwalder, J.P.; Duarte, M.E.; Guichard, J.; Soresi, S.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially

  13. Dream of petroleum and petrochemical industries in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kaoru; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Yoshizumi, Satoshi; Ishida, Kazufumi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Hiroteru; Nagaoka, Takenori

    1988-10-01

    This paper summarizes the symposium held on June 6, 1988 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Petroleum Society. The themes discussed are as follows: (1) The oil crisis was a common experience. (2) Petroleum resources will be available by the middle 21st century. (3) The crude oil market will be led by OPEC again. (4) The petroleum demand will remain unchanged because of increase in developing countries and reduction in developed countries. (5) The development of alternative energy will be the key to the third oil crisis. (6) The combination of batch and flow processes is a key to refinery technology. (7) Low-cost refinery technology should be used in response to product import. (8) The main products will still be gasoline and kerosene also in the 21st century. (9) New petroleum refinery technology will focus on separation and reaction under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions. (10) Diversification in material will change petrochemistry. (11) Polymers in the 21st century will be multi-functional. (12) Outlook and dream for the 21st century.

  14. The Significance of Dewey's "Democracy and Education" for 21st-Century Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of Dewey's "Democracy and Education" for "21st-century education," a term used by proponents of curricular standardization and digital ubiquity in classrooms. Though these domains have distinct advocacy groups, they often share similar assumptions about the primary purposes of schooling as…

  15. From Engagement to Ecotone: Land-Grant Universities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John Seely; Pendleton-Jullian, Ann; Adler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the country's land-grant colleges and universities will celebrate their sesquicentennial. This anniversary provides a good opportunity to consider how these distinctively American institutions have evolved over the past 150 years and how well they are doing today in preparing students for the 21st century. Resilience will be a key…

  16. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation are necessary for the 21st Century. The economy and the forums of international business and globalization demand skilled workers. Some schools in the United States are producing such workers, however it is unclear the programs and practices these schools utilize. This study…

  17. The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Ester; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; de Haan, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Innovation starts with people, making the human capital within the workforce decisive. In a fast-changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digital skills drive organizations' competitiveness and innovation capacity. Although such skills are seen as crucial, the digital aspect integrated with

  18. African languages and the identity question in the 21st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the features of this development is the de-ethicising of citizenship around the notion of an inclusive South-Africanship. An increased use of English as lingua franca in public domains raises questions about the position of African languages in the 21st century, given the likelihood that the developing scenario is not in ...

  19. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  20. Tox21: Putting a Lens on the Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the release of the NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, a Vision and Strategy" (NRC, 2007), two NIH institutes and EPA formed a collaboration (Tox21) to 1) identify mechanisms of chemically induced biological activity, 2) prioritize chemicals for mo...

  1. Smartphones and Other Mobile Devices: The Swiss Army Knives of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Alan

    2004-01-01

    MIAD stands for "mobile Internet access device." MIADs are the Swiss Army knives of the 21st century; they help users perform specific tasks in specific situations (including academic tasks in academic situations), thereby making users smarter and more productive. There are, however, significant obstacles to their effective use in higher…

  2. Race to the future: Integrating 21st century skills into science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio Duran; Daniel Yaussy; Leslie Yaussy

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show The Amazing Race. It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and use...

  3. 21st-Century Literacies, Critical Media Pedagogies, and Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In the second decade of the 21st century, information has been globalized, digitized, and sped up to move at the speed of thought. Being literate in this new world means programming personal websites, sending e-mails from mobile devices and spending hours communicating via virtual social networks. Our students are products of this world. However,…

  4. Career counselling in the 21st century: South African institutions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current state of career counselling1 in South African institutions of higher education in the 21st century is explored in this article in an attempt to locate current work in the field of career counselling in South Africa in the light of global trends (academic and economic) and in terms of local history and current economic ...

  5. CONNECT: Linking Energy, Security, and Prosperity in the 21st Century - JISEA 2017 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-02

    This report demonstrates 2016 highlights of the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis' (JISEA's) work. The Annual Report overviews JISEA's research and analysis accomplishments in natural gas and methane emissions; nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems; the 21st Century Power Partnership; and more.

  6. Social Development of 21st Century and Reform of China's Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation. The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society. The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present…

  7. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  8. Above and Beyond: Working Together to Transform Our Colleges for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "Reclaiming the American Dream" is the cornerstone of American Association of Community Colleges's (AACC) 21st-Century Initiative, launched in 2011 with the goal of outfitting an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. In Phase 1 of the initiative, featured was a nationwide "listening…

  9. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner: Comparisons with NETS and State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) have both recently launched new standards. These are known as the "AASL Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "The National Educational Technology Standards for Students: The Next Generation" (NETS). The standards from each…

  10. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  11. Music Education in the 21st Century in the United Kingdom: Achievements, Analysis and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan, Ed.; Creech, Andrea. Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of music education in the UK is constantly shifting and developing. This book provides a timely and unique overview of this restless sector by considering the achievements of music education, analysing its current performance and setting out aspirations for the future. "Music Education in the 21st Century in the United…

  12. Show Me the Money Resources: Financial Literacy for 21st-Century Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavigan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Some economists have called the current U.S. economic environment the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Many educators and parents believe it is more important than ever for students to master financial literacy skills. To become successful and responsible 21st century citizens, students need to graduate globally competitive for…

  13. A Vision and Strategy:Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides an introduction and overview for a series of five papers resulting from a SETAC Pellston Workshop titled A Vision and Strategy for Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century: Defining Adverse Outcome Pathways Associated with Ecological Risk. It proposes...

  14. 75 FR 36062 - Notice of Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... second panel on criminal procedure will involve a discussion of enforcement policy involving the... Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century AGENCY: United States Patent and... United States Government enforcement policy regarding counterfeit goods involving health and safety...

  15. Making perfect life : bio-engineering (in) the 21st century : interim study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van R.; Keulen, van I.; Geesink, I.; Schuiff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reportnumber: PE 438.829; This document is the result of the preparatory phase of the STOA-project "Making perfect life", that defined the project focus. This resulted in the study document Making Perfect Life: Bio-engineering (in) the 21st century. A project plan for the next two phases was

  16. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing

  17. The 21st Century Writing Program: Collaboration for the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the literature on theoretical frameworks, best practices, and conceptual models for the 21st century collegiate writing program. Methods include electronic database searches for recent and historical peer-reviewed scholarly literature on collegiate writing programs. The author analyzed over 65 sources from…

  18. Capitalism and the New World Order of the 21st Century Age | Ugwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Post-Cold War Capitalists'-based Vision here being called a 'New World Order', especially, in its current practices, as it has been imposed on the rest of the world by the G8 nations and assisted by the World Bank, IMF, United Nations, WTO and NATO, is a 21st Century Imperialist Rule constantly being communicated to ...

  19. "What Have the Humanities to Offer 21st-Century Europe?": Reflections of a Note Taker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Humanities have much to offer 21st-century Europe, in terms of both method and issues which may complement and correct those of Science and Social Science. These include, for instance, humanities' generation of plural narratives and plural explanations, of attention to singularity and complexity, and to others' sensibilities and ways of…

  20. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  1. 21st Century Skills: What Are They and How Do We Assess Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the "hottest" topics in the educational measurement community in the past decade has been the assessment of 21st century skills. This special issue demonstrates work being performed in this realm. The present article provides a context for the four primary articles that follow and a brief but broad view of some models of 21st…

  2. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  3. A Framework for the "Entrepreneurial" Learner of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers-Hild, Connie; King, James W.; Foster, John E.; Fritz, Susan M.; Waller, Steven S.; Wheeler, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Successful distance learners and entrepreneurs may be similar in that they seek out and capitalize on opportunities and marshal resources to achieve their goals. Further, entrepreneurial behavior is a vital asset in the rapidly changing global knowledge economy of the 21 st Century. This paper presents a theoretical framework for examining the…

  4. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  5. A US perspective on nuclear prospects for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to comment upon nuclear prospects in the 21st century, from a US perspective. This will be done in broad, general terms, rather than in the technical terms that nuclear specialists use most of the time

  6. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via

  7. Leadership for Social Justice: Preparing 21st Century School Leaders for a New Social Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, there has been an increased focus on social justice and educational leadership (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks & English, 2008; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; Shoho, Merchang & Lugg, 2005). This paper explores and extends themes in contemporary educational research on leadership preparation in terms of social justice…

  8. Forest ecohydrological research in the 21st century: what are the critical needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Ge Sun; Chelcy Ford; Michael Bredemeier; Kyoichi Ostsuki; Adam Wei; Zhiqiang Zhang; Lu. Zang

    2011-01-01

    Modern ecohydrologic science will be critical for providing the best information to policy makers and society to address water resource challenges in the 21st century. Implicitly, ecohydrology involves understanding both the functional interactions among vegetation, soils, and hydrologic processes at multiple scales and the linkages among upland, riparian, and aquatic...

  9. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  10. Addressing the 21st Century Paradox: Integrating Entrepreneurship in the Computer Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido; Babb, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    The Computer Information Systems (CIS) discipline faces an identity crisis: although demand for CIS graduates is growing, student enrollment is either in decline, or is at least soft or flat in many cases. This has been referred to as the 21st century paradox. As one solution to this problem, we propose to integrate entrepreneurship in the CIS…

  11. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  12. Preparing Preservice Teachers for 21st Century Classrooms: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors about Innovative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mia Kim; Foulger, Teresa S.; Wetzel, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Keeping-up with progressing technology tools has been a troublesome issue for educational technology instructors for over ten years as they endeavor to prepare beginning teachers to integrate technology in their future classrooms. This paper promotes instructors' ideas about behaviors of 21st century teachers, and explores efforts to support their…

  13. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at dewey.info>; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  14. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  15. Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting Corruption in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... The thrust of the paper is that corruption and indiscipline exemplified in social and political vices constitute obstacles for integrated national development, and that social studies as a subject has a role to play ...

  16. Experiences of Texas Public School Communication Directors in the 21st Century: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sonja A.

    2017-01-01

    Communication directors have become part of public school districts' administrative framework in the 21st century. Maintaining a social media presence and satisfying stakeholders' expectations for current, up-to-date, and accurate information have increased the need for superintendents to employ a public relations professional. The purpose of this…

  17. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…

  18. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  19. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katitia, David Melita Ole

    2015-01-01

    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  20. Staying human in the 21st century : thinking beyond human enhancement technologies inside the body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van Q.C.; Schuijff, M.; Boer, de T.; Fischer, R.

    2013-01-01

    The debate on human enhancement has focused so far on invasive biomedical technologies that work inside the body. To fully address the question of what does it mean to be human in the 21st century, we should also pay attention to a broad range of technologies that work outside the body, but still

  1. The Transformation of Evaluation into a Collaboration: A Vision of Evaluation in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation in the 21st century will be characterized by critical and collaborative relationships, and citizens will include a basic knowledge of evaluation as part of their democratic literacy skills. Funders, program, staff, and participants will acquire the capacity to monitor and assess critical aspects of their own performance. (SLD)

  2. Training the 21st Century Voice Teacher: An Overview and Curriculum Survey of the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Ivy

    2014-01-01

    This document examines the current status of voice teacher education in the 21st century, focusing on the undergraduate experience as an important first step, and links that experience to current trends in pedagogical training as a whole. This document includes the results of a curriculum survey detailing the undergraduate vocal pedagogy courses…

  3. Aspect of Intergroup Relations in 21st Century Nigeria: Emblem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is on the aspects of intergroup relations in 21st century Nigeria: Emblem of Ethnicity, Religious Fundamentalism and National Security Crisis, 2000-2014. The objective of the paper is to contribute to some existing literature on the state of intergroup relations in Nigeria. Besides, it would provoke further ...

  4. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Voll

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to a long jihad tradition in West Africa. Its emergence follows well-established patterns of older militant Muslim groups, but it also departs significantly from those patterns as it shapes itself as a movement in the patterns of contemporary, twenty-first century modes of religious violence. Boko Haram is also identified, in twenty-first century terms, as a religious terrorist organization. As a religious terrorist group, it fits the pattern of what David Rapoport calls the fourth wave—the religious wave—of modern terrorism. However, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, Boko Haram exhibits characteristics of a new style of religious terrorism that is more like the so-called Islamic State than the older type of terrorist organization of al-Qa’idah.

  5. 21st century librarians and effective information service delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the internet , digitization and the ability to access library and research materials from remote locations have also created dramatic changes by the end of the 20 th century. Ramzan (2004) asserts that developments like expert systems, wireless networks, virtual collections, interactive Web interfaces, virtual reference. 32 ...

  6. Tidal power - a major prospect for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    Tidal power technology is reviewed and its prospects for the next century assessed. It is concluded that the technology is now in place and, given the political will to secure financing, tidal power offers a clean, renewable and sustainable source of power for the near future. (UK)

  7. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  8. TEACHING IN 21ST CENTURY: STUDENTS-TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY USE IN THE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Siti Fatimah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of technology encourages teachers especially who teach English as a foreign language to use it while presenting material and giving instruction in the classroom. Technology, as the newest instructional media developed in this globalization era, presents situation which helps the students to have new authentic and meaningful learning experiences engaging their effort and behavior by providing more fun and effective learning atmosphere. In addition, it provides the opportunity for the students to work collaboratively and easily access the information that can supplement their learning experience. Those benefits become the central part of 21st century education which should be optimized in order to create sophisticated learning immersion and maximize the quality of students in the future. In this research, some media techologies are introduced to one hundred student-teachers having Technology Enhanced Language Learning class. Those media, Prezi as online software presentation, Glogster as visual online poster,Edmodo as online networking application, Toondooas online cartoon strip making and Goanimateas animated video creation, are known as web-based instructional media which  can be used by them to teach English as a foreign language. However, questionnaire and interview are used to obtain the data.  It  aims to investigate their perception while preparing their teaching by using those applications.

  9. Energy in the 21st Century: New Challenges and Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, L.; Mueller, T.; Byam, J.W.; Miremadi, A.; Sinyak, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In the next century energy will remain the pillar of social development and wealth. The demand for energy will continue to increase apace with economic growth in the medium term and population growth in the longer term. In several countries, development planning strategies might also conflict sharply with environmental concerns, thus complicating the implementation of timely environmental protection policy strategies. However, early introduction and deployment of safe and clean technologies c...

  10. Teacher Career Advancement Initiatives: Lessons Learned from Eight Case Studies. Phase II of Creating Sustainable Teacher Career Pathways: A 21st Century Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Catherine Fisk; Gaddis, Lynn; Bassett, Katherine; McKnight, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe what the authors learned from studying eight teacher career advancement initiatives implemented across a variety of contexts, including urban, suburban, and rural districts; high poverty and affluent districts; and in schools/districts both with and without strong union presence. They describe key…

  11. Using Technology in the Languages Classroom from the 20th to the 21st Century: A Literature Review of Classroom Practices and Fundamental Second Language Learning Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the literature related to the use of technology in the languages classroom will be explored. In relation to the teaching and learning methodologies and approaches past and present as well as current research, comparisons are made between the audio-lingual/visual classroom and the digital classroom by way of describing and comparing…

  12. Conceptualizing RTI in 21st-Century Secondary Science Classrooms: Video Games' Potential to Provide Tiered Support and Progress Monitoring for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Beecher, Constance C.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary schools across the United States are adopting response to intervention (RTI) as a means to identify students with learning disabilities (LD) and provide tiered instructional interventions that benefit all students. The majority of current RTI research focuses on students with reading difficulties in elementary school classrooms.…

  13. Information Literacy: Educating Children for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; Senn, J. A.

    This book is about resource-based learning, a means by which educators can teach their students to be lifelong learners. The eight chapters contain information to help students learn how to find, process, and evaluate the information they need to handle the task at hand: (1) "Surviving in an Information Age" examines the information…

  14. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  15. Developing Skills for Youth in the 21st Century: The Role of Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development,…

  16. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO MEET 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES 5a...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO... ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO MEET 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES by

  17. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Self-Assessment of 21st Century Skills at Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandink-de Mare, Dianne; Rusman, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    There are little or none suitable assessment instruments available for 21st century skills at primary school level. Therefore a rubric has been developed and validated for a number of 21st century skills at primary school level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the rubric enabled

  18. 77 FR 48948 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting; Correction... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The notice was published in the Federal Register on August 6...

  19. Liberal Arts: Leadership Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kathy L.; Callahan, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on strategies and processes that integrate leadership learning across institutions. It discusses how leadership education fits a liberal education in various institutional types and operationalizes leadership and liberal arts curricula with five competencies.

  20. Caste in 21st Century India: Competing Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2012-03-12

    Recent debates regarding inclusion of caste in 2011 Census have raised questions about whether caste still matters in modern India. Ethnographic studies of the mid-20th century identified a variety of dimensions along which caste differentiation occurs. At the same time, whether this differentiation translates into hierarchy remains a contentious issue as does the persistence of caste, given the economic changes of the past two decades. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 41,554 households conducted in 2005, this paper examines the relationship between social background and different dimensions of well-being. The results suggest continued persistence of caste disparities in education, income and social networks.

  1. The science eye and scalpel in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, I.

    2004-01-01

    Although the science in the 20th century accomplished remarkable development by discipline, such as science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine, the starting point is man's intellectual appetite, and is the result of many people investigating the strange world by avaricious raw. Although the walk in the world and the help of research which utilize an accelerator and are not visible had been carried out until now, the play heart worked and the future was viewed by natural curiosity with whether it is interesting to see what from now on and to investigate what recently. It decided to arrange this and to tell as science of eye on lookers see more than players. (author)

  2. Aerospace engineering curriculum for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, George J.

    1995-01-01

    The second year of the study was devoted to completing the information-gathering phase of this redesign effort, using the conclusions from that activity to prepare the initial structure for the new curriculum, publicizing activities to a wider engineering forum, and preparing the department faculty (Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at University of Cincinnati) for the roles they will play in the curriculum redesign and implementation. These activities are summarized briefly in this progress report. Attached is a paper resulting from the data acquisition of this effort, 'Educating Aerospace Engineers for the Twenty-First Century: Results of a Survey.'

  3. Anti-gravity: The key to 21st century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The masses coupling constants and cosmological parameters obtained using our discrete and combinatorial physics based on discrimination between bit-strings indicate that we can achieve the unification of quantum mechanics with relativity which had become the goal of twentieth century physics. To broaden our case we show that limitations on measurement of the position and velocity of an individual massive particle observed in a colliding beam scattering experiment imply real, rational commutation relations between position and velocity. Prior to this limit being pushed down to quantum effects, the lower bound is set by the available technology, but is otherwise scale invariant. Replacing force by force per unit mass and force per unit charge allows us to take over the Feynman-Dyson proof of the Maxwell Equations and extend it to weak gravity. The crossing symmetry of the individual scattering processes when one or more particles are replaced by anti-particles predicts both Coulomb attraction (for charged particles) and a Newtonian repulsion between any particle and its anti-particle. Previous quantum results remain intact, and predict the expected relativistic fine structure and spin dependencies. Experimental confirmation of this anti-gravity prediction would inaugurate the physics of the twenty-first century

  4. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear science and technology in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-12-01

    The issues discussed were: Looking on the positive side, despite adverse public reaction, ns and t in general continues to gain followers and users. Nuclear power reactors are still generating electricity and its other peaceful applications are contributing to the development of the socioeconomic sectors of many countries. The network of international as wen as regional cooperation for nuclear safety and agreement for nuclear weapons free zones, among others, should provide the international administrative infrastructure for ns and t to continue serving humanity in the next century. In respect of nuclear power, the Asia and Pacific region is experiencing rapid growth. Its energy needs will increase in the future. At some point, nuclear power may become favorable again as the ability of conventional energy resources to fifflu energy needs decreases and the pressure to reduce environmental burden increases. Within the next century, other regions of the world is expected to be on the same path. The early starters of the West would experience capacity degradation due to aging of their nuclear reactors; this needs to be replaced. If the two coincides, then there would be enough motivation for further development and utilization of ns and t for power production. In the non-power applications, industrialization of countries in the developing regions will create new avenues for nuclear technology to grow. Efforts to demilitarized the technology would create new civilian applications. Again assuming they achieve a synergy, growth of ns and t in the future can be expected.

  6. Nuclear science and technology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    1997-01-01

    The issues discussed were: Looking on the positive side, despite adverse public reaction, ns and t in general continues to gain followers and users. Nuclear power reactors are still generating electricity and its other peaceful applications are contributing to the development of the socioeconomic sectors of many countries. The network of international as wen as regional cooperation for nuclear safety and agreement for nuclear weapons free zones, among others, should provide the international administrative infrastructure for ns and t to continue serving humanity in the next century. In respect of nuclear power, the Asia and Pacific region is experiencing rapid growth. Its energy needs will increase in the future. At some point, nuclear power may become favorable again as the ability of conventional energy resources to fifflu energy needs decreases and the pressure to reduce environmental burden increases. Within the next century, other regions of the world is expected to be on the same path. The early starters of the West would experience capacity degradation due to aging of their nuclear reactors; this needs to be replaced. If the two coincides, then there would be enough motivation for further development and utilization of ns and t for power production. In the non-power applications, industrialization of countries in the developing regions will create new avenues for nuclear technology to grow. Efforts to demilitarized the technology would create new civilian applications. Again assuming they achieve a synergy, growth of ns and t in the future can be expected

  7. The 21st century population-energy-climate nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Glenn A.; Warner, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    World population is projected to reach 10.9 billion by 2100, yet nearly one-fifth of the world's current 7.2 billion live without access to electricity. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to <2 °C. Here we quantify the changes in the global energy mix necessary to address population and climate change under two energy-use scenarios, finding that renewable energy production (9% in 2014) must comprise 87–94% of global energy consumption by 2100. Our study suggests >50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a <2 °C warming scenario, but not until 2054 in an unconstrained energy use scenario. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the <2 °C goal can be met. Focus should be placed on expanding renewable energy as quickly as possible in order to limit warming to 2.5–3 °C. - Highlights: •World population growth, energy scarcity, and climate are interrelated issues. •Non-renewable energy sources are projected to peak around mid-century. •Renewable energy must provide 50+% of total energy by 2028 to maintain <2 °C warming goal. •Renewable energy must provide 87+% of total energy by 2100 regardless of climate concerns.

  8. Developing skills for youth in the 21st century: The role of elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development, alongside the learning of subject content and technical skills. This paper explores the potential of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools to respond to this mandate in China, one of the fastest-growing markets for International Baccalaureate® (IB) schools globally. The authors' research team undertook a multi-site case study of five elite IBDP schools in China. Their findings revealed confidence among interviewees that the IB educational philosophy was conducive to 21st-century skills development, especially through the provision of the three IBDP "Core Requirements", which are Creativity, Action, Service (CAS), Extended Essay (EE) and Theory of Knowledge (TOK). Despite this confidence, concerns remain about the implementation of the IB educational philosophy in the context of IBDP schools in China.

  9. Audience response techniques for 21st century radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael L

    2014-07-01

    Audience response system (ARS) provides an excellent tool for improving interactive learning in radiology residents. However, it is not the technology but the pedagogy that matters the most. It is long past time to upgrade our ARS teaching techniques to match our ARS technology. In this article, several problems with current usage of ARS are discussed and several prescriptions for improving this are presented. Simplifying the ease of use of ARS will get this useful technology into more hands. Using ARS in a bidirectional manner will give us an even better idea of how and what our students are learning. Asking questions on the fly will obviate the usual tedium of multiple-choice questions and allow us to quiz our students in a much more natural manner. It is time to move on to more innovative ARS techniques that are well adapted to radiology and its different styles of learning. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Democracy, cognitive skill, and top 1% income share in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Studies to date have shown that income concentration for the top 1% income share, the super-rich, has increased conspicuously in the 21st century. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how political factors and types of human capital influence income concentration. Using cross-country data from this century, I provide empirical evidence that shows that democracy and cognitive skill are negatively correlated to the top 1% income share.

  11. Towards a 21st century roadmap for biomedical research and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, government institutions, research funding bodies and the corporate and NGO sectors, this consensus report analyses, as case studies, five disease areas with major unmet needs for new treatments. In view of the scientifically driven transition towards a human pathways-based paradigm in toxicology, a similar paradigm shift appears to be justified in biomedical research. There is a pressing need for an approach that strategically implements advanced, human biology-based models and tools to understand disease pathways at multiple biological scales. We present recommendations to help achieve this. To discover and develop new therapies, we need 21-century roadmaps for biomedical research based on multiscale human disease pathways, and supported by policy and funding strategies that prioritise human relevance.

  12. Particle-solid interactions and 21st century materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Lupke, G.; Tolk, N.H.; Lopez, R.; Haglund, R.F.; Haynes, T.E.; Boatner, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic physics that governs the interaction of energetic ion beams with solids has its roots in the atomic and nuclear physics of the last century. The central formalism of Jens Lindhard, describing the 'particle-solid interaction', provides a valuable quantitative guide to statistically meaningful quantities such as energy loss, ranges, range straggling, channeling effects, sputtering coefficients, and damage intensity and profiles. Modern materials modification (nanoscience, solid state dynamics) requires atomic scale control of the particle-solid interaction. Two recent experimental examples are discussed: (1) the control of the size distribution of nanocrystals formed in implanted materials and (2) the investigation of the site-specific implantation of hydrogen into silicon. Both cases illustrate unique solid-state configurations, created by ion implantation, that address issues of current materials science interest

  13. Physician advocacy in Western medicine: a 21st century challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Philip; Barnett, Pauline

    2017-12-01

    Physician advocacy occurs when doctors speak up for the health and healthcare of patients and communities. Historically, this was strong in some Western countries with doctors finding that it enhanced their authority, prestige and power. But it weakened in the 20th century when the biomedical model of heath triumphed and medicine became a dominant profession. In the second part of the 20th century, this dominance was threatened by political, technological and socioeconomic forces. These weakened medicine's state support, brought it under managerial control and undermined the social contract on which trust between doctors and the community was based. Defence of the profession was assumed by medical colleges, societies and associations. They had some success in retaining professional autonomy but did not undertake open advocacy, particularly on social justice issues, and did not therefore enhance their standing in the community. Opinion is divided on the level of advocacy that it is ethically proper for the medical profession to employ. Some contend doctors should only advise authorities when expert opinion is requested. Others contend doctors should speak out proactively on all health issues, and that collective action of this type is a hallmark of professionalism. This lack of consensus needs to be debated. Recent developments such as clinical leadership have not revitalised physician advocacy. However, continued deterioration of the UK National Health Service has led some English medical colleges to take up open advocacy in its defence. It is to be seen whether medical colleges elsewhere follow suit, as and when their healthcare systems are similarly threatened.

  14. Monologue to Dialogue: Education in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Frans Meijers

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that there is a need for a dialogical learning space because soft skills are becoming increasingly important in an ever more unstable labour market. Where once a monological form of education worked to prepare youth for the future, now a dialogue is required. This dialogue, by

  15. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  16. Alignment of Learning Goals, Assessments and Curricula in an Earth Sciences Program to Prepare the Geoscience Workforce for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, recently completed a comprehensive revision of its undergraduate curriculum to meet challenges and opportunities in training the next generation geoscience workforce. The department has 280 undergraduate majors in degree options that include: geology, geography (physical and human), snow science, paleontology and GIS/planning. We used a 'backward design' approach by first considering the profile of a student leaving our program: what should they know and be able to do, in anticipation of professional development for traditional (exploration, environmental, regulatory agencies) and non-traditional (planning, policy, law, business, teaching) jobs or for further training in graduate school. We adopted an Earth system approach to be better aligned with contemporary approaches to Earth science and to demonstrate the connections between sub-disciplines across the curriculum. Learning sequences were designed according to Bloom's Taxonomy to develop higher level thinking skills (starting from observations and progressing to descriptions, interpretations, applications, integration of multiple lines of evidence, synthetic and analytical thinking and evaluation). Central themes are reinforced in multiple classes: history and evolution of the Earth system, composition and architecture of Earth, surface of Earth and the 'critical zone' and human dimensions. The cornerstones of the curriculum are strong background in cognate sciences, geologic 'habits of mind', an emphasis on geologic processes and field instruction. Ancillary learning goals include development of quantitative, communication, and interpersonal skills; use of Earth data and modeling; systems thinking; research and research-like experiences; and applications to societal issues. The first year course of study includes a slate of courses to explore the Earth system, primarily to engage and recruit students to the major. Second year studies are foundational for

  17. Multiculturalism and Diversity in the 21st Century Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MATEI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the present time, the debate regarding European minorities is a problem of high interest. Even if it is a discussion of Basques and Catalans, Turks and Greeks in Cyprus, Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, Hungarians in Romania or genocide in the former Yugoslavia, the matter is high on the agenda. After centuries of confrontations in Europe, the European Union tries to legitimate the issue of national minorities, willing to eliminate any kind of discrimination and to preserve cultural identity. Recommendation 1201/1993 of the Council of Europe intended to draw up an additional protocol on the rights of minorities to the European Convention of Human Rights in order to provide the Council with a suitable mediation instrument.Considering the diversity of peoples and cultures living for centuries within the European space and their important contribution to the cultural development of the European states and civilization, the Recommendation seeks to recognize the rights of persons belonging to a national minority within a state and the international protection of those rights as an aspect of international co-operation, able to end the ethnic, linguistic and religious confrontations, and to guarantee justice, democracy and peace [1]. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the third millennium, the topic of minorities is still an actual one.Antony Alcock’s [2] book, A History of the Protection of Regional Cultural Minorities in Europe (From the Edict of Nantes to the Present Days, is an important study of the main historical events that changed the European approach of the issue of national minorities, providing an original account of the historical foundations of this direction of research. The book is divided in five parts, with seven chapters in total, accompanied by an introductory study, a comprehensive conclusion, two appendixes (one showing the main minorities and the percentage from the total population in 37 European states

  18. Paradigm Shift in Distance Education in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies have been one of a driving force which enables higher education expansion and gives a dynamic structure to the science in the twenty-first century. One of the most effective users of this driving force in higher education is distance education. Previously, distance education was considered to be as a method to ensure equality of opportunity in education, and partly to meet the educational needs of citizens in limited circumstances; today it has undergone an incontrovertible paradigm shift by transforming into an interdisciplinary science field with its functional flexibility, strong technology infrastructure, diversity of programs, innovative teaching approaches and rapidly increasing student numbers. In this study, it is aimed to reveal this paradigm shift with a historical point of view, and the information technology supported rise and paradigm shift of distance education is evaluated by a holistic perspective from different point of views of different perspectives from the studies in literature to the current research topics.

  19. Tasks Facing European Transport Policy in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable rise of Europe following the NapoleonicWars during the early JIY" centwy favouring the spread of therailway systems and- subsequent to this new mode of transport-leading to almost complete industrialisation and urbanisationin the political frame of nation states has suffered severe setbacksduring the 2rJ" century deplorably highlighted by WorldWar I and World War Jl, by various civil wars and the ColdWar, by lwge scale expellations, and substantial alternations ofpolitical borders. At the same time much has changed, toothroughout the extensive continental regions around Europe.Consequently, prospects for future development in the 21" centwydiffer widely. Extraordinary effort is demanded to satisfysocial expectations not known so far avoiding, howeve1~ bothnew warlike conflicts and additional exploitations of the naturalenvironment. To solve this task traffic plays a key role by optimalevaluation of all its modes and by applt:cation of the besttechnical achievements along with stepwise adaptation of theurban settlements which represent the most important locationsof living and working.

  20. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  1. The Indispensability of the Humanities for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A. Habibi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the state of the humanities at this critical time. What will be the role of the humanities at the end of this century and beyond? I discuss the “crisis of the humanities” by examining the current challenges of globalization, economic shifts, and extensive budget cuts. I also discuss the social and political divisions that contribute to a crisis within the humanities. Since the culture wars that began in the 1960’s, the content, scope, and focus of the humanities have changed dramatically, and this has impacted how the humanities are perceived and valued by the general public. The second half of the essay makes the case for the vital importance of the humanities. I argue that the fate of the humanities is inseparable from the future of human beings. I highlight the current problems of war, environmental degradation, and mass surveillance that must be managed before they overwhelm and derail the potential for dramatic progress. Following recent scholarship and research trends, I explain how technological advancements will lead to the most significant evolutionary changes to the human being in aeons. Through technologies such as bionics, transgenesis, robotics, genetic engineering, and artificial intelligence, Homo sapiens might be enabled to transcend its former limits and usher in an era of transhumanism. The relevant question is: What do we want to be? I argue that enhancement technologies will make their beneficiaries more robotic and less human, and explain why we must treasure the advantages of our distinctly human capacities and resist the prospect of empowering ourselves to become automatons. My underlying thesis is that developing an understanding of the most insightful ideas and cultivating an appreciation for the greatest creative works that humankind has produced will be crucial for maintaining our humanity. The humanities thus make a unique and indispensable contribution to defining what and who we want our

  2. Training Pathology Residents to Practice 21st Century Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stephen Black-Schaffer MA, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific advances, open information access, and evolving health-care economics are disrupting extant models of health-care delivery. Physicians increasingly practice as team members, accountable to payers and patients, with improved efficiency, value, and quality. This change along with a greater focus on population health affects how systems of care are structured and delivered. Pathologists are not immune to these disruptors and, in fact, may be one of the most affected medical specialties. In the coming decades, it is likely that the number of practicing pathologists will decline, requiring each pathologist to serve more and often sicker patients. The demand for increasingly sophisticated yet broader diagnostic skills will continue to grow. This will require pathologists to acquire appropriate professional training and interpersonal skills. Today’s pathology training programs are ill designed to prepare such practitioners. The time to practice for most pathology trainees is typically 5 to 6 years. Yet, trainees often lack sufficient experience to practice independently and effectively. Many studies have recognized these challenges suggesting that more effective training for this new century can be implemented. Building on the strengths of existing programs, we propose a redesign of pathology residency training that will meet (and encourage a continuing evolution of American Board of Pathology and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements, reduce the time to readiness for practice, and produce more effective, interactive, and adaptable pathologists. The essence of this new model is clear definition and acquisition of core knowledge and practice skills that span the anatomic and clinical pathology continuum during the first 2 years, assessed by competency-based metrics with emphasis on critical thinking and skill acquisition, followed by individualized modular training with intensively progressive responsibility

  3. Catfish science: Status and trends in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Porath, Mark T.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    Catfish science, the study of the fish order Siluriformes, is a diverse and expanding field in terms of advances and breadth of topics. We compiled literature from primary fisheries journals as an index of interest and advances in catfish science to examine temporal trends in the field. The number of catfish scientific publications varied over the past century with strong peaks during 1975–1979 and 2005–2010, which may be the result of interactive scientific and societal influences. Catfish biology was the predominant publication topic until the late 1990s, when ecology, techniques, and management publications became more prevalent. Articles on catfish ecology were most numerous in both the first and second international catfish symposia, but publications on techniques and conservation were more numerous in the second catfish symposium than the first. We summarize the state of knowledge, recent advances, and areas for future attention among topics in catfish science, including sampling and aging techniques, population dynamics, ecology, fisheries management, species diversity, nonnative catfish, and human dimensions, with an emphasis on the gains in this second symposium. Areas that we expect to be pursued in the future are development of new techniques and validation of existing methods; expansion of research to less-studied catfish species; broadening temporal, spatial, and organizational scales; interdisciplinary approaches; and research on societal views and constituent demands. Meeting these challenges will require scientists to span beyond their professional comfort zones to effectively reach higher standards. We look forward to the coming decade and the many advances in the conservation, ecology, and management of catfish that will be shared.

  4. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities.

  5. Parents and schools that grow in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Torrubia Balagué

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The University Pontificia of Salamanca a few years ago has offered a program of parental training for families who come to the Master of clinical intervention of Logopedia, by teacher Dolors Rivas Serrat. Children with disorders in language and development receive speech-language intervention. Parents participate in a training program every week and the children receive educational guidance, intervention in learning problems and study support. Some of the issues addressed between parents and education professionals are covered in this article and have to do with changes in the Spanish family, new family models or lack of authority in educational relationships established in the family. And at school. The work we do is developed through a parent school. This methodology is indispensable in the family formation processes. They are privileged spaces of participation and learning, constitute an adequate methodology for educators, counselors and other professionals of education. Pedagogy, as normative science, explains the most adequate family models, the risks of certain educational styles or the importance of authority in family-school relations. These are some of the conclusions that we have reached and which we set out below.

  6. The prospect of minimally invasive therapy for oncology in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Peihong

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy and biotherapy are two tendencies in medicine of the 21st century. It is minimally invasive with exact fixing and therapy, few pains and fast recovery. By the host self defecnce mechanism and biologicals, confinement of tumor and decreasing recurrence will give improvement to the patient's quality of life. The followings are the megatrends of minimally invasive therapy in the 21st century: 1. Follow closely with new technology; 2. Exact fixing and therapy; 3. Mode of sequencely combination; 4. Combined with immunotherapy; 5. Radical cure of minimally invasive therapy on oncology. New mode of minimally invasive therapy combined with biotherapy is expected as an important ingredient for oncotherapy in the 21 century. (authors)

  7. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  8. Survival and sustainability. Environmental concerns in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekcekus, Hueseyin; Tuerker, Umut [Near East Univ., Nicosia, North Cyprus (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; LaMoreaux, James W. (eds.) [P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability, held at the Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 19-24 February 2007, dealt with environmental threats and proposed solutions at all scales. The 21 themes addressed by the conference fell into four broad categories; Threats to Survival and Sustainability; Technological Advances towards Survival and Sustainability; Activities and Tools for Social Change; Defining Goals for Sustainable Societies. Activities and tools that move the society towards greater sustainability were emphasized at the conference. These included environmental law and ethics, environmental knowledge, technology and information systems, media, environmental awareness, education and lifelong learning, the use of literature for environmental awareness, the green factor in politics, international relations and environmental organizations. The breadth of the issues addressed at the conference made clear the need for greatly increased interdisciplinary and international collaboration the survival and sustainability concept. The exchanges at the conference represent a step in this direction. (orig.)

  9. Whither turbulence and big data in the 21st century?

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Luciano; Danaila, Luminita; Glauser, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a snapshot of the current and future trends in turbulence research across a range of disciplines. It provides an overview of the key challenges that face scientific and engineering communities in the context of huge databases of turbulence information currently being generated, yet poorly mined. These challenges include coherent structures and their control, wall turbulence and control, multi-scale turbulence, the impact of turbulence on energy generation and turbulence data manipulation strategies. The motivation for this volume is to assist the reader to make physical sense of these data deluges so as to inform both the research community as well as to advance practical outcomes from what is learned. Outcomes presented in this collection provide industry with information that impacts their activities, such as minimizing impact of wind farms, opportunities for understanding large scale wind events and large eddy simulation of the hydrodynamics of bays and lakes thereby increasing energy ...

  10. Customer value & business success in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szablowski, P A

    2000-01-01

    Many health care organizations are realizing the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of customers and prospective customers, coupled with developing services that best meet and exceed those expectations. These concepts represent an innovative yet fundamental approach to building success beyond the clinical aspects. To create, build on, and measure the "customer value factor" in its bottom line, health care organizations must (1) understand how meeting and exceeding the needs and expectations of customers will become the most significant differentiator of true business value, (2) learn how to develop realistic, measurable, and successful customer value processes within complex organizations, (3) understand how customer value can link with the power of strategic communications to become the new currency for the next millennium.

  11. Analphabetism in the 21st Century and its Legal Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vacarelu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Every day we must note the main differences between well educated people and less ones. In fact,we can describe the human life like a continuous struggle between the pretensions: few people are to wellinformed, and the others cannot fulfill the same level. But these words are less important as conversation; thedifference is created by the modernization of the technology. In this case, population is forced to learn newskills, but there is, somehow, a real disproportion between the result: not everyone is able to learn well all thenew vocabulary, the new ideas of work and the new instruments of working, as computer or many others. Inthe same time, we must note that large categories of population, despite of free access to the education are nottrying to adapt to the modern provocations: more than that, they are not able to understand new ideas or newtechnologies. However, they live as normal persons, make juridical act and represent subject for juridicalreports. They are subjects of any branch of law, as the constitutions allowed. But this difference creates aquestion: can be a real gap between the ability to understand public or private law and its consequences?And, in this case, it might be possible to imagine some distinction between these kinds of persons? In ouropinion, next years might be able to introduce this subject on public debate agenda, and we must find – fromnow – an answer: the humanity of today is quite strange, and from this part of life surprises are always ready.The specialists of law cannot stay in former reality; they must imagine new provocations and new answers. Inour opinion, this direction is important for next years, and our text will try to find an answer for that.

  12. Creating a curriculum for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, W K; Naylor, M D

    1998-01-01

    The curriculum that was described in this article reflects our school's broad and bold definition of what constitutes knowledge in nursing. It also represents the faculty's dedication to a creative approach to education and practice, as well as a commitment to change in an age of change. It portrays a desire to design education that would develop the full range of human potential, the full potential of the university, and incorporate the full range of approaches to human problems. Our current changing practice environment underscores the challenges and complexities facing faculties and student nurses in pursuit of relevant and useful theoretic and clinical content. In addition, those of us who have practiced in the psychiatric field know that the care of clients with psychiatric problems requires heterogeneous approaches to treatment that vary with respect to type, frequency, severity, and chronicity of their conditions. We know that the impact of certain conditions is linked to age and developmental status, and we know that the effects of deviations from health are mediated by numerous features of ecology, including poverty, job and family instability, parental stress, social isolation, and community violence. As a result, nursing interventions and their outcomes no longer can be viewed in terms of simple cause and effect relationships; nor can they be thought of as occurring in the familiar settings of hospitals or institutions. For better or worse, those facilities have closed. This reality and the enormous complexities of human science speak to the multidimensional factors involved in the construction of new and different models of teaching and learning within a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide both learning and practice.

  13. International conference: nuclear power for the 21 st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    It is widely recognised that global energy demand will rise substantially during this century. The increased industrialization and urbanization of developing countries will produce large increases in energy demand in regions that currently have very low per capita energy use. This increasing demand for energy will need to be met in order to improve living standards for at least half of the world population and to reduce the economic imbalances between countries and regions. At the same time the use of fossil fuel based energy is identified as a major cause of environmental damage. The release of greenhouse gases from burning of fossil fuel in power stations and for transport is seen as a contributor to global warming. It is widely recognised that continued exploitation of fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide will need to be controlled. After a prolonged period of slow development of nuclear power, confined to some countries in the world, it is now being recognised that nuclear energy has a potentially significant role to play in meeting the energy needs of the planet without damaging the environment. Developments in technology make the economics of nuclear power more attractive, and they may become even more so as fossil fuel prices continue to rise.or a widespread use of nuclear power, however, there remain concerns on the safety, security, waste and proliferation aspects. The global application of safety standards and appropriate security measures are required to ensure acceptable levels of protection. Effective control measures are required to ensure that non-proliferation commitments are honored. Handling nuclear waste safely and securely is achievable, but continues to remain as a public concern. The broad strategic objectives of the Conference are the following: to review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the

  14. Mortality and morbidity in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anne; Deaton, Angus

    2017-01-01

    We build on and extend the findings in Case and Deaton (2015) on increases in mortality and morbidity among white non-Hispanic Americans in midlife since the turn of the century. Increases in all-cause mortality continued unabated to 2015, with additional increases in drug overdoses, suicides, and alcohol-related liver mortality, particularly among those with a high-school degree or less. The decline in mortality from heart disease has slowed and, most recently, stopped, and this combined with the three other causes is responsible for the increase in all-cause mortality. Not only are educational differences in mortality among whites increasing, but from 1998 to 2015 mortality rose for those without, and fell for those with, a college degree. This is true for non-Hispanic white men and women in all five year age groups from 35-39 through 55-59. Mortality rates among blacks and Hispanics continued to fall; in 1999, the mortality rate of white non-Hispanics aged 50-54 with only a high-school degree was 30 percent lower than the mortality rate of blacks in the same age group but irrespective of education; by 2015, it was 30 percent higher . There are similar crossovers in all age groups from 25-29 to 60-64. Mortality rates in comparable rich countries have continued their pre-millennial fall at the rates that used to characterize the US. In contrast to the US, mortality rates in Europe are falling for those with low levels of educational attainment, and have fallen further over this period than mortality rates for those with higher levels of education. Many commentators have suggested that poor mortality outcomes can be attributed to contemporaneous levels of resources, particularly to slowly growing, stagnant, and even declining incomes; we evaluate this possibility, but find that it cannot provide a comprehensive explanation. In particular, the income profiles for blacks and Hispanics, whose mortality rates have fallen, are no better than those for whites. Nor is

  15. 21st Century Learning and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    2005-01-01

    The faces of immigrant children who had come through Ellis Island with their parents in search of better futures stare out at me from a set of black and white photographs near my desk. The children, frozen in time, are lined up for blocks, waiting for the doors of a public library to open. Access to information was their pathway to a future of…

  16. 21st Century Learning Design og Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnov, Lars Due

    2014-01-01

    ITs rolle i gymnasiet er stadig omdiskuteret og i nogen grad uklar. Nu vender et nyt koncept for inddragelse af it i undervisningen it-didaktikken ”på hovedet” og lader elevernes læring komme først – uden at det går ud over elevernes it-kompetencer. Konceptet kan også bruges i historie, og histor...

  17. Trend of medicine of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Until today, traditional clinical diagnosis and disease management was focused on the individual patient’s clinical symptoms and signs, medical and family history, data from laboratory and imaging evaluation that led to diagnose and treatment of illnesses. This is often a reactive approach to treatment, i.e., treatment starts after the symptoms and signs appear. Advances in medical genetics have enabled a more detailed understanding of the impact of genetics in diseases. It was the main reason for developing a so called personalized medicine. Large collaborative research projects (for example, the Human genome project have laid the groundwork for the understanding of the roles of genes in human development and physiology. Even that revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that pointed to some of the genetic variabilities between individuals. Important biological functions: growth, death, cellular movement and localization, differentiation, etc. are controlled by a process called signal transduction. This process is nearly entirely epi-genetic and governed by protein enzyme activity. Diseases such as cancer, based on genomic mutations, are functionally manifest as dysfunctional protein signal transduction. Historically, the pharmaceutical industry has developed medications based on empiric observations and more recently, on known disease mechanisms. For example, medications for diabetes aim to improve insulin release from the pancreas and the sensitivity of the muscle cells and fat tissues on the effect of insulin. Drugs for high cholesterol, affect the absorption, metabolism, and generation of cholesterol. It means that medications are developed based on mechanisms of disease that have been extensively studied over the past century. We hope that recent advancements in the genetic etiologies of common diseases will improve pharmaceutical development. Today we discovered that information about a patient’s proteomic, genetic and metabolic

  18. Managing medical groups: 21st century challenges and the impact of physician leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E; Keogh, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Physician group managers and administrators charged with leading medical groups in the 21st century face a set of old and new challenges and opportunities. Leadership is assumed to make the difference between a successful and not-so-successful medical group. Yet, there is little research about how physician manager leadership styles contribute to the success of medical group practices. This article is a study of physician leadership styles using the DiSC, based upon a sample of 232 physician managers. Dominance (D) and conscientiousness (C) were the two dominant styles found in this study. Moreover, the two dominant combination leadership styles fall under the categories of the "creative" and the 'perfectionist." The article formulates practical recommendations for both physician managers and administrators for leading medical groups to respond more effectively to the challenges and opportunities facing medical groups in the 21st century.

  19. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  20. The 21st century nuclear park: A source of energy, water, food, and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madia, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a nuclear-powered agro-industrial complex, or 'nuplex', first advanced 40 years ago, provides an increasingly attractive means of addressing critical challenges in developing nations. The nuplex concept, updated for the 21st century, can serve as the basis for a nuclear park that provides a safe, environmentally friendly, and reliable source of energy at a cost comparable to other means of generation. This 21st century nuclear park can meet burgeoning demands for new sources of power and water, support the development of highly efficient agriculture to supply food to a growing world population, and offer employment at levels ranging from unskilled to highly skilled, thus creating opportunities for economic development and improving the quality of life in regions where it is deployed. (author)