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  1. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  2. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  3. 77 FR 46127 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2... Learned (GALL) Report,'' and the NRC staff's aging management review procedure and acceptance criteria... learned and to address emergent issues not covered in license renewal guidance documents. In this way,...

  4. 77 FR 21813 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and..., ``Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41, `Buried and Underground...

  5. 77 FR 14446 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and... Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41, `Buried and Underground Piping and Tanks'.'' This LR-ISG provides changes to the recommendations in GALL Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41 based on the staff's review...

  6. Coleopterous galls from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on Neotropical coleopterous galls were compiled from the literature, which showed that 82 galls have so far been recorded among 77 plant species. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae plant families display the greatest richness in galls. Most galls are induced on stems or buds, while leaves constitute the second most attacked plant organ. Only 16 coleopteran gallers have been identified at the species level; most records are presented at the order level. The identified species belong to four families: Apionidae, Buprestidae, Curculionidae and Erirhinidae. The galls are found in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Colombia (probably, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Eighteen species of Coleoptera are inquilines of galls and are associated with 18 plant species, most frequently with Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Fabaceae. The inquilines were recorded mainly in leaf galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The identity of these weevils is poorly known. General data indicate a lack of taxonomic studies in the Neotropical region.

  7. Maine Students Learn to Appreciate Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Pamela S.

    1994-01-01

    The Maine studies program at a rural Maine middle school begins in the sixth grade and expands through the eighth grade. Students camp out, explore Maine's geography, and learn about themselves, their state's history, and the state's diverse populations. Two multischool programs, Exchanging Maine's Cultures and the Curriculum Integration…

  8. Sequence Analysis of Segment 8 of Five Chinese Isolates of Rice Gall Dwarf Virus and Expression of a Main Outer Capsid Protein in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The rice gall dwarf disease, caused by the Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) is a serious disease occurring in rice in many regions of Guangdong province. As a basis to control the disease we have studied the genomic diversity of a variety of isolates from different locations. Genome segment 8(S8), encoding a main outer capsid protein (Pns8) of RGDV five isolates (BL, CH, DQ, GZ, XY) from Guangdong province was cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that all the S8 segments of the five isolates consisted of 1 578 nucleotides and had a single open reading frame (ORF) extending for 1 301 nucleotides from nucleotide 21 which encoded a polypeptide of 426 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 47.4 kDa. The S8 full-length sequence and the ORF sequence shared 97.3%-98.8% and 97.3%-99.1% nucleotide sequence identities within the five Chinese isolates, and shared 94.8%-95.6% and 95.0%-96.0% identities with those of the Thailand isolate respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pns8 in GZ isolate was identical to that in the Thailand isolate, while the amino acid sequence variability of Pns8 within five Chinese isolates ranged from 0.5% to 2.1%. These results indicate that the S8 segment of RGDV is highly conserved in different isolates from different locations. The S8 cDNA from the XY isolate was cloned into the plasmid vector pET-28b(+) and a fused expression protein with an apparent molecular mass of 51kDa was specifically detected in an analysis of Escherichia coli Rossetta(DE3)Ⅱcells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on analysis of the RGDV segment 8 sequence and genetic comparison of different RGDV isolates and their protein expression.

  9. Benefits of photosynthesis for insects in galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, S A; Hoffmann, J H; Cramer, M D

    2012-12-01

    Insect-induced plant galls are predominantly reputed to act as strong carbon sinks, although many types of galls contain chlorophyll and have the potential to photosynthesize. We investigated whether the photosynthetic capacity of bud galls induced by a Pteromalid wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, in Acacia longifolia subsidises carbon budgets or provides O(2) to the larvae while concurrently consuming CO(2) in the dense gall tissue, thereby maintaining (O(2)) and (CO(2)) within the range of larval tolerance. Low (O(2)) (<5 % v/v) were found within the internal tissues of galls, and these concentrations responded only marginally to light, suggesting that the photosynthetic activity within the gall is inconsequential in the provision of O(2) to the larvae. The metabolic response of larvae to reduced (O(2)) and elevated (CO(2)) indicated that larvae were tolerant of hypoxia/hypercarbia and also capable of reducing their respiratory rates to cope with hypercarbia. The low mortality of larvae in galls shaded with Al-foil for 20 days showed that photosynthesis was not vital for the survival of the larvae, although growth of shaded galls was substantially reduced. Gas exchange measurements confirmed that, while photosynthesis never fully compensated for the respiratory costs of galls, it contributed substantially to the maintenance and growth, especially of young galls, reducing their impact as carbon sinks on the host. We conclude that, although photosynthesis may contribute to O(2) provision, its main role is to reduce the dependence of the insect-induced gall on the host plant for photosynthates, thereby reducing intra-plant, inter-gall competition and enhancing the probability that each gall will reach maturity.

  10. The biology of gall-inducing arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuri Csoka; William J. Mattson; Graham N. Stone; Peter W. Price

    1998-01-01

    This proceedings explores many facets of the ever intriguing and enigmatic relationships between plants and their gall-forming herbivores. The research reported herein ranges from studies on classical biology and systematics of galling to molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and ecological and evolutionary theory. Human kind has much to learn and gain from...

  11. All that glisters is not galled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Galled trees, evolutionary networks with isolated reticulation cycles, have appeared under several slightly different definitions in the literature. In this paper, we establish the actual relationships between the main four such alternative definitions: namely, the original galled trees, level-1 networks, nested networks with nesting depth 1, and evolutionary networks with arc-disjoint reticulation cycles.

  12. THINKING SKILL - THE MAIN LEARNING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Koteková

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of teaching with help of four elementary skills - reading, speaking, writing and listening is definitely inconceivable to teaching any foreign language. But automatic answers following the exercise and students passive memorising does not make speaking language and its learning very natural. This has forced me to find and create the way how to make learners think and realise the point and meaning of learning itself. My paper is about special skill I have tried to apply –thinking skill. I have chosen it to complement other four which teacher normally uses when teaching foreign language (reading, speaking, listening skills. At the same time I put thinking skill into a role to support and enhance learning process. To find and use some methods how to make students think, make their own opinion and also teach them to apply their own experience to learning process was the main goal of this survey. The methods I have applied were provoking students to think before they learn.

  13. Comparison of galled trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Galled trees, directed acyclic graphs that model evolutionary histories with isolated hybridization events, have become very popular due to both their biological significance and the existence of polynomial-time algorithms for their reconstruction. In this paper, we establish to which extent several distance measures for the comparison of evolutionary networks are metrics for galled trees, and hence, when they can be safely used to evaluate galled tree reconstruction methods.

  14. Richness of gall-inducing insects in the tropical dry forest (caatinga of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the tropical dry forest (caatinga of Pernambuco. We report on the richness of galling insects in the vegetation of caatinga of Pernambuco state, Brazil. We recorded 64 different types of galls collected primarily from leaves and stems of 48 species of host plants belonging to 17 families and 31 genera. The most common gall morphological types were spheroid and discoid, glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber. The main gall inducing taxon was the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge of galling insect and host-plant diversity in caatinga.

  15. Gall's visit to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager

  16. Gall's Visit to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Draaisma, D.; Conradi, M.

    2011-01-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager

  17. On the origins of organology: Franz Joseph Gall and a girl named Bianchi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Finger, S.; Whitaker, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates b

  18. Gall bladder ascariasis

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    Ranendra Hajong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary ascariasis is commonly reported from highly endemic regions like India, Bangladesh, Latin America, parts of Middle East and Africa. In humans, the usual habitat of Ascaris lumbricoides is the small intestine. When the worm load is high, going as high as more than 1000 worms, then the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site. Patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis may present with biliary colic due to obstruction caused by the worms in the gall bladder, common bile duct or as a result of obstructive symptoms caused by calcified worms or lithiasis, which is commonly found in patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis. Acute pancreatitis may also be caused by ascariasis. Management usually is conservative if it is still alive or can be extracted by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography or surgery.

  19. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  20. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...... drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes...... maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticide application in meadow-grass every year....

  1. Breast metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder

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    Ajaz Ahmad Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of gall bladder has early lymphatic and haematogenous spread. Most common extra abdominal site of metastasis is the lung. Metastasis to breast from carcinoma of breast is very rare. Our case describes an interesting case of carcinoma of gall bladder metastising to breast. A 50-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with a small nodule on upper outer quadrant of left breast. Patient had a history of cholecystectomy done for symptomatic gall stones 2 years back. Histopathological examination of the gall bladder specimen showed adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder with invasion to lamina propria. No additional treatment was offered to the patient. The breast nodule was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological examination revealed metastising adenocarcinoma. Patient was subjected to palliative chemotherapy (Gamcitabine and carboplatin. However, patient died of hepatic encephalopathy after 5 months. Our case reports an unusual site of metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder which is very rare.

  2. CT diagnosis of gall stone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leen, G.L.S.; Finlay, M. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). Dept. of Radiology Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-09-01

    We report a case of gall stone ileus in which only small bowel obstruction was seen on the conventional abdominal film and the diagnosis was made by computed tomography (CT). With the availability of CT and its increasing use in the investigation of the acute abdomen, CT examination will occasionally be performed on gall stone ileus patients. Awareness of the CT findings in gall stone ileus will result in early diagnosis leading to a reduction in the mortality rate. (orig.).

  3. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (K stem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (g s), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (A n) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and g s to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants.

  4. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

    2010-06-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America.

  5. Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation Redesign Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Carroll, Paul; Head, Kenneth; Fasheh, John; Stuart, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation redesign was required to prevent the reoccurance of the STS-111 High Pressure Speed Sensor In-Flight Anomaly. The STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly Failure Investigation Team's initial redesign of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Pump End Ball Bearing Liquid Air Insulation failed the certification test by producing Liquid Air. The certification test failure indicated not only the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Liquid Air Insulation, but all other Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation. This paper will document the original Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly investigation, the heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine Insulation certification testing faults, the techniques and instrumentation used to accurately test the Liquid Air Insulation systems on the Stennis Space Center SSME test stand, the analysis techniques used to identify the Liquid Air Insulation problem areas and the analytical verification of the redesign before entering certification testing, Trade study down selected to three potential design solutions, the results of the development testing which down selected the final Liquid Air Redesign are also documented within this paper.

  6. Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil: Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba. 143 gall morphotypes were found in 31 plant families, 60 genera and 82 species. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the main host families, being Trichilia, Tontelea and Eugenia the main host genera. Most galls occured on leaves, with globose shape, green and glabrous. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera were the inducing orders and the associated fauna comprised parasitoids (Hymenoptera, inquilines (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera: Coccoidea, successors (Psocoptera, Collembola and Acari, and predators (Pseudoscorpiones. Three plant genera and nine plant species are recorded for the first time as host of galls in Brazil. All the records are new to the municipality, and the distribution of 15 galling species is extended to the North of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  7. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  8. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  9. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Nieves-Aldrey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera. The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba’s gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1269-1286. Epub 2008 September 30.El interés por el estudio de las agallas y los artrópodos que las inducen ha crecido en todo el mundo en los últimos veinte años. Sin embargo, los artrópodos que inducen agallas en la región Neotropical son probablemente los menos estudiados. Un estudio de la riqueza y composición de artrópodos que inducen agallas fue desarrollado en el Parque Nacional Coiba en la Republica de Panamá. Los datos provienen de

  10. Duplex gall bladder associated with choledocholithiasis, cholecystitis, gall bladder rupture and septic peritonitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, A L; Gregory, S P

    2007-07-01

    A 10-year-old cat was presented with a history of inappetence, pyrexia and weight loss. Clinical investigations showed anaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, septic peritonitis and a double gall bladder with choleliths in an extrahepatic duct. Initial medical stabilisation was performed. At laparotomy, a duplex gall bladder with two separate cystic ducts was identified. The left gall bladder was thickened and had ruptured at the apex. Multiple choleliths were identified in the left cystic duct. The right gall bladder and cystic duct were grossly normal. The ruptured gall bladder was repaired, the gallstones were removed via a choledochotomy of the left cystic duct and a choledochoduodenostomy was created from the dilated left cystic duct. The cat remained depressed and anorexic, and it was euthanased 72 hours postoperatively at the owners' request. This is the first ante-mortem investigation of extrahepatic biliary disease associated with gall bladder duplication in the cat.

  11. Increased activity of ionised calcium in gall bladder bile in gall stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, M; Jørgensen, T; Thode, J

    1992-10-01

    The actual activity of ionised calcium (Ca2+) in gall bladder bile determined with an ion-selective electrode was significantly higher in patients with gall stone disease (n = 15) than in patients without gall stones (n = 10) (0.43 mmol/kg v 0.31 mmol/kg; p titration with HCl/NaOH, however, the Ca2+ activity fell with increasing pH in a biphasic manner, with the breaking point occurring at a significantly lower median pH in patients with gall stones than in patients without (pH 7.1 v 8.2; p < 0.0001). The combination of a higher activity of calcium in bile and precipitation of bile salts taking place at a lower pH in patients with gall stone disease than in patients without gall stones suggests a major role for calcium and pH in the pathogenesis of gall stones. Strict anaerobic sampling is not necessary for the measurements of Ca2+ in gall bladder bile, because the Ca2+ was not significantly affected by the changes in pCO2. The metabolic studies suggest, however, that simultaneous measurements of the activity of Ca2+ and pH is important in order to interpret data for the calcium activity in gall bladder bile.

  12. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

    2009-04-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions.

  13. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  14. Galling Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea in China: Diversity and Host Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gall formation is an interesting plant response to aphid feeding. This paper presents a review of galling aphids in China. Altogether, 157 species and subspecies in ten families and subfamilies are found to induce galls on their host plants. As many as 39% species are endemic to China. The Eriosomatinae include the highest percentage of gall-inducing species. The great diversity of gall morphology may be described in terms of five characteristics: type, site, size, shape, and structure. The host association and host specificity of galling aphids are also discussed.

  15. Predation on rose galls: parasitoids and predators determine gall size through directional selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán László

    Full Text Available Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species' life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls.

  16. On the origins of organology: Franz Joseph Gall and a girl named Bianchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates brought about his new way of thinking. This widely accepted view, however, requires qualification. Although Gall's experiences and observations as a schoolboy were relevant, especially for his craniology, these childhood memories might have been recalled and reinterpreted after he had started to think about the faculties of mind-specifically after he had met Bianchi, a 5-year-old girl with a special talent for music.

  17. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  18. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  19. A Machine-Learning Approach to Predict Main Energy Consumption under Realistic Operational Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Joan P; Winther, Ole; Jacobsen, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel and publicly available set of high-quality sensory data collected from a ferry over a period of two months and overviews exixting machine-learning methods for the prediction of main propulsion efficiency. Neural networks are applied on both real-time and predictive...

  20. Science Text Comprehension: Drawing, Main Idea Selection, and Summarizing as Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of two experiments was to contrast instructions to generate drawings with two text-focused strategies--main idea selection (Exp. 1) and summarization (Exp. 2)--and to examine whether these strategies could help students learn from a chemistry science text. Both experiments followed a 2 x 2 design, with drawing strategy instructions…

  1. A Machine-Learning Approach to Predict Main Energy Consumption under Realistic Operational Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Joan P; Winther, Ole; Jacobsen, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel and publicly available set of high-quality sensory data collected from a ferry over a period of two months and overviews exixting machine-learning methods for the prediction of main propulsion efficiency. Neural networks are applied on both real-time and predictive sett...

  2. Assisting Main Task Learning by Heterogeneous Auxiliary Tasks with Applications to Skin Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Ning; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2011-01-01

    In typical classification problems, high level concept features provided by a domain expert are usually available during classifier training but not during its deployment. We address this problem from a multitask learning (MTL) perspective by treating these features as auxiliary learning tasks. Previous efforts in MTL have mostly assumed that all tasks have the same input space. However, auxiliary tasks can have different input spaces, since their learning targets are different. Thus, to handle cases with heterogeneous input, in this paper we present a newly developed model using heterogeneous auxiliary tasks to help main task learning. First, we formulate a convex optimization problem for the proposed model, and then, we analyze its hypothesis class and derive true risk bounds. Finally, we compare the proposed model with other relevant methods when applied to the problem of skin cancer screening and public datasets. Our results show that the performance of the proposed method is highly competitive compared to other relevant methods.

  3. Magnetic resonace appearance of Gall Bladder Ascariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Prafull

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is a common disease in many developing countries and is a common cause of biliary and pancreatic diseases in endemic areas. Numerous studies have been published on biliary tract ascariasis. All these have documented ultrasonography as the primary imaging modality for biliary tract ascariasis. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP has been the latest entrant for the study of bilary tract. MRCP findings of biliary tract ascariasis have been scarcely documented. MRCP is a unique non-invasive investigation for demonstrating ascariasis in Gall bladder and bilary tract clearly. We present MR appearances of Gall bladder and biliary tract in a proven case of biliary ascariasis.

  4. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Doc No: 2012-29795] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 10078-053] Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter..., 1987,\\1\\ and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\ The project is located...

  5. A CASE OF GALL STONE ILEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gall stone ileus causing intestinal obstruction is seen in 1 - 4% of cases. [ 1 ] We present a case of 66 years female presenting to us with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Investigations showed the features of cholecystoduodenal fistula with intestinal obstruction secondary to large gallstone in the ileum. We discussed here the presentation and management of patient with gallstone ileus.

  6. Application of the Learning Curve Analysis to the LHC Main Dipole Production First Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Rossi, L

    2006-01-01

    About two third of the LHC main dipoles have been delivered by the three suppliers charged of the production. The training of the staff, mostly hired just for this manufacture, and the natural improvement of the procedures with the acquired experience, decrease naturally the time necessary for the assembly of a unit. The aim of this paper is to apply methodologies like the cost-based learning curves and the time-based learning curves to the LHC Main Dipole comparing the estimated learning percentage to the ones experienced in other industries. This type of analysis, still in a preliminary phase and here applied to about 40% of the total production of the LHC magnets that will end by 2006, shows that our production has a relatively high learning percentage and it is similar to aerospace and complex machine tools for new models. Therefore with the LHC project, accelerator magnets seem to have reached industrial maturity and this production can be used as bench mark for other large scientific projects implying s...

  7. Gall bladder carcinoma presenting with spinal metastasis: A rare phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit K Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed.

  8. The mono - and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ben-Ari, Matan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Anacardiaceae), a sibling species of P. terebinthus also known as turpentine tree or terebinth tree, is common in the Levant region. The aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. manipulates the leaves of the plant to form large galls, which provide both food and protection for its developing offspring. We analyzed the levels and composition of mono-and sesquiterpenes in both leaves and galls of ten naturally growing trees. Our results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents of P. palaestina leaves and galls, but terpene levels and composition vary among trees. Despite this inter-tree variation, terpene levels and compositions in galls from different trees resemble each other more than the patterns displayed by leaves from the same trees. Generally, galls contain 10 to 60 fold higher total terpene amounts than leaves, especially of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. Conversely, the leaves generally accumulate more sesquiterpenes, in particular E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene, in comparison to galls. Our results clearly show that the terpene pattern in the galls is not a simple reflection of that of the leaves and suggest that aphids have a strong impact on the metabolism of their host plant, possibly for their own defense.

  9. Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma gall bladder is a very aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Despite achievements in the field of advanced imaging techniques, there is a very high mortality rate of the disease Cancer is the second most common disease in India responsible for maximum mortality with about 0.3 million deaths per year. The magnitude of cancer problem in the Indian Sub-continent (sheer numbers is increasing due to poor to moderate living standards and inadequate medical facilities. Women are more commonly affected than men. The peak incidence occurs in people in their 60s, but the disease age range is from 29 to 90 years of age and there is great geographic and ethnic variation. Carcinoma gall bladder, a disease of old age, is now found in the younger age group and presents with greater ferocity.

  10. Gall bladder perforation in acalculous cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dayananda Srinivasan; Sujith Sherigar; Durganna Thimmappa

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is relatively rare as compared to the calculous cholecystitis. But complications like gangrenous changes and Gall bladder (GB) perforation is more common with acalculous variety than calculous cholecystitis.GB perforation following acalculous cholecystitis has a mortality of 10-50 % as compared to that of 1% following calculous cholecystitis. The literarature pertaining to this is very few and does not conclude a standard mangement in such cases. ...

  11. Emile Galle ja legendaarne Belle Epoque / Kärt Kross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kross, Kärt

    2008-01-01

    1811. aastal rajatud Perrier-Jouet shampanjamajast ja shampanjast Belle Epoque, mille lillemotiividega pudeli disainis prantsuse klaasikunstnik Emile Galle (1846-1904). Kunstniku eluloolisi andmeid, loomingust

  12. Emile Galle ja legendaarne Belle Epoque / Kärt Kross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kross, Kärt

    2008-01-01

    1811. aastal rajatud Perrier-Jouet shampanjamajast ja shampanjast Belle Epoque, mille lillemotiividega pudeli disainis prantsuse klaasikunstnik Emile Galle (1846-1904). Kunstniku eluloolisi andmeid, loomingust

  13. Fundamental Parameters of Main-Sequence Stars in an Instant with Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bellinger, Earl P; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Ball, Warrick; Guggenberger, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the remarkable photometric precision of space observatories like Kepler, stellar and planetary systems beyond our own are now being characterized en masse for the first time. These characterizations are pivotal for endeavors such as searching for Earth-like planets and solar twins, understanding the mechanisms that govern stellar evolution, and tracing the dynamics of our Galaxy. The volume of data that is becoming available, however, brings with it the need to process this information accurately and rapidly. While existing methods can constrain fundamental stellar parameters such as ages, masses, and radii from these observations, they require substantial computational efforts to do so. We develop a method based on machine learning for rapidly estimating fundamental parameters of main-sequence solar-like stars from classical and asteroseismic observations. We first demonstrate this method on a hare-and-hound exercise and then apply it to the Sun, 16 Cyg A & B, and 34 planet-hosting candidates th...

  14. Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Yaqoob Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.

  15. Evaluation of wild juglans species for crown gall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. tumefaciens is a soil-borne Gram-negative bacterium which causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plant species including walnut. Crown gall symptoms on walnut are characterized by large tumors located near the crown of the tree but can occur near wounds caused by bleeding cuts or at the graft u...

  16. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  17. The impact of kleptoparasitic invasions on the evolution of gall-size in social and solitary Australian Acacia thrips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THOMAS WILLIAM CHAPMAN; KAREN LEAH FRANCIS-GEYER; MICHAEL PHILIP SCHWARZ

    2006-01-01

    Many species of gall-inducing Acacia thrips are attacked by kleptoparasitic thrips who enter the gall, destroy the occupants, and then use the gall for producing their own offspring. The hypothesis tested here is that pressure exerted by kleptoparasites (genus Koptothrips) not only provoked the evolution of soldiers in the gall-inducing clade, but have also influenced the evolution of gall size and morphology. Various size dimensions of invaded galls were compared to those of uninvaded galls using data from six gall-inducing species and their kleptoparasites. For the non-social gall-inducing species (K. ellobus and K.nicholsoni) invaded galls showed no significant size differences from galls that had not been invaded. For the four social gall-inducingspecies (K. habrus, K. intermedius, K. waterhousei and K. morrisi) invaded galls were significantly narrower and/or shorter than uninvaded galls. Galls of social species that had not been invaded and contained adult soldiers were significantly larger than galls where soldiers were still at a larval stage, suggesting that gall size is related to gall age in these species. An hypothesis is proposed that links the timing of invasion by kleptoparasites to size of the host gall: induction of a smaller gall by host founders will reduce the period of vulnerability to invasion (before soldiers become adults)for social thrips by allowing foundresses in these smaller galls to begin laying soldierdestined eggs relatively sooner.

  18. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition.

  19. Fundamental Parameters of Main-Sequence Stars in an Instant with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Earl P.; Angelou, George C.; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Ball, Warrick H.; Guggenberger, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Owing to the remarkable photometric precision of space observatories like Kepler, stellar and planetary systems beyond our own are now being characterized en masse for the first time. These characterizations are pivotal for endeavors such as searching for Earth-like planets and solar twins, understanding the mechanisms that govern stellar evolution, and tracing the dynamics of our Galaxy. The volume of data that is becoming available, however, brings with it the need to process this information accurately and rapidly. While existing methods can constrain fundamental stellar parameters such as ages, masses, and radii from these observations, they require substantial computational effort to do so. We develop a method based on machine learning for rapidly estimating fundamental parameters of main-sequence solar-like stars from classical and asteroseismic observations. We first demonstrate this method on a hare-and-hound exercise and then apply it to the Sun, 16 Cyg A and B, and 34 planet-hosting candidates that have been observed by the Kepler spacecraft. We find that our estimates and their associated uncertainties are comparable to the results of other methods, but with the additional benefit of being able to explore many more stellar parameters while using much less computation time. We furthermore use this method to present evidence for an empirical diffusion-mass relation. Our method is open source and freely available for the community to use.6

  20. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    OpenAIRE

    Knipschild, P

    1988-01-01

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the ...

  1. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  2. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  3. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence.

  4. [The workplace-based learning: a main paradigm of an effective continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Maria Barbara

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the literature analysis and the Emilia-Romagna Region experience, we suggest a reflection on the workplace-based learning that goes beyond the analysis of the effectiveness of specific didactic methodologies and aspects related to Continuing Medical Education. Health education and training issue is viewed from a wider perspective, that integrates the three learning dimensions (formal, non formal and informal). In such a perspective the workplace-based learning becomes an essential paradigm to reshape the explicit knowledge conveyed in formal context and to emphasize informal contexts where innovation is generated.

  5. A retrospective study of post-operative gall bladder pathology with special reference to incidental carcinoma of the gall bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Jagannath Dev Sharma; Indrajit Kalita; Tonmoy Das; Papari Goswami; Manigreeva Krishnatreya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical removal of gall bladder for its diseases is common. However, not much is known about the incidence of incidental carcinoma in such patients in our population. Objective of current study was to analyze the different pathological entities of post-operative gall bladder specimen with particular emphasis on incidental carcinoma. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at a multi-specialty hospital in eastern India from the pathology records for the period from Au...

  6. Robert M. Gagne and M. David Merrill. In Conversation: Reviewing the Main Points of M. David Merrill's Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, David, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This second installment in a series of edited transcripts based on a conference held at Utah State University in 1987 reviews the main points of Merrill's Learning Theory. The performance content matrix is explained, primary presentation forms are described, and the concepts of student responsibility and learner control are discussed. (Three…

  7. Robert M. Gagne and M. David Merrill: In Conversation. Reviewing the Main Points of Robert M. Gagne's Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, David, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This first installment in a series of edited transcripts based on a conference held at Utah State University in 1987 reviews the main points of Gagne's Learning Theory. Categories of human performance that are discussed include verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and motor skills. (Three references) (LRW)

  8. Lessons Learned from the Design, Certification, and Operation of the Space Shuttle Integrated Main Propulsion System (IMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Hugo E.; Albright, John D.; D'Amico, Stephen J.; Brewer, John M.; Melcher, John C., IV

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Integrated Main Propulsion System (IMPS) consists of the External Tank (ET), Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). The IMPS is tasked with the storage, conditioning, distribution, and combustion of cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) propellants to provide first and second stage thrust for achieving orbital velocity. The design, certification, and operation of the associated IMPS hardware have produced many lessons learned over the course of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). A subset of these items will be discussed in this paper for consideration when designing, building, and operating future spacecraft propulsion systems. This paper will focus on lessons learned related to Orbiter MPS and is the first of a planned series to address the subject matter.

  9. Sonographic Analysis of the Collapsed Gall Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Chung Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, College of Medicine Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Mi [Donga University Collge of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    their underlying pathologies were as follows : gall stone(10), hepatitis(5),ascites(3), and cholecystitis(2). According to our results, we can conclude that US is very accurate to diagnose gall stone in cases showing stony echo or acoustic shadow even in the collapsed gallbladder but it is nearly impossible to differentiate underlying pathologies in cases without such findings and the possibility of re-expansion of GB must be considered before the final decision of surgical treatment for any collapsed gallbladder

  10. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  11. Curcumin, the main part of turmeric, prevents learning and memory changes induced by sodium metabisulfite, a preservative agent, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Abdollahifar, Mohammad Amin; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Sodium metabisulfite is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent in the food, beverage, and drug industries. Neurons are highly sensitive to sulfite toxicity. Curcumin is the main part of turmeric and has neuroprotective effects on a variety of nervous system damages. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite in rats. The rats were divided into five groups receiving distilled water (solvent of the sulfite), olive oil (solvent of the curcumin), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin. All the animals received daily gavages for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8(th) week, learning and memory were assessed in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The animals treated with sulfite showed fewer correct choices and more reference and working memory errors during the learning phase, at the end of the learning phase, and during the retention testing (p<0.001). The study results demonstrated that sulfite-exposure was associated with impaired learning and memory in rats. Adding curcumin to the rat nutrition plays a protective role in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite.

  12. Galling insects are bioindicators of environmental quality in a Conservation Unit

    OpenAIRE

    André Portugal Santana; Rosy Mary dos Santos Isaias

    2014-01-01

    Galls are well distributed across the World and among plant families. Their diversity can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented. These inventories also help to understand the morphological patterns of the galls, based on their most common shape, color, host botanical families, inducers and galled organs. This study is about an inventory of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde, Brazil. This conservation unit is an urban park strongly ant...

  13. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  14. Main Objectives for this I.A.U. Special Session on Innovation in Teaching/ Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Ros, R. M.

    2006-08-01

    In the IAU resolution on the Value of Astronomy Education, passed by the IAU's General Assembly in 2003, it was recommended: to include astronomy in school curricula, to assist schoolteachers in their training and backup, and to inform teachers about available resources. The aim of this Special Session 2 on "Innovation in Teaching/Learning Astronomy" is to contribute to the implementation of these recommendations, introducing innovative points of view regarding methods of teaching and learning. Astronomers from all countries—developed or developing—will be equally interested. New methods of dissemination of information are making big changes in the opportunity of spreading astronomical knowledge. The World Wide Web continues to expand its reach, and the Astronomy Picture of the Day reaches the homepage of millions. The new phenomenon of podcasts is spreading rapidly. Astronomy attracts many young people to education in important fields in science and technology. But in many countries, astronomy is not part of the standard curriculum, and teachers do not receive adequate education and support. Still, many scientific and educational societies and government agencies have produced materials and educational resources in astronomy for all educational levels. Technology is used in astronomy both for obtaining observations and for teaching. In any case, it is useful to take their special opportunity to learn about the situation in different countries, to exchange opinions, and to collect information in order to continue, over at least the next triennium, the activities related to promoting astronomy throughout the world. In particular, we would like to invite all participants to explain their positive original experiences so they can be adapted for other regions. Everyone is invited to exchange their initiatives and to try to involve other countries in common projects. All of us are in the same boat. http://www.communicatingastronomy.org/innovation2006/

  15. Coincidence symptomatic gall stone and helicobacter pylori: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Nezam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: On of the most common gasterointrestinal disease is gallstone disease and it`s prevalence is 11%-36%in autopsies. If gallstone leads to symptoms and side effect cholecystectomy will be inevitable. Gastric infection due to H.P will cause several symptoms of which dyspepsia and epigastric pain are outstanding .Gall stones also usually causes epigastric and/or right upper quadrant pain. Pain in other abdominal quadrant is less common. In this study we investigated the coincidence of gall stone and gastro intestinal H.P regarding the common symptom, between these two conditions to prevent unnecessary operation.Methods: The cases were adopted from cholecystectomy candidates due to gall stone disease (proved by ultrasonography. The control group were normal people who proved to be gall stone free ultrasonographicly. Serum IgG anti H.P was checked and compared between the two groups.Results: Seventy percent of patients entered into the study which consisted of 35 case and 35 controls. The two groups were not significantly different in age and gender. There were 22 (68.8% and 10 (31.2% H.P positive cases in case and control groups respectively. Thirteen (34.2% and 25 (65.8% cases were H.P negative in case and control groups respectively. Comparing these results will reveal a statistically significant difference (P=0.004.Conclusion: The relationship between gastric H.P and gall stone in this study supports the role of H.P in gall stone formation. According to our results and the common symptoms of two conditions specially in atypic biliary colic, it seems that in many cases gastrointestinal H.P causes the pain. Prospective studies are recommended.

  16. Volatile oil analysis of spruce galls caused by Sacchiphantes viridis Ratz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Miszta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of volatile oil obtained from galls caused by Sacchiphantes viridis are presented in this paper. It was found that galls contain more oil than normal shoots. The composition of the oil obtained from galls differs significantly from that of normal shoots. The differences observed in the amount of camphene. β-pinene, myrcene, 3-carene, unidentinfied compounds 14 and 17, camphor, fenchyl alcohol, borneol and citronellol seem to be connected with the deterioration of central resin canals in the stem cortex during the development of galls and with the formation of new and very numerous canals in the bases of the differentiated gall leaves.

  17. Crack of a helicopter main rotor actuator attachment: failure analysis and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Allegrucci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Light Utility Helicopter (LUH, in the course of a training flight, leaving the ground during the taxi to take off, went into an uncontrolled rolling to the right; consequently the helicopter gradually laid down on the right side. The impact with the runway destroyed the rotating blades up to the hubs rotor. The accident investigation focused on main rotor oscillatory plate servo actuators . These components, directly linked to the cloche movements, regulate main rotor blades plane tilt and pitch. Following the preliminary examination, only front servo actuator attachment was found to be broken in two parts. In detail, the present paper deals with the fracture analysis results. The servo actuator attachment material is a 2014 Aluminum alloy extrudate, undergone to T651 heat treatment. Fracture surfaces were examined by optical and electronic microscopy in order to determine the main morphological features and consequently to trace the origin of failure mechanism and causes. The accordance with the specification requirements about alloy composition was verified by quantitative elementary analysis through inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP; furthermore, semi-quantitative elementary analysis was locally verified by Energy dispersion spectroscopy X ray (EDS_RX. Finally, the hydrogen content of the material was evaluated by the total hydrogen analysis. Microstructural and technological alloy characteristics were verified as well by using metallographic microscopy and hardness testing of the material.Macroscopic fracture surfaces evidences were characterized by the lack of any significant plastic deformations and by the presence of symmetry compared to the servo actuator axis. Microscopic fracture features of both the investigated surfaces were not coherent to the hypothesis of an impact of the main rotor to the soil. Further achieved evidences, such as grain boundary fracture propagation, the presence of corrosion products, were all in

  18. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  19. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  20. Geschiedenis van de afasiologie: Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, E.A.; Prins, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Eind 18e eeuw introduceerde Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) het concept van discrete corticale lokalisatie van mentale functies in de wetenschappelijke wereld. Op basis van het bevoelen van de schedel (‘cranioscopie’) onderscheidde en lokaliseerde hij 27 faculteiten waaronder het taalvermogen, dat hij

  1. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) new to the Danish fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Harris, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    ), Piceacecis abietiperda (Henschel), Rabdophaga strobilina (Bremi), Taxomyia taxi (Inchbald) and a probably undescribed species of Contarinia Rondani. Thus, 363 fully identified gall midge species are now documented from Denmark along with 25 species, which have been identified to genus level only. The species...

  2. Franz Joseph Gall and music: The faculty and the bump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Finger, S.; Whitaker, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can

  3. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking.

  4. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...

  5. GESTION DES NEMATODES A GALLES PARASITES DE LA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    antagonistes et d'extraits botaniques sur les nématodes à galles parasites de la culture d'egusi. ... T-12 a été faite à 108 spores plant-1 et celle de la poudre de graines de neem à 75 g plant-1, une ..... ANOVA à un critère de classification.

  6. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol of Syzygium cumini S. cumini, which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

  7. Evolutionary diversification of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Sancia Esmeralda Theonilla van der

    2015-01-01

    Gall crabs (Crustacea : Cryptochiridae) are small, coral-dwelling crabs that live in obligate association with their host corals (Scleractinia), on which they rely for food and shelter. They have been recorded from shallow and deeper waters (over 500 m), but the majority of the species live in reef

  8. Reacquisition of New Meristematic Sites Determines the Development of a New Organ, the Cecidomyiidae Gall on Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê G. S. Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of gall shapes has been attributed to the feeding behavior of the galling insects and how the host tissues react to galling stimuli, which ultimately culminate in a variable set of structural responses. A superhost of galling herbivores, Copaifera langsdorffii, hosts a bizarre “horn-shaped” leaflet gall morphotype induced by an unidentified species of Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. By studying the development of this gall morphotype under the anatomical and physiological perspectives, we demonstrate the symptoms of the Cecidomyiidae manipulation over plant tissues, toward the cell redifferentiation and tissue neoformation. The most prominent feature of this gall is the shifting in shape from growth and development phase toward maturation, which imply in metabolites accumulation detected by histochemical tests in meristem-like group of cells within gall structure. We hypothesize that the development of complex galls, such as the horn-shaped demands the reacquisition of cell meristematic competence. Also, as mature galls are green, their photosynthetic activity should be sufficient for their oxygenation, thus compensating the low gas diffusion through the compacted gall parenchyma. We currently conclude that the galling Cecidomyiidae triggers the establishment of new sites of meristematic tissues, which are ultimately responsible for shifting from the young conical to the mature horn-shaped gall morphotype. Accordingly, the conservative photosynthesis activity in gall site maintains tissue homeostasis by avoiding hypoxia and hipercarbia in the highly compacted gall tissues.

  9. Senescent stem-galls in trees of Eremanthus erythropappus as a resource for arboreal ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda B. de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Senescent stem-galls in trees of Eremanthus erythropappus as a resource for arboreal ants. Members of the dipteran families Tephritidae and Cecidomyiidae are inducers of stem-galls in Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeish (Asteraceae, a tree common in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. When senescent, these galls become available to other organisms, such as ants. The present study describes a community of ants having benefitted from this process of ecosystem-engineering. The colonies in question inhabit the senescent stem-galls of trees of E. erythropappus and were examined in view of answering the following questions: i whether the presence of stem-galls had any bearing on the richness, composition, or size of the ant colonies therein; and ii whether the ants displayed any preferences regarding the shape and/or size of the galls. The study was conducted in populations of E. erythropappus trees near the city of Ouro Preto, MG. A total of 227 galls were collected, 14% of which were occupied by ants, belonging to eight different species. Half of the species occupied galls of both morphotypes (fusiform and globular, although we observed a marked preference for larger, globular shapes. Overall, our results showed the galls to be an effective and abundant resource, helping to maintain the diversity of the ants in the canopy. We also observed the occurrence of outstations and polydomic nests, although an in-depth examination of the influence of galls on this type of structuring has not been investigated.

  10. Life-history traits in insect inclusions associated with bamboo galls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EI'ICHISHIBATA; MASATOITO

    2005-01-01

    We examined the life-history traits of insect inclusions in bamboo galls induced by the gall maker, Aiolomorphus rhopaloides Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) in a bamboo stand. Eight hymenopteran and one dipteran species were detected using soft X-ray photography of the galls and insect emergence from the galls. Aiolomorphus rhopaloides was the gall maker and Diomorus aiolomorphi Kamijo (Torymidae) was its inquiline.Homoporusjaponicus Ashmead (Pteromalidae) and Eupelmus sp. (Eupelmidae) are likely to be primary parasitoids of the larva ofA. rhopaloides. Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae),Sycophila sp. (Eurytomidae) and Norbanus sp. (Pteromalidae) are thought to be facultative hyperparasitoids. Cecidomyiidae sp. is thought to be the inquiline ofA. rhopaloides galls.Leptacis sp. (Platygastridae) probably parasitizes the larvae of Cecidomyiidae sp. Larvae of A. rhopaloides appeared in galls in July with the percentage of larvae decreasing in September, before overwintering as pupae. The growth ofD. aiolomorphi larvae within galls may be faster than that ofA. rhopaloides. The percentage of parasitoids in galls was low in July, but increased until winter. Aiolomorphus rhopaloides and D. aiolomorphi emerged from mid-April to early May, and from late April to early June, respectively. From overwintering galls, six other hymenopteran species emerged between late May and late June; one dipteran Cecidomyiidae sp. emerged between mid-April and early May.

  11. Effect of Temperature on Galling Behavior of SS 316, 316 L and 416 Under Self-Mated Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, A. P.; Limaye, P. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    Galling behavior of three different stainless steels (SS 316, 316 L and 416) was evaluated at room temperature and 300 °C under a self-mated condition. An indigenously fabricated galling tester was used to evaluate the galling performance of mated materials as per ASTM G196-08 standard. The variation in frictional torque was recorded online during the test to assess the onset of galling. The galling50 (G50) stress value was used to compare the galling resistance of a combination of materials, and the results indicate a significant influence of temperature on the galling resistance of the materials tested. This has been attributed to the decrease in hardness and yield strength at elevated temperature which results in softening of the steel and limits its ability to resist severe deformation. Scanning electron micrographs of the galled surface reflected a severe plastic deformation in sliding direction, and a typical adhesive wear mechanism is prevalent during the galling process.

  12. Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladdertorsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommonentity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constantfactor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobilegall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies.GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females.We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who wasoriginally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation butwas eventually found with a two staged torsion of thegall bladder with twisting of the Riedel's lobe (partof tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). Thistogether, has not been reported in literature, to thebest of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopiccholecystectomy and she had an uneventful postoperativeperiod. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemmain the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosisand intervention is necessary, with extra care whileoperating as the anatomy is generally distorted. Thefundus first approach can be useful due to alteredanatomy in the region of Calot's triangle. Laparoscopiccholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery.

  13. Vesícula biliar aberrante Aberrant gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertha López Milhet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 65 años de edad, que ingresó en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía Endoscópica a causa de un dolor mantenido y sensación de pesadez debajo de la costilla derecha, además de trastornos dispépticos. Después de los estudios de laboratorio e imaginológicos, se diagnosticó la vesícula biliar ocupada por cálculos y con poco volumen. Durante la intervención quirúrgica se encontró un piocolecisto y otra vesícula de características normales en cara anterior del hígado. Por resultar una localización infrecuente y aberrante de la vesícula biliar, además de aparecer doble, se decide exponer las características clínicas y los resultados quirúrgicos de este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional.This is the case of a patient aged 65 admitted in the National Center of Endoscopic Center due to a sustained pain and heaviness sensation under the right rib and also dyspeptic disorders. After the laboratory and imaging studies, authors diagnosed a gall bladder occupied by calculi and with a low volume. During surgical intervention there was noted a gall bladder and other gall bladder of normal features in the lower face of liver. Because it is a infrequent and aberrant location of the gall bladder, authors decide to show international and national scientific community the clinical features and the surgical results of this case.

  14. Gall-Stone Ileus – Own Patients And Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholelithiasis is diagnosed in 10% of the population of the USA and Western Europe. A rare but serious complication of cholelithiasis is the obstruction of the digestive tract caused by a gall-stone (Bernard syndrome. It can add up to 1-4% of the mechanical obstructions of a small intestine among the general population but it can result in nonstriangulational mechanical obstructions of a small intestine in 25% cases among the patients over the age of 65.

  15. Constraints on growth and allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) caused by a cynipid gall wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P A; Hartnett, D C

    1991-10-01

    Insect herbivory can have important effects on plant life histories and architecture. We quantified the impact that a cynipid gall wasp, Antistrophus silphii, had on growth, reproduction, and biomass allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium growing in the tallgrass prairie of northeastern Kansas. Experimentally galled individual Silphium shoots (ramets) had reduced shoot growth, leaf and flower head production, and delayed flowering compared to gall-free control shoots. Gall formation completely halted normal apical growth in 65% of the shoots. Galling did not affect individual flower head weight, the numbers of achenes per flower head or achene weight. Silphium plants (genets) with a high proportion of galled shoots had lower total biomass, a lower proportion of total biomass allocated to flower heads, higher allocation to leaves, but no change in allocation to stems or rhizome. High gall densities reduced the number of flower heads per plant and shortened the time between flower head initiation and maturity. An adaptive interpretation of these results would be that the survivorship and future performance of galled Silphium may be promoted by maintaining allocation to rhizome. However, reduced shoot growth and delayed reproduction in galled Silphium may weaken its competitive ability and reduce pollination success, so that any adaptive advantage to Silphium's allocation responses to galls may be outweighed by disadvantages from its growth and flowering phenology responses. We conclude that a more parsimonious interpretation of these results is that gall-induced allocation changes are due to architectural constraints placed by galls on meristem activity, rather than to any adaptive response on the part of the plant.

  16. Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

  17. New species of Tetradiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia (Fabaceae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan José; Corró-molas, Barbara; Alfonso, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Tetradiplosis inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia are described from Argentina: Tetradiplosis panghitruz Martínez n. sp. and Tetradiplosis rayen Martínez n. sp. Tetradiplosispanghitruz induces multilocular galls on vegetative stems, whereas T. rayen induces unilocular galls containing multiple larvae on the rachis of the developing inflorescences. The adult male, female, pupa and larva are described and illustrated for both species. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  18. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

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    Jochen eGohlke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumours. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (‘omic’ approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumour formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant.

  19. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipschild, P

    1988-12-17

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the same sex and age. The slides were presented in a random order to five leading iridologists without supplementary information. The prevalence of the disease was estimated at 56%. The median validity was 51% with 54% sensitivity and 52% specificity. These results were close to chance validity (iota = 0.03). None of the iridologists reached a high validity. The median interperformer consistency was 60%. This was only slightly higher than chance consistency (kappa = 0.18). This study showed that iridology is not a useful diagnostic aid.

  20. Black Body Detector Temperature from Gall and Planck Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2009-05-01

    The laws of Gall (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) and Planck are generally defined with zero intensity at 0 K. However actual measurements involve detectors above absolute zero. These detectors must also be treated as approximate black body radiators. The zero intensity reference point is thus defined by the radiated intensity at the detector temperature. Planck's law thus becomes ( IP=c1λ^51e^c2λT;-1-c1λ^51e^c2λTd;-1) where Td is the detector temperature. Provided that T>Td;;;IP;is;always>0. Thus from a Planck perspective, wavelength increase should not be a factor in defining detector temperature. The corresponding expression for Gall's law is ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb-σTd^6b^2λe^-λTdb) . Above the crossover wavelength (http://absimage.aps.org/image/MWSMAR09-2008-000004.pdf), even though T>Td;;;IG<0. From a Gall perspective, this sets a limit on the long wavelength range for a given detector temperature. Longer wavelength measurements require lower detector temperatures. For a 6000 K black body radiator, the long wavelength crossover limits for detectors at 300 K, 100 K and 4 K are 9.138, 12.066 and 21.206 microns respectively.

  1. A cadaveric study involving variations in external morphology of gall bladder

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    Anjankar Vaibhav Prakash, Panshewdikar Pradnyesh N, Joshi DS, Anjankar Ashish Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in the pattern of the extra hepatic biliary tract are usual and are commonly encountered during some radiological investigations or in operation theaters. Such Variations of the morphology of Gall bladder have been well documented in the literature for many years but a detail morphological study of variations of the gall bladder and its incidence is very rare. In this era of quick results, increasing use of diagnostic and interventional procedures makes it important to study variations of gall bladder morphology. Most of the interventional procedures in this modern era are done laparoscopically and there is tremendous increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. So, sound knowledge of possible variations in morphology of gall bladder is important. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken on 90 cadaveric liver and gall bladder specimens in terms of length, maximum transverse diameter, shape, external variations of gall bladder, Interior and length of gall bladder below the inferior border of the liver. Results: GB had length ranging between 7 and 10 cm, transverse diameter between 2 and 5 cm. The commonest shape observed in this study was pear shaped in 82.22% of cases. The length of gall bladder below the inferior border of liver varied between 0.4 and 2.5 cm. Conclusion: The growing importance of such variations, lie not only from the point of biliary disease but also with respect to the various invasive techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct disease.

  2. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae: predatory ants and parasitoids

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    MENDONÇA M. de S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae. The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs.

  3. [The reception of Franz Joseph Gall's doctrine on phrenology in Holland shortly after 1800].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiningen, T

    1997-01-01

    Between 1800 and 1810 Gall's 'Hersen-Schedelleer' [= doctrine on phrenology] received increasing attention in Holland, just as it did in Germany and France. Gall had tried to connect visible human skull marks with brain anatomy, brain functioning and behaviour, a relationship in which he also compared man and animal. Scientists as well as people in non-scientific circles tried to find an answer to the question to what extent Gall's ideas on human brain anatomy and the development of the skull in relation to behaviour were acceptable. Besides there was a growing interest in the possible consequences of Gall's theory for moral life. However, Gall's doctrine was largely based on unproved and unprovable assumptions. Gall's visit to Holland, in the early spring of 1806, had a polarizing effect on supporters and adversaries, as it had had in Germany. In Holland Gerard Vrolik, professor at the Amsterdam Athenaeum Illustre, published the first treatise on this subject, in which he revealed himself to be a hesitant and prudent supporter of Gall's theories. From early 1804 Jacob Eliza Doornik, physician and scientist, and Martinus Stuart, theologist and historian, played a leading part in the discussion on this subject. The former opposed all aspects of Gall's theory. The latter - contrary to what one would expect - supported Gall in every way, with both regard to his explanation of brain anatomy and physiology and to his views on the relationship between the shape of the brain and the development of the skull. Remarkably he accepted Gall's materialism and rejected his fatalism. We can only explain Stuart's defence of Gall's moral views supposing he considered these in a religious framework. In Stuart's conviction God had given man a certain tendency to evil which man has to accept as a necessity in the fight against evil and the search for good. ...

  4. Sink Status and Photosynthetic Rate of the Leaflet Galls Induced by Bystracoccus mataybae (Eriococcidae on Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae

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    Denis C. Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The galling insect Bystracoccus mataybae (Eriococcidae induces green and intralaminar galls on leaflets of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae, and promotes a high oxidative stress in host plant tissues. This biotic stress is assumed by the histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS, whose production alters gall physiology. Thus, we hypothesize that high levels of nutrients are accumulated during gall development in response to a local maintenance of photosynthesis and to the galling insect activity. Moreover, the maintenance of low levels of photosynthesis may guarantee O2 production and CO2 consumption, as well as may avoid hypoxia and hypercarbia in gall tissues. To access the photosynthesis performance, the distribution of chlorophyllous tissues and the photochemical and carboxylation rates in gall tissues were analyzed. In addition, histochemical tests for hydrogen peroxide and phenolic derivatives were performed to confirm the biotic stress, and set the possible sites where stress dissipation occurs. The contents of sugars and nitrogen were evaluated to quantify the gall sink. Currently, we assume that the homeostasis in gall tissues is ruptured by the oxidative stress promoted by the galling insect activity. Thus, to supply the demands of gall metabolism, the levels of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch increase in gall tissues. The low values of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm indicate a low photosynthetic performance in gall tissues. In addition, the decrease of PSII operating efficiency, (F’m–F’/F’m, and Rfd (instantaneous fluorescence decline ratio in light, to measure tissue vitality demonstrate that the tissues of B. mataybae galls are more susceptible to damage caused by stressors than the non-galled tissues. Thus, the high oxidative stress in gall developmental sites is dissipated not only by the accumulation of phenolic derivatives in the protoplast, but also of lignins in the

  5. Two new species of Selitrichodes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) inducing galls on Casuarina (Casuarinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Nicole; Moore, Aubrey; Brown, Bradley; Purcell, Matthew; Taylor, Gary S; La Salle, John

    2014-04-23

    Two new species of gall-inducing wasps, Selitrichodes casuarinae Fisher & La Salle sp. n. and Selitrichodes utilis Fisher & La Salle sp. n., are described from Micronesia (Guam, Rota and Palau Islands) and Australia respectively. These species induce galls on Casuarina and can cause extensive damage to the trees. Their status as pest or beneficial species is discussed.

  6. The effect of lubricant selection on galling in a model wear test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Schipper, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Galling is a known failure mechanism in sheet metal forming (SMF) processes. As a result of this wear process, the amount of waste increases, the production process becomes hard to control and eventually expensive maintenance is required in order to continue production. Delaying or avoiding galling

  7. Functional properties of laser effects on morphology of liver, gall bladder and bile ducts in cholelithiasis

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    Bakhtior Shamirzaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In 85 patients with calculous cholecystitis the preoperative preparation before laparoscopic cholecystectomy included irradiation of the area of gall bladder and epigastric puncture with low power magneto-infrared laser. The investigations performed revealed significant reduction of the liver and gall bladder changes both on the light optic and electron microscopic levels due to effects of low power laser irradiation.

  8. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

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    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent.

  9. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  10. Functional properties of laser effects on morphology of liver, gall bladder and bile ducts in cholelithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtior Shamirzaev

    2012-01-01

    In 85 patients with calculous cholecystitis the preoperative preparation before laparoscopic cholecystectomy included irradiation of the area of gall bladder and epigastric puncture with low power magneto-infrared laser. The investigations performed revealed significant reduction of the liver and gall bladder changes both on the light optic and electron microscopic levels due to effects of low power laser irradiation.

  11. Photosynthetic efficiency of Clusia arrudae leaf tissue with and without Cecidomyiidae galls

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    GW. Fernandes

    Full Text Available Leaf galls induced by a still undescribed new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera are frequent on leaves of Clusia arrudae Planchon & Tirana (Clusiaceae in the rupestrian fields at 1400 m a.s.l. in Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Galls were 7.1 ± 0.7 mm in diameter, one chambered with only one larva inside. Gall tissue is green and soft. Assessments of photosynthetic capacity using chlorophyll-a fluorescence measurements revealed that photosynthetic performance of gall tissue and healthy leaf tissue were rather similar. Hence, the morphological changes due to gall development were not associated with significant changes in the photosynthetic capacity of the tissue.

  12. Rare presentation of gall bladder tuberculosis in a non immuno-compromised patient

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    Pawan Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The gall bladder is least common intraabdominal organ to be involved by tuberculosis. It is either part of systemic miliary tuberculosis or abdominal tuberculosis. Isolated gall bladder tuberculosis is even rarer, can presents either as calculus or acalculus cholecystitis. Gall bladder tuberculosis presenting as a localized perforation with a sinus formation into anterior abdominal wall is unreported complication in a non immuno-compromised person. A 48-year old female presented with a gradually increasing swelling in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound showed superficial collection over right hypochondrium with intraperitoneal extension. Computed tomography showed localized gall bladder perforation with extension to the abdominal wall. Patient underwent emergency exploration and cholecystectomy with excision of sinus tract and drainage of abdominal wall abscess. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous cholecystitis suggestive of tuberculosis of gall bladder with extension into the sinus tract. She had an uneventful recovery and was treated with 6-month antitubercular therapy after surgery.

  13. Matters of sex and gender in F. J. Gall's Organology: a primary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Tabea

    2014-01-01

    The originator of phrenology, F. J. Gall (1758-1828), saw himself as a natural scientist and physiologist. His approach consisted of brain anatomy but also of palpating skulls and inferring mental faculties. Unlike some of the philosophical principles underlying Gall's work, his conception of sex/gender has not yet been examined in detail. In this article, I will focus on Gall's treatment of men and women, his idea of sex differences, and how far an assumed existence of dichotomous sexes influenced his work. In examining his primary writings, I will argue that Gall held some contradictory views concerning the origin and manifestation of sex/gender characteristics, which were caused by the collision of his naturalistic ideas and internalized gender stereotypes. I will conclude that Gall did not aim at deducing or legitimizing sex/gender relations scientifically, but that he tried to express metaphysical reasons for a given social order in terms of functional brain mechanisms.

  14. Detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp in gall bladder of sheep slaughtered in Mosul, Iraq

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    E. G. Suleiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study revealed the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium in the fluid and tissue of gall bladder of sheepwhich is slaughtered in Mosul city by using different diagnostic techniques, including direct smear method, staining method bymodified Zeil-Nelseen stain, scraping of mucosal layer of gall bladder and histological examination, the percentage ofinfection 20% and there were significant differences in the percentages of infection between gall bladder 20% and fecalsamples 41%. The histological study showed that the oocyst of Cryptosporidium was attached on the surface of the epithelialcells of gall bladder. The high percentage of infection appeared in ewes was 30% and there was no significant differences inthe infection of gall bladder between rams and ewes.

  15. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tiwary, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB) and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs.

  16. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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    Nikhil Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs.

  17. Galling insects are bioindicators of environmental quality in a Conservation Unit

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    André Portugal Santana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls are well distributed across the World and among plant families. Their diversity can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented. These inventories also help to understand the morphological patterns of the galls, based on their most common shape, color, host botanical families, inducers and galled organs. This study is about an inventory of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde, Brazil. This conservation unit is an urban park strongly anthropized in a transition area of Cerrado and Mata Atlântica. Galls from four different trails were observed, and collected monthly during one year. The terminology morphospecies was used to distinguish the galls because the identification of the inducers were not always possible. Seventy five morphospecies of galls belonging to 43 host plant species of 24 botanical families were observed. Mostly of the galls was induced by Diptera:Cecidomyiidae, in Fabaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common traits were the globoid shape and green color. The leaves were the most frequent galled organ and followed by the stems. All these tendencies had been already observed in other inventories. Comparing current results with other studies at similar areas, we can assume that the Parque Estadual Serra Verde is very important for conservation. Urban green areas are subject to high disturbance and degradation but also increase the quality of life for the population inhabiting the areas nearby. The diversity of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde reflects an area with high levels of stress but with moderate botanical diversity. These features make this protected area an important site for the continuous conservation and regeneration, and highlight the environmental value of Parque Estadual Serra Verde.

  18. An Evaluation of Main Idea Strategy Instruction in Four Commercial Reading Programs: Implications for Students with Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Chard, David; Hoppes, Mary K.; Renouf, Kristin; Gardill, M. Cathleen

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates four commercial reading programs at the second, fourth, and sixth grade levels with respect to main idea instructional practices and readability of text. Evaluates the type of main idea tasks and main idea statements, as well as placement of explicit main idea statements in the text. Discusses implications for practitioners meeting…

  19. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. Hemiptera: Psylloidea

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    Ariane C Castro¹

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  20. The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

    Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

  1. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  2. Patterns of Gall Bladder Wall Thickening in Dengue Fever: A Mirror of the Severity of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jitendra Premjibhai; Mohan, Chander; Vora, Maulik

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem with an increased incidence in recent years. Gall bladder wall thickening has been reported as one of the most common findings in dengue fever. There is a paucity of literature regarding the various patterns of gall bladder wall thickening in dengue fever and their significance in predicting the severity of disease. Out of 93 seropositive patients included in the study, 54 patients with dengue fever had gall bladder wall thickening. 4 patterns of gall bladder wall thickening are demonstrated in this study. A uniform echogenic pattern in 20 patients, striated or tram track pattern in 11 patients, an asymmetric pattern in 2 patients and a honeycombing pattern in 21 patients. The range of patterns of wall thickening included normal wall thickening or uniform echogenic wall thickening in DF without warning signs, a striated or tram track pattern, and a honeycomb pattern in severe DF. Serial ultrasound done on consecutive alternate days revealed a change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening according to the severity of disease. The present study revealed 4 distinct patterns of gall bladder wall thickening. The uniform echogenic pattern was found to be more prevalent in dengue fever without warning signs, while the honeycomb pattern was found to be more prevalent in severe dengue fever. A change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening on subsequent serial ultrasound can predict the severity of the disease.

  3. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults.

  4. L’INSEGNAMENTO DELLE SCIENZE IN EUROPA: ASPETTI LINGUISTICI A CONFRONTO (ITALIA, DANIMARCA, GALLES

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    Silvia Marianna Bollone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La componente linguistica riveste un ruolo prioritario nell’insegnamento-apprendimento delle scienze, specificamente prescritto dai programmi scolastici attualmente vigenti in Europa e pienamente accolto dalle Indicazioni nazionali per il curricolo della scuola dell'infanzia e del primo ciclo d’istruzione, di cui D.M. 254/2012. Il presente lavoro intende indagare l’incidenza dell’aspetto linguistico-comunicativo nel processo di insegnamento-apprendimento delle scienze nell’ambito di tre differenti contesti europei: l’Italia, la Danimarca e il Galles, nella fascia di età compresa all’incirca tra gli 11 e 14 anni, corrispondente per l’Italia alla Scuola secondaria di primo grado, per la Danimarca ad un segmento della Folkeskole, e per il Galles alla fase iniziale della Secondary School. La ricerca, incentrata su uno specifico argomento del programma di scienze comune ai tre sistemi scolastici, prevede un’analisi dei programmi ministeriali, delle programmazioni degli insegnanti, dei manuali in uso nelle scuole, nell’intento di definire il ruolo assegnato agli aspetti linguistici nell’insegnamento delle scienze sia livello legislativo-istituzionale che nella quotidiana pratica didattica.  Teaching science in Europe: language issues compared (Italy, Denmark, Wales The linguistic component plays a major role in the teaching and learning of science, specifically prescribed by the curriculum currently in force in Europe and fully supported by the National Guidelines for the curriculum in kindergarten and the first cycle of education, regulated by DM 254/2012. This paper aims to investigate the linguistic-communicative impact in the process of teaching and learning science in three different European contexts: Italy, Denmark and Wales in children aged 11 to 14, corresponding in Italy to Middle school, in Denmark to a segment of the Folkeskole, and in Wales to the initial phase of the Secondary school. The research focused on a

  5. Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nate B; Cook, Lyn G

    2010-08-25

    The tree of life is significantly asymmetrical - a result of differential speciation and extinction - but general causes of such asymmetry are unclear. Differences in niche partitioning are thought to be one possible general explanation. Ecological specialization might lead to increases in diversification rate or, alternatively, specialization might limit the evolutionary potential of specialist lineages and increase their extinction risk. Here we compare the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritious and less defended, and they do so in a favorable microhabitat that may also provide some protection from natural enemies. We use sister-taxon comparisons to test whether gall-inducing lineages are more host-specific than non-galling lineages, and more or less diverse than non-gallers. We evaluate the significance of diversity bipartitions under Equal Rates Markov models, and use maximum likelihood model-fitting to test for shifts in diversification rates. We find that, although gall-inducing insect groups are more host-specific than their non-galling relatives, there is no general significant increase in diversification rate in gallers. However, gallers are found at both extremes - two gall-inducing lineages are exceptionally diverse (Euurina sawflies on Salicaceae and Apiomorpha scale insects on Eucalytpus), and one gall-inducing lineage is exceptionally species-poor (Maskellia armored scales on Eucalyptus). The effect of ecological specialization on diversification rates is complex in the case of gall-inducing insects, but host range may be an important factor. When a gall-inducing lineage has a host range approximate to that of its non-galling sister, the gallers are more diverse. When the non-galler clade has a much wider host range than the galler, the non-galler is also much more diverse. There are

  6. Candida tropicalis infection in a term neonate with gall bladder masses and infective endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamta Jajoo; Vishal Kumar; Vishnu K Goyal; Amit Garg

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candidaendocarditis is extremely rare in term neonates, and gall bladder involvement due to candidemia has never been reported amongst neonates and infants. A term, appropriate for gestational age neonate developedCandidatropicalis blood stream infection in second week of life. He was started on conventional amphotericin B. However, he failed to show any clinical improvement, and candidemia keep on persisting. Repeat sanctuary sites screening revealed multiple echogenic masses in heart (vegetations) and gall bladder. On changing the treatment to liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole, he recovered clinically, echogenic masses in gall bladder disappeared, and intracardiac vegetations decreased in size.

  7. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  8. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Tayel

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE, was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes.

  9. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes.

  10. Anti-inflammatory triterpenes from Pistacia terebinthus galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Larza, Eva M; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Prieto, José M; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Ríos, José Luis

    2002-04-01

    From the galls of Pistacia terebinthus we obtained an extract that proved to be effective against chronic and acute inflammation. Now we report on the isolation and identification of three triterpenes: two tirucallane-type lanostanoids and one oleanane, which we have identified as masticadienonic acid (1), masticadienolic acid (2), and morolic acid (3), respectively. All of them showed effectiveness on the mouse ear inflammation induced by repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and on the phospholipase A2-induced foot paw edema. The pharmacological activity of the compounds was ratified by a histological study of the ear samples. In addition, they inhibited leukotriene B4 production in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A 23187.

  11. Ptotic Gall Bladder with Hepatic Masses: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gall bladder (GB may be found in a variety of abnormal positions. Most of them are due to arrested development of embryonic growth at different stages. A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to our radiology unit for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the liver for the lesions identified in abdominal ultrasonography (US and computed tomography (CT. MRI showed that there was a lobulated heterogenous mass in the left lobe of the liver and a smaller one in the right lobe of the liver with the same appearance. The inferior pole of the liver was located in the pelvic space, and the GB, which contained sludges and stones, was lying down to the upper pelvic space. Hepatic masses were considered to be hemangiomas, and GB was diagnosed as ptotic GB with luminal sludge and stones. In this case, especially, MR imaging helped the surgeon to plan a proper approach to the GB in abnormal localization.

  12. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-28

    Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated

  13. Developmental pathway from leaves to galls induced by a sap-feeding insect on Schinus polygamus (Cav. Cabrera (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRACIELA G. DIAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galling sap-feeding insects are presumed to cause only minor changes in host plant tissues, because they usually do not require development of nutritive tissues for their own use. This premise was examined through comparison of the histometry, cytometry and anatomical development of non-galled leaves and galls of Calophya duvauae (Scott (Hemiptera: Calophyidae on Schinus polygamus (Cav. Cabrera (Anacardiaceae. Cell fates changed from non-galled leaves to galls during the course of tissue differentiation. C. duvauae caused changes in dermal, ground, and vascular systems of the leaves of S. polygamus. Its feeding activity induced the homogenization of the parenchyma, and the neoformation of vascular bundles and trichomes. The histometric and cytometric data revealed compensatory effects of hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy in the epidermis, with hyperplasia predominating in the adaxial epidermis. There was a balance between these processes in the other tissues. Thus, we found major differences between the developmental pathways of non-galled leaves and galls. These changes were associated with phenotypic alterations related to shelter and appropriate microenvironmental conditions for the gall inducer. The nondifferentiation of a typical nutritive tissue in this case was compared to other non-phylogenetically related arthropod gall systems, and is suggested to result from convergence associated with the piercing feeding apparatus of the corresponding gall-inducer.

  14. Patterns of gall infestation in Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. in a forest-savannah ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Castro Nunes Santos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are the result of a specific interaction between an inducer and a host plant. The species Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. occurs in abundance in semideciduous seasonal forest ecotones and adjacent open formations. In the ecological reserve Quedas do Rio Bonito, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this species is affected by a single gall morphotype. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the structural complexity of the host (test of the structural complexity hypothesis and the distance between hosts (test of the resource concentration hypothesis affect gall density in H. byrsonimifolia and to characterize the spatial distribution of the infestation. The results corroborate the two hypotheses tested, suggesting a metapopulation pattern of gall infestation in H. byrsonimifolia. Gallers were more successful in abrupt forest-savannah transition environments, which may be associated with greater stress-induced host vulnerability that plants usually experience in ecotones.

  15. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  16. Functional properties of laser effects on morphology of liver, gall bladder and bile ducts in cholelithiasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakhtior Shamirzaev

    2012-01-01

    In 85 patients with calculous cholecystitis the preoperative preparation before laparoscopic cholecystectomy included irradiation of the area of gall bladder and epigastric puncture with low power magneto-infrared laser...

  17. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VI. Fergusobia from galls on Angophora in Australia, with description of F. colbrani n. sp. and key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Taylor, Gary S; Nelson, Leigh A; Yeates, David; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2014-08-25

    Collection data and biological information is presented on the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/ Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism inducing galls on Angophora in Australia. Three species and two morphospecies have been recognised. Fergusobia colbrani Davies n. sp. is described from soft spheroid leaf galls on Angophora floribunda. It is characterised by a combination of morphological characters including a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with an angular spicule having a notched tip and mid-length leptoderan bursa. A key to the species and morphospecies of nematodes collected from Angophora is presented. Possible relationships of these organisms are discussed based on evidence from the nematode morphology, gall forms, and the morphology of the dorsal shield of the associated Fergusonina fly larvae. 

  18. In vivo toxicity studies on gall extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn. Retz. (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher toxic effect with that of high total phenolic and flavonoids content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula.

  19. Incidence of gall stone formation in acromegalic patients on octreotide therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi A Chakravarty; Ajay Ajmani; Smita Manchanda; Bindu Kulshreshtha; Shweta Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Octreotide, a long-acting synthetic somatostatin analog, has been widely used for ac-romegalic patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects and gall stones are predominant side effects. We report incidence of gall stones in our cohort of acromegalic patients treated with octreotide therapy. Design: Retrospective case observational study. Setting: Endocrinology Unit, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Hospital, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Patients of acromegaly on primary or secondary oct...

  20. Use of molecular identification techniques for the study of parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. A three-year monitoring of the indigenous parasitoids of this pest was performed by collecting specimens inside the galls. Each specimen was processed by molecular analysis. DNA was analysed by amplification and sequencing of the COI gene, coding for cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1. Each sequence was compared with reference sequences from adults sampled i...

  1. Native and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was recently reported in Italy and threatens European chestnut orchards and native forests. Of Chinese origin, this species has invaded Japan, Korea, the USA, Nepal and Europe and in each region it has been attacked by parasitoids exploiting oak gall wasps. Classical biological control using the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) successfully reduced infestation in Japan. Subsequent work in Japan and Korea showed...

  2. The effect of Quercus brantii gall extract on burn wound healing in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Najafi, Somaye; Zandifar, Alireza; Manouchehri, Navid; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Quercus brantii galls extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of the galls of Q. brantii was used to treat the induced burn wounds on the back of 32 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. The groups were treated by placebo, 1%, 2% and 4% concentration gall extract gels for 14 days and the efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound area, as well as histological and molecular characteristics. Results: The mean wound surface in the 14th day, in all groups treated by Q. brantii gall extracts were larger than control group and the differences were statistically significant (P=0.043). The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Analysis of nitric oxide and platelet derived growth factor concentration in wound fluids in the 5th day of study showed that there was not any significant difference between groups (P=0.468 and 0.312 respectively). Fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) concentration in the wound fluids, was significantly higher in group treated with 1% gall extract gel in comparison to the control group (P=0.026). Conclusion: Our results could not prove the significant positive effect of Q. brantii galls extract on the burning wound healing. More studies with more groups treated with different doses of the Q. brantii extract are recommended. PMID:27872712

  3. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae): edge effect and use as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújol, Walter Santos; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Isadora Portes Abraham; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior) were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i) because of their host-specificity, (ii) they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii) present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions.

  4. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae: edge effect and use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Santos de Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i because of their host-specificity, (ii they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1589-1597. Epub 2011 December 01.

  5. Histopathogenesis of the Galls Induced by Nothanguina phyllobia in Solanum elaeagnifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J A; Orr, C C; Robinson, A F

    1980-04-01

    The histopathogenesis of the foliar galls induced by Nothanguina phyllobia Thorne in Solanum elaeagnilolium Cav. was examined via serial sections prepared from plant shoots at 11 time intervals (0.5-30 days) following inoculation. Nematodes infected the blades and petioles of young leaves surrounding the shoot apex. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the palisade, pith, cortical, and vascular parenchyma resulted in the formation of confluent leaf, petiole, and stem galls up to 25 cm(3) in volume. Externally, leaf galls were irregular, light-green, convoluted spheroid bulges distending the abaxial surface. Mature galls contained a cavity lined with parenchymogenous nutritive tissue comprising intercellular spaces and actively dividing hypertrophied cells. These cells contained granular cytoplasm, hypertrophied nuclei, and brightly stained large nucleoli. Vascular tissues were not discernibly affected during the early stages of gall development. As gall development progressed, however, vascular elements were often displaced and disoriented. The histopathology of this nematode indicates that N. phyllobia is a highly specialized parasite and, for that reason, is suitable as a biological control agent.

  6. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy.

  7. Manipulation of host plant cells and tissues by gall-inducing insects and adaptive strategies used by different feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; Isaias, R M S; Fernandes, G W; Ferreira, B G; Carneiro, R G S; Fuzaro, L

    2016-01-01

    Biologists who study insect-induced plant galls are faced with the overwhelming diversity of plant forms and insect species. A challenge is to find common themes amidst this diversity. We discuss common themes that have emerged from our cytological and histochemical studies of diverse neotropical insect-induced galls. Gall initiation begins with recognition of reactive plant tissues by gall inducers, with subsequent feeding and/or oviposition triggering a cascade of events. Besides, to induce the gall structure insects have to synchronize their life cycle with plant host phenology. We predict that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in gall induction, development and histochemical gradient formation. Controlled levels of ROS mediate the accumulation of (poly)phenols, and phytohormones (such as auxin) at gall sites, which contributes to the new cell developmental pathways and biochemical alterations that lead to gall formation. The classical idea of an insect-induced gall is a chamber lined with a nutritive tissue that is occupied by an insect that directly harvests nutrients from nutritive cells via its mouthparts, which function mechanically and/or as a delivery system for salivary secretions. By studying diverse gall-inducing insects we have discovered that insects with needle-like sucking mouthparts may also induce a nutritive tissue, whose nutrients are indirectly harvested as the gall-inducing insects feeds on adjacent vascular tissues. Activity of carbohydrate-related enzymes across diverse galls corroborates this hypothesis. Our research points to the importance of cytological and histochemical studies for elucidating mechanisms of induced susceptibility and induced resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    ... (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues...

  9. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  10. ALMA: the completion of the 25 Europeans antennas: focus on main performances, problems found during erection and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco; Giacomel, Luigino; Giacomel, Stefano; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Formentin, Federico

    2014-07-01

    The 2013 saw the completion of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The array consists of 66 antennas and operates in Chile at the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. 25 of the 12 meter diameter antennas have been delivered by the AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the results obtained by the antennas during the different test campaign and a summary of the problems aroused during the erection and the assembly phases and the relative lesson learned. The results of the engineering performances and antenna systems, performed during the acceptance phases of the first antennas, have shown the full correspondence between what was expected during the design phase and what has been achieved in the final product, with a difference of less than 10% and the trend tends to be conservative. As for "on sky antennas performances", all the tests done in the 25 antennas showed excellent results. The antenna All Sky Pointing Error and Offset Pointing Error with and without metrology correction turned to be always excellent. The Fast Motion Capability with the tracking requirements after a step motion was better than an order of magnitude compared to the requests. Four years of on-site activities and the various phases of construction and assembly of 25 antennas have been a major challenge for the European Consortium. The problems encountered in this phase were many and varied: interfaces issues, design and foundation problems, manufacturing and assembly errors, electrical installation, shipment delays, human errors, adverse weather conditions, financial aspects, schedule, etc. The important is being prepared with an "a priori", that is a risk assessment which helps ensuring the best solution for the complete customer satisfaction of the scientific and technical requests. Despite the already excellent

  11. Gall bladder dysmotility : a risk factor for gall stone formation in hypertriglyceridaemia and reversal on triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, IJAM; Smelt, A.H.; Ledeboer, M; Hollum, ME; Biemond, I.; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Meinders, AE; Lamers, CHBW; Masclee, AAM

    2003-01-01

    Background and aim: The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms responsible for the increased risk of gall stone disease in hypertriglycericlaemia (HTG) and to compare the effects of triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil on determinants of cholelithiasis (biliary lipid co

  12. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IV. Fergusobia from flat leaf galls on Eucalyptus and Corymbia, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2013-11-26

    Two new species of Fergusobia are described. Both were collected from flat leaf galls from South Australia, one on Eucalyptus microcarpa and the other on E. porosa. Fergusobia microcarpae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short, broadly rounded conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate to J-shaped males with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia porosae n. sp. Davies is similar in having an arcuate to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small conoid tail, an almost straight to arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and males that are almost straight to barely J-shaped with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. They differ in that the bodies of parthenogenetic and infective females of F. microcarpae n. sp. are more curved than in F. porosae n. sp. Other known similar forms of Fergusobia/Fergusonina galls are outlined and the larval shield morphologies of their associated mutualistic Fergusonina fly species are discussed where known. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from flat leaf galls from Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. is presented. Relationships of Fergusobia nematodes were inferred from analysis of sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Nematodes from flat leaf galls appeared in two clades. 

  13. Gall bladder dysmotility : a risk factor for gall stone formation in hypertriglyceridaemia and reversal on triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, IJAM; Smelt, A.H.; Ledeboer, M; Hollum, ME; Biemond, I.; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Meinders, AE; Lamers, CHBW; Masclee, AAM

    Background and aim: The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms responsible for the increased risk of gall stone disease in hypertriglycericlaemia (HTG) and to compare the effects of triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil on determinants of cholelithiasis (biliary lipid

  14. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorestoutcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult todiagnose on even computed tomography. GB has nosubmucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into themuscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacentorgans viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easilyinfiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extendedright hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreasmay necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or evenhepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgicalprocedures, when performed for GBC, is higher thanwhen performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC,even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven roleof neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionallyadvanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgeryin metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentallyafter cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperationfor completion extended cholecystectomy butunfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBChas a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in theWest and has, therefore, not received much attention.Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stonesis not recommended and there is no serum marker forscreening. With all factors pitched against it, it doesappear that GBC is a bad cancer per se !

  15. The neural evidence of the reflected appraisal process as a main path for learning about one's self-knowledge of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Yufang; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Self-knowledge has been defined as the accurate self-perceptions about how one typically thinks, feels, and behaves, and awareness of how those patterns are interpreted by others. Previous research has noted that the introspection and the reflected appraisal processes are two main avenues for learning about the self and that self-knowledge might be fully realized through the use of reflected appraisal from close others. However, due to the methodological difficulty in linking people's ratings on a trait to their behaviors, accuracy research using a behavioral criterion is quite limited. The current work examined the main source of learning about one's self-knowledge by investigating the time course of attention deployment both in the process of introspection and that of reflected appraisal. Twenty-five college students were first asked to rate their impressions of their classmates as well as a familiar other using personality-trait adjectives. Their electrophysiological data were then collected using the event-related potential (ERP) technology while they judged to which extent (1) an adjective can describe the self, (2) an adjective can describe a familiar other, (3) they agree with an adjective that their classmates believe can describe the self, and (4) they agree with an adjective that their classmates believe can describe a familiar other. Our electrophysiological data showed that classmates' positive evaluation of one's own trait elicited larger P2 than the positive self-evaluation of one's own trait. Further, classmates' negative evaluation of one's own trait elicited larger late positive component (LPC) than the negative self-evaluation of one's own trait. Results suggest that people allocate more attention to the process of reflected appraisal compared to the process of introspection, which further suggests that the reflected appraisal process might be the main source in learning about one's self-knowledge of personality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  16. Iatrogenic gall bladder perforations in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 200 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R; Channa, M A; Yousuf, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was done to evaluate the frequency of iatrogenic gall bladder perforation (IGBP) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to determine its association with gender, adhesions in right upper quadrant and types of gall bladder. This retrospective descriptive study included 200 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis at Jamal Noor Hospital and Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi from January 2007 to January 2009. Video recording of all 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed for the IGBP. The different factors; sex of the patient, type of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where applicable. In this study there were 173 females and 27 male patients. IGBP occurred in 51 patients (25.5%) and among them 40(23.12%) were females and 11(40.74%) males. Statistical analysis failed to prove male gender a significant factor in the IGBP (p=0.051). Spillage of stones occurred in 23 patients (11.5% in total study population). In 32(18.49%) patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis IGBP occured while in other cluster of 27 patients suffering from acute cholecystitis, empyema & mucocele, 19(70.37%) had IGBP. Hence the condition of gall bladder (acute cholecystitis, empyema and mucocele) was proved statistically a significant factor in IGBP (p=0.000). Adhesiolysis in right upper quadrant was required in 109 patients in whom 31 patients (28.44%) had IGBP while in 91 patients in whom no adhesiolysis was required, 20 patients (21.98%) had IGBP. Statistically no significant difference was present regarding this factor (p=0.296). In total of 51 patients of IGBP, fundus of gall bladder was the commonest site of perforation in 21(41.18%), followed by body of gall bladder in

  17. Decoding the Star-Forming Main Sequence or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Central Limit Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kelson, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Star-formation rates (SFR) of disk galaxies strongly correlate with stellar mass, with a small dispersion in SSFR at fixed mass, sigma~0.3 dex. With such small scatter this star-formation main sequence (SFMS) has been interpreted as deterministic and fundamental. Here we demonstrate that it is a simple consequence of the central limit theorem. Our derivation begins by approximating in situ stellar mass growth as a stochastic process, much like a random walk (where the expectation of SFR at any time is equal to the SFR at the previous time). We then derive expectation values for median SSFR of star-forming disks and their scatter over time. We generalize the results for stochastic changes in SFR that are not independent of each other but are correlated over time. For unbiased samples of (disk) galaxies, we derive an expectation that should be independent of mass, decline as 1/T, and have a relative scatter that is independent of mass and time. The derived SFMS and its evolution matches published data to z=10 ...

  18. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...

  19. Phylogeny of Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera:Pemphigidae) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear EF1α and mitochondrial COII genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-xiang Yang; Xiao-ming Chen; Nathan P. Havill; Ying Feng; Hang. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four...

  20. Influence of surface texture on the galling characteristics of lean duplex and austenitic stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Eriksen, J.; Olsson, M.;

    2010-01-01

    of sheet materials and lubricants. The strip reduction test, a severe sheet forming tribology test was used to simulate the conditions during ironing. This investigation shows that the risk of galling is highly dependent on the surface texture of the duplex steel. Trials were also performed......Two simulative test methods were used to study galling in sheet forming of two types of stainless steel sheet: austenitic (EN 1.4301) and lean duplex LDX 2101 (EN 1.4162) in different surface conditions. The pin-on-disc test was used to analyse the galling resistance of different combinations...... in an industrial tool used for high volume production of pump components, to compare forming of LDX 2101 and austenitic stainless steel with equal thickness. The forming forces, the geometry and the strains in the sheet material were compared for the same component. It was found that LDX steels can be formed...

  1. A plant needs ants like a dog needs fleas: Myrmelachista schumanni ants gall many tree species to create housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Frederickson, Megan E; Shepard, Glenn H; Yu, Douglas W

    2009-11-01

    Hundreds of tropical plant species house ant colonies in specialized chambers called domatia. When, in 1873, Richard Spruce likened plant-ants to fleas and asserted that domatia are ant-created galls, he incited a debate that lasted almost a century. Although we now know that domatia are not galls and that most ant-plant interactions are mutualisms and not parasitisms, we revisit Spruce's suggestion that ants can gall in light of our observations of the plant-ant Myrmelachista schumanni, which creates clearings in the Amazonian rain forest called "supay-chakras," or "devil's gardens." We observed swollen scars on the trunks of nonmyrmecophytic canopy trees surrounding supay-chakras, and within these swellings, we found networks of cavities inhabited by M. schumanni. Here, we summarize the evidence supporting the hypothesis that M. schumanni ants make these galls, and we hypothesize that the adaptive benefit of galling is to increase the amount of nesting space available to M. schumanni colonies.

  2. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  3. Iatrogenic gall bladder perforations in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 200 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R

    2010-01-01

    of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where.......5% in total study population). In 32(18.49%) patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis IGBP occured while in other cluster of 27 patients suffering from acute cholecystitis, empyema & mucocele, 19(70.37%) had IGBP. Hence the condition of gall bladder (acute cholecystitis, empyema and mucocele) was proved...

  4. Gall bladder perforation and biliary peritonitis in a young pregnant lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D K; Panwar, R S; Kumari, K

    2001-11-01

    A rare event of acute free perforation of gall bladder with biliary peritonitis in a case of calculous cholecystitis in a 28 years old pregnant lady occurring in the absence of the usual factors associated with gall stone disease is reported. The clinical features resembled acute appendicitis and a pre-operative diagnosis could not be made. It is suggested that a thorough attempt should be made to exclude conditions mimicking appendicitis, including those of the biliary system, on finding a normal appendix at emergency appendicectomy without hesitating to convert to full laparotomy if required.

  5. Quantification of Galling in Sheet Metal Forming by surface topography characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    One of the major problems in forming of stainless steel sheet is galling due to lubricant film breakdown leading to scoring and bad surface quality. In a Danish research programme new lubricants substituting the normally applied chlorinated paraffin oils are being developed and tested for this pu......One of the major problems in forming of stainless steel sheet is galling due to lubricant film breakdown leading to scoring and bad surface quality. In a Danish research programme new lubricants substituting the normally applied chlorinated paraffin oils are being developed and tested...

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF A LEAF VEIN GALL IN Caryocar brasiliense (CARYOCARACEAE TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMANO LEÃO DEMOLIN LEITE

    2011-01-01

    did not differ statistically among the three leaflets of C. brasiliense (right = 0.79, central = 0.78, left = 0.84. Galls/leaflet were most abundant on the distal (0.46 and median (0.52 regions compared to the proximal (0.24 longitudinal region of the leaflet. This gall/leaflet insect was most frequent on the central (1.01 portion than in the leaf margin (0.05 or near mid vein (0.14 on transversal regions of a leaflet.

  7. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  8. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, Tamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Primary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other peripherals (di...

  9. Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Béla; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Szocs, Gábor; Hall, David R

    2009-06-01

    The honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae Osten Sacken 1866 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is the main pest of ornamental varieties of the honey locust tree, Gleditsia triacanthos L., in North America, and is now becoming a pest of concern in Europe. Female midges were observed to emerge in the early morning with their ovipositor extended until they mated. Volatiles were collected from virgin females in a closed-loop stripping apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component of the female sex pheromone. This was identified as (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene by comparison of its mass spectrum and GC retention times on different columns with those of synthetic standards and by micro-analytical reactions. This compound was synthesized, and the individual enantiomers were produced by kinetic resolution with lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the naturally-produced compound on a cyclodextrin GC column indicated it was the (R)-enantiomer. In EAG dose-response measurements, the (R)-enantiomer alone or in the racemic mixture evoked significant responses from the antennae of male D. gleditchiae, whereas the (S)-enantiomer did not. In field trapping tests, the (R)-enantiomer attracted male D. gleditchiae. The racemic compound was equally attractive, but the (S)-enantiomer was not attractive. Both the pure (R)-enantiomer or racemic (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene, applied to red rubber septa in a dose range of 3-30 microg, constitute a strongly attractive bait in sticky traps for monitoring the flight of D. gleditchiae.

  10. Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow-galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Tommi; Leppänen, Sanna A; Várkonyi, Gergely; Shaw, Mark R; Koivisto, Reijo; Barstad, Trond Elling; Vikberg, Veli; Roininen, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Studies on the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-parasitoid associations provide important insights into the origin and maintenance of global and local species richness. If parasitoids are specialists on herbivore niches rather than on herbivore taxa, then alternating escape of herbivores into novel niches and delayed resource tracking by parasitoids could fuel diversification at both trophic levels. We used DNA barcoding to identify parasitoids that attack larvae of seven Pontania sawfly species that induce leaf galls on eight willow species growing in subarctic and arctic-alpine habitats in three geographic locations in northern Fennoscandia, and then applied distance- and model-based multivariate analyses and phylogenetic regression methods to evaluate the hierarchical importance of location, phylogeny and different galler niche dimensions on parasitoid host use. We found statistically significant variation in parasitoid communities across geographic locations and willow host species, but the differences were mainly quantitative due to extensive sharing of enemies among gallers within habitat types. By contrast, the divide between habitats defined two qualitatively different network compartments, because many common parasitoids exhibited strong habitat preference. Galler and parasitoid phylogenies did not explain associations, because distantly related arctic-alpine gallers were attacked by a species-poor enemy community dominated by two parasitoid species that most likely have independently tracked the gallers' evolutionary shifts into the novel habitat. Our results indicate that barcode- and phylogeny-based analyses of food webs that span forested vs. tundra or grassland environments could improve our understanding of vertical diversification effects in complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid networks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Key to Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation should be placed on the FiveMajor Changes Based on analysis and forecasting on grain consumption influencing factors, production influencing factors and import influencing factors, the supply and demand of main sorts of grain in China is forecas- ted respectively, including paddy, wheat, corn and soybean. In 2020, grain consumption quantity, grain production quantity and grain import quantity of China is 693 million tons, 644 million tons and 49 million tons respectively. For grain security in future, new stratagem on food security should be im- plemented, grain import circumstance and global grain security. Father mechanism should be im- proved, and early warning and regulation on grain production capacity should be paid attention to sys- temically.

  12. Mössbauer spectrometry applied to the study of laboratory samples made of iron gall ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaud, C.; Rouchon, V.; Refait, P.; Wattiaux, A.

    2008-07-01

    Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based precipitates. In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precipitates, transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements were performed on laboratory made inks at room temperature. These were completed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The samples consisted of several solutions of iron(II) sulphate, gallic acid and gum arabic. After evaporation, the residues were analysed. Up to eight different Mössbauer signatures were detected, most of them correlated to iron sulphates. The Mössbauer signature of the iron gall precipitate was also isolated. It is not distinctly defined and may overlap with the signatures of iron(III) hydroxy-sulphates, such as jarosite or copiapite. Raman spectrometry then proved to be a useful complementary technique for the identification of the precipitate.

  13. Moessbauer spectrometry applied to the study of laboratory samples made of iron gall ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgaud, C. [Centre de Recherche pour la Conservation des Collections, MNHN, CNRS, MCC, 36 rue Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, CP 21, Paris (France); Universite de La Rochelle, LEMMA, Batiment Marie Curie, La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Rouchon, V. [Centre de Recherche pour la Conservation des Collections, MNHN, CNRS, MCC, 36 rue Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, CP 21, Paris (France); Refait, P. [Universite de La Rochelle, LEMMA, Batiment Marie Curie, La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Wattiaux, A. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, CNRS, Pessac Cedex (France)

    2008-07-15

    Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based precipitates. In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precipitates, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements were performed on laboratory made inks at room temperature. These were completed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The samples consisted of several solutions of iron(II) sulphate, gallic acid and gum arabic. After evaporation, the residues were analysed. Up to eight different Moessbauer signatures were detected, most of them correlated to iron sulphates. The Moessbauer signature of the iron gall precipitate was also isolated. It is not distinctly defined and may overlap with the signatures of iron(III) hydroxy-sulphates, such as jarosite or copiapite. Raman spectrometry then proved to be a useful complementary technique for the identification of the precipitate. (orig.)

  14. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  15. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  16. Well-differentiated gall bladder hepatoid carcinoma producing alpha-fetoprotein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Ching-Yun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gall bladder carcinoma is rare, and metastatic gall bladder carcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported in only a few patients. Case presentation We present a 73-year-old man with a history of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. He received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and was diagnosed to have an alpha-fetoprotein producing gall bladder tumor with intraluminal growth. Open cholecystectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the lesion revealed a well-differentiated hepatoid carcinoma. The lesion was thought most likely to be a metastatic lesion from previous hepatocellular carcinoma. His alpha-fetoprotein level dropped to normal levels five months after the surgery. Conclusion This unusual intraluminal growing tumor proved to be a well-differentiated hepatoid carcinoma, most likely a metastatic lesion from previous hepatocellular carcinoma. This case reminds clinicians that in looking for likely hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, when no detectable hepatic lesion can account for an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level, the gall bladder should be included in the search for the site of metastasis.

  17. Life Cycle of Gall Midge on Red Chilli in West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzir Busniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the life cycle of the gall midge (Asphondylia capsici Barnes (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae has been performed in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The experiment was conducted in laboratory experiments carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Pest Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Andalas Padang, from January to June 2012. The objective was to study the life cycle of the gall midge in pepper. Gall midge egg white, elongated round, length 0,69 and width 0,35 mm. Early instar larvae rounded elongated, transparent color and a whitish or yellowish white. Instar larva up getting flattened by the color yellow to brownish yellow. The larvae live in the chilies. Pupa brown to blackish brown, 3.0 mm long and 2.3 mm wide, located in the chilies. Pradewasa stage lasted 22 days. Imago brown or blackish brown. Imago body length of males and females is almost the same, at 2.8 mm, but the body of the female imago fatter than the males. Imago males live longer (35 hours compared with female imago (32 hours. Imago female fecundity is 124 eggs. The life cycle of gall midge on pepper plants 25 days.

  18. Incidence of gall stone formation in acromegalic patients on octreotide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi A Chakravarty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Octreotide, a long-acting synthetic somatostatin analog, has been widely used for ac-romegalic patients. Gastrointestinal (GI side effects and gall stones are predominant side effects. We report incidence of gall stones in our cohort of acromegalic patients treated with octreotide therapy. Design: Retrospective case observational study. Setting: Endocrinology Unit, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Hospital, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Patients of acromegaly on primary or secondary octreotide therapy. Intervention: Patients were enquired regarding complaints related to the GI system and their medical records were reviewed. Ultrasound films at various intervals while on octerotide therapy were evaluated by the radiologist for presence of sludge and development of gall stones. Results: Of seven patients, five developed gallstones and sludge was seen in three patients at intervals ranging from 11 to 36 months postoctreotide initiation. Conclusion: A high incidence of gall stone formation in the present study as compared to the West was noted, the reasons for which are not clear.

  19. ultrasound mis-diagnosis of biliary sludge as a gall bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ULTRASOUND MIS-DIAGNOSIS OF BILIARY SLUDGE AS A GALL. BLADDER ... bile stones which are in a gel form or thick bile that contains numerous ... 15mm and common bile duct was. 23mm in size. ... Asymptomatic patients with biliary ...

  20. Gall bladder cancer: a review | Dodiyi-manuel | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 26, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full ... Introduction: Gall bladder cancer is the most aggressive cancer and the commonest malignant tumor of the biliary tract worldwide.The incidence increases with age and women are more commonly affected. Surgical resection is the only chance ...

  1. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  2. Iatrogenic gall bladder perforations in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 200 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R

    2010-01-01

    of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where...

  3. BAY K 8644-induced oscillations in rabbit gall-bladder transepithelial potential difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frederiksen, O

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the Ca2+-channel activator BAY K 8644 (a novel dihydropyridine) on transepithelial potential difference (Pd), electrical resistance (Rt), and unidirectional Na+-fluxes were studied in the rabbit gall-bladder. It was observed that BAY K 8644 at concentrations between 10(-7) and 10...

  4. ERGO Jazz Session võõrustab Chris Gall Triot. Vennad Urbid ajakohaste lauludega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    14. septembril alustab Jazzkaar koostöös ERGO Kindlustusega uut sarja ERGO Jazz Session, mille avaesinejaks on Chris Gall Trio (kontserdid 14. sept.Kumu auditooriumis ja 15. sept. Tartus Athena keskuses). Vendade Urbide kontserdist "Aeg" 13. sept. Vanemuise kontserdimajas

  5. ERGO Jazz Session võõrustab Chris Gall Triot. Vennad Urbid ajakohaste lauludega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    14. septembril alustab Jazzkaar koostöös ERGO Kindlustusega uut sarja ERGO Jazz Session, mille avaesinejaks on Chris Gall Trio (kontserdid 14. sept.Kumu auditooriumis ja 15. sept. Tartus Athena keskuses). Vendade Urbide kontserdist "Aeg" 13. sept. Vanemuise kontserdimajas

  6. An internal control for the diagnosis of Crown Gall by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubero, J.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Lopez, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The addition of an internal control (IC) at the appropriate concentration enables recognize of false negatives in the detection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and improves the reliability of PCR for crown gall diagnosis. Co-amplification of the IC and target sequence from A. tumefaciens ensures the at

  7. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results ...

  8. Celticecis, a Genus of Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Newly Reported for the Western Palearctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Gagné; John C. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Many Holarctic genera of trees and shrubs are host over much of their ranges to particular genera of Cecidomyiidae. As examples, willows host gall midges of Rabdophaga and Iteomyia, oaks host Macrodiplosis and Polystepha, and birches host Semudobia in both the Nearctic and...

  9. Analysis of SSH library of rice variety Aganni reveals candidate gall midge resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Dhanasekar; Singh, Y Tunginba; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, J S

    2016-03-01

    The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a serious insect pest causing extensive yield loss. Interaction between the gall midge and rice genotypes is known to be on a gene-for-gene basis. Here, we report molecular basis of HR- (hypersensitive reaction-negative) type of resistance in Aganni (an indica rice variety possessing gall midge resistance gene Gm8) through the construction and analysis of a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. In all, 2,800 positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. The high-quality ESTs were assembled into 448 non-redundant gene sequences. Homology search with the NCBI databases, using BlastX and BlastN, revealed that 73% of the clones showed homology to genes with known function and majority of ESTs belonged to the gene ontology category 'biological process'. Validation of 27 putative candidate gall midge resistance genes through real-time PCR, following gall midge infestation, in contrasting parents and their derived pre-NILs (near isogenic lines) revealed induction of specific genes related to defense and metabolism. Interestingly, four genes, belonging to families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR), heat shock protein (HSP), pathogenesis related protein (PR), and NAC domain-containing protein, implicated in conferring HR+ type of resistance, were found to be up-regulated in Aganni. Two of the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)-scavenging-enzyme-coding genes Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1, 2 (OsAPx1 and OsAPx2) were found up-regulated in Aganni in incompatible interaction possibly suppressing HR. We suggest that Aganni has a deviant form of inducible, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance but without HR.

  10. How detrimental are seed galls to their hosts? Plant performance, germination, developmental instability and tolerance to herbivory in Inga laurina, a leguminous tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; de Araujo, N A V; Venâncio, H; Andrade, J F; Alves-Silva, E; Almeida, W R; Carmo-Oliveira, R

    2016-11-01

    Gall inducers use these structures as shelters and sources of nutrition. Consequently, they cause multiple physiological changes in host plants. We studied the impact caused by seed coat galls of a braconid wasp on the performance of fruits, seeds and seedlings of tree Inga laurina. We tested whether these seed galls are 'nutrient sinks' with respect to the fruit/seed of host plant, and so constrain the reproductive ability and reduce seedling longevity. We measured the influence of such galls on the secondary compounds, fruit and seed parameters, seed viability and germination and seedling performance. Inga laurina has indehiscent legumes with polyembryonic seeds surrounded by a fleshy sarcotesta rich in sugars. The galls formed inside the seed coat and galled tissues presented higher phenol concentrations, around 7-fold that of ungalled tissues. Galls caused a significant reduction in parameters such as fruit and seed size, seed weight and the number of embryos. Fluctuating asymmetry (a stress indicator) was 31% higher in leaves of galled seed plants in comparison to ungalled seed plants. However, the negative effects on fruit and seed parameters were not sufficient to reduce seed germination (except the synchronization index) or seedling performance (except leaf area and chlorophyll content). We attributed these results to the ability of I. laurina to tolerate gall attack on seeds without a marked influence on seedling performance. Moreover, because of the intensity of seed galling on host plant, we suggest that polyembryony may play a role in I. laurina reproduction increasing tolerance to seed damage.

  11. Terminal-instar larval systematics and biology of west European species of Ormyridae associated with insect galls (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jose F.; Nieves, María Hernández; Gayubo, Severiano F.; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A systematic study of the genus Ormyrus (Chalcidoidea, Ormyridae) was conducted based on the morphology and biology of the terminal-instar larvae of ten west European species that are parasitoids of gall wasps and gallflies of the families Cynipidae, Eurytomidae and Tephritidae. The first detailed descriptions are provided of the terminal-instar larvae of these ten species using SEM images to illustrate diagnostic characters with systematic values. A key is provided for the identification of ormyrid larvae associated with galls in Europe, which is based particularly on characters of the head, mouthparts and mandibles. Although only limited informative variation in body shape was found, the setation of the head provided several characters of potential taxonomic value. The larval biology of the ten ormyrid species inhabiting different galls is also summarised. Although Ormyrus larvae are usually solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoids of the host larva of various gall-inhabiting insects, evidence of secondary phytophagy was observed in some species. PMID:28144185

  12. In vivo Toxicity Studies on Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50 value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50 value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50 value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of

  13. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  14. Interference from high gall bladder uptake in Technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Harutaka; Urabe, Konomu; Hiroki, Akinori; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yoshikai, Tomonori [Saga Medical School (Japan). Hospital

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of high gall bladder uptake in Technetium-99m myocardial SPECT imaging and to establish improvements of artifacts for better image quality and quantitativeness. In the phantom studies, artifactual defects were observed in the posterior, inferior, and anterior walls when the myocardium/gall bladder radioactive ratio increased (more than 1:1), and they were markedly demonstrated when the ratio increased further (more than 1:2). Marked artifactual defects were also observed when setting gall bladder activity in the myocardial reconstruction area. Although relative activity in myocardial SPECT images increased when the gall bladder was masked, counts in defect areas yielded by artifact did not increase, indicating that quantitativeness was not improved. Masking of gall bladder activity on the projection data was necessary for improvement of image quality and quantity. We examined countermeasures for promoting bile excretion and the ''right lateral bending position'' in the clinical studies. Radioactivity was decreased 60.2% in the gall bladder and 49.7% in the hepatic bile duct by excreting bile. These counts were increased 50.91% in the apex and 43.55% in the inferior wall by the right lateral bending position. We concluded that we could obtain more accurate image quality and quantitativeness by either promoting bile excretion or using the right lateral bending position. (author)

  15. Testing the Role of Habitat Isolation among Ecologically Divergent Gall Wasp Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Egan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat isolation occurs when habitat preferences lower the probability of mating between individuals associated with differing habitats. While a potential barrier to gene flow during ecological speciation, the effect of habitat isolation on reproductive isolation has rarely been directly tested. Herein, we first estimated habitat preference for each of six populations of the gall wasp Belonocnema treatae inhabiting either Quercus virginiana or Q. geminata. We then estimated the importance of habitat isolation in generating reproductive isolation between B. treatae populations that were host specific to either Q. virginiana or Q. geminata by measuring mate preference in the presence and absence of the respective host plants. All populations exhibited host preference for their native plant, and assortative mating increased significantly in the presence of the respective host plants. This host-plant-mediated assortative mating demonstrates that habitat isolation likely plays an important role in promoting reproductive isolation among populations of this host-specific gall former.

  16. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct: A Rare Presentation of Gall Stones Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duminda Subasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of gall stones. Very few cases of bile duct perforation have been reported in adults. It is rarely suspected or correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old female presented at the surgical emergency with 3 days’ history of severe upper abdominal pain with distension and repeated episodes of vomiting, as she had evidence of generalized peritonitis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A single 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm free perforation was present on the anterolateral surface of the common bile duct at the junction of cystic duct. A cholecystectomy and the CBD exploration were performed. Conclusion. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct is a rare but important presentation of gall stones in adults. Therefore, awareness of the clinical presentation, expert ultrasound examination, and surgery are important aspects in the management.

  17. Structure and Recognition of 3,4-leaf Powers of Galled Phylogenetic Networks in Polynomial Time

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, Michel

    2010-01-01

    A graph is a $k$-leaf power of a tree $T$ if its vertices are leaves of $T$ and two vertices are adjacent in $T$ if and only if their distance in $T$ is at most $k$. Then $T$ is a $k$-leaf root of $G$. This notion was introduced by Nishimura, Ragde, and Thilikos [2002] motivated by the search for underlying phylogenetic trees. We study here an extension of the $k$-leaf power graph recognition problem. This extension is motivated by a new biological question for the evaluation of the latteral gene transfer on a population of viruses. We allow the host graph to slightly differs from a tree and allow some cycles. In fact we study phylogenetic galled networks in which cycles are pairwise vertex disjoint. We show some structural results and propose polynomial algorithms for the cases $k=3$ and $k=4$. As a supplemental result, squares of galled networks can also be recognized in polynomial time.

  18. Acupuncture Treatment of Pain along the Gall Bladder Meridian in 15 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Jan

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on clinically significant relief of pain along the gall bladder meridian in 15 sport horses. Both local and distant points were needled in this study. Pain relief was marked not only locally but also in remote areas along the gall bladder meridian. Clinical improvement was observed in all 15 horses within 30 seconds to 2 minutes after the treatment had started. Twelve horses and three horses were rated as "cured" and "improved", respectively, when they were re-examined 1-8 days after the treatment. The relief of somatic pain was often associated with improved riding performance of the horses. These data are relevant in terms of equine clinical pain relief, as well as in terms of meridian therapy and the scientific theory of acupuncture.

  19. Chaves para classificação de galhas de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera em Myrtaceae na Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro Keys to separation of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera galls on Myrtaceae at Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Keys to Cecidomyiidae galls occuring on Myrtaceae by genus of the host plant, in alphabetical order, are presented. Data on gall makers, predators and inquilinous species are given, as well as illustrations of the galls.

  20. Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

    2011-06-01

    The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder.

  1. Gall bladder carcinoma with ampullary carcinoma: A rare case of double malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveer Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous double cancers in the biliary system are rare. Most are associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM. However, it can occur in patients without PBM. Differentiation between these events is important since these two mechanistic origins imply different stages of disease, as well as different subsequent treatments and prognoses. Herein, we report a case of ampullary carcinoma associated with gall bladder carcinoma diagnosed nonoperatively and palliated with biliary metal stenting.

  2. Antioxidant activities of leaf galls extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn. Retz. (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. In this study, the chemical composition and free radical scavenging potential of leaf gall extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous of Terminelia chebula is evaluated, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditiona medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Material and methods. The presences of phenolics, fl avonoids, triterpens, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, reducing sugars were identifi ed in the extracts according to standard procedures. The free radical scavenging activities of the extract were also analysed by standard procedures. Results. The methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and fl avonoid content. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Super oxide radical scavenging, Hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP methods. In all the methods, the ethanolic extract showed higher free radical scavenging potential than all the other extracts. Conclusion. As the higher content of both total phenolics and fl avonoids were found in the ethanolic extract, so the signifi cantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/fl avonoids of the ethanol extract. The results of this study confi rm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of T. chebula leave gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  3. Evaluating the anticancer potential of ethanolic gall extract of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn. Retz. (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B E Ravi Shankara

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation establishes the anticancer activities of T. chebula leaf gall extracts on BRL3A, MCF-.7, and A-.549 cells. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the phenolics/flavanoids features of the extract that has been demonstrated to act as cytotoxic agents. The experimental evidence obtained in the laboratory model could provide a rationale for the traditional use of plant as a source of easily available effective anticancer agents to the people, particularly in developing countries.

  4. Outcome of gall bladder polypoidal lesions detected by transabdominal ultrasound scanning: A nine year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Chattopadhyay; R Lochan; S Balupuri; BR Gopinath; KS Wynne

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the outcome of polypoidal lesions within the gall bladder (PLG) diagnosed by trans-abdominal scanning.METHODS: A nine-year (1993-2002) retrospective casenote review of all patients who underwent ultrasound scanning after referral to a single Upper GI Surgeon at a District General Hospital was conducted. Patients who were diagnosed with a PLG were included in our study. A database was constructed and patient details, investigations including ultrasound scan (USS) findings, treatment and histology and final diagnosis were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three (out of 651) patients were diagnosed pre-operatively by USS to have a polyp-likegall bladder lesion (PLG). Post cholecystectomy histological examination revealed 12 gallstones, 7 cholesterol polyps, 3 adenocarcinomas within polyps and 1 normal gall bladder. The specificity of USS in the diagnosis of PLG was 92.3%. All the true polyps were malignant. Overall USS had 66.66% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the pre-operative suspicion of malignancy. Using size greater than 10 mm as measured on USS as a cut-off, we find 100% sensitivity and 86.95% specificity with a positive predictive value of 50% in the diagnosis of malignancy in PLG.CONCLUSION: A large number of PLG are in fact calculi within diseased gall bladder. In cases of gall bladder polyps more then 10 mm in size on USS further imaging (crosssectional and/or EUS) is indicated prior to surgery. This will help in the optimal management of patients and avoid histological surprises.

  5. Persistent Phylogeny: A Galled-Tree and Integer Linear Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gusfield, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Persistent-Phylogeny Model is an extension of the widely studied Perfect-Phylogeny Model, encompassing a broader range of evolutionary phenomena. Biological and algorithmic questions concerning persistent phylogeny have been intensely investigated in recent years. In this paper, we explore two alternative approaches to the persistent-phylogeny problem that grow out of our previous work on perfect phylogeny, and on galled trees. We develop an integer programming solution to the Persistent-...

  6. Quorum-sensing system affects gall development incited by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Itkin, Maxim; Sacher, Ayelet; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac

    2008-08-01

    The quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory system of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae was identified. Mass spectral analysis, together with signal-specific biosensors, demonstrated that P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae produced N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) as a major and N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) as a minor QS signal. Homologs of luxI and luxR regulatory genes, pagI and pagR, were characterized in strain P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae Pag824-1 and shown to be convergently transcribed and separated by 14 bp. The deduced PagI (23.8 kDa) and PagR (26.9 kDa) show high similarity with SmaI (41% identity) and SmaR (43% identity), respectively, of Serratia sp. American Type Culture Collection 39006. PagR possesses characteristic autoinducer binding and a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Gall formation by P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae depends on a plasmid-borne hrp/hrc gene cluster, type III effectors, and phytohormones. Disruption of pagI, pagR, or both genes simultaneously in Pag824-1 reduced gall size in gypsophila cuttings by 50 to 55% when plants were inoculated with 10(6) CFU/ml. Higher reductions in gall size (70 to 90%) were achieved by overexpression of pagI or addition of exogenous C4-HSL. Expression of the hrp/hrc regulatory gene hrpL and the type III effector pthG in the pagI mutant, as measured with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was reduced by 5.8 and 6.6, respectively, compared with the wild type, suggesting an effect of the QS system on the Hrp regulon.

  7. On the optimization of clinicosonographic and biochemical diagnostics of gall-bladder disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Yekimova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum lipidic spectrum (increase of total cholesterol, atherogenic rate for dynamic control of possible transformation in cholelithiasis is necessary to be included in examination of patients with cholecystitis. Changes in serum lipidic level (increase of total cholesterol, rate of total cholesterol to cholesterol of lipoproteins of high density and decrease of lipoproteins of high density in healthy people promote forming risk group of gall-bladder cholestherosis

  8. Anti-platelet aggregation triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2007-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponins Q (1) and R (2), along with three known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (3-5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Biological evaluation showed that both sapinmusaponins Q and R demonstrated more potent anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin.

  9. Polar auxin transport is essential for gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans on Gypsophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Weinthal, Dan; Gaba, Victor; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2013-02-01

    The virulence of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) on Gypsophila paniculata depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors. The hypothesis that plant-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a major role in gall formation was examined by disrupting basipetal polar auxin transport with the specific inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). On inoculation with Pag, galls developed in gypsophila stems above but not below lanolin rings containing TIBA or NPA, whereas, in controls, galls developed above and below the rings. In contrast, TIBA and NPA could not inhibit tumour formation in tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The colonization of gypsophila stems by Pag was reduced below, but not above, the lanolin-TIBA ring. Following Pag inoculation and TIBA treatment, the expression of hrpL (a T3SS regulator) and pagR (a quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator) decreased four-fold and that of pthG (a T3SS effector) two-fold after 24 h. Expression of PIN2 (a putative auxin efflux carrier) increased 35-fold, 24 h after Pag inoculation. However, inoculation with a mutant in the T3SS effector pthG reduced the expression of PIN2 by two-fold compared with wild-type infection. The results suggest that pthG might govern the elevation of PIN2 expression during infection, and that polar auxin transport-derived IAA is essential for gall initiation. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  10. How to reduce the number of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in tomato using earthworms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Alves Dionísio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the incidence of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in the roots of Solanum lycopersicum, after inoculation with Amynthas spp. and Pontoscolex corethrurus. The experiment was performed in the greenhouse in a randomised block experimental design was adopted, with four treatments and five repetitions: T1. M. paranaensis; T2. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. T3. M. paranaensis +P. corethrurus; T4. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. + P. corethrurus. Initially, six adult worms of Amynthas spp. or P. corethrurus, isolated or in the same proportion (3:3, with the previously determined fresh biomass. After one week, tomato seedlings (cultivar “Rutgers” were transplanted to the pots and inoculated with 5 mL of a suspension of M. paranaensis containing 5,000 eggs and/or juveniles per pot. Sixty-five days after inoculation, the number of remaining worms was counted after manual collection; the fresh biomass was determined by direct weighing, and the number of galls on the roots of the tomato was counted directly in a stereomicroscope. The results demonstrated a reduction in the number of galls per plant with treatments involving inoculation with worms, varying between 26,7% and 63,3%, respectively, for Amynthas spp. and P. corethrurus. Meanwhile, the combination of worms lead to a reduction of 50,0% in the incidence of galls. The results demonstrate that the use of worms in the biological control of nematodes, during tomato cultivation, has great potential that requires further investigation.

  11. Hemiparasitism effect on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. and consequences to its major galling herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaise de Oliveira Bahia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMistletoes obtain nutrients and water from their hosts, with varying effects among those hosts. We assessed the factors that influence the colonization of the mistletoe Struthanthus flexicaulis on Baccharis dracunculifolia and the subsequent effects on host performance. We evaluated the incidence of S. flexicaulis according to size (height classes and architecture of the host as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the host. Furthermore, we assessed the occurrence of insect galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae(Psyllidae, including the number of leaves infected, and the mortality of infected and non-infected branches. Taller hosts had a higher abundance of mistletoes (60%, p> 0.05. Physiological parameters of hosts were not affected by parasitism, although galling occurred more often (p 0.05 on infected branches. Taller individuals are more colonized by mistletoes and more architecturally complex hosts support a greater number of mistletoes. Mistletoe causes a top-down effect on host-associated organisms on parasitized branches. Mistletoes had a strong top-downeffect on B. dracunculifolia due to a reduction in the number of leaves on parasitized branches and the replacement of the bush crown, as well as an increased incidence of insect galls. Furthermore, the occurrence of a heavy parasite load increased the mortality rate of the host branches.

  12. Occurrence patterns of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae over depth intervals in the Caribbean

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    Kaj M. van Tienderen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral-associated invertebrates form a major part of the diversity on reefs, but their distribution and occurrence patterns are virtually unstudied. For associated taxa data are lacking on their distribution across shelves and environmental gradients, but also over various depths. Off Curaçao we studied the prevalence and density of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae, obligate symbionts of stony corals. Belt transects (10 × 0.5m2 were laid out at 6, 12 and 18 m depth intervals at 27 localities. Twenty-one known host coral species were surveyed, measured, and the number of crab dwellings was recorded to study the influence of host occurrence, depth distribution, and colony size on the occurrence rates of three Atlantic gall crab species: Opecarcinus hypostegus, Troglocarcinus corallicola and Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola. The overall gall crab prevalence rate was 20.3% across all available host corals at all depths. The agariciid-associated species O. hypostegus was found to mostly inhabit Agaricia lamarcki and its prevalence was highest at deeper depths, following the depth distribution of its host. Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola, associated with Siderastrea and Stephanocoenia, inhabited shallower depths despite higher host availability at deeper depths. The generalist species T. corallicola showed no clear host or depth specialisation. These results show that the primary factors affecting the distribution and occurrence rates over depth intervals differed between each of the three Atlantic cryptochirid species, which in turn influences their vulnerability to reef degradation.

  13. Carotenoids in unexpected places: gall midges, lateral gene transfer, and carotenoid biosynthesis in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Cassidy; Heath, Jeremy; Stireman, John O; Abbot, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Carotenoids are conjugated isoprenoid molecules with many important physiological functions in organisms, including roles in photosynthesis, oxidative stress reduction, vision, diapause, photoperiodism, and immunity. Until recently, it was believed that only plants, microorganisms, and fungi were capable of synthesizing carotenoids and that animals acquired them from their diet, but recent studies have demonstrated that two arthropods (pea aphid and spider mite) possess a pair of genes homologous to those required for the first step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Absent in all other known animal genomes, these genes appear to have been acquired by aphids and spider mites in one or several lateral gene transfer events from a fungal donor. We report the third case of fungal carotenoid biosynthesis gene homologs in an arthropod: flies from the family Cecidomyiidae, commonly known as gall midges. Using phylogenetic analyses we show that it is unlikely that lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase homologs were transferred singly to an ancient arthropod ancestor; instead we propose that genes were transferred independently from related fungal donors after divergence of the major arthropod lineages. We also examine variation in intron placement and copy number of the carotenoid genes that may underlie function in the midges. This trans-kingdom transfer of carotenoid genes may represent a key innovation, underlying the evolution of phytophagy and plant-galling in gall midges and facilitating their extensive diversification across plant lineages.

  14. Does gall midge larvae cause pre-dispersal seed mortality and limit cornflower population growth?

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    Koprdova, Stanislava; Bellanger, Solène; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Darmency, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Many kinds of pests can reduce seed production. Some directly attack seeds before they are released, and some are hosted by the fruit and impact seed ripening and viability indirectly. Pre-dispersal seed mortality may have strong effects on plant population dynamics and evolution. Our goals were to determine to what extent insect-mediated pre-dispersal seed mortality contributes to population-level declines of cornflower, Centaurea cyanus L. We recorded occurrence and abundance of seed-feeding insects on flower heads in twelve cornflower populations. We measured flower head size, number of disc florets, seed production, and seed viability and germination. Larger flower heads had proportionally fewer healthy seeds. Although we observed no visible damage to the C. cyanus seed, the presence of gall midge (Cecidomyiidae) larvae inside the flower head correlated with four times fewer viable seeds. It seems that gall midges could have a significant impact on ovule fertilization, seed abortion and viability of fully developed cornflower seeds. The higher rate of aborted seeds in the presence of gall midge larvae could have been because the larvae extracted resources from the seeds, or because the larvae repelled pollinators. The viability of apparently healthy seeds was 40% lower in flower heads that contained larvae and/or aborted seed. Insect-mediated pre-dispersal mortality could select against evolution toward larger flower head, and have detrimental consequences on seed number, viability and germination, all of which could limit the spread of C. cyanus populations.

  15. Gall stone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether: how to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, A; Leuschner, M; Frenk, H; Dillinger, H W; Caspary, W; Leuschner, U

    1990-01-01

    Fifty of 52 patients with cholesterol gall bladder stones were treated with methyl tert-butyl ether. In 48 of 50 (96%) patients the stones dissolved after an average interval of 9.5 hours. Mean stone size was 1.7 cm (0.5-3.3 cm), mean stone number was 14.6 (1-70). Twelve patients (24%) complained of nausea, a burning sensation, or vomiting. In one patient bile leakage occurred and another suffered haematobilia (4%). The puncture set was improved, and a special basket was developed to extract stones that had escaped into the cystic duct. To prevent bile leakage or haemorrhage from the incision channel, a tissue adhesive was injected into the channel or ceruletid was administered subcutaneously before removing the catheter to induce contraction of the gall bladder. Thus we were able to treat 44 patients without any complications. Nausea and vomiting could be reduced if the treatment time was kept short and the perfusion volume was as low as possible. Methyl tert-butyl ether treatment is a successful treatment of gall bladder stones with few complications. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2387519

  16. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  17. Study on the sensitivity of three oat varieties to the saddle gall midge, haplodiplosis margina ta (von Roser) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, F; Chavalle, S; G, San Martin Y Gomez; De Proft, M; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginota (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to important yield losses when the galls are numerous. After 40 years without any reporting, large populations of H. marginata and important damage have been observed since 2010 in wheat crops in Belgium, especially in the Flemish Polders where clay soils and intensive farming of cereals favour heavy infestations. According to some research conducted in the 1960s during the last outbreak, oat (Avena sativa L.) is known to be one of the less favourable hosts to the saddle gall midge. Our study was performed in order to assess the host sensitivity of three oat varieties currently grown in Belgium: EVITA, EFFEKTIv and FREDDY. Therefore, oat varieties were sown on infested soil in two separate enclosures in a glasshouse. In the first enclosure, only the three oat varieties were grown; in the second one, these three oat varieties were grown together with two varieties of spring wheat: GRANNY and KWS CHAMSIN. TWO parameters were measured: the percentage of leaves with laid eggs, and the number of galls per stem. The percentage of leaves with eggs showed that the infestation was significantly lower on oats when they were in presence of wheat. The egg infestation was also significantly higher on wheat than on oat, which means oat is a much less favourable host plant than spring wheat for egg laying. Oat varieties were significantly different from each other regarding the number of galls per stem, but with very little damage compared to wheat. The FREDDY variety even seemed to be completely resistant to saddle gall midge, as no galls were observed although there was a similar percentage of leaves with eggs for the three oat varieties. Cropping oat could thus contribute to reduce infestations of H. morginato.

  18. A new gall-inducing genus and species of Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) on Sapindaceae from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris; Isaias, Rosy M S; Oliveira, D C

    2013-11-06

    A new gall-inducing genus and species of felt scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) found on the leaves and twigs of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae) in Brazil is described: Bystracoccus Hodgson gen n. and B. mataybae Hodgson, Isaias & Oliveira sp. n.  This is the first record of an eriococcid inducing leaf and stem galls on Sapindaceae and is only the second example of a member of the Eriococcidae to induce stem galls in which the insects diapause during the dry (winter) season.  Only the adult female, second-instar female and crawler are known.  The species overwinters as the first-instar nymph in pit galls on the twigs but spends the rest of the year associated with two-chambered galls on the leaves.  It has recently become clear that South America has a rich felt-scale insect fauna many of which induce galls. It has proved very difficult to place this new genus in a family as it appears to fall between the Eriococcidae and Beesoniidae but is here placed in the eriococcids based on the similarity of the first-instar nymphs and the abundance of this family in the Neotropics.  However, the dorsum of the abdomen of the mature adult female becomes heavily sclerotised, forming a round plug-like structure that completely fills the gall orifice.  This structure shows remarkable morphological similarities to that of the beesoniid Danumococcus parashoreae Takagi & Hodgson found on Parashorea tomentella (Dipterocarpaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia, with which it is compared along with other eriococcid genera known from South America.

  19. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  20. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

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    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  1. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  2. Branching responses in Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) following mechanical or gall damage to apical meristems and neighbor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Philip A; Throop, Heather L

    2005-06-01

    Branching in plants increases plant access to light and provides pathways for regrowth following damage or loss of the apical meristem. We conducted two experiments in an eastern Kansas tallgrass prairie to determine how apical meristem loss (by clipping), apical meristem damage (by insect galling), and increased light availability affected growth, reproduction, and branching in Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae). The first experiment compared clipping with galling. Clipping increased axillary shoot numbers, while galling increased axillary shoot lengths, reflecting different allocation responses among damage types and inhibition of branching by galls. However, total capitulum production was less in all gall/clip treatments than in intact shoots. The second experiment compared clipping with mowing the surrounding vegetation to increase light availability. Mowing increased total leaf, total capitulum, and axillary shoot length and axillary capitulum production in clipped and unclipped plants and in large vs. small shoots. The presence of the neighboring canopy, not of an intact apical meristem, was therefore the stronger limitation on leaf and capitulum production. These experiments suggest that damage and light competition affected both branching frequency and the partitioning of resources among shoots, branches, and leaves. Because Silphium's growth form is widespread, similar responses may occur in other grassland forbs.

  3. Self-efficacy is mainly genetic, not learned: a multiple-rater twin study on the causal structure of general self-efficacy in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaktaar, Trine; Torgersen, Svenn

    2013-06-01

    Social learning theory postulates that self-efficacy is learned through the person's interaction with his/her physical and social environment. In this genetically informative, population-based, multi-informant study of 1,394 adolescent twin pairs, self-efficacy was modeled as one latent psychometric self-efficacy factor with genetic and environmental effects common to all informants, as well as for effects specific for each informant. The results showed that 75% of variation in self-efficacy was due to genetic factors. Non-shared environmental causes explained the remaining 25% of the variance in the latent factor, with no effect of common environment. Some informant-specific effects were also found. The present study challenges the theoretical assumption of learning as the dominant etiological factor behind self-efficacy in young people.

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth of Arundo donax and on rearing of a biological control agent, the shoot gall-forming wasp Tetramesa romana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen augmentation often leads to increased feeding and/or reproduction by herbivorous insects, but little is known about the effects on insects that gall grasses. The shoot tip-galling wasp Tetramesa romana has been released for biological control of the giant grass arundo (Arundo donax) in the...

  5. Internet Tools for Language Learning: University Students Taking Control of Their Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Many excellent corpus-based language learning resources (e.g., concordancers) have been freely available on the Internet for some time. Google assisted language learning (GALL) is also gaining increasing acceptance. These tools are a potential resource for English as an additional language (EAL) university students who want to independently…

  6. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae: edge effect and use as bioindicators

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    Walter Santos de Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i because of their host-specificity, (ii they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1589-1597. Epub 2011 December 01.Los impactos de la fragmentación de los bosques y el efecto de borde sobre las interacciones planta-herbívoros son relativamente desconocidos, y las relaciones entre los insectos inductores de agallas y sus plantas hospederas son muy susceptibles a las variaciones ambientales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue probar la hipótesis de efecto de borde en los insectos inductores de agallas asociados con la planta hospedera

  7. A new species of Dasineura Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in flower galls of Camassia (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J; Barosh, Theresa; Kephart, Susan

    2014-12-22

    A new species, Dasineura camassiae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described, illustrated and compared to some of its congeners from related hosts and western North America. The new species causes flower galls on Camassia (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Its current known distribution is Oregon and Washington, USA. Larvae develop in spring in flowers of Camassia spp., causing the young ovaries to enlarge prematurely and eventually abort, without forming seeds or mature fruit. Full-grown larvae crawl out of the gall in rapid succession and drop to the soil where they pupate; they remain there until spring of the following year when the adults emerge and lay eggs. The galls they induce in camas lily buds represent the first known association of the cosmopolitan genus Dasineura with the group of plants that includes Agave and its relatives.

  8. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

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    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  9. Quantification of Circulating Free DNA as a Diagnostic Marker in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Swati; Tewari, Shikha; Husain, Nuzhat; Agarwal, Akash; Pandey, Anshuman; Singhal, Ashish; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2017-01-01

    Gall bladder Carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common cancer of the digestive tract and frequently diagnosed in late stage of disease. Estimation of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in serum has been applied as a "liquid biopsy" in several deep seated malignancies. Its value in diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma has not been studied. The present study was designed to assess the role of cfDNA in the diagnosis of GBC and correlate levels with the TNM stage. Serum was collected from 34 patients with GBC and 39 age and sex matched controls including 22 cholecystitis and 17 healthy individuals. Serum cfDNA levels were measured through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) by amplification of β-globin gene. Performance of the assay was calculated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The cfDNA level was significantly lower in healthy controls and cholecystitis (89.32 ± 59.76 ng/ml, 174.21 ± 99.93 ng/ml) compared to GBC (1245.91 ± 892.46 ng/ml, p = <0.001). The cfDNA level was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node involvement and jaundice (0.002, 0.027, and 0.041, respectively). Area under curve of ROC analysis for cancer group versus healthy and cholecystitis group was 1.00 and 0.983 with sensitivity of 100 %, 88.24 % and specificity of 100 % respectively. Quantitative analysis of cfDNA may distinguish cholecystitis and gall bladder carcinoma and may serve as new diagnostic, noninvasive marker adjunct to imaging for the diagnosis of GBC.

  10. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

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    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  11. Encapsulation of Antifungals in Micelles Protects Candida albicans during Gall-Bladder Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shih-Hung; Brunke, Sascha; Brock, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that colonizes human mucosal surfaces with the potential to cause life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Studies on systemic candidiasis in a murine infection model using in vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging revealed persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder under antifungal therapy. Preliminary analyses showed that bile conferred resistance against a wide variety of antifungals enabling survival in this cryptic host niche. Here, bile and its components were studied for their ability to reduce antifungal efficacy in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of protection. While unconjugated bile salts were toxic to C. albicans, taurine, or glycine conjugated bile salts were well tolerated and protective against caspofungin and amphotericin B when exceeding their critical micellar concentration. Microarray experiments indicated that upregulation of genes generally known to mediate antifungal protection is not involved in the protection process. In contrast, rhodamine 6G and crystal violet in- and efflux experiments indicated encapsulation of antifungals in micelles, thereby reducing their bioavailability. Furthermore, farnesol sensing was abolished in the presence of conjugated bile salts trapping C. albicans cells in the hyphal morphology. This suggests that bioavailability of amphiphilic and hydrophobic compounds is reduced in the presence of bile. In contrast, small and hydrophilic molecules, such as cycloheximide, flucytosine, or sodium azide kept their antifungal properties. We therefore conclude that treatment of gall bladder and bile duct infections is hampered by the ability of bile salts to encapsulate antifungals in micelles. As a consequence, treatment of gall bladder or bile duct infections should favor the use of small hydrophilic drugs that are not solubilised in micelles. PMID:28203228

  12. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

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    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  13. Prevalence of gall bladder stones among type 2 diabetic patients in Benghazi Libya: a case-control study

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    Behieh A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases.Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitusis all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reportedan increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims andobjectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyandiabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients andmethods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinologyCenter. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up atthe center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teachinghospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomenafter an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones ascompared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males.Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body massindex than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabeticpatients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients withgallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetesmellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones amongLibyan diabetics.

  14. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  15. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

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    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  16. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash.

  17. 胆囊癌及胆囊腺瘤中p53蛋白异常表达的研究%On the Overexpression of Gall Biadder Cancer and p53 Protein Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁喜林; 尹继云; 赵红

    2003-01-01

    Objective To inviestigate the expression of gall bladder cancer and its relationship with canceration.Methods Immunohistochemistry techniques are used to detect the expression of p53 protein in 36 cases of gall bladder cancer and 23 adenoma.Results p53 protein were founded positive in 19 cases (52.78%)of gall blodder cancer,in 5 cases (21.74%)of adenoma.Conclusion There is close relationship between the over expression and the canceration of gall bladder.p53 gene mutation and over expression are in the early stage of gall bladder cancer,and play an important role in the canceration of adenoma.

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Nor Amilah, W A W; Masrah, M; Hasmah, A; Noor Izani, N J

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria.

  19. Dynamics of indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activity in suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall

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    Zofia Chirek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IAA oxidase activity was determined in several growth phases of a suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall. During the short phase of intensive growth (zero passage - PO a negative correlation was noted between enzymatic activity and the rate of growth. IAA oxidase activity increased to a certain level is not a factor limiting cell division. For protraction of the phase of intensive growth (first passage - P1, however, a decrease in the activity of this enzyme seems indispensable. IAA oxidase activity in the tested culture is under the control of inhibitors present in the cells and medium. High enzyme inhibition was observed in PO cells during the phase, of intensive growth and in P1 at the beginning and in the middle part of this phase. These results suggest' that the -auxin level determined in earlier studies in sunflower crown-gall culture is controlled by the IAA oxidase set. During the long phase of intensive growth (P1 this control is of negative feedback type.

  20. Direct Derivation of the Gravitational Red Shift (Einstein Shift) with the frequency dependent Gall metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    1999-05-01

    When an electromagnetic radiation (EMR) source is in uniform motion with respect to an observer, a spectral (Doppler) shift in frequency is seen (blue as it approaches, red as it recedes). Since special relativity is limited to coordinate systems in uniform relative motion, this theory should be subject to this condition. On the other hand, the gravitational red shift (Einstein; Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, Crown,(1961), p.129) claims that EMR frequency decreases as the gravitational field, where the source is located, increases. As a gravitational effect, one would expect its derivation from a solution of the general relativistic field equations (R_μσ=0). Up to now, it has only been possible to derive it indirectly, by comparing the gravitational field to a (centrifugal) field produced by coordinate systems in relative rotational motion as an approximation of special relativity. Since rotation implies acceleration, it does not meet the conditions of special relativity so this is unsatisfactory. This work shows that the problem lies in the Schwarzschild metric which is independent of EMR frequency. By contrast it is easy to deduce the gravitational red shift from the frequency dependent Gall metric (Gall in AIP Conference Proceedings 308, The Evolution of X-Ray Binaries,(1993), p. 87).

  1. Expression of putative expansin genes in phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) induced root galls of Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawo, N C; Griesser, M; Forneck, A

    Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a serious global pest in viticulture. The insects are sedentary feeders and require a gall to feed and reproduce. The insects induce their feeding site within the meristematic zone of the root tip, where they stay attached, feeding both intra- and intercellularly, and causing damage by reducing plant vigour. Several changes in cell structure and composition, including increased cell division and tissue swelling close to the feeding site, cause an organoid gall called a nodosity to develop. Because alpha expansin genes are involved in cell enlargement and cell wall loosening in many plant tissues it may be anticipated that they are also involved in nodosity formation. To identify expansin genes in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir, we mined for orthologues genes in a comparative analysis. Eleven putative expansin genes were identified and shown to be present in the rootstock Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri Planch. x V. riparia Michx.) using specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Expression analysis of young and mature nodosities and uninfested root tips were conducted via quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Up-regulation was measured for three putative expansin genes (VvEXPA15, -A17 and partly -A20) or down-regulation for three other putative genes (VvEXPA7, -A12, -A20) in nodosities. The present study clearly shows the involvement of putative expansin genes in the phylloxera-root interaction.

  2. Epidemiological factors in gall bladder cancer in eastern India-a single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Panda, Nilanjan; Banerjee, Manju; Das, Ruchira

    2013-03-01

    India has high incidence of Gallbladder carcinoma with regional variation in incidence possibly due to environmental factors. Prospective study of all the gall bladder cancer in our hospital over 18 months analysing how the epidemiological factors are influencing the disease. Incidence-Four cases per 100,000 populations per year. The peak incidence was in 41 to 50 years group (49.20 %). Male to female ratio was 1:3.8. Majority (69.84 %) were in lower socio-economic group. 61 out of 63 patients (96.62 %) were non-vegetarians. 60.34 % and 19.04 % patients weighed between 50 and 55 kg and 55and 60 kg respectively (p = 0.003). Male smokers had significantly higher risk (p = 0.000 1). Gall stones were present in 45 out of 63 cases(71.42 %).45 out of 63 patients were typhoid carriers (p prevent typhoid carriers, prevention of malnutrition, early intervention for cholelithiasis, importance of balanced diet, increase in awareness about risk of tobacco and alcohol consumption-all are highlighted as significant modifiable factors.

  3. AGENESIS OF GALL BLADDER DIAGNOSED INTRA-OPERATIVEL Y: A CASE REPORT

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    Somorjit Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : Congenital absence of GB is a rare anomaly occurrin g in less than 1 in 1000 population. These patients’ complaints of tho se of more common biliary conditions and routine radiological and biochemical investigat ion makes difficult to diagnose preoperatively and patients undergo unnecessary operat ive intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A 18 years old female with clinical features of Ch olecystitis diagnosed by USG as Contracted GB with Cholelithiasis was operated for O pen Cholecystectomy. Intra-operatively, the GB could not be seen even after thorough dissec tion. Post operative MRCP confirmed the diagnosis of absence of GB. RESULTS: The patient having the classical features of Gall St one disease with the routine investigative reports, had undergone Operation .As the gall bladder was not found , the procedure was terminated and post operative MRCP confirmed the diagnosis of absence of GB. CONCLUSION: The rare congenital anomaly of absence of GB may have common biliary conditions, and so patients may undergo unnecessary operative procedures. With the newer minimally invasive radiol ogic techniques, this situation can largely be avoided if awareness of this condition is improve d.

  4. Potential fecundity of a highly invasive gall maker, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Rieske, Lynne K

    2014-08-01

    Fecundity is a key factor in modulating population growth rate, and is of particular significance when considering the invasiveness of introduced species. In insects, fecundity is affected by body size, age, and nutrition. We investigated the potential fecundity of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), an introduced parthenogenetic gall former of Asian origin and a global pest of chestnut (Castanea spp.), to better understand its invasiveness. We compared ovarian, egg, and body metrics of adult wasps of different age. We evaluated insect weight, body length, mesosomal and metasomal lengths and widths, hind femur length, number of eggs, and size of eggs in wasps from four age cohorts. Adult weight and metasomal width were positively correlated with number of eggs. Egg load decreased with wasp age, and egg size initially increased before decreasing. Our findings suggest that adult D. kuriphilus, previously reported as proovigenic, may be resorping eggs in the absence of suitable hosts, and reallocating nutritive resources for body maintenance and egg quality to increase fitness, implicating a plasticity in its reproductive strategy. D. kuriphilus may be able to vary its potential fecundity in response to nutrition and host availability, thus increasing its invasiveness.

  5. Financial cost to institutions on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Qasmi, Shahzad Ahmed; Kiani, Faran; Raza, Ahmed; Khan, Khizar Ishtiaque; Manzoor, Shazia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the financial costs to institution on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery and suggest measures to reduce them. This multi-centre prospective descriptive survey was performed on all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy by three consultants at secondary care hospitals in Pakistan between Jan 2010 to Jan 2012. Data was collected on demographics, the duration of mean waiting time, specific indications and nature of disease for including the patients in the waiting list, details of emergency re-admissions while awaiting surgery, investigations done, treatment given and expenditures incurred on them during these episodes. A total of 185 patients underwent elective open cholecystectomy. The indications for listing the patients for surgery were biliary colic in 128 patients (69%), acute cholecystitis in 43 patients (23%), obstructive jaundice in 8 patients (4.5%) and acute pancreatitis in 6 patients (3.2%). 146 (78.9%) and 39 (21.1%) of patients were listed as outdoor electives and indoor emergencies respectively. Of the 185 patients, 54 patients (29.2%) were re-admitted. Financial costs in Pakistani rupees per episode of readmission were 23050 per episode in total and total money spent on all readmissions was Rs. 17,05,700/-. Financial costs on health care institutions due to readmissions in patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery are high. Identifying patients at risk for these readmissions and offering them early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is very important.

  6. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors: Increase of Solute Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, T; Kahl, G; Hilgenberg, W

    1984-06-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant K(i) is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed.

  7. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Thomas; Kahl, Günter; Hilgenberg, Willy

    1984-01-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant Ki is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed. PMID:16663625

  8. Adaptive radiation of gall-inducing insects within a single host-plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jeffrey B; Crespi, Bernard J

    2007-04-01

    Speciation of plant-feeding insects is typically associated with host-plant shifts, with subsequent divergent selection and adaptation to the ecological conditions associated with the new plant. However, a few insect groups have apparently undergone speciation while remaining on the same host-plant species, and such radiations may provide novel insights into the causes of adaptive radiation. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to infer a phylogeny for 14 species of gall-inducing Asphondylia flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) found on Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), which have been considered to be monophyletic based on morphological evidence. Our phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for extensive within-host plant speciation in this group, and it demonstrates that diversification has involved numerous shifts between different plant organs (leaves, buds, flowers, and stems) of the same host-plant species. Within-plant speciation of Asphondylia is thus apparently facilitated by the opportunity to partition the plant ecologically. One clade exhibits temporal isolation among species, which may have facilitated divergence via allochronic shifts. Using a novel method based on Bayesian reconstruction, we show that the rate of change in an ecomorphological trait, ovipositor length, was significantly higher along branches with inferred shifts between host-plant organs than along branches without such shifts. This finding suggests that Larrea gall midges exhibit close morphological adaptation to specific host-plant parts, which may mediate ecological transitions via disruptive selection.

  9. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  10. Meaningful main effects or intriguing interactions? Examining the influences of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations on cognitive processing and conceptual change when learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing and conceptual change when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, I manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with individuals' epistemic beliefs to facilitate or constrain learning. In accordance with definitions from Royce's (1983) framework of psychological epistemology, texts were developed to present Newtonian concepts in either a rational or a metaphorical format. Seventy-five undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure their epistemic beliefs and their misconceptions about Newton's laws of motion. Participants then read the first of two instructional texts (in either a rational or metaphorical format), and were asked to think aloud while reading. After reading the text, participants completed a recall task and a post-test of selected items regarding Newtonian concepts. These steps were repeated with a second instructional text (in either a rational or metaphorical format, depending on which format was assigned previously). Participants' think-aloud sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then blindly coded, and their recalls were scored for total number of correctly recalled ideas from the text. Changes in misconceptions were analyzed by examining changes in participants' responses to selected questions about Newtonian concepts from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that when individuals' epistemic beliefs were congruent with the knowledge representations in their assigned texts, they performed better on both online measures of learning (e.g., use of processing strategies) and offline products of learning (e.g., text recall, changes in misconceptions) than when their epistemic beliefs were incongruent with the knowledge representations. These results have implications for how

  11. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. V. Fergusobia from large multilocular shoot bud galls from Angophora and Eucalyptus in Australia, with descriptions of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2013-11-26

    Six new species of Fergusobia, from large multilocular shoot bud galls on two species of Angophora and four species of Eucalyptus from both subgenera Eucalyptus and Symphyomyrtus, are described. Fergusobia cosmophyllae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short arcuate conoid tail, a broad (small a ratio) arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to J-shaped male with broad, angular spicules and short bursa.  Fergusobia delegatensae Davies n. sp. has an open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a broadly conoid tail, an infective female of variable shape with an hemispherical tail tip, and a male of open C-shape with a crenate bursa that arises 40-70% along the length of the body from the tail tip and terminates just anterior to the cloaca. Fergusobia diversifoliae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate, C- or J-shaped male with angular spicule and a long peloderan bursa. Fergusobia floribundae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a narrow, arcuate, conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with an angular spicule and a short to mid-body length peloderan bursa. Fergusobia minimus Lisnawita n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to open C-shaped male with an angular spicule and a peloderan bursa arising at about 10-30% of body length. Fergusobia pimpamensis Davies n. sp. has an open C to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a narrow conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to C-shaped male with an arcuate spicule and a long, crenate, peloderan bursa. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from

  12. The never ripe mutant provides evidence that tumor-induced ethylene controls the morphogenesis of agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown galls on tomato stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni; Wolf; Feigenbaum; Avni; Klee

    1998-07-01

    We confirm the hypothesis that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced galls produce ethylene that controls vessel differentiation in the host stem of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Using an ethylene-insensitive mutant, Never ripe (Nr), and its isogenic wild-type parent we show that infection by A. tumefaciens results in high rates of ethylene evolution from the developing crown galls. Ethylene evolution from isolated internodes carrying galls was up to 50-fold greater than from isolated internodes of control plants when measured 21 and 28 d after infection. Tumor-induced ethylene substantially decreased vessel diameter in the host tissues beside the tumor in wild-type stems but had a very limited effect in the Nr stems. Ethylene promoted the typical unorganized callus shape of the gall, which maximized the tumor surface in wild-type stems, whereas the galls on the Nr stems had a smooth surface. The combination of decreased vessel diameter in the host and increased tumor surface ensured water-supply priority to the growing gall over the host shoot. These results indicate that in addition to the well-defined roles of auxin and cytokinin, there is a critical role for ethylene in determining crown-gall morphogenesis.

  13. HEMOBILIA DUE TO VASCULITIS OF THE GALL-BLADDER IN A PATIENT WITH MIXED CONNECTIVE-TISSUE DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUIPERS, EJ; VANLEEUWEN, MA; NIKKELS, PGJ; JAGER, J; VANRIJSWIJK, MH

    1991-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease presented with acute abdominal pain and signs of blood loss. At cholecystectomy she appeared to have lost a considerable amount of blood into the biliary tract due to bleeding of the gall bladder. Microscopic examination showed vasculitis of t

  14. A new species of Labania Hedqvist (Braconidae, Doryctinae from Costa Rica, reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth

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    Sergey Belokobylskij

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Doryctinae genus Labania Hedqvist, L. ficophaga sp. n. from Costa Rica is described. This new species was reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth. An updated key to the five described species of Labania and digital pictures of L. ficophaga sp. n. and L. minuta Marsh are provided.

  15. Franz Joseph Gall on greatness in the fine arts: A collaboration of multiple cortical faculties of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Finger, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) is well known for his organology, i.e., his theory of cortical localization of function largely derived from skull features, little has been written about his ideas pertaining to specific faculties other than speech, and even less attention has been drawn to ho

  16. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  17. An observational study on the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome with gall stone disease requiring cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: We found association of metabolic syndrome with gallstones and NAFLD. Non alcoholic fatty liver was highly prevalent in our study subjects. Huge percentage of first degree relatives of gall stone patients had gallstones and this relation was more pronounced patients who had associated NAFLD.

  18. The use of root gall ratings to determine high risk zones in cotton fields infested by Meloidogyne Incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton farmers need a reliable, accurate, and inexpensive method for determining the potential threat of root-knot nematodes (RKN) to cotton within individual fields for site specific application of nematicides. Evaluation of cotton roots for RKN galling at harvest may be an alternative to soil ana...

  19. Dificuldade de aprendizagem: principais abordagens terapêuticas discutidas em artigos publicados nas principais revistas indexadas no LILACS de fonoaudiologia no período de 2001 a 2005 Learning difficulties: main therapeutic approaches in articles published in the main speech therapy journals from 2001 to 2005 - indexed on Lilacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Ferraz de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar artigos referentes às dificuldades de aprendizagem, tendo como objetivos específicos classificar o tipo de artigo, além de analisar a abordagem e a nomenclatura utilizada para identificação dos problemas de aprendizagem, pelos autores dos mesmos, nas revistas de 2001 a 2005 com indexação no LILACS. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados artigos com base nas seguintes palavras chaves: dificuldade de aprendizagem, distúrbio de aprendizagem, dificuldade de leitura e/ou escrita, dislexia, disortografia e disgrafia. RESULTADOS: o tipo de artigo mais publicado foi artigo original, seguido de estudo de caso. A principal nomenclatura utilizada pelos autores foram distúrbios ou dificuldades de aprendizagem, e a abordagem mais citada foi aquela que contempla a consciência fonológica. Verificou-se 207 artigos em linguagem, sendo 22 referentes ao tema desse trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: existe uma escassez de publicação de trabalhos na área de linguagem, principalmente ao tema relacionado à dificuldade de aprendizagem que talvez seja explicado pela falta de consenso entre os autores, levando tanto a uma dificuldade diagnóstica como terapêutica.PURPOSE: to check articles regarding learning difficulties, with the specific objectives of classifying the type of article as well as analyzing the approach and nomenclature that the authors used in the identification of learning problems in publications from 2001 to 2005 - indexed on LILACS. METHODS: survey of articles taking into consideration the following key words: learning difficulty, learning disability, reading and/or writing difficulty, dyslexia, dysortography and dysgraphy. RESULTS: original article was the most published, followed by case study. The main nomenclature that the authors used were "learning disability" or "learning difficulty", and the most cited approach was the one addressing phonological awareness. We observed 207 articles on language, 22 of these articles referred to the

  20. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Marcílio; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2011-09-01

    The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system.

  1. Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae host-plant specialists? Espécies de moscas galhadoras (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são especialistas em plantas hospedeiras?

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the speciose fauna of gall-inducing insects in the Neotropical region, little is known about their taxonomy. On the other hand, gall morphotypes associated with host species have been extensively used as a surrogate of the inducer species worldwide. This study reviewed the described gall midges and their galls to test the generalization on the use of gall morphotypes as surrogates of gall midge species in the Brazilian fauna. We compiled taxonomic and biological data for 196 gall midge species recorded on 128 host plant species. Ninety two percent of those species were monophagous, inducing galls on a single host plant species, whereas only 5.6% species were oligophagous, inducing galls on more than one congeneric host plant species. Only four species induced galls on more than one host plant genus. We conclude that gall morphotypes associated with information on the host plant species and attacked organs are reliable surrogates of the gall-inducing species.Apesar do elevado número de espécies da fauna de insetos indutores de galhas na região Neotropical, muito pouco espécies foram descritas. Por outro lado, o morfotipo da galha associado com a espécie da planta hospedeira é em todo o mundo amplamente utilizado como um indicador da espécie de inseto indutor. Este estudo revê as espécies de cecidommídeos descritos e suas galhas para verificar a generalização do uso da morfologia da galha como indicador da espécie de cecidomíideo na fauna brasileira. Nós compilamos dados biológicos e taxonômicos de 196 espécies de cecidomiídeos em 128 espécies de plantas no Brasil. Noventa e dois porcento destas espécies foram monófagas, induzindo galhas em uma única espécie de planta hospedeira, enquanto somente 5,6% das espécies foram oligófagas, induzindo galhas em mais de uma espécie de planta do mesmo gênero. Somente quatro espécies induzem galhas em espécies de plantas de gêneros diferentes. Nós concluímos que o morfo

  2. The gall mites Vasates quadripedes and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Acari: Eriophyidae) new to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Soika, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records from Denmark of the gall mite species Vasates quadripedes Shimer, 1869 and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Nalepa, 1893). V quadripedes is native to North America and forms pouch galls on leaves of some American species of maple. In Europe, it has been found on planted silver...... maple, Acer saccharinum L., only. The species has spread across Europe in recent years. C. psilaspis forms bud galls of species of Taxus in Europe only the native Taxus baccata L. The species is native to Europe and has been introduced to North America....

  3. Studies on superoxide dismutase activities in virulent and avirulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and also in normal and crown gall tumor cells of Bryophyllum calycinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D; Basu, M; Choudhury, I; Chatterjee, G C

    1982-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase activity in virulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found to be higher than that in avirulent strains. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two isoenzymes in both these strains. These isoenzymes are suggested to be iron and manganese containing superoxide dismutases. Crown gall tumor cells of the plant Bryophyllum calycinum were found to have higher superoxide dismutase activity than the normal plant cells. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two isoenzymes in both normal and crown gall tumor cells. Advantages of the higher superoxide dismutase activities in respect of the survival of virulent strains of A. tumefaciens and crown gall tumor growth have been discussed.

  4. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. X. Fergusobia from galls on narrow-leaved Melaleuca spp. in Australia, with descriptions of three new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Makinson, Jeff; Purcell, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Three new species of Fergusobia, respectively collected from shoot bud galls on narrow-leaved Melaleuca spp. in Australia, are described. Fergusobia armillarisae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with an extensile uterus and a short, conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate male with an angular spicule and bursa arising at 50-80% of body length. Fergusobia decorae n. sp. Davies has an arcuate parthenogenetic female with a non-extensile uterus and a broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with most curvature behind the vulva and a short tail with a broadly rounded tip, and an arcuate male with an arcuate spicule and bursa arising at 40-50% of body length. Fergusobia linariifoliae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of an arcuate parthenogenetic female with an extensile uterus and a short, conoid tail with a bluntly rounded tip, a barely arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate male with an angular spicule and bursa arising at 40-50% of body length. Earlier molecular analyses inferred from DNA sequencing of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) are further discussed. 

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

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    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  6. Suppressor of RNA silencing encoded by Rice gall dwarf virus genome segment 11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuXiu; ZHAO Qin; RUAN XiaoLei; HE YunWei; LI HuaPing

    2008-01-01

    Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) is an important rice pathogen in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of RGDV interactions with plant cells. Here, we have identi-fied an RGDV protein, Pns11, which acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing in coinfiltration assays with the reporter, green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic Nicotiana bentharniana line 16c carrying GFP. Pns11 suppressed local and systemic silencing induced by sense RNA. The spread of mobile FINA si-lencing signals was blocked or inactivated by Pns11. Expression of Pns11 also enhanced Potato virus X pathogenicity in N. benthamiana. This suppressor could reduce, but not eliminate, siRNA in the local and systemic RNA silencing suppression assays, suggesting that Pns11 functions by interfering with initial stages of RNA silencing.

  7. An Attractant of the Aphidophagous Gall Midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza From Honeydew of Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yano, Eizi; Higashida, Keita; Hasegawa, Syouichi; Takabayashi, Junji; Ozawa, Rika

    2016-02-01

    Many natural enemies of insects use honeydew as a volatile cue to locate hosts or prey, as an oviposition stimulant, and as an arrestant for foraging. The aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) has predacious larval stages and can be used to control aphid populations, especially in greenhouses. Previous studies have shown that the honeydew, excreted by the aphid Myzus persicae, attracts A. aphidimyza, but the crucial attractants have not been identified. Using an olfactometer, we studied behavioral responses of female A. aphidimyza to volatiles emitted from honeydew excreted by the aphid Aphis gossypii on eggplants. The volatiles attracted female midges and induced oviposition. Moreover, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we identified phenylacetaldehyde as the attractant compound in the honeydew, although it did not induce oviposition in olfactometer experiments.

  8. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

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    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  9. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  10. Proposed Experimental Test of Gall's Predicted Isochromatic Black Body Displacement Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2010-03-01

    The test of any Black Body Distribution function is how well it satisfies: Stefan-Boltzmann law ( I=σT^4) ; Wien's isothermal displacement law ( λmT=b) and the maximum isothermal emitted intensity condition ( IλmT^5) . Gall's function ( Iλ=σT^6b^2 λe^-λTb) satisfies these conditions exactly and unlike all previous candidates employs the original empirical constants ( σ,b) in its formulation. Distinct from Planck and all others, it predicts an isochromatic displacement law: λTm=6b, where Tm is the temperature of maximum emitted intensity for a given λ. The associated maximum isochromatic emitted intensity should satisfy ITmλ-5 . At wavelengths of 20, 25 and 29 μm, Tm is calculated to be 870, 696 and 600 K respectively. In this range ( Tmgoogle.com/site/purefieldphysics).

  11. A novel phytomyxean parasite associated with galls on the bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot.

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    Franz Goecke

    Full Text Available Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean, abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on 'the strongest seaweed of the world', which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity of Methonolic Extract of Rhus Succedanea Leaf Gall

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    Savitri Shrestha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The worldwide increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the undesirable side effects associated with constant use of synthetic drugs has prompted the search for novel antimicrobial agents, particularly those manufactured from plants. This study is designed to ascertain the antibacterial potential of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts on the growth of gram-positive and gram–negative bacteria. Methods: The methanolic and hexane extract of different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 μg/ml were prepared and their antibacterial efficacy was tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method and the size of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. Results: The methanol and hexane extracts differed significantly in their antimicrobial activity with methanol extract showing a potent inhibitory activity in the range of 16±2 to 23±1, which was almost equal to the values of ciprofloxacin (25±3, used as a standard. Further, the methanol extract was mostly potent and effective in inhibiting the growth of gram-negative bacteria, namely, E. coli, when compared to gram –positive bacteria stains, which are responsible for antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical screening showed positive results for the presence of steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, and carbohydrates. Conclusion: The potent antibacterial activity of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts indicates its useful therapeutic application against bacterial infection. Furthermore, this study indicates that the extract might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of infectious diseases and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medications.

  13. Descriptions of two new Species of Goniozus Förster, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) associated with insect induced plant galls from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shreevihar; Ranjith, Avinjikkattu Parambil

    2015-11-03

    Two new species of the genus Goniozus viz., Goniozus inauditus Santhosh sp. nov. and G. kuriani Santhosh sp. nov. associated with insect induced plant galls from South India are described. The parasitic relationship of Goniozus with the nonlepidopteran hosts living in the concealed habitats and their association with insect induced plant galls and its inhabitants are reviewed.  The possible host range extension of Goniozus is commented.

  14. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  15. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  16. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VII. Fergusobia from 'leafy' leaf bud galls in Australia, with re-description of Fergusobia tumifaciens (Currie 1937) Wachek 1955 and descriptions of Fergusobia planchonianae n. sp. and Fergusobia viminalisae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Taylor, Gary S; Hodda, Mike; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-26

    Fergusobia tumifaciens (Currie 1937) Wachek 1955, the type species for the genus Fergusobia, is re-described from specimens collected from 'leafy' leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus bridgesiana near Albury in New South Wales, Australia. It is morphologically characterized by the combination of an open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small broadly conoid tail, a C-shaped infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate to J-shaped male with angular spicules, not heavily sclerotised, and short to mid-length peloderan bursa. Two new species of Fergusobia, collected from 'leafy' leaf bud galls on, respectively, Eucalyptus planchoniana in Queensland, and E. viminalis in South Australia, Australia, are described. Fergusobia planchonianae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and an almost straight to arcuate to C-shaped male with an angular spicule, a long peloderan bursa and a narrow tail. Fergusobia viminalisae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of an open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a broadly conoid tail, a C-shaped infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate to J-shaped male with an angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short to mid-length peloderan bursa. The shield morphologies of the fly larvae associated with the 'leafy' leaf bud galls and their possible relationships are outlined. Possible evolutionary relationships of the Fergusobia nematodes from these galls are discussed, considering their morphology, DNA sequences, and the relationships of the associated Fergusonina flies and host plants. 

  17. Sonographic parameters of the pancreas and gall bladder in healthy men from Podillya region of Ukraine of different somatotypes

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    Gunas Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we undertook a study of the sonographic parameters of the pancreas and gall bladder in healthy men with different somatotypes. The study-subjects were from the Podillya region of Ukraine. Herein, the majority of gallbladder dimensions (length, thickness, cross-sectional area and volume in men type-classified as endo-mesomorphic, were significantly higher when compared with men in general and with those of the meso- and ecto-mesomorphic somatotype. Furthermore, the dimensions of the pancreas (width of head and tail length in mesomorphic males were significantly higher than that of endo-mesomorphic males. The rest of the studied parameters (length, longitudinal cross section area of the gall bladder, the thickness of the head, body and head length, the width of the body and tail of the pancreas in men of the different somatotypes have no significant differences.

  18. Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae Variação sazonal do conteúdo fenólico em tecidos galhados e não-galhados de Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Lima Detoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti and T. mecanga, induce distinct galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. Seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. The variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. In periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.Duas espécies, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti e T. mecanga, induzem galhas distintas em Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, um morfotipo globoso e um fusiforme. Mudanças sazonais no conteúdo fenólico nos tecidos das duas galhas foram comparadas àquelas de folha e caule não galhados das plantas hospedeiras por um ano. A variação no perfil de conteúdo fenólico foi similar em tecidos galhados e não galhados, sendo associada primariamente às mudanças nos níveis de chuva, constituindo uma resposta direta ao estresse hídrico. Nos períodos de mudanças drásticas na precipitação de água, as alterações foram significativamente maiores em tecido não galhados do que em tecidos galhados, sugerindo que os galhadores estariam limitando a variação do conteúdo fenólico em seu próprio benefício.

  19. Shifts in Plant Assemblages Reduce the Richness of Galling Insects Across Edge-Affected Habitats in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Danielle G; Santos, Jean C; Oliveira, Marcondes A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on specialist herbivores have been rarely addressed. Here we examine the structure of plant and galling insect assemblages in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic forest to verify a potential impoverishment of these assemblages mediated by edge effects. Saplings and galling insects were recorded once within a 0.1-ha area at habitat level, covering forest interior stands, forest edges, and small fragments. A total of 1,769 saplings from 219 tree species were recorded across all three habitats, with differences in terms of sapling abundance and species richness. Additionally, edge-affected habitats exhibited reduced richness of both host-plant and galling insects at plot and habitat spatial scale. Attack levels also differed among forest types at habitat spatial scale (21.1% of attacked stems in forest interior, 12.4% in small fragments but only 8.5% in forest edges). Plot ordination resulted in three clearly segregated clusters: one formed by forest interior, one by small fragments, and another formed by edge plots. Finally, the indicator species analysis identified seven and one indicator plant species in forest interior and edge-affected habitats, respectively. Consequently, edge effects lead to formation of distinct taxonomic groups and also an impoverished assemblage of plants and galling insects at multiple spatial scales. The results of the present study indicate that fragmentation-related changes in plant assemblages can have a cascade effects on specialist herbivores. Accordingly, hyperfragmented landscapes may not be able to retain an expressive portion of tropical biodiversity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 2-D GEL ELECTROPHORESIS MAP OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TREATED WITH QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA has caused clinical and epidemiological concern in hospital environment. The emergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate S. Aureus (VISA and, more recently, Vancomycin-Resistant S. Aureus (VRSA has further alarmed clinician and scientist worlwide. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of sample protein from MRSA after treatment with acetone extract from Quercus infectoria gall. Comparison of the Protein Expression Profile (PEP between the treated MRSA and untreated strain as control was obtained using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC value of acetone extract of galls from Q. infectoria against two strains of MRSA; ATCC 33591 and PPUKM clinical isolate was determined by broth microdilution method. The MIC value of acetone extracts against both strains of MRSA was 0.3125 mg mL-1 compared to vancomycin (0.00195 mg mL-1. The optimum concentration of MRSA protein that produced the best resolution was 100 µg. Manifold technique was observed to produce a gel with better resolution and greater number of spot compared with the strip holder technique. This study showed that there were 7 protein spots that represented the increased in the protein expression of more than 2-fold in the MRSA treated with acetone extract of galls Q. infectoria compared to the untreated group. This preliminary study on the PEP of Q. infectoria galls extract-treated MRSA may provide an insight of its antimicrobial mechanism which could lead to the identification of target protein in the future development of a new effective regimen for the treatment of MRSA infections.

  1. Description, host range and distribution of a new Macrodiplosis species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) that induces leaf-margin fold galls on deciduous Quercus (Fagaceae) with comparative notes on Palaearctic congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanggyu; Yukawa, Junichi; Harris, Keith M; Minami, Tsuneo; Matsuo, Kazunori; Skrzypczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-06-20

    A gall midge that induces upwardly folded leaf-margin galls on Quercus serrata, Q. mongolica and Q. dentata (Fagaceae) in Japan and South Korea is described as Macrodiplosis selenis sp. n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). M. selenis is distinguished from Palaearctic congeners by a combination of morphological characters. Genetic differences supported the result of morphological comparison and indicated that M. selenis is closely related to the European M. roboris, whose gall is similar to that of M. selenis.

  2. Franz Joseph Gall on greatness in the fine arts: A collaboration of multiple cortical faculties of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley

    2015-10-01

    Although Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) is well known for his organology, i.e., his theory of cortical localization of function largely derived from skull features, little has been written about his ideas pertaining to specific faculties other than speech, and even less attention has been drawn to how the individual faculties might work together in specific situations. Our focus shall be on how Franz Joseph Gall viewed the fine arts, with special emphasis on what one must possess to be outstanding in this field, which he associated with perceiving and understanding relationships, and several higher faculties of mind, including color, "constructiveness," locality, and recognizing people. How these faculties are utilized, he tells us, will vary with whether an artist does portraits, landscapes, historical scenes, still life compositions, etc., as well as with the selected medium (e.g., oil paints, sketching on paper, stones to be carved). To put Gall's thoughts about the fine arts in context, brief mention will be made of his scientific career, his guiding philosophy, the questions he most wanted to answer, what he construed as "evidence," how he eliminated the soul or "controller" from his system, and how he presented his work to the public. Some comparisons will be made to what he wrote about having a talent for music.

  3. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for in situ identification of indigo and iron gall ink on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Zaleski, Stephanie; Casadio, Francesca; Van Duyne, Richard P; Shah, Nilam C

    2014-06-18

    Confirmatory, nondestructive, and noninvasive identification of colorants in situ is of critical importance for the understanding of historical context and for the long-term preservation of cultural heritage objects. Although there are several established techniques for analyzing cultural heritage materials, there are very few analytical methods that can be used for molecular characterization when very little sample is available, and a minimally invasive approach is required. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a powerful analytical technique whose key features include high mass sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and precise positioning of the tip. In the current proof-of-concept study we utilized TERS to identify indigo dye and iron gall ink in situ on Kinwashi paper. In addition, TERS was used to identify iron gall ink on a historical document with handwritten text dated to the 19th century. We demonstrate that TERS can identify both of these colorants directly on paper. Moreover, vibrational modes from individual components of a complex chemical mixture, iron gall ink, can be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of in situ TERS for colorants of artistic relevance directly on historical materials. Overall, this work demonstrates the great potential of TERS as an additional spectroscopic tool for minimally invasive compositional characterization of artworks in situ and opens exciting new possibilities for cultural heritage research.

  4. Biological control of crown gall on grapevine and root colonization by nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years.

  5. Chemometric tool for identification of iron-gall inks by use of visible-near infrared fibre optic reflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Lukáš; Čeppan, Michal; Reháková, Milena; Dvonka, Vladimír; Tarajčáková, Jarmila; Hanus, Jozef

    2013-11-01

    A method has been developed for identification of corrosive iron-gall inks in historical drawings and documents. The method is based on target-factor analysis of visible-near infrared fibre optic reflection spectra (VIS-NIR FORS). A set of reference spectra was obtained from model samples of laboratory-prepared inks covering a wide range of mixing ratios of basic ink components deposited on substrates and artificially aged. As criteria for correspondence of a studied spectrum with a reference spectrum, the apparent error in target (AET) and the empirical function SPOIL according to Malinowski were used. The capability of the proposed tool to distinguish corrosive iron-gall inks from bistre and sepia inks was evaluated by use of a set of control samples of bistre, sepia, and iron-gall inks. Examples are presented of analysis of historical drawings from the 15th and 16th centuries and written documents from the 19th century. The results of analysis based on the tool were confirmed by XRF analysis and colorimetric spot analysis.

  6. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  7. Reduction in pathogen populations at grapevine wound sites is associated with the mechanism underlying the biological control of crown gall by rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2014-09-17

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium (=Agrobacterium) vitis, ARK-1, limited the development of grapevine crown gall. A co-inoculation with ARK-1 and the tumorigenic strain VAT07-1 at a 1:1 cell ratio resulted in a higher population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in shoots without tumors, but a significantly lower population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in grapevine shoots with tumors. ARK-1 began to significantly suppress the VAT07-1 population 2 d after the inoculation. This result indicated that ARK-1 reduced the pathogen population at the wound site through biological control. Although ARK-1 produced a zone of inhibition against other tumorigenic Rhizobium spp. in in vitro assays, antibiosis depended on the culture medium. ARK-1 did not inhibit the growth of tumorigenic R. radiobacter strain AtC1 in the antibiosis assay, but suppressed the AtC1-induced formation of tumors on grapevine shoots, suggesting that antibiosis by ARK-1 may not be the main mechanism responsible for biological control.

  8. Identification of Agrobacterium vitis as a causal agent of grapevine crown gall in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in several commercial vineyards located in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. Bacteria were isolated from the young tumor tissue on nonselective YMA medium and five representative strains were selected for further identification. Tumorigenic (Ti plasmid was detected in all strains by PCR using primers designed to amplify the virC pathogenicity gene, producing a 414-bp PCR product. The strains were identified as Agrobacterium vitis using differential physiological and biochemical tests, and a multiplex PCR assay targeting 23S rRNA gene sequences. In the pathogenicity assay, all strains induced characteristic symptoms on inoculated tomato and grapevine plants. They were less virulent on tomato plants in comparison to the reference strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  9. Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence I. Kado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant tumor disease, known as crown gall, was not called by that name until more recent times. Tumors on plants, particularly on cultivated grapevines, were observed thousands of years ago and recorded in the bible (wine was being made 7000 years ago. Once a cultured bacterium that was first isolated in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy and recognized to be the cause of this disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. The pertinent historical events leading to the identification of a genetic principle that was cleverly inserted into plant host cells and integrated into their chromosome culminated in very detailed studies of Agrobacterium tumefaciens the causal bacterium. Such studies have lead to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing organisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries have opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber.

  10. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Archa

    2009-01-01

    A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens -- Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  11. Generation of islet-like cells from mouse gall bladder by direct ex vivo reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Raymond D; Galivo, Feorillo; Schug, Jonathan; Brehm, Michael A; Haft, Annelise; Wang, Yuhan; Benedetti, Eric; Gu, Guoqiang; Magnuson, Mark A; Shultz, Leonard D; Lagasse, Eric; Greiner, Dale L; Kaestner, Klaus H; Grompe, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Cell replacement is an emerging therapy for type 1 diabetes. Pluripotent stem cells have received a lot of attention as a potential source of transplantable β-cells, but their ability to form teratomas poses significant risks. Here, we evaluated the potential of primary mouse gall bladder epithelial cells (GBCs) as targets for ex vivo genetic reprogramming to the β-cell fate. Conditions for robust expansion and genetic transduction of primary GBCs by adenoviral vectors were developed. Using a GFP reporter for insulin, conditions for reprogramming were then optimized. Global expression analysis by RNA-sequencing was used to quantitatively compare reprogrammed GBCs (rGBCs) to true β-cells, revealing both similarities and differences. Adenoviral-mediated expression of NEUROG3, Pdx1, and MafA in GBCs resulted in robust induction of pancreatic endocrine genes, including Ins1, Ins2, Neurod1, Nkx2-2 and Isl1. Furthermore, expression of GBC-specific genes was repressed, including Sox17 and Hes1. Reprogramming was also enhanced by addition of retinoic acid and inhibition of Notch signaling. Importantly, rGBCs were able to engraft long term in vivo and remained insulin-positive for 15weeks. We conclude that GBCs are a viable source for autologous cell replacement in diabetes, but that complete reprogramming will require further manipulations.

  12. Expression of rice gall dwarf virus outer coat protein gene (S8) in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guo-cheng; Gao, Fang-luan; Wei, Tai-yun; Huang, Mei-ying; Xie, Li-yan; Wu, Zu-jian; Lin, Qi-ying; Xie, Lian-hui

    2010-12-01

    To obtain the P8 protein of Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) with biological activity, its outer coat protein gene S8 was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The S8 gene was subcloned into the pFastBac™1 vector, to produce the recombinant baculovirus transfer vector pFB-S8. After transformation, pFB-S8 was introduced into the competent cells (E. coli DH10Bac) containing a shuttle vector, Bacmid, generating the recombinant bacmid rbpFB-S8. After being infected by recombinant baculovirus rvpFB-S8 at different multiplicities of infection, Sf9 cells were collected at different times and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The expression level of the P8 protein was highest between 48-72 h after transfection of Sf9 cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that P8 protein of RGDV formed punctate structures in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells.

  13. Long-term dam safety monitoring of Punt dal Gall arch dam in Switzerland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.WIELAND[1; G.F.KIRCHEN[2

    2012-01-01

    The 130 m high Punt dal Gall dam is located at the Swiss-Italian border in the South-eastern part of Switzerland and was completed in 1969.The dam is founded on highly folded and partially crushed dolomite and limestone formations.A grout curtain with an area of 120,000 m 2 was provided for controlling seepage.For the monitoring of the dam deformations five inverted pendulums were installed in the dam and three in the rock foundation of the right abutment outside of the dam.For a seasonal water level fluctuation in the reservoir of about 60 m the maximum amplitude of the radial displacement is 25 mm,which includes both the effects of the water load and temperature effects.Furthermore a comprehensive geodetic network was established,57 joint meters were installed and cracks in the crest gallery are monitored by crack meters.There are also thermometers,piezometers and rocmeters.Springs at the left and right banks of the dam are monitored and chemical analyses of the seepage water and springs are performed regularly.The dam is equipped with strong motion instruments and several near-field earthquakes have been recorded in the past.The paper describes the long-term safety monitoring of this 42 years old arch dam.A short description of the Swiss practice in dam safety monitoring and emergency planning is also given.

  14. Analysis of summer phosphorus fluxes within the pelagic zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W.F.; Barko, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Major phosphorus (P) fluxes to and from the pelagic zone (i.e., open water region including epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion) were estimated from data collected over a 6 year period during the summer in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. P inputs to the pelagic zone included profundal sediments, the watershed, groundwater, and transport of P from the littoral zone. P outputs from the pelagic zone included discharge from the reservoir, deposition, and transport of P to the littoral zone. Nighttime convective circulation was assumed to be the dominant mechanism of P exchange between the littoral and pelagic zones. Littoral P inputs, often neglected from budgetary analyses, accounted for 15% of the total measured P input and 25% of the internal P input to the pelagic zone. External P inputs were greatest, accounting for 42% of the total measured P input to the pelagic zone. These results emphasize the need for control of various sources of P inputs in the development of lake and reservoir management strategies.

  15. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)).

  16. Model compounds of iron gall inks – a Mössbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerf, A. [Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Walther Meißner Institute (Germany); Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Ferrogallic inks were used for at least two millennia before they became obsolete in the 20{sup th} century. The chemistry of such inks is, however, still largely unclear. Today it is of particular interest for the conservation of old manuscripts. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of the ink on historical documents showed the presence of Fe(II) oxalate and of Fe(III) sites presumably representing iron oxihydroxides. To obtain more information on the behaviour of ink on paper we have performed Mössbauer studies at 300 and 4.2 K on iron gall inks prepared from FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O and tannin. These inks were either written on paper or isolated as a precipitate by centrifugation. In the dried precipitate there is still a strong contribution of the FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O which is absent in the same ink written on paper, for which a broad ferrous component with a quadrupole splitting (QS) of about 2.5 mm/s was found. The dominant Fe(III) site present in all inks on paper with QS ≈ 0.82 mm/s is not Fe(III) gallate and different from the precipitates. We propose that nanoparticulate oxidic clusters or molecular composites covered by a shell of polymerized oxidation products of the phenols are formed on the paper.

  17. Insect-induced effects on plants and possible effectors used by galling and leaf-mining insects to manipulate their host-plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, David; Huguet, Elisabeth; Stone, Graham N; Body, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects are iconic examples in the manipulation and reprogramming of plant development, inducing spectacular morphological and physiological changes of host-plant tissues within which the insect feeds and grows. Despite decades of research, effectors involved in gall induction and basic mechanisms of gall formation remain unknown. Recent research suggests that some aspects of the plant manipulation shown by gall-inducers may be shared with other insect herbivorous life histories. Here, we illustrate similarities and contrasts by reviewing current knowledge of metabolic and morphological effects induced on plants by gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, and ask whether leaf-miners can also be considered to be plant reprogrammers. We review key plant functions targeted by various plant reprogrammers, including plant-manipulating insects and nematodes, and functionally characterize insect herbivore-derived effectors to provide a broader understanding of possible mechanisms used in host-plant manipulation. Consequences of plant reprogramming in terms of ecology, coevolution and diversification of plant-manipulating insects are also discussed.

  18. Local spread of an exotic invader: using remote sensing and spatial analysis to document proliferation of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziosi I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and spatial analysis represent useful tools for modeling species’ dispersal, characterizing the spread of invasions and the invasability of a region, and thus allowing more accurate predictions for developing mitigation strategies. American chestnut, Castanea dentata, was historically a dominant forest species in North America, but occurs only sporadically today after its functional elimination by an exotic fungal pathogen in the early 1900’s. In recent decades Castanea resources have increased due to restoration efforts, commercial chestnut plantations, and horticultural uses. This resurgence is threatened by an additional exotic species, the globally invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus. The gall wasp was first discovered in Lexington, Kentucky (USA in 2010. We used remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems to describe the local distribution of the Castanea hosts, and the occurrence and dispersal of the gall wasp. We tested the hypotheses that geomorphology, Castanea occurrence, and prevailing winds influence local proliferation. We found that gall wasp spread may be attributable to host plant distribution and to the effects of prevailing winds occurring during a brief period of adult insect emergence, and is influenced by topography. Our results suggest that weather data and topographic features can be used to delineate currently infested areas and predict future gall wasp infestations.

  19. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress.

  20. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae) from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,VC; Fernandes,SPC

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae). The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  1. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Maia

    Full Text Available Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae. The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  2. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  3. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  4. Avirulence effector discovery in a plant galling and plant parasitic arthropod, the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajat; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zhao, Chaoyang; Chen, Ming-Shun; Harris, Marion O; Stuart, Jeff J

    2014-01-01

    Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods.

  5. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct calculi in patients with gall bladder in situ considered unfit for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B R; Neoptolemos, J P; Carr-Locke, D L

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was attempted in 106 patients with common bile duct (CBD) calculi and gall bladders present, who were considered unfit for surgery on the grounds of age and frailty alone (35%) and/or the presence of major medical problems (65%). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was successful in 105 patients (99%). Early ES related complications occurred in 21 patients (19.8%). Twelve hospital deaths occurred (11.3%), although this was due to biliary causes in only five (4.7%) and one of these was moribund on admission. Complications were more frequent in those in whom initial ES did not clear the common bile duct (30.4%) compared with those in whom this was (11.7%; p = 0.0164). The mortality was also greater in patients in whom there was no ERCP proof of CBD clearance (p = 0.01) unless operated upon. Twelve patients developed gall bladder complications (11.3%) including five with empyema (4.7%). Analysis of clinical, haematological, and biochemical factors together with ERCP findings showed that the only factor which had any value in predicting gall bladder complications was pre-existing cholangitis. The present series was compared with another using ES as a definitive procedure, and with a surgical series. Although there were significant differences in outcome, differences with respect to medical risk factors and the incidence of complications of CBD stones (jaundice, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis) were striking. Further analysis of these factors may allow a clearer definition of patients most likely to benefit from either ES or surgery.

  6. Expression of a crown gall biological control phenotype in an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium vitis by addition of the trifolitoxin production and resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triplett Eric W

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agrobacterium vitis is a causal agent of crown-gall disease. Trifolitoxin (TFX is a peptide antibiotic active only against members of a specific group of α-proteobacteria that includes Agrobacterium and its close relatives. The ability of TFX production by an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium to reduce crown gall disease is examined here. Results TFX was shown to be inhibitory in vitro against several A. vitis strains. TFX production, expressed from the stable plasmid pT2TFXK, conferred biological control activity to an avirulent strain of A. vitis. F2/5, against three virulent, TFX-sensitive strains of A. vitis tested on Nicotiana glauca. F2/5(pT2TFXK is significantly reduces number and size of galls when co-inoculated with tumorigenic strain CG78 at a 10:1 ratio, but is ineffective at 1:1 or 1:10 ratios. F2/5(pT2TFXK is effective when co-inoculated with tumorigenic strain CG435 at 10:1 and 1:1 ratios, but not at a 1:10 ratio. When F2/5(pT2TFXK is co-inoculated with CG49 at a 10:1 ratio, the incidence of gall formation does not decline but gall size decreases by more than 70%. A 24 h pre-inoculation with F2/5(pT2TFXK does not improve biological control at the 1:10 ratio. Conclusions TFX production by an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium does confer in that strain the ability to control crown gall disease on Nicotiana glauca. This is the first demonstration that the production of a ribosomally synthesized, post-translationally modified peptide antibiotic can confer reduction in plant disease incidence from a bacterial pathogen.

  7. Two new Aprostocetus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), fortuitous parasitoids of invasive eulophid gall inducers (Tetrastichinae) on Eucalyptus and Erythrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Man-Miao; Lin, Yu-Che; Wu, Yaojun; Fisher, Nicole; Saimanee, Titiporn; Sangtongpraow, Benjakhun; Zhu, Chaodong; Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; La Salle, John

    2014-08-01

    Two closely related new species of Aprostocetus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are described as fortuitous parasitoids of invasive gall inducers in two other genera of Tetrastichinae, Leptocybe Fisher & LaSalle and Quadrastichus Girault. Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu is a parasitoid of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle on Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) in China and Thailand, and A. felix La Salle, Yang & Lin is a parasitoid of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Epitetrastichus nigriventris Girault, 1913 is removed from synonymy from Aprostocetus gala (Walker), and treated as the valid species A. nigriventris (Girault). 

  8. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  9. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2016-11-12

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  10. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  11. 2004 Maine Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Maine. Data was collected...

  12. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  13. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  14. A comparative analysis of genetic differentiation across six shared willow host species in leaf- and bud-galling sawflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna A Leppänen

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  16. The main cubioid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-08-01

    The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

  17. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at the >97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall

  18. Ladybugs of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  19. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Engels'Dialectics of "Theoretical Thinking" Sun Zheng-yu The main significant contribution to Marxist dialectics of Engels is to formulate dialectics on the level of theoretical thinking. This contribution is expressed in three aspects: 1 ) generalizing thoroughly the historical evolution of the way of thinking embodied in science history, philosophy history and human history;

  20. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  1. [Preferential localization of cadmium on the iterative DNA sequences from cultured tissues of the crown gall of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Wisconsis 38)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissoëff, I; Grisvard, J; Guillé, E; Laterjet, R

    1975-05-26

    Fractionation of total crown-gall tissue culture DNA from Nicotiana tabacum by Ag+-Cs2SO4 density gradient is described. Cadmium ions determination is performed in each fraction by anodic stripping voltammetry. The cadmium content of the DNA in the lightest density fractions is 100 to 1000 times higher than in the other fractions.

  2. Concurrent gall bladder, liver lobe torsion, and bile peritonitis in a German shepherd dog 2 months after gastric dilatation/volvulus gastropexy and splenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tubby, Kurtis G.

    2013-01-01

    Postmortem examination of a 7-year-old German shepherd dog which had gastric dilatation/volvulus and splenectomy 2 months earlier revealed that the right middle and quadrate liver lobes were diffusely congested and torsed. The gall bladder was grossly distended and torsed along its long axis and there was evidence of bile peritonitis.

  3. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel ...

  4. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  5. New record and re-description of a gall-forming aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae, commonly confused in the north of South America, associated with an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Simbaqueba-Cortés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The gall-forming aphid Tetraneura fusiformis is recorded for the first time for Northern South America. Its identity is clarified, and descriptions of this species and that of T. nigriabdominalis, with which it is commonly confused, are offered. The association of this sap sucking insect with the ant Linepithema angulatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is recorded for the first time as well

  6. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  7. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  8. Lodging Update: Portland, Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. Roginsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors summarize regional performance for 2012, offer projections for 2013, and spotlight the lodging market in Portland, Maine.

  9. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with undissected calot triangle and remained partial gall bladder wall%不解剖胆囊三角并保留部分胆囊壁的腹腔镜胆囊切除术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国生; 蔺晖琦; 徐恒; 尹照成; 黄眷杰; 许瑞云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)with undissected calot triangle and remained partial gall bladder wall in patients with chronic cholecystitis/cholecys-tolithiasis combined with highly fibrotic gall bladder wall. Methods Eighty-nine cases of chronic cholecysti-tis/cholecystolithiasis combined with highly fibrotic gall bladder wall received LC of four hole method. During operation,retrograde method was used,with undissected calot triangles and remained partial gall bladder walls. The effect of this surgical method was analyzed. Results Seventy-eight cases (87.6%)of all patients underwent the operation successfully. The operating time was 30~90 min,with an average of 45 min. Bleeding amount was 20~50 ml,with an average of 30 ml. The hospitalized time was 4~7 d,with an average of 5 d.Seven cases with opaque operative field underwent LC with ultrasound assistance successfully. Three cases were converted to open cholecystectomy because of tissue adhesion. One case with iatrogenic common bile duct inju-ry converted to open cholecystectomy,and then received bile total pipe anastomosis and T-tube drainage. Three of 85 cases only received LC with mild biliary fistula and were cured by the continuous negative pressure drain-age. 3 cases with transient mild diarrhea were resolved spontaneously in 1 to 3 months after operation. All pa-tients were cured without other surgical complications. Conclusions LC with undissected calot triangle and re-mained partial gall bladder wall can effectively treat patients with chronic cholecystitis/cholecystolithiasis com-bined with highly fibrotic gall bladder wall,but open cholecystectomy should be considered if there are serious tissue adhesions.%目的:探讨不解剖胆囊三角并保留部分胆囊壁的腹腔镜胆囊切除术(LC)治疗慢性胆囊炎/胆囊结石并胆囊壁高度纤维化患者的疗效。方法89例慢性胆囊炎/胆囊结石并胆囊壁高度纤维化的患者均

  10. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Petter Axelsson

    Full Text Available A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp. that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch. Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members

  11. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  12. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zi-yi

    2011-01-01

    On Deepening the Research on the Law of the Social Horizontal Development Feng Zi-yi The further development of globalization makes it urgent to deepen the research on the law of social hori- zontal development. Historical development of human society has experienced periods of isolation, multi-cen- ter, and globalization, while the truly horizontal development began from modernity. This kind of development is driven mainly by the logic of capital. The transforming process of capital, from dominating the whole process of economic development toward all aspects of social life, and from dominating nations toward the whole world, is also the logical process of capital pursuing itself and the process of social horizontal and wholly development as well. Horizontal and vertical developments of the society are interacting always. Researching on the law of social horizontal development is important for us to adapt to the historical trend consciously, to grasp the logic of capital rationally and to choose the right road of development.

  13. Porcelain gall bladder in a case of papillary renal cell carcinoma: A rare occurrence and its impact on treatment verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan V. Sugi Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN is a rare clinical entity in which two primary malignancies are encountered in the same individual which can be synchronous (second primary within 6 months or metachronous (beyond 6 months. We present a case of a 41-year-old male who underwent left partial nephrectomy for suspected renal cell carcinoma and it was confirmed based on histopathology. The gallbladder was normal on contrast-enhanced computed tomogram (CECT abdomen. Follow-up CECT done 1 year later showed no enhancing masses in both kidneys, but incidentally porcelain gallbladder was detected. An elective open cholecystectomy was done for acalculous porcelain gall bladder owing to its premalignant nature. We report this case to highlight the relative risk of second primaries in patients treated for primary malignancies and that relevant premalignant conditions should be managed as possible second malignancies to avoid potential complications.

  14. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria.

  15. Global regulatory networks control the hrp regulon of the gall-forming bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijel, Mary; Chalupowicz, Laura; Sessa, Guido; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac

    2013-09-01

    Gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae is dependent on the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system. Previous studies demonstrated that PagR and PagI, regulators of the quorum-sensing system, induce expression of the hrp regulatory cascade (i.e., hrpXY, hrpS, and hrpL) that activates the HrpL regulon. Here, we isolated the genes of the Gac/Rsm global regulatory pathway (i.e., gacS, gacA, rsmB, and csrD) and of the post-transcriptional regulator rsmA. Our results demonstrate that PagR and PagI also upregulate expression of the Gac/Rsm pathway. PagR acts as a transcriptional activator of each of the hrp regulatory genes and gacA in a N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone-dependent manner as shown by gel shift experiments. Mutants of the Gac/Rsm genes or overexpression of rsmA significantly reduced Pantoea agglomerans virulence and colonization of gypsophila. Overexpression of rsmB sRNA abolished gall formation, colonization, and hypersensitive reaction on nonhost plants and prevented transcription of the hrp regulatory cascade, indicating a lack of functional type III secretion system. Expression of rsmB sRNA in the background of the csrD null mutant suggests that CsrD may act as a safeguard for preventing excessive production of rsmB sRNA. Results presented indicate that the hrp regulatory cascade is controlled directly by PagR and indirectly by RsmA, whereas deficiency in RsmA activity is epistatic to PagR induction.

  16. Gall inducing arthropods from a seasonally dry tropical forest in Serra do Cipó, Brazil Artrópodes indutores de galhas em Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca da Serra do Cipó, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Serra Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly diverse forms of galling arthropods can be identified in much of southeastern Brazil's vegetation. Three fragments of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF located in the southern range of the Espinhaço Mountains were selected for study in the first survey of galling organisms in such tropical vegetation. Investigators found 92 distinct gall morphotypes on several organs of 51 host plant species of 19 families. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most prolific gall-inducing species, responsible for the largest proportion of galls (77% observed. Leaves were the most frequently galled plant organ (63%, while the most common gall morphotype was of a spherical shape (30%. The two plant species, Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae and Celtis brasiliensis (Cannabaceae, presented the highest number of gall morphtypes, displaying an average of 5 gall morphotypes each. This is the first study of gall-inducing arthropods and their host plant species ever undertaken in a Brazilian SDTF ecosystem. Given the intense human pressure on SDTFs, the high richness of galling arthropods, and implied floral host diversity found in this study indicates the need for an increased effort to catalogue the corresponding flora and fauna, observe their intricate associations and further understand the implications of such rich diversity in these stressed and vulnerable ecosystems.Artrópodes indutores de galhas são muito ricos em espécies nas formações vegetais no sudeste do Brasil. Três fragmentos de Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca (FSTS foram selecionados nas montanhas do sudeste da cadeia do Espinhaço para a primeira pesquisa de organismos indutores de galhas nesse tipo de vegetação. Encontramos 92 morfotipos distintos de galhas em vários órgãos de 51 espécies de plantas hospedeiras pertencentes à 19 famílias. A maioria das galhas (77% foi induzida pela família Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. A folha foi o órgão mais atacado (63%, enquanto o morfotipo mais

  17. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associado com Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkiamyia paraensis, a new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae that induces galls on Parkia pendula is described (larva, pupa, male,female and gall based on material from Pará (Brazil.Parkiamyia paraensis, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae é descrita (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material do Pará (Brasil.

  18. Gall midge attack intensity and host-plant response in a Neotropical coastal ecosystem Intensidade do parasitismo de inseto galhador e resposta da planta hospedeira em um ecossistema neotropical costeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima Constantino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The gall inducer Clusiamyia nitida Maia, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae often infests the shrub Clusia lanceolata (Camb. (Clusiaceae in the Neotropical vegetation of restinga of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Leaves of Clusia lanceolata host up to 20 spheroid galls and show variation in their shape. We aimed to evaluate the effect of gall's intensity on leaves of Clusia lanceolata, and the extension of gall's impact on adjacent non-galled leaves. We analyzed the effect of the number of galls on leaf area, biomass, specific area and leaf appearance from 509 leaves of 14 individual plants. The results showed that differences of individual plants, pairs of leaves, and gall presence were responsible for more then 90% of variation on infested leaves. Variation on parasitic intensity level created differences in leaf response. Under moderate gall attack characterized by scattered galls on a leaf, the increase of the number of galls caused an increase of leaf biomass and area, and a decrease of specific area. The specific area was smaller also under high attack intensity, characterized by coalescent galls on a leaf. In those cases of extremely high parasitic intensity, galled leaves became deformed and the surface area was severely reduced. Leaf deformation due to gall attack led to early leaf abscission, indicated by the 90% of deformed leaves found in the youngest leaf pair of the branch. There was insufficient evidence that the impact of galls on leaf morpho-physiological parameters extended beyond the attacked leaves, because ungalled leaves did not change significantly when their opposite leaf had been galled.O inseto galhador Clusiamyia nitida, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae freqüentemente infesta o arbusto Clusia lanceolata (Camb. (Clusiaceae na vegetação Neotropical de restinga do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As folhas de Clusia lanceolata hospedam até 20 galhas esferóides e apresentam variações em sua forma. Buscamos avaliar o efeito da

  19. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  20. 刘学勤肝胆病学术思想初探%Academic Thoughts of Liver and Gall Disease by Liu Xueqin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆华; 刘静生; 刘晓彦; 张天华

    2014-01-01

    Professor Liu Xueqin zhongjing advocates zhong-jing theory in treating liver and gall disease. Make use of classical prescrip-tions,attach great importance to the system concept,combined syndrome differentiation and disease,create liver theory of fever,tonify deficiency in addition to hot first and establish liver sausage. Follow the traditional Chinese medicine theory to make good use of external treatment of liver and gall.%刘学勤教授治疗肝胆病崇尚仲景学说,善用经方治疗肝胆病;重视系统观念,辨证与辨病相结合;创立肝热病理论,补虚除热为先;阐发肝肠理论,倡立肝病肠治;遵循中医理论,善用肝胆外治。

  1. Airports as Cityports in the City-region : Spatial-economic and institutional positions and institutional learning in Randstad-Schiphol (AMS), Frankfurt Rhein-Main (FRA), Tokyo Haneda (HND) and Narita (NRT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M. van

    2007-01-01

    The thesis discusses the spatial-economic and institutional positions as well as institutional learning in the development process of airports as cityports in city-regions. Cityports are therein defined as urban centres where economic activities and infrastructure are at crossroads and are the gatew

  2. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  3. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15-year-old school children in Galle district in Sri Lanka: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chathurangi Niroshana Gunatissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15 year old school children in Galle district in the Southern Province in Sri Lanka. Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15-year-old school children in Galle district in the Southern Province in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 802 school children in the Galle district. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique combined with probability proportionate to size method was used to select the sample. Occlusal characteristics including overjet, overbite, crossbites, crowding, and spacing were recorded using a standard pro forma and the need for orthodontic treatment was assessed using the index of orthodontic treatment need dental health component. SPSS 17 for Windows was used to analyze the data. The awareness of malocclusion among the subjects was also assessed. Results: It was observed that the prevalence of malocclusion among the sample was 69.5%, and the overall treatment need was 26.6%.

  4. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IX. Fergusobia rosettae n. sp. on Melaleuca quinquenervia and F. tolgaensis n. sp. on Syzygium luehmannii, from Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Taylor, Gary S; Purcell, Matthew; Thomas, Kelley

    2014-12-01

    Two new species of Fergusobia, collected from 'rosette' shoot bud galls on Melaleuca quinquenervia, and from leaf, stem, leaf and flower bud galls on Syzygium luehmannii, both from the Cairns region of Queensland, Australia, are described. Fergusobia rosettae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a small, arcuate parthenogenetic female having a short conoid tail with a bluntly rounded tip, an arcuate, relatively slender, infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate males with arcuate to angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicules and leptoderan bursa arising at 40-50% of body length from tail tip. Fergusobia tolgaensis Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a small open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and arcuate males with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicules and short to mid-length leptoderan bursa. These two species of nematodes are associated with fly larvae that have dorsal shields comprising bars of raised cuticular ridges and spicules, similar to that of fly larvae from the M. leucadendra species group. The shield morphologies of these fly larvae and their possible genetic relationships are discussed. Possible evolutionary relationships of the Fergusobia nematodes from these galls are discussed, considering their morphology, DNA sequences, and the relationships of the associated Fergusonina flies and host plants.

  5. Limoniastrum guyonianum aqueous gall extract induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells involving p16 INK4A re-expression related to UHRF1 and DNMT1 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifa, Mounira; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Muller, Christian D; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel; Mély, Yves; Bronner, Christian; Mousli, Marc

    2013-05-20

    Several reports have described the potential effects of natural compounds as anti-cancer agents in vitro as well as in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of Limoniastrum guyonianum aqueous gall extract (G extract) and luteolin in the human cervical cancer HeLa cell line, and, if so, to clarify the underlying mechanism. Our results show that G extract and luteolin inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Both natural products induced programmed cell death as confirmed by the presence of hypodiploid G0/G1 cells. These effects are associated with an up-regulation of the expression of the tumor suppressor gene p16INK4A and a down-regulation of the expression of the anti-apoptotic actor UHRF1 and its main partner DNMT1. Moreover, G extract- and luteolin-induced UHRF1 and DNMT1 down-regulation is accompanied with a global DNA hypomethylation in HeLa cell line. Altogether our results show that G extract mediates its growth inhibitory effects on human cervical cancer HeLa cell line likely via the activation of a p16INK4A-dependent cell cycle checkpoint signalling pathway orchestrated by UHRF1 and DNMT1 down-regulation.

  6. Antibiosis and bmyB Gene Presence As Prevalent Traits for the Selection of Efficient Bacillus Biocontrol Agents against Crown Gall Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Ben Abdallah, Dorra; Bhar, Ilhem; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the screening method for the selection of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease. The relationship between the strain biocontrol ability and their in vitro studied traits was investigated to identify the most important factors to be considered for the selection of effective biocontrol agents. In fact, previous selection procedure relying only on in vitro antibacterial activity was shown to be not suitable in some cases. A direct plant-protection strategy was performed to screen the 32 Bacillus biocontrol agent candidates. Moreover, potential in vitro biocontrol traits were investigated including biofilm formation, motility, hemolytic activity, detection of lipopeptide biosynthetic genes (sfp, ituC and bmyB) and production of antibacterial compounds. The obtained results indicated high correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol with the reduction of gall weight (p = 0.000) and the antibacterial activity in vitro (p = 0.000). Moreover, there was strong correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol (p = 0.004) and the reduction in gall weight (p = 0.000) with the presence of the bmyB gene. This gene directs the synthesis of the lipopeptide bacillomycin belonging to the iturinic family of lipopeptides. These results were also confirmed by the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis and the correspondence analysis showing the relatedness of these four variables. According to the obtained results a new screening procedure of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease could be advanced consisting on two step selection procedure. The first consists on selecting strains with high antibacterial activity in vitro or those harbouring the bmyB gene. Further selection has to be performed on tomato plants in vivo. Moreover, based on the results of the biocontrol assay, five potent strains exhibiting high biocontrol abilities were selected. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These

  7. [Post-operative bacteremia caused by multidrug-resistant Aerococcus viridans in a patient with gall bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin Koruk, Süda; Bayraktar, Mehmet; Ozgönül, Abdullah; Tümer, Seray

    2010-01-01

    Aerococcus viridans is a gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative, microaerophylic and non-motile coccus which is rarely associated with human infections such as endocarditis, meningitis, artritis and bacteremia. We report a case of bacteremia due to A. viridans in a 61-years-old man with malignant gall bladder neoplasm. The patient underwent a surgical operation and on the 5th day of operation he had severe abdominal pain, vomiting, high fever and discharge from operation site. He was transferred to intensive care unit and blood cultures were obtained. Piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated as empirical therapy. Blood cultures performed in Bactec system (Becton Dickinson, USA) yielded catalase negative, gram-positive cocci in tetrads. The isolate was pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) positive and produced alfa-hemolysis on sheep blood agar. These cocci were identified as A. viridans by Vitek 2 Compact System (BioMerieux, France) and identification was confirmed by using mini API System (BioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility testing performed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method revealed that the isolate was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and vancomycin and resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin and amikacin. The patient was successfully treated with vancomycin (2 x 1 g/day) and completely recovered without complication. In conclusion, A. viridans should be suspected as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients and these patients should be treated according to the antibiotic susceptibility test results.

  8. Changes in auxin level in the course of growth of a sunflower crown-gall suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The auxin level in the cell mass and culture medium was determined by means of the Avena straight caleoptile test in various periods of the suspension culture cycle of the sunflower crown-gall tumour. The investigations were performed in the course of the zero passage (PO and first one (Pl, differing in their time of duration of maximum growth and its intensity. In both passages the intra- and extra-cellular auxin levels reach values of the same order. At the beginning of the maximal growth phase the activity corresponding to IAA in the cells prevails over that of the other auxin-like compounds. This disproportion diminishes with further development of the culture, and with the beginning of the stationary phase the cellular IAA level is lower than that of the remaining auxin-like compounds. The short phase of maximal growth (PO occurs with an auxin level decreasing in the cell mass and increasing in the medium, and towards the end of the cycle these levels become equal. During the long phase of maximal growth (Pl the total amount of auxins in the cells increases and is 2-3 times higher than in the medium, whereas IAA in the cells remains at a constant level. These results suggest that the participation of IAA in the intracellular pool of auxin-like substances is decisive for the mitotic activity of the cells and maintenance of growth in the culture.

  9. Molecular characterization of the genome segments S4, S6 and S7 of rice gall dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H M; Yang, J; Xin, X; Chen, J P; Adams, M J

    2007-01-01

    Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) is a member of the genus Phytoreovirus within the family Reovirdae. Its genome has 12 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), of which the nucleotide sequences of segments S4, S6, and S7 were determined, providing the first complete genome sequence of RGDV. Each of the segments S4, S6, and S7 contained conserved terminal sequences conforming to the RGDV consensus, 5'-GGXA ... UGAU-3' (X = U or C). Each segment had a single predicted open reading frame encoding proteins with calculated molecular weights of 79.8, 58.6, and 53.3 kDa. These proteins appeared to be homologous to those encoded by the corresponding segments of rice dwarf virus and wound tumor virus, the other known members of the same genus, having about 20-30% amino acid identity to them. It is therefore likely that RGDV S4 and S6 encode non-structural proteins and S7 an inner core protein. Probable homologies between the segments of all known phytoreoviruses are summarized. Beyond these similarities, the RGDV proteins displayed no significant similarity to any other reported viral proteins.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gall-forming fly, Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates (Diptera: Fergusoninidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Cameron, Stephen L; Yeates, David K

    2011-10-01

    The monogeneric family Fergusoninidae consists of gall-forming flies that, together with Fergusobia (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae) nematodes, form the only known mutualistic association between insects and nematodes. In this study, the entire 16,000 bp mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates was sequenced. The circular genome contains one encoding region including 27 genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. The arrangement of the protein-coding, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) genes was the same as that found in the ancestral insect. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased. All of the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for nad1 which begins with TTT. All 22 tRNA anticodons of F. taylori match those observed in Drosophila yakuba, and all form the typical cloverleaf structure except for tRNA-Ser((AGN)) which lacks a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. Secondary structural features of the rRNA genes of Fergusonina are similar to those proposed for other insects, with minor modifications. The mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina presented here may prove valuable for resolving the sister group to the Fergusoninidae, and expands the available mtDNA data sources for acalyptrates overall.

  11. Identification of Seed Gall Nematodes of Agronomic and Regulatory Concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Szalanski, A L; Mullin, P G; Harris, T S; Bertozzi, T; Griesbach, J A

    2001-12-01

    A molecular analysis of eight described species of seed gall nematode, along with six undescribed isolates from different hosts, has revealed a strong association between nucleotide sequence polymorphism and host status. Each anguinid nematode associated with a unique host produced a unique PCR-RFLP pattern for the ITS1 region. Anguina species that had been synonymized in the past, Anguina agrostis, A. funesta, and A. wevelli (Afrina wevelli), were readily discriminated. Two undescribed species from northern New South Wales and southeastern South Australia, reported to be vectors of Rathyaibacter toxicus in the disease called ''floodplain staggers,'' were differentiated by a single restriction enzyme, and both could be separated easily from A. funesta, the vector of R. toxicus in annual ryegrass toxicity. Other species differentiated in this study include A. agropyronifloris, A. graminis, A. microlaenae, A. pacificae, and undescribed species from host species Dactylis glomerata, Agrostis avenacea, Polypogon monospeliensis, Stipa sp., Astrebla pectinata, and Holcus lanatus. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 region suggests that considerable anguinid genetic diversification has accompanied specialization on different host species.

  12. Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Benjamin N; Yi, Shu-Xia; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E

    2008-04-01

    Survival of freezing not only requires organisms to tolerate ice formation within their body, but also depends on the rapid redistribution of water and cryoprotective compounds between intra- and extracellular compartments. Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that serve as the major pathway through which water and small uncharged solutes (e.g. glycerol) enter and leave the cell. Consequently, we examined freeze-tolerant larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, to determine whether aquaporins are present and if their presence promotes freeze tolerance of specific tissues. Immunoblotting with mammalian anti-AQP2, -AQP3 and -AQP4 revealed corresponding aquaporin homologues in E. solidaginis, whose patterns of expression varied depending on acclimation temperature and desiccation treatment. To examine the role of aquaporins in freeze tolerance, we froze fat body, midgut and salivary gland tissues in the presence and absence of mercuric chloride, an aquaporin inhibitor. Survival of fat body and midgut cells was significantly reduced when mercuric chloride was present. In contrast, survival of the salivary gland did not decrease when it was frozen with mercuric chloride. Overall, this study supports our hypothesis that naturally occurring aquaporins in E. solidaginis are regulated during desiccation and promote cell survival during freezing.

  13. Gall-forming root-knot nematodes hijack key plant cellular functions to induce multinucleate and hypertrophied feeding cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favery, Bruno; Quentin, Michaël; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Abad, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Among plant-parasitic nematodes, the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) of the Meloidogyne spp. are the most economically important genus. RKN are root parasitic worms able to infect nearly all crop species and have a wide geographic distribution. During infection, RKNs establish and maintain an intimate relationship with the host plant. This includes the creation of a specialized nutritional structure composed of multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells, which result from the redifferentiation of vascular root cells. Giant cells constitute the sole source of nutrients for the nematode and are essential for growth and reproduction. Hyperplasia of surrounding root cells leads to the formation of the gall or root-knot, an easily recognized symptom of plant infection by RKNs. Secreted effectors produced in nematode salivary glands and injected into plant cells through a specialized feeding structure called the stylet play a critical role in the formation of giant cells. Here, we describe the complex interactions between RKNs and their host plants. We highlight progress in understanding host plant responses, focusing on how RKNs manipulate key plant processes and functions, including cell cycle, defence, hormones, cellular scaffold, metabolism and transport.

  14. 桉树枝瘿姬小蜂虫瘿结构解剖研究%A study on anatomical structure of insect gall of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耀军; 常明山; 盛双; 叶建仁

    2012-01-01

    Paraffin method is employed to study the structure of insect gall caused by Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle and normal petiole. The results showed that the insect gall was tissue gall, plant organs began to change with the cell proliferation. The insect gall increased with the larvae and egg development. The anatomical structure of gall room from inside to outside was nutritive tissue, thin/sclerenchyma layer, vascular bundle layer, cortex, epidermal, etc. The normal petiole was 2.29mm in length, 0.58mm in diameter. It contained basic-tissue, vascular bundle layer and epidermal.%采用石蜡切片法研究了桉树叶柄虫瘿和正常叶柄的解剖结构.结果表明:虫瘿为组织瘿,随着细胞增生和增殖,原有器官发生变化;随着卵和幼虫的发育,虫瘿个体逐渐增大;瘿室由内到外大致可以分为营养组织层、薄/厚壁组织层、维管束层、皮层、表皮等结构;正常叶柄长2.29 mm,宽0.58 mm,包括以下几层,即基本组织、维管束层、表皮.

  15. The Main Obstacles to Improve English Reading Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-rong

    2016-01-01

    With the globalization of economy, English has become a universal language, which makes learning of English increas-ingly important in many non-English-speaking countries. In order to learn the language well, reading should be attached ade-quate importance. Reading ability, as a basic requirement in learning a foreign language, can be developed by doing comprehen-sion exercises. The key to improve reading lies in reading speed. The faster you read, the more you are able to grasp the main point of a text. However, many people have obstacles in reading. This paper summarizes the main barriers in reading fast and puts forward some strategies for improving reading speed.

  16. Ocorrência do vírus "vein enation (woody gall" em limão verdadeiro (Citrus limon burm. cv siciliano em Santa Catarina Occurrence of the "vein enetion (woody gall" virus in lemon (Citrus limon Burm. cv siciliano in the Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. KOLLER

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência do vírus causador da doença "vein enation", também conhecida por "woody gall", em plantas de limão verdadeiro, em Santa Catarina, introduzido em pomar comercial através de mudas adquiridas em São Paulo. Limão `Volkameriano' enxertado com material contaminado desenvolveu os sintomas característicos de "woody gall", com grande intensidade no Alto Vale do Itajaí, e com menor intensidade no Litoral Norte de Santa Catarina. Constatou-se redução no desenvolvimento das plantas e na produção de frutos. Todo material sabidamente contaminado foi erradicado. Sugere-se às instituições oficiais de pesquisa a realização de testes de indexação para esta virose em seus bancos de germoplasma, uma vez que grande parte das variedades cítricas não desenvolve os sintomas da doença.The presence of the vein enation virus, also known as woody gall virus, in Citrus limon, in Santa Catarina State, is reported. The virus was introduced through contamined nursery plants acquired in the São Paulo State. `Volkamer' lemon budded with contamined buds has developed typical woody gall symptoms, more frequently in Alto Vale do Itajaí (High Itajaí River Valley, and less frequently in Santa Catarina's Northern Coast. A significant decrease in plant development and fruit yield was been observed. All known contaminated material was erradicated. It is suggested that official research institutions carry out indexing tests for this virosis at their germplasm banks, since part of the citrus varieties fail to develop symptoms of this disease.

  17. Phenological relationships between two insect galls and their host plants: Aspidosperma australe and A. spruceanum (Apocynaceae Relações fenológicas entre duas galhas induzidas por insetos e suas plantas hospedeiras: Aspidosperma australe e A. spruceanum (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tolentino Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although gall diversity in the Neotropical region is immense, comparative studies on the phenology of host plants and their galls are scarce. Gall systems generally require high levels of phenological synchrony between the associated organisms. The relationships between the phenology of two leaf galls induced by an unidentified Cecidomyiidae in Aspidosperma spruceanum Benth. ex Müell. Arg. and by Pseudophacopteron sp. in A. australe Müell. Arg. were investigated. The investigation was performed on ten individuals per species in 15-day intervals taking into consideration the percentage of galled leaves. In a one-year study, three distinct phenophases for the leaf galls and four phenophases for host plants were observed. The maximum percentage of leaf galls (80% on A. australe occurred just after the peak of leaf sprouting. In A. spruceanum, the percentage of leaf galls was always over 50%, which can be related to continuous leaf production and gall induction in this species. In both species, developing galls were observed over the entire year, indicating multivoltinism. The ability to induce galls at young and mature sites seems to be a good strategy for galling species survivorship.Embora a diversidade de galhas na região neotropical seja grande, poucos são os estudos fenológicos comparando a fenologia das espécies hospedeiras com aquela das galhas. O desenvolvimento de galhas geralmente requer alta sincronia fenológica entre os organismos associados. A relação entre a fenologia de duas galhas foliares induzidas por um Cecidomyiidae e Aspidosperma spruceanum Benth. ex Müell. Arg. e de uma espécie de Pseudophacopteron sp. e A. australe Müell. Arg. foram investigadas. O trabalho foi realizado em dez indivíduos de cada espécie em intervalos quinzenais, levando em consideração a percentagem de folhas galhadas. Durante um ano, foram observadas três fenofases distintas para as galhas foliares e quatro fenofases para a hospedeira. A

  18. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Drew Carleton

    Full Text Available Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  19. The clinical significance of gall-bladder non-visualization in cholescintigraphy of patients with choledochal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Panfu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang Miauju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Tzen Kaiyuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); You Dongling [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Liaw Yunfan [Liver Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-11-01

    Intravenous radionuclide cholescintigraphy (IVRC) provides a very specific picture for choledochal cysts. However, the clinical significance of the non-visualization of the gall-bladder (GB) activity in these cases is unclear. In this study, we reviewed 27 patients with choledochal cysts who underwent IVRC within 7 days prior to operation and correlated the GB findings on IVRC with the histopathological results. In 18 of the 27 patients (66.7%), there was non-visualization of the GB at 4 h post injection. Among these, two had histopathological features of acute cholecystitis (AC), 11 had chronic cholecystitis (CC), and five had normal GBs. In the other nine patients with visualization of the GB, there were five cases of CC and four normal GBs. If we apply the finding of non-visualization of the GB at 4 h post injection as the criterion for the diagnosis of AC, the diagnostic accuracy was only 40.7% (11/27). We concluded that: (1) GB disease (AC and CC) was common (66.7%: 7.4% and 59.3% respectively) in choledochal cyst patients. (2) Non-visualization of the GB on IVRC did not necessarily indicate AC in choledochal cyst cases, and the diagnostic accuracy was low. (3) GB disease is not the only cause of GB non-visualization on IVRC. A huge choledochal cyst causing a mass or reservoir effect may be a cause of GB compression and result in non-visualization of the GB. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Inducible expression of p50 from TMV for increased resistance to bacterial crown gall disease in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Julia; Ruhe, Jonas; Machens, Fabian; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The dominant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance gene N induces a hypersensitive response upon TMV infection and protects tobacco against systemic spread of the virus. It has been proposed to change disease resistance specificity by reprogramming the expression of resistance genes or their corresponding avirulence genes. To reprogramme the resistance response of N towards bacterial pathogens, the helicase domain (p50) of the TMV replicase, the avirulence gene of N, was linked to synthetic promoters 4D and 2S2D harbouring elicitor-responsive cis-elements. These promoter::p50 constructs induce local necrotic lesions on NN tobacco plants in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration assay. A tobacco genotype void of N (nn) was transformed with the promoter::p50 constructs and subsequently crossed to NN plants. Nn F1 offspring selected for the T-DNA develop normally under sterile conditions. After transfer to soil, some of the F1 plants expressing the 2S2D::p50 constructs develop spontaneous necrosis. Transgenic Nn F1 plants with 4D::p50 and 2S2D::p50 expressing constructs upregulate p50 transcription and induce local necrotic lesions in an A. tumefaciens infiltration assay. When leaves and stems of Nn F1 offspring harbouring promoter::p50 constructs are infected with oncogenic A. tumefaciens C58, transgenic lines harbouring the 2S2D::p50 construct induce necrosis and completely lack tumor development. These results demonstrate a successful reprogramming of the viral N gene response against bacterial crown gall disease and highlight the importance of achieving tight regulation of avirulence gene expression and the control of necrosis in the presence of the corresponding resistance gene.

  1. Experiential Learning: An Exploration of Situated and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sarah; Edwards, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Two separate research studies explored two types of experiential learning, situated learning and service learning, used in a liberal arts university setting to further understand their importance in the learning process. From both the service learning and situated learning research, two main findings emerged, limited student reflection and…

  2. Experiential Learning: An Exploration of Situated and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sarah; Edwards, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Two separate research studies explored two types of experiential learning, situated learning and service learning, used in a liberal arts university setting to further understand their importance in the learning process. From both the service learning and situated learning research, two main findings emerged, limited student reflection and…

  3. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Hardy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym: Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller, comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt, comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt, comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis. We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculata Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  4. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  5. The American Eider in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American eider, Maine's only breeding sea duck, is known to have nested on 215 coastal islands of the State in 1976. In Maine, eiders seem to prefer to nest on...

  6. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  7. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  8. E-learning support for lifelong learning

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis E-learning support of lifelong learning concerns the topic of e-learning. Its main goal is to create and implement an e-learning course of Czech language for foreigners, more specifically for foreign scientists who come to the Czech Republic for work. This goal is reached in the practical part of the thesis which describes the process of creating the course with learning management system Moodle and its following implementation into practice. The theoretical part focu...

  9. Two gall midge pests (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae) attacking avocados%两种危害鳄梨的瘿蚊科害虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦克龙; 王学利; 牛春敬; 卜文俊

    2014-01-01

    苜蓿波瘿蚊(Asphondylia websteri Felt)和鳄梨布瘿蚊(Bruggmanniella perseae Gagné)是世界已知的两种严重危害鳄梨幼果的地区性害虫,均未有在中国发生或入侵的报道。本文提供了这两种瘿蚊害虫的鉴定依据,并提供详细的形态特征、生物学特性以及危害特点等信息,为进一步研究、检疫和防治这类害虫提供参考。%Avocados(Persea americana) have high economic values, so avocado pests should be given attention. Asphondylia websteri Felt and Bruggmanniella perseae Gagné are two of regional pests severely attacking young fruits of avocados only known in the world, neither of which were reported for the occurrence or invasion in China. Identification of the two gall midge pests with morphological characteristics, biological and damage features is provided fi rst in China in the present paper to fully understand the economic importance and to give a reference for further research, quarantine and control of the avocado gall midge pests.

  10. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III

    1979-01-01

    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  11. Non-main Stream Plays Main Role in Shipbuilding Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Ping

    2009-01-01

    @@ Comparing with both the major shipyards and shipping companies that were facing an market decline and hard time,the non-mainstream ship types,non-mainstream ship manufacturers and non-mainstream ship owners,as main roles,made a wonderful show of living and developing in 2009.

  12. [Bewusstes Erinnern und bewusstes Vergessen : der juristische Umgang mit der Vergangenheit in den Ländern Mittel- und Osteuropas / hrsg. v. Angelika Nußberger, Caroline von Gall. (Jus Internationale et Europaeum ; 52). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luts-Sootak, Marju, 1966-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Bewusstes Erinnern und bewusstes Vergessen : der juristische Umgang mit der Vergangenheit in den Ländern Mittel- und Osteuropas / hrsg. v. Angelika Nußberger, Caroline von Gall (Jus Internationale et Europaeum ; 52). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011. 400 S.

  13. [Bewusstes Erinnern und bewusstes Vergessen : der juristische Umgang mit der Vergangenheit in den Ländern Mittel- und Osteuropas / hrsg. v. Angelika Nußberger, Caroline von Gall. (Jus Internationale et Europaeum ; 52). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luts-Sootak, Marju, 1966-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Bewusstes Erinnern und bewusstes Vergessen : der juristische Umgang mit der Vergangenheit in den Ländern Mittel- und Osteuropas / hrsg. v. Angelika Nußberger, Caroline von Gall (Jus Internationale et Europaeum ; 52). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011. 400 S.

  14. Construction and Analysis of Life Table in Natural Population of Oak Gall Wasp Trichagalma glabrosa%栎空腔瘿蜂自然种群生命表的组建与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景顺; 王相宏; 武三安

    2014-01-01

    Trichagalma glabrosa is an important pest of cork oak. In recent years,outbreaks of Trichagalma glabrosa have caused great damages to cork oak forests and ecological environment in Liuzhou (Henan Province). In order to study dynamic population of Trichagalma glabrosa, the life table of Trichagalma glabrosa population was constructed. The results showed that: gall abortion was the key factor affecting the natural populations, and the initial period of galls was the key death stage. The order of death factors was:parasitism>gall abortion>leaf-eating insect feeding>unknown factor. The order of development stages was:galls mature stage>galls growing>galls initial stage>pupal stage. This indicated that Climatic changes during galls initial stage was the key factor affecting population, parasitism was the most important control factor. The population trend index I was 2.34>1, and the population showed an increasing trend.%栎空腔瘿蜂是栓皮栎重要害虫,近几年来在林州爆发成灾,为定量描述栎空腔瘿蜂的种群数量动态,通过组建栎空腔瘿蜂自然种群平均生命表,研究了种群自然消长规律。结果表明,虫瘿败育为该种群的关键死亡因子,虫瘿初始期为关键死亡虫期。控制作用中,各类因子由高到底的顺序为:寄生>虫瘿败育>食叶昆虫取食>不明因素。各时期由高到底的顺序为:成熟期>成长期>初始期>卵期。虫瘿初始期的气候条件是决定虫瘿数量的关键因子,天敌是影响影响栎空腔瘿蜂自然种群的重要因子。种群趋势指数I=2.34>1,种群呈发展趋势;其存活曲线属于C型。

  15. Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

  16. The four main LHC experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    AC Team

    1999-01-01

    This diagram shows the locations of the four main experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that will take place at the LHC. Located between 50 m and 150 m underground, huge caverns have been excavated to house the giant detectors. The SPS, the final link in the pre-acceleration chain, and its connection tunnels to the LHC are also shown.

  17. Learning Partnerships: Interdependent Learning in Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joan, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains essays and studies dealing with learning partnerships in adult education. The introduction, written by Joan Robinson and Sharon Saberton, discusses the concept of the learning partnership, defined as a peer relationship between two people for whom the main objective is learning. The second section consists of comments of…

  18. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  19. Learning Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik; Fast, Alf Michael

    2017-01-01

    Is leadership a result of inheritance or is it something one learns during formal learning in e.g. business schools? This is the essential question addressed in this article. The article is based on a case study involving a new leader in charge of a group of profession practitioners. The leader...... promotes his leadership as a profession comparable to the professions of practitioners. This promotion implies that leadership is something one can and probably must learn during formal learning. The practitioners on the other hand reject this comprehension of leadership and long for a fellow practitioner...... implied understandings of leadership. The case analysis will afterwards work as a vehicle for the discussion of our main question: is leadership a question of inheritance or something to be learnt in formal learning?...

  20. Main Elements for Upscaling Recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This report provides information on the main elements used to scale up modelled local visitor flow data to regional level based on recreational de-mand models. These models are described in Report #1. This report also provides information on data sources such as spatial data (e.g. land cov......-er/land use information), demographic information. The report is accom-pagnied with a spatial database for the regional case of forest recreation in Northern Zealand, Denmark. The spatial database contains forest polygons; forest attribute; estimation of total annual number of visits per site; and es...

  1. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    at risk; g) management options to reduce likelihood of introduction and spread consist of certifying Castanea planting material from pest free areas/places of production; h) classical biological control and plant varietal resistance are identified as management options to reduce the magnitude of impact.......The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel...... to a) determine the distribution of the endangered area within the EU territory; b) investigate the pattern and rate of pest diffusion and c) consider the environmental risk of introduction of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis identified as a potential management option. The Panel concluded...

  2. Burden in the main caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Yonte Huete

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new myxozoan species (Myxosporea) infecting the gall bladder of Raja clavata (Chondrichthyes), from the Portuguese Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S; Casal, G; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

    2013-04-01

    Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Chloromyxum clavatum n. sp., infecting the cartilaginous fish Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae), collected from the northwest Atlantic coast of Portugal. Young plasmodia and mature spores were found floating free in the gall bladder of R. clavata . Spores were spherical to subspherical with a pointed anterior end, measuring14.4 ± 0.5 μm (n = 25) in length, 11.9 ± 0.5 μm (n = 25) in width, and 9.4 ± 0.5 μm (n = 15) in thickness. The spore's wall was composed of 2 equally sized valves, each displaying 6-8 elevated surface ridges and a bundle of several tapering caudal filaments attached to the basal portion. Spores contained 4 pyriform equally sized polar capsules (5.5 ± 0.4 μm × 2.9 ± 0.5 μm) (n = 25), each possessing an obliquely arranged isofilar polar filament coiled in 7-8 coils. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the SSU rDNA gene identify this parasite as a new species of Chloromyxum. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood further reveal the parasite clustering with other species of Chloromyxum infecting the gall bladder of marine cartilaginous fish to form a clade positioned at the base of the freshwater clade, therefore constituting an exception to the major division of the class Myxosporea into the freshwater and marine clades, while supporting the existence of a correlation between tissue tropism and myxosporean phylogeny.

  4. Tagging and mapping of a rice gall midge resistance gene, Gm8, and development of SCARs for use in marker-aided selection and gene pyramiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Ariyadasa, R; Kumar, A; Srivastava, M N; Mohan, M; Nair, S

    2004-11-01

    Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), we have tagged and mapped Gm8, a gene conferring resistance to the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), a major insect pest of rice, onto rice chromosome 8. Using AFLPs, two fragments, AR257 and AS168, were identified that were linked to the resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Another resistant phenotype-specific marker, AP19(587), was also identified using RAPDs. SCAR primers based on the sequence of the fragments AR257 and AS168 failed to reveal polymorphism between the resistant and the susceptible parents. However, PCR using primers based on the regions flanking AR257 revealed polymorphism that was phenotype-specific. In contrast, PCR carried out using primers flanking the susceptible phenotype-associated fragment AS168 produced a monomorphic fragment. Restriction digestion of these monomorphic fragments revealed polymorphism between the susceptible and resistant parents. Nucleotide BLAST searches revealed that the three fragments show strong homology to rice PAC and BAC clones that formed a contig representing the short arm of chromosome 8. PCR amplification using the above-mentioned primers on a larger population, derived from a cross between two indica rice varieties, Jhitpiti (resistant parent) and TN1 (susceptible parent), showed that there is a tight linkage between the markers and the Gm8 locus. These markers, therefore, have potential for use in marker-aided selection and pyramiding of Gm8 along with other previously tagged gall midge resistance genes [ Gm2, Gm4(t), and Gm7].

  5. Strategies for Abstracting Main Ideas from Simple Technical Prose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-11

    Dijk (1979), and Perfetti and Goldman (1974, 1975) has focused on specific Page 4 aspects of how the topic or main idea of a passage is marked or...490. Perfetti , C. A., & Goldman, S. R. Thematization and sentence retrieval. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974, 13, 70-79. Perfetti

  6. Reading Strategy: Tackling Reading through Topic and Main Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Bharathi; Briewin, Marshal; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the four skills essential in learning English. In a reading class, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials, but how much do they actually retain? This study explores whether learners use identification of the topic and main ideas as a reading strategy to assist in reading…

  7. Despite Rough Seas, Teachers in Rural Maine Swim Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    When the author became principal of Acton Elementary School in Acton, Maine, in 2003, he spent the summer interviewing staff members. Staff in this small, rural elementary school overwhelmingly expressed a desire for opportunities to learn collaboratively. The teachers described a school culture where staff did not work together but instead worked…

  8. Insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas invasoras de áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas Galling insects associated with two species of ruderal plants in urban and peri urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genimar R. Julião

    2005-03-01

    que áreas verdes em espaços urbanos são de fundamental importância na manutenção da diversidade de insetos.Insects have been considered as important bioindicators of environmental changes and habitat quality. In spite of its sessile habit, easy localization, abundance and host specificity, insects that induce galls have not been utilized in studies of this nature. It was investigated the suitability of gall-inducing insects associated to two ruderal host plant species (Baccharis dracunculifolia and Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae as bioindicators of habitat quality. The following questions were addressed: (i is gall-inducing insect diversity influenced by different types of land use?; (ii are the responses of galling insect communities different between host plants?; (iii how does the biotic and physical features of the biotope influence the gall-inducing insect diversity? It was found 6,226 galls, belonging to six galling insect species on V. polyanthes and 11 galling species on B. dracunculifolia. No difference was found in galling species richness among land use types. Nevertheless, gall-forming insect abundance was statistically different among the biotopes studied. Insect galls were more numerous in biotopes with lower urbanization levels. Gall abundance showed a strong and positive relationship with the percentage of vegetal cover. Gall-forming insect communities on both host species showed differential responses to the different land use types. The results suggest that three factors may be involved with galling insect diversity in urban areas: (i habitat structure in the biotope; (ii resource abundance (host plant abundance and distribution; and (iii frequency and intensity of management in reserves, parks, city squares, wastelands found at a given urban area.

  9. Rethinking e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    “Technology alone does not deliver educational success. It only becomes valuable in education if learners and teachers can do something useful with it” (E-Learning: The Partnership Challenge, 2001, p. 24). This quotation could be used as a bon mot for this chapter. Our main goal is to rethink e......-learning by shifting the focus of attention from learning resources (learning objects) to learning activities, which also implies a refocusing of the pedagogical discussion of the learning process.Firstly, we try to identify why e-learning has not been able to deliver the educational results as expected five years ago....... Secondly, we discuss the relation between learning objectives, learning resources and learning activities in an attempt to develop a consistent theoretical framework for learning as an active collaborative process, which bears social and cultural relevance for the student. Finally, we specify our concept...

  10. Dravet syndrome: the main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Renzo

    2012-09-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe form of infantile onset epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, prolonged convulsive seizures and frequent episodes of status epilepticus. Seizures precipitated by fever are a main characteristic. Affected children exhibit normal early development. Cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances with hyperactivity and sometimes autistic traits occur after seizure onset. Seizures persist into adulthood but become less frequent. In about 85% of patients, a mutation of the SCN1A gene is present. DS fully illustrates the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. However, it is difficult to determine the causative role of the underlying sodium channel dysfunction and that of the consequent seizures in influencing cognitive outcome. An overwhelmingly high number of SCN1A mutations have been associated with DS. Intragenic or whole gene deletions, duplications and amplifications are additional rare molecular mechanisms. Most mutations are de novo, but familial mutations also occur. Somatic mosaic mutations should be considered when estimating the recurrence. MRI imaging is usually normal, and no neuropathologic signature of the condition seems to exist. In heterozygous Scn1a+/- mice, GABAergic interneurons exhibit substantially reduced sodium current density with reduced ability for sustained action potential firing. GABAergic output is reduced and excitability of downstream synaptic targets increased. Stiripentol was effective in combination with valproate and clobazam in two pivotal phase III trials. Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine can worsen seizures and should be avoided. Prospective studies will clarify to what extent earlier diagnosis and efforts at seizure control with the most appropriate drug combinations will reduce clinical deterioration.

  11. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  12. 肚倍组织切片观察及酚物质含量研究%Observation on Du-Ensiform Gall Slice and Research on Phenolic Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芒; 雷朝亮

    2011-01-01

    通过肚倍的切片观察和酚含量测定,分析了肚倍蚜(Kaburagia rhusicola Takagi)瘿内生活所取食的部位和食物中酚物质的大致浓度.结果表明,肚倍的外壁、中层和内壁组织结构大不相同,肚倍中层的细胞相对较大,是酚物质的主要储存场所;肚倍内壁的细胞较小且排列松散,内壁中维管组织的韧皮部是肚倍蚜主要的取食部位.肚倍的中层和内壁在酚含量上也存在较大的差异,肚倍的中层总酚含量为48.5%左右,内壁为18.8%,而汁液中的含量为8.7%.肚倍蚜以刺吸的方式吸取单宁含量较低的植物汁液,这是一种对虫瘿环境的行为学适应.%The position and approximate phenol concentration that Kaburagia rhusicola Takagi fed were analyzed by observing the slice of the gallnut and detecting the phenol concentration. It was showed that there were significant difference among the ektexine, intraepidermal and middle layer of gallnut under microscope, the cells of middle layer were the main location that plant phenol was stored in. The cells were larger than the others and were closely linked. K. rhusicola feed on the intraepidermal phloem where the cells were loosely arranged. There also was significant difference in phenol concentration between the intraepidermal and middle layer, the phenol concentration in middle layer of gallnut was about 48.5%, while in the intraepidermal and juice was 18.8% and 8.7% respectively. The results indicated that the phenol from different parts of the gallnuts were not at the same level, the aphids could intake less tannin from the juice by probe sucking, which was an adaptation to the gall environment.

  13. Gender Difference in Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳

    2008-01-01

    This article mainly focused on learning styles and its relative influence on language learning proficiency,as well as gender difference in terms of learning style.Through a litemture review,I found many learning style models.Also,there were many variations among the students in use of these models.The acquaintances of learning style may benefit students and language instructors to adapt teaching and learning to individual differences among students.This can enhance education effectiveness.

  14. Learning through reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    Universities can from the student?s point of view be seen as places of learning an explicit curriculum of a particular discipline. From a fieldwork among physicist students at the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark, I argue that the learning of cultural code-curricula in higher educational instituti...... argue that this code-curriculum is learned through what I shall term indefinite learning processes, which are mainly pre-discursive to the newcomer...

  15. Learning through reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    Universities can from the student?s point of view be seen as places of learning an explicit curriculum of a particular discipline. From a fieldwork among physicist students at the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark, I argue that the learning of cultural code-curricula in higher educational instituti...... argue that this code-curriculum is learned through what I shall term indefinite learning processes, which are mainly pre-discursive to the newcomer...

  16. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  17. Effects of Teaching and Learning Styles on Students' Reflection Levels for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Jang, Yu-Ruei; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous learning (u-learning), in conjunction with supports from the digital world, is recognized as an effective approach for situating students in real-world learning environments. Earlier studies concerning u-learning have mainly focused on investigating the learning attitudes and learning achievements of students, while the causations such…

  18. Effects of Teaching and Learning Styles on Students' Reflection Levels for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Jang, Yu-Ruei; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous learning (u-learning), in conjunction with supports from the digital world, is recognized as an effective approach for situating students in real-world learning environments. Earlier studies concerning u-learning have mainly focused on investigating the learning attitudes and learning achievements of students, while the causations such…

  19. Inductive Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴信东

    1993-01-01

    Machine learning(ML)is a major subfield of artificial intelligence(AI).It has been seen as a feasible way of avoiding the knowledge bottleneck problem in knowledge-based systems development.Research on ML has concentrated in the main on inductive learning,a paradigm for inducing rules from unordered sets of exmaples.AQ11 and ID3,the two most widespred algorithms in ML,are both inductive.This paper first summarizes AQ11,ID3 and the newly-developed extension matrix approach based HCV algorithm;and then reviews the recent development of inductive learing and automatic knowledge acquisition from data bases.

  20. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  1. Ceratomyxa seriolae n. sp. and C. buri n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) from the gall-bladder of cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, H; Fukuda, Y

    2001-02-01

    Ceratomyxa seriolae n. sp. and C. buri n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) were found in the gall-bladder of cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel (Carangidae) in Japan. Mature spores of C. seriolae n. sp. were elongate and 6.5 (6.0-7.5) microm long and 33.7 (28.0-41.5) microm thick. Disporous plasmodia of C. seriolae n. sp., 40-100 microm in size, were amoeboid to spherical. C. buri n. sp. were elliptical with a flattened posterior end. 6.5 (5.5-7.5) microm long and 14.3 (11.0-16.5) microm thick. Spherical plasmodia of C. buri n. sp., 15-20 microm in diameter, were disporous. In periodical sampling of yellowtail bile from August, 1999 to February, 2000, the two new species of Ceratomyxa, as well as Myxobolus spirosulcatus Maeno, Sorimachi, Ogawa & Kearn 1995, first appeared in October, and the prevalences were very variable (20-100%) during the study period.

  2. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  3. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed. PMID:25970681

  4. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nugnes

    Full Text Available The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  5. The type III effector HsvG of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans mediates expression of the host gene HSVGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Gal; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura; Teper, Doron; Yeheskel, Adva; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac

    2012-02-01

    The type III effector HsvG of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae is a DNA-binding protein that is imported to the host nucleus and involved in host specificity. The DNA-binding region of HsvG was delineated to 266 amino acids located within a secondary structure region near the N-terminus of the protein but did not display any homology to canonical DNA-binding motifs. A binding site selection procedure was used to isolate a target gene of HsvG, named HSVGT, in Gypsophila paniculata. HSVGT is a predicted acidic protein of the DnaJ family with 244 amino acids. It harbors characteristic conserved motifs of a eukaryotic transcription factor, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal, zinc finger, and leucine zipper DNA-binding motifs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that HSVGT transcription is specifically induced in planta within 2 h after inoculation with the wild-type P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae compared with the hsvG mutant. Induction of HSVGT reached a peak of sixfold at 4 h after inoculation and progressively declined thereafter. Gel-shift assay demonstrated that HsvG binds to the HSVGT promoter, indicating that HSVGT is a direct target of HsvG. Our results support the hypothesis that HsvG functions as a transcription factor in gypsophila.

  6. Learning programming with serious games

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Students who are learning to program often have difficulties understanding cognitively complex concepts. Teaching programming is mainly focused on the syntax and features of programs, rather than to a deeper understanding of programming constructs and abstract concepts. Computer game stimulates active learning and presentation of learning content in a variety of contexts that are funny and engaging for students. This has a positive impact on the motivation to learn. This paper deals mainly wi...

  7. 浅谈“结构力学”课程主要知识点的学习方法与解题技巧%Discussion about the Learning and Problem Solving Skills of Main Knowledge Point in the Structural Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾培强

    2014-01-01

    Structure Mechanics is an important specialized fundamental course which provided the necessary theoretical basis and calculating data for architectural engineering and construction in civil engineering and water conservancy and traffic and bridge construction.The course was val-ued highly of its unique characteristics,difficulty and flexible problem-solving skill by the numer-ous related professional teachers and students.Through the analysis of main knowledge point of learning methods and related problem-solving skill in this paper,in order to help students to mas-ter the flexible structural analysis methods,broaden their problem-solving mind,and improve da-ta computing power,thus laying good foundation for their engineering knowledge.%“结构力学”是土木、水利、交通及桥梁工程专业为设计建筑工程结构提供理论依据和计算数据的重要基础课程,它以其独有的课程特性、难度和灵活的解题技巧而为众多相关专业的师生所高度重视。文章通过对“结构力学”主要知识点学习方法的论述及相关解题技巧的分析,旨在培养学生掌握灵活的结构分析方法,开阔解题思路,提高结构计算能力,为工程类专业知识的学习奠定良好的基础。

  8. The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvekot, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

  9. Learning How To Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Demian

    2000-01-01

    In one California high school, learning to learn is a measurable outcome assessed by all students' participation in graduation by exhibition. Students must meet state requirements and demonstrate learning prowess by publicly exhibiting their skills in math, science, language arts, social science, service learning, and postgraduation planning. (MLH)

  10. Learning How To Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Demian

    2000-01-01

    In one California high school, learning to learn is a measurable outcome assessed by all students' participation in graduation by exhibition. Students must meet state requirements and demonstrate learning prowess by publicly exhibiting their skills in math, science, language arts, social science, service learning, and postgraduation planning. (MLH)

  11. 30 CFR 57.6160 - Main facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main facilities. 57.6160 Section 57.6160...-Underground Only § 57.6160 Main facilities. (a) Main facilities used to store explosive material underground... facilities will not prevent escape from the mine, or cause detonation of the contents of another storage...

  12. The study on the effect of Aleppo gall on the bacteria metabolism of oral bacterial biofilm%没食子对口腔细菌生物膜中细菌代谢的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锦虹; 李新尚; 牛巧丽; 赵今

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨没食子鞣质及其有效提取物对口腔细菌生物膜中葡萄糖转移酶(GTF)活性的影响及其防龋的作用。方法采用硫酸铵沉淀法提取粗酶,Neson-Somogyi 法测定还原糖,G250微量蛋白定量 GTF 还原糖计算 GTF 活性单位,实验分为阴性对照组(空白组),阳性对照组(为没有干预处理形成的细菌生物膜),没食子鞣质组和有效提取物(没食子酸+没食子酸甲酯)组。评价实验药物没食子鞣质和有效提取物对口腔细菌生物膜中GTF 活性的影响。结果经没食子鞣质及其有效提取物作用后,没食子鞣质组24 h 的口腔细菌生物膜中 GTF 活性为(0.0186±0.077),有效提取物组 GTF 活性为(0.0527±0.035),GTF 的活性受到明显抑制,与对照组 GTF 活性(0.6601±0.204)相比差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论实验药物没食子鞣质及其有效提取物可能通过抑制细菌生物膜中 GTF 活性而发挥防龋作用。%Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Aleppo gall and its active compo-nent on the action of GTF in oral bacteria biofilm and its preventive mechanism.Methods The visible light semiquantitative method has been used to measure biomass GTF (OD620)values so that the effect of Aleppo gall and active component on GTF of oral bacteria biofilm has been discovered.The experiment samples were divided into 3 groups:control group,Aleppo gall group and active component group.Result It was discovered that Aleppo gall and active component were able to inhibit GTF activity of 24 h bacte-rial biofilm (GTF activity of Aleppo gall group is 0.018 6±0.077,GTF activity of active component group is 0.052 7±0.035),compared with control group (GTF activity of control group is 0.6601±0.204),it had statistical significance (P <0.05).Conclusion The effect of Aleppo gall on oral bacterial biofilm not only inhibits bacteria biofilm growth

  13. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... presented in a way that suits their individual LS preferences. In this presentation you will see how we as teachers can assist students in applying LS strategies that cater to their individual learning strengths. This will be based on general recommendations for HE teaching and learning supported...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...

  14. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to diabetes mellitus among the general public in Galle district in Southern Sri Lanka: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Weerasinghe, N P; Dias, H; Weerarathna, T P

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global epidemic with significant disability and premature death. Identification of the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to diabetes among the general public is important in strategies for prevention of diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted as a community based cross sectional study in three Medical Officers of Health (MOH) areas in Galle district. Previously healthy literate individuals who have not attended any diabetes education program in the last two years were selected for this study. A total of 277 participants were included in the study. The majority (77%) had either moderate (39%) or above moderate knowledge (38%) on diabetes mellitus. Even though, level of education was significantly and positively associated with knowledge (p = 0.001), the association of gender and age with knowledge was not significant. Unlike knowledge, the attitude towards diabetes was poor in majority (90%) and level of education had no significant effect on attitude. With regards to practices, more than half of study subjects never had their blood sugar checked and, about 65% used to take refined sugar liberally and a large majority (80%) had no regular exercise activity. Even though the majority (77%) had moderate or above moderate knowledge on diabetes, their attitudes towards diabetes was poor (88%). It appears that the higher knowledge on diabetes did not translate into good practices as over 50% of study subjects did not involve with any preventive measures. Therefore, more emphasis should be given to address the issue of poor attitude and practices towards diabetes mellitus among general public in Sri Lanka.

  16. Characterization of nuclear localization signals in the type III effectors HsvG and HsvB of the gall-forming bacterium Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinthal, Dan M; Barash, Isaac; Tzfira, Tzvi; Gaba, Victor; Teper, Doron; Sessa, Guido; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2011-05-01

    HsvG and HsvB, two paralogous type III effectors of the gall-forming bacteria Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae and P. agglomerans pv. betae, determine host specificity on gypsophila and beet, respectively. They were previously shown to be DNA-binding proteins imported into host and non-host nuclei and might act as transcriptional activators. Sequence analysis of these effectors did not detect canonical nuclear localization signals (NLSs), but two basic amino acid clusters designated putative NLS1 and NLS2 were detected in their N-terminal and C-terminal regions, respectively. pNIA assay for nuclear import in yeast and bombardment of melon leaves with each of the NLSs fused to a 2xYFP reporter indicated that putative NLS1 and NLS2 were functional in transport of HsvG into the nucleus. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that HsvB, HsvG, putative NLS1, putative NLS2, HsvG converted into HsvB, or HsvB converted into HsvG by exchanging the repeat domain, all interacted with AtKAP-α and importin-α3 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Deletion analysis of the NLS domains in HsvG suggested that putative NLS1 or NLS2 were required for pathogenicity on gypsophila cuttings and presumably for import of HsvG into the nucleus. This study demonstrates the presence of two functional NLSs in the type III effectors HsvG and HsvB.

  17. A new genus of gall-dwelling thrips from Costa Rica (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae: Phlaeothripinae Un género nuevo de tisanóptero morador de agallas en Costa Rica (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae: Phlaeothripinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Soto-Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of thrips, Fourbethrips fiorella, inhabiting stems, petioles and leaf vein galls of a Melastomataceae from Costa Rica is described. The galls are induced by an unidentified gall midge larva (Cecidomyiidae. This new thrips can be distinguished from other genus and species of Phlaeothripinae by the shape of the pelta, the position of maxillary stylets in the head, the reduced and acute anterior pair of postocular setae, the long and capitate posterior pair of postocular setae, the presence of a group of minute setae, and a pair of short ventral setae in the middle area of the abdominal sternites II-VII. The tergites II-VII have a pair of campaniform sensillae.Se describen una especie y un género nuevos de tisanóptero, Fourbethrips iorella, que habita en agallas en tallos, peciolos y venas de la hoja de una Melastomataceae de Costa Rica. Las agallas son inducidas por una especie no identificada de Cecidomyiidae. Este nuevo tisanóptero se puede diferenciar de otros géneros y especies de Phlaeothripinae por la forma de la pelta, la posición de los estiletes maxilares en la cabeza, la presencia de 2 pares de setas postoculares, 1 par reducido y de puntas agudas y 1 par posterior largo y capitado, la presencia de un grupo de setas pequeñas y 1 par de setas cortas en los esternitos abdominales II-VII. Los terguitos con un par de sensilas campaniformes.

  18. 普洱市国家立体生态茶园茶饼病调查研究%Study on Investigation of Tea Gall in National Three-dimensional Ecological Tea Plantation in Pu′er City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽芬; 马巾媛; 杜华波

    2014-01-01

    通过对普洱市国家立体生态茶园茶饼病的调查,结果表明茶饼病发病率、病情指数较高,其中发病率最高为山顶斜面(33.56%),最低为山腰平面(25.65%)。发病最严重为山顶斜面(病指19.02),山脚斜面次之(病指18.19)。茶饼病的发生与“厂”字形种植模式、海拔、套种树有关。对茶园的4个茶树品种进行抗病性调查得出,4个品种抗病性存在差异(木兰1号>雪芽100号>清新乌龙>景谷大白茶)。%Through the investigation of tea gall in national three-dimensional ecological tea plantation ,the results showed that the incidence , disease index of tea gall were higher,the highest incidence was at the bevel of the top(33.56%),and the lowest was at mountainside plane(25.65%). Peak incidence of the most serious was at the slope(disease index 19.02),followed by the slope of foot(disease index 18.19).Occurrence of tea gall had the relation with inverted ′L′-shaped planting mode,altitude,setting about planting trees. Through the resistance surveys of four tea varieties ,there were resistance differences for four varieties of (Mulan 1>Snow Bud 100>fresh Oolong>Jinggu white tea ).

  19. Inflammatory diseases of the gall bladder and biliary system. Part I: Imaging - cholelithasis - inflammation of the gall bladder; Entzuendliche Erkrankungen der Gallenblase und der Gallenwege. Teil I: Bildgebende Verfahren - Cholelithiasis - Entzuendungen der Gallenblase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, H. [Krankenhaus Dritter Orden Muenchen-Nymphenburg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Nuklearmedizin; Kammer, B. [Haunersches Kinderspital der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie

    2005-05-01

    Cholelithiasis is the most common affliction of the gallbladder and biliary tract. Including its complications, gallstone disease represents the basis for cholecystitis and cholangitis in the majority of cases. Inflammatory diseases of the biliary system are divided into acute and chronic forms originating from the gallbladder as well as from the biliary tract. Although acute calculous cholecystitis is the most common form, gangrenous, and emphysematous inflammation of the gallbladder as well as gallbladder empyema are included in this group of diseases. In the chronic forms, calculous and acalculous inflammation is also differentiated. Recent developments in cross-sectional imaging in sonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging offer numerous tools for depicting the biliary system with high diagnostic accuracy. Invasive imaging modalities of the biliary system are mainly used for therapeutic aspects. (orig.) [German] Die Cholelithiasis ist die haeufigste Erkrankung von Gallenblase und Gallenwegen. Zusammen mit seinen Komplikationen stellt das Gallensteinleiden zugleich in der Mehrzahl der Faelle die Ursache entzuendlicher Erkrankungen des Gallesystems dar. Dabei wird zwischen akuten und chronischen Formen sowohl der Gallenblase als auch der Gallenwege unterschieden. Zu den akuten Cholezystitiden zaehlen neben der begleitenden Entzuendung beim Gallensteinleiden auch die gangraenoese und emphysematoese Cholezystitis sowie das Gallenblasenempyem. Auch bei den chronischen Formen werden Entzuendungen ohne und mit Steinleiden differenziert. Mit den modernen Schnittbildverfahren Sonographie, Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie stehen zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten der Bildgebung des Gallensystems mit hoher diagnostischer Aussagekraft zur Verfuegung. Die Verfahren der direkten Darstellung des Gallesystems kommen hauptsaechlich im Rahmen der Therapie zum Einsatz. (orig.)

  20. Feasibility study on deep geothermal energy for the City of St. Gall; Machbarkeitsstudie Tiefengeothermie Stadt St. Gallen. Konzept fuer die Entwicklung einer Geothermieanlage in der Stadt St. Gallen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huwiler, M.

    2009-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a concept for the development of a geothermal energy installation for the City of St. Gall, Switzerland. Five work packages are reviewed: Resource evaluation, access technology and costs, building permission process and infrastructure, production and cost scenarios, and, finally, chances and risks. These topics are discussed and recommendations are made for further work. Four appendices present data on temperature gradients and the calibration of thermal models, basic schemata for the geothermal installation and possible drilling and cladding schemes.

  1. So Much to Learn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WANDI

    2010-01-01

    @@ One of the main reasons that China sought to host the 2010 Expo, aside from showcasing the country's ancient cultural glory and recent economic miracle, is to learn from other countries, developed and developing ones alike. Shanghai, the host city, is the "best student" among Chinese regions, which is always ready to learn from foreign experience and follow trendy fashions in the world.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS PROBLEM BASED LEARNING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KINERJA DALAM MENYUSUN LAPORAN SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the validity, practicality and effectifity of the development of  learning tools through the test of control class, test of treatment class  and the effectivity test in order to produce biology learning tools based PBL (problem based learning that valid, practical and effective to improve performance in prepared a report to 11th grade of high school students. The development of the learning tools refers to a Borg and Gall development model. Data was collected using observation sheets, validation sheet, questionnaire, and test. Methods of data analysis done by quantitative descriptive analysis of the needs analysis, the validity and practicality of the learning tools. The effectifity of the learning is done by pretest posttest. Effectifity of learning tools analyzed by paired t-test. Results showed that the learning tools otherwise (1 very valid with a percentage of 98.91%, (2 practical with a percentage of 84,68%, and (3 effective with Tvalue amounting to 3,51 (Tvalue> Ttable at significance level of 5%. Based on the results of this study concluded that the PBL Based Learning has met the criteria perfectly valid, prractical, and effective way to improve performance in preparing the reports of students through learning biology in high school, so it can be used in a broader scope. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kebutuhan guru, kelayakan, kepraktisan dan keefektifan dalam pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran berbasis Problem Based Learning untuk meningkatkan kinerja dalam menyusun laporan siswa SMA kelas XI Tahun Pembelajaran 2016/2017. Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran mengacu pada model pengembangan Borg and Gall. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan lembar observasi, lembar validasi, angket, dan tes. Metode analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif terhadap analisis kebutuhan, validitas dan kelayakan perangkat pembelajaran. Efektivitas perangkat pembelajaran dilakukan dengan pretest

  3. E-Learning versus Traditional Learning as Perceived by Undergraduate Students in Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Salameh, Kayed M.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to define the perception of e-learning and traditional learning among undergraduate students in Jordanian universities. The results of the study indicated that e-learning had significantly higher scores for perceived value among students than traditional learning. The perception of e-learning among male students…

  4. Learning Styles in the e-Learning Environment: The Approaches and Research on Longitudinal Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulik, Pavel; Skoda, Jiri; Simonova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the field of learning styles in e-learning. The study is structured in two main parts: (1) a brief overview of traditional approaches to learning styles is presented and their role in the process of instruction is set; this part results in the reflection of current state, when learning styles are considered within e-learning;…

  5. Learning From Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visholm, Steen; Beck, Ulla Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    University and NAPSO2). Seen from the horizon of their experience some of the basic concepts in the theories about GRC need clarifying, revision, and development. The GRC is a part of the learning from experience movement and as a consequence it stresses the underlying basis: learning is personal so everyone......In this paper the learning concept of group relation's conferences are discussed. The authors have worked with group relations conferences (GRC) in different contexts for many years-mainly as a part of educational programmes for managers and consultants (OPU at IGA Copenhagen, MPO at Roskilde...... decides for themselves what makes sense and what does not. This principle sometimes works as a defence against a closer examination of the two questions: do GRCs provide relevant experiences to learn from, and what is it you learn or can expect to learn at a GRC. Here the learning concept of the GRCs...

  6. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  7. Anxiety in foreign language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  8. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  9. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  10. E-Learning and Joomla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, S.; Martinez, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Galan, J. L.; Rodriguez, P.; Munoz, M. L.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Cordero, P.; Padilla, Y.; Mora, A.; Merida, E.; Rodriguez, F.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, university teaching was based mainly on lectures, but critics point out that lecturing is mainly a one-way method of communication that does not involve significant audience participation. Nowadays e-learning has become a distance learning paradigm using information technology as the Internet, intranets, emails and multimedia…

  11. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning. Presentation at Annual Assembly of the European Society for the Systemic Innovation of Education - ESSIE. May, 27, 2011, Leuven, Belgium: Open University in the Netherlands.

  12. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  13. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  14. Plant diversity and galling arthropod diversity searching for taxonomic patterns in an animal-plant interaction in the Neotropics Diversidade de plantas e diversidade de artrópodes galhadores procurando padrões taxonômicos numa interação animal-planta nos Neotrópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Souza Mendonça, Jr.

    Full Text Available Gall-inducers are a special guild of endophytic herbivores generating distinct structures known as galls. Gallers are species-specific, as the galls they induce: each gall morphotype is unique. The relationship between plants and gallers is close, and some of the hypotheses to explain galling diversity consider plants directly; others do not. Here I review current diversity hypotheses on galls and their hosts, adding ideas on the interpretation of galler host plant data. The example comes from an ongoing standardised inventory of galls and hosts in Rio Grande do Sul (RS state, southern Brazil. The questions addressed here are whether: a galls occur consistently on some plant taxa in different areas, b these taxa are important for vegetation composition, and c taxon size influences galling richness. Families harbouring more gallers are usually the same throughout the Neotropics (Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, and in RS, Asteraceae, which is not unexpected as these are important components of vegetation. Larger plant families have more galls, a pattern driven by Asteraceae. At lower taxonomic levels, the dominance of a few taxa in galler richness («super-hosts» is higher. Mikania and Eugenia , for example, hold much more galls than others in the RS survey.Os galhadores são uma guilda especial de herbívoros endofíticos geradores de estruturas distintas, as galhas. Galhadores são espécie-específicos, como as galhas que induzem: cada morfotipo de galha é único. A relação entre plantas e galhadores é estreita; algumas das hipóteses para explicar a diversidade de galhadores consideram as plantas diretamente; outras não. Aqui são revistas as correntes hipóteses sobre a diversidade de galhadores e suas hospedeiras, adicionando idéias sobre a interpretação de dados dos hospedeiros. Os exemplos advêm de um inventário de galhas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, sul do Brasil. As questões aqui são: a as galhas ocorrem consistentemente em

  15. Riigikogu maine ja armastus / Aune Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Past, Aune, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    Autor arutleb Riigikogu maine üle, toetudes TÜ ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakonna 2007. aastal tehtud uuringu tulemustele. Riigikogu liikmete maine paraneks, kui neil endil oleks selge, mis eesmärgil Toompeale mindi ja sellest siis ka rahvale kõneldaks

  16. Riigikogu maine ja armastus / Aune Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Past, Aune, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    Autor arutleb Riigikogu maine üle, toetudes TÜ ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakonna 2007. aastal tehtud uuringu tulemustele. Riigikogu liikmete maine paraneks, kui neil endil oleks selge, mis eesmärgil Toompeale mindi ja sellest siis ka rahvale kõneldaks

  17. 78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Commercial and Residential Building Complex Fire. Incident Period: 05/03/2013. Effective Date:...

  18. 78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 04/29/2013. Effective Date: 05/30/2013. Physical...

  19. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  20. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  1. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  2. A Reference Model for Online Learning Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Seufert, Sabine; Lechner, Ulrike; Stanoevska, Katarina

    2002-01-01

    Online learning communities are introduced as a comprehensive model for technology-enabled learning. We give an analysis of goals in education and the requirements to community platforms. The main contribution of the article is a reference model for online learning communities that consists of four layers designing the organizational, interaction, channel or service and the technological model of learning communities. This reference model captures didactic goals, learning methods and learning...

  3. Learning Java

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Version 5.0 of the Java 2 Standard Edition SDK is the most important upgrade since Java first appeared a decade ago. With Java 5.0, you'll not only find substantial changes in the platform, but to the language itself-something that developers of Java took five years to complete. The main goal of Java 5.0 is to make it easier for you to develop safe, powerful code, but none of these improvements makes Java any easier to learn, even if you've programmed with Java for years. And that means our bestselling hands-on tutorial takes on even greater significance. Learning Java is the most widely sou

  4. Study on the Major Host Plant Species of Lac Insect, Wax Scale and Gall Aphids%紫胶虫、白蜡虫、倍蚜虫主要寄主 植物种类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉培; 李文良

    2001-01-01

    Lac insect, wax scale and gall aphids are the important resource insect s in China. Host plant is not only the habitant and reproductive sites for resou rce insects but also their food resource. The species of host plant are various, and some of them are excellent hosts. The host plant species were extensively c ollected from the major production regions of lac, wax and Chinese gallnut, and then reproduced in Jingdong of Yunnan where locates in the southern subtropical region. It has been conserved in the Arboretum of Jingdong Trial Station by Ex-situ con servation. More than 200 species, which belong to 98 genuses,36 families of host plant of lac insect, wax scale and gall aphids have been collected over many ye ars. These species are valuable materials available for studying these resource insects and their host plant. From these species, it is possible to develop exce llent hosts that can be put into use in production. Also these species is the ba sic materials to be used in host plant breeding and enhancement and research on their multiple utility. The study was conducted during the period of 1993~1999, and its major results are reported.

  5. Researching workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...

  6. 没食子对牙釉质矿化作用的体外实验研究%Effects of Aleppo gall on enamel mineralization in vitro experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新尚; 程春; 赵今; 李新霞; 林静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of clinical value of Aleppo gall on preventing dental caries based on experimental observation of bovine enamel in vitro. Methods A total of 120 extracted bovine anterior teeth were prepared and randomly divided into two groups with 60 teeth in each group for demineralization and remineralization experiments. Each group was randomly redivided into three groups with 20 teeth in each group and treated with fluoride, Aleppo gall and deionized water respectively. And these three groups underwent demineralization and remineralization course, respectively. The fluorescence intensity and scanning electron microscopic results were observed after demineralization and remineralization, and compared between groups. Results The quantitative light-induced fluorescence showed that there were no significant differences in the ratios of fluorescence intensity between Aleppo gall groups and fluoride groups (P > 0. 05), which were significantly different from those in deionized water groups respectively (P<0. 05). Scanning electron microscope showed that there were sediments on the surface of the enamel surface in Aleppo gall groups and fluoride groups, but no in deionized water groups. Conclusion Aleppo gall has the effect of facilitating enamel remineralization and inhibiting enamel demineralization, which can prevent early enamel caries.%目的 研究没食子对牙釉质的矿化作用,探讨没食子防龋的临床价值.方法 应用离体牛牙制备人工釉质龋标本120颗,随机分为脱矿组和再矿化组各60颗,每组再分为氟化钠组、没食子组、去离子水组各20颗,分别进行脱矿和再矿化实验,行光敏荧光技术及扫描电镜检查,比较各组脱矿后及再矿化后荧光量及扫描电镜结果.结果 荧光结果显示,在脱矿及再矿化实验中,没食子组和氟化钠组药物作用前后荧光量的比值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),与去离子水组比较

  7. Effect of oral rinse with Turkish gall on the dinical periodontal parameters and halitosis%没食子口含液对牙周临床指标及口气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安悦邦; 和璐; 孟焕新; 刘婷婷; 闫风华

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价使用没食子口含液对牙周临床指标和口气的影响.方法:采用随机对照单盲试验的方法,选择2008年10月至2009年9月就诊于北京大学口腔医院牙周科门诊的菌斑性龈炎或轻、中度慢性牙周炎患者70例,随机分为仅使用没食子口含液口含2周的试验组和没有任何辅助用药的对照组,两组在基线时都接受了相同的口腔卫生指导,基线及2周时分别测定并记录口气指标[包括感官值(organoleptic score,OS)、口腔挥发性硫化物(volatile sulphur compounds,VSCs)水平、舌苔面积(area of tongue coating,Ta)、舌苔厚度(thickness of tongue coating,Tt)]和牙周指标[包括菌斑指数(plaque index,PⅡ)、探诊深度(probing depth,PD)、牙龈出血指数(bleeding index,BI)和色素指数(staining index,SI)].结果:2周后,两组牙周临床指标除了SI外都有显著改善(P0.05).结论:对于未治疗的菌斑性龈炎及轻、中度慢性牙周炎患者,没食子口含液有显著的菌斑抑制作用,但在改善121气方面较单纯刷牙不具有优势.%Objective: To assess the effect of traditional Chinese medicine, oral rinse of Turkish gall (extracts from Turkish gall) on periodontal and halitosis parameters. Methods: This single-blinded randomized controlled trial recruited 70 patients with gingivitis or mild to moderate chronic periodontitis. All the patients received the same professional oral hygiene instruction and using toothbrush and fluoride-only paste with same brand and size dispatched by the investigator from baseline to the end. The tested group by oral rinse of Turkish gall on the base of conventional oral hygiene, and control group with conventional oral hygiene only, were assigned randomly at baseline. Then periodontal parameters including Plaque index (PIT), Bleeding index ( BI), Probing depth (PD) and Staining index ( SI), halitosis index including volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) by Halimeter, organoleptic score (OS), area of

  8. Deep Characterization of the Microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae Gall-Inducing Psyllids Reveals the Absence of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Three Dominant Endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A Overholt

    Full Text Available Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts' fitness but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp. gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the noxious weed, Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia, in Florida. Although there are no examples of plant pathogen transmission by members of the family Calophyidae, several insects in the superfamily Psylloidea are known to transmit pathogenic bacteria in the genera Candidatus Liberibacter and Candidatus Phytoplasma. To determine whether Calophya spp. harbor potentially harmful plant pathogenic bacteria, we sequenced small subunit (SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene amplicons generated from individuals from four Calophya spp. populations: All microbial SSU gene sequences fell into the bacterial domain, with 98-99% belonging to the Proteobacteria. The Calophya microbiomes contained a relatively simple community, with 49-79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% detected, and only 5-8 OTUs with greater than 1% abundance. Candidatus Carsonella showed the highest relative abundance, with OTUs from this candidate genus representing between 51-65% of all recovered sequences. The next most abundant clade observed was an unclassified Enterobacteriacae group closely related to bacteria from the genera Buchnera and Blochmannia that ranged from 20-31% in relative abundance. Wolbachia populations were the third most abundant group and represented 7-27% of the diversity in microbial OTUs. No SSU rRNA gene sequences from putative pathogenic bacteria from the genera Ca. Liberibacter or Ca. Phytoplasma were detected in the microbiomes of the four Calophya populations. The probability that infected psyllids were present in our colonies, but were not sampled, was extremley low (1.39 x 10(-10. As far as we are aware, our study is the first to characterize the microbiome of

  9. Joseph Cornell's flow learning use

    OpenAIRE

    Lužnik, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Natural science is one of the subjects where nature or natural environment can often be used directly for teaching. Joseph Cornell, who introduced Flow Learning, also emphasises this fact. The main focus of my thesis was how Joseph Cornell’s Flow Learning could be used in our primary schools. I selected some learning objectives out of natural science and technology curriculum which could be achieved with the Flow Learning system using Cornell’s activities. I tested my thesis in practice w...

  10. Alcid Nesting Habitat on the Maine Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maine supports an extensive seabird population because of the abundance of relatively inaccessible rocky coastal islands which are ideal nesting grounds for many...

  11. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  12. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  13. Libraries in Maine: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 602-2386 http://www.une.edu/library/ Lewiston Bates College Ladd Library 48 Campus Avenue Lewiston, ME 04240-6087 207-786-6471 http://abacus.bates.edu/Library/ Central Maine Medical Center Gerrish-True ...

  14. Superconducting magnets for the LHC main lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2004-01-01

    The main lattice of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will employ about 1600 main magnets and more than 4000 corrector magnets. All superconducting and working in pressurized superfluid helium bath, these impressive line of magnets will fill more than 20 km of the underground tunnel. With almost 70 main dipoles already delivered and 10 main quadrupoles almost completed, we passed the 5% of the production and now all manufacturers have fully entered into series production. In this paper the most critical issues encountered in the ramping up in such a real large scale fabrication will be addressed: uniformity of the coil size and of prestress, special welding technique, tolerances on curvature (dipoles) or straightness (quadrupoles) and of the cold mass extremities, harmonic content and, most important, the integrated field uniformity among magnets. The actual limits and the solution for improvements will be discussed. Finally a realistic schedule based on actual achievements is presented.

  15. Mercury in bird eggs from coastal Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maine's coastal islands and beaches provide important nesting habitat for piping plover (Charadrius melodus), least tern (Sterna antillarum), common tern (Sterna...

  16. Station Management Plan Maine Coastal Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan outlines how four Maine refuges and twelve islands and one peninsula should be managed over the next three to five years. Plan results are...

  17. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    240 megawatt project on the Rance River in France and a 400 kilowatt station on the Kislaya Guba Gulf in the Soviet Union. Recently, studies have taken...Tidal Power Project, Maine" October 1979. 44. Ploch, Lousi A. and Nelson L. LeRoy, "Social and Economic Consequen- ces of the Dickey- Lincoln School...Regional Planning Commission," Machias, Maine, 1977. 47. U.S. Department of Energy, Southeast Power Administration, Dickey- Lincoln School Project

  18. Molecular clusters of the main group elements

    CERN Document Server

    Driess, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    ""To summarize, Molecular Clusters of the Main Group Elements is certainly not a popular science book, nor is it a textbook; it is a very good, up-to-date collection of articles for the specialist. Als Fazit bleibt: Molecular Clusters of the Main Group Elements ist sicher kein populissenschaftliches Werk, auch kein Lehrbuch, aber eine gelungene, hoch aktuelle Zusammenstellung fen interessierten Fachmann."" -Michael Ruck, TU Dresden, Angewandte Chemie, 2004 - 116/36 + International Edition 2004 - 43/36

  19. Aneurysm of the left main coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio E. Guérios

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysm of the left main coronary artery is a rare angiographic finding, with few cases described in the international literature. We report the case of a 42-year-old male with a previous history of acute myocardial infarction, whose coronariography indicated triple vessel coronary disease and an aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. A review of the etiology, clinical aspects, and surgical management of coronary arterial aneurysm is presented.

  20. Main Development Targets for CNOOC in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ In order to obtain stable reserves and create scope economic management, the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) officially put forward the main development target and main sci-tech sector target of the Ninth Five-Year Plan in July, 1995. These targets aim to make CNOOC as an international group corporation,including exploration and development of oil and gas,refining, petrochemicals, chemical fertilizer, power generation, unitizing sales network of up and down stream.

  1. E-learning in virtual communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years many systems for distance learning have been developed. Even though students have access to learning material any time and any place, current tools for e-learning still have their limitations. The main shortcoming, compared to real life learning is the limited opportunity for human l

  2. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    2016-01-01

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  3. Anatomical and ultrastructural aspects of leaf galls in Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Moraceae induced by Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera Aspectos anatômicos e ultra-estruturais de galhas foliares em Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Moraceae causadas por Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina P. M. de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Ficus present leaf galls and the goal of this research is to study the structural alterations involved in the formation of leaf galls caused by Gynaikothrips ficorum on F. microcarpa, an ornamental plant. The galls of young and mature leaves were separated into two developmental stages based on the presence of lesions on leaf lamina and the degree of leaf folding. Swellings of the lamina were observed in young and mature leaves during gall development which coincided with the areas of cellular hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia. Swellings were detected in a greater amount and more precociously on young leaves when compared to mature ones. In young leaves, the cecidogenetic responses were quicker and led to further structural differences because younger cells are not completely differentiated. Cell hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia were striking processes involved in the ontogenesis of the studied gall, similar to other galls induced by thrips. Nevertheless, in spite of the numerous sites of feeding and the wide area of attack, F microcarpa galls can be considered rudimentary, since no new tissue differentiation was observed.Galhas foliares são comuns em diversas espécies de Ficus. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as alterações estruturais envolvidas na formação das galhas foliares induzidas por Gynaikothripsficorum (Thysanoptera em Ficus microcarpa, uma planta ornamental. As galhas de folhas jovens e maduras foram separadas em dois estádios de desenvolvimento, com base na presença de lesões e no grau de dobramento da lâmina. Durante o desenvolvimento da galha formam-se intumescimentos na lâmina tanto nas folhas jovens quanto nas maduras, os quais coincidem com as áreas de hipertrofia celular e hiperplasia dos tecidos. Estes intumescimentos foram detectados em maior quantidade e mais precocemente em folhas jovens, que, por possuirem células menos diferenciadas, mostraram respostas cecidogenéticas mais r

  4. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Baptista dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 e Ulmaceae (4 as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical.In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 and Ulmaceae (4 having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

  5. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning Problems KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning Problems Print A ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  6. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Learning Disabilities KidsHealth > For Teens > Learning Disabilities Print A ... study engineering as he'd hoped? What Are Learning Disabilities? For someone diagnosed with a learning disability, ...

  7. Reinforcement Learning by Value Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Fairbank, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the value-gradient is introduced and developed in the context of reinforcement learning. It is shown that by learning the value-gradients exploration or stochastic behaviour is no longer needed to find locally optimal trajectories. This is the main motivation for using value-gradients, and it is argued that learning value-gradients is the actual objective of any value-function learning algorithm for control problems. It is also argued that learning value-gradients is significantly more efficient than learning just the values, and this argument is supported in experiments by efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude, in several problem domains. Once value-gradients are introduced into learning, several analyses become possible. For example, a surprising equivalence between a value-gradient learning algorithm and a policy-gradient learning algorithm is proven, and this provides a robust convergence proof for control problems using a value function with a general function approximator.

  8. Lifelong Open and Flexible Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and Flexible (LOF) learning embracing characteristics as: open learning, distance learning, e-learning, online learning, open accessibility, multimedia support, virtual mobility, learning communities, dual mode (earn & learn) approaches, and the like.In my presentation I will focus on the EADTU strategies......EADTU members are universities that are dedicated to off-campus target groups using distance teaching methods as well as associations consisting of universities with mainly mainstream on-campus students but also offering education for off-campus students. Consequently our focus is on Lifelong Open...... for creating a synergy network in e-learning – eventually leading to a European Learning Space that supports virtual mobility of students, staff and courses, adds an e-dimension to the Bologa process and facilitates collaboration between universities and the corporate sector....

  9. Main building fire drill safely concluded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Last week, a simulated fire in the stairwell of the Main Building put CERN’s emergency response procedures to the test.   Firefighters descend the stairwell in the Main Building as the simulated fire rises.   At 2 p.m. on 22 September, alarms sounded around CERN’s Main Building as an evacuation exercise got underway. A simulated fire in the  stairwell, complete with very realistic smoke, led to the evacuation of one of the busiest places at CERN. The Main Building complex includes the Carlson Wagonlit travel agency, the post office, UBS, Uniqa, the Users Office, the Staff Association and the Novae restaurant as well as the Main Auditorium, the Council Chamber and the Charpak meeting room. It was impressive to see how quickly the smoke propagated in the staircase as well as into the corridors, and equally impressive to see how smoothly, quickly and efficiently the evacuation proceeded. The...

  10. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  11. The double main sequence of Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Bedin, L R

    2004-01-01

    Recent, high precision photometry of Omega Centauri, the biggest Galactic globular cluster, has been obtained with Hubble Space Telescope. The color magnitude diagram reveals an unexpected bifurcation of colors in the main sequence (MS). The newly found double MS, the multiple turnoffs and subgiant branches, and other sequences discovered in the past along the red giant branch of this cluster add up to a fascinating but frustrating puzzle. Among the possible explanations for the blue main sequence an anomalous overabundance of helium is suggested. The hypothesis will be tested with a set of FLAMES@VLT data we have recently obtained (ESO DDT program), and with forthcoming ACS@HST images.

  12. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  13. Comparación temporal de la riqueza y composición de insectos inductores de agallas en el dosel de un bosque tropical Temporal comparison in richness and composition of gall-inducing insects in the rainforest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Medianero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compara, entre 2 periodos de muestreos con 9 años de distancia entre sí, la riqueza y composición de especies que forman la comunidad de insectos inductores de agallas en el dosel del Parque Natural Metropolitano (PNM, un bosque seco tropical en la costa del Pacífico de Panamá. Los datos corresponden a muestreos realizados de enero de 1997 a marzo de 1998, y de agosto de 2005 a junio de 2006. Para tener acceso al dosel del bosque se utilizó una grúa instalada en el sitio por el Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales. Los resultados indican que no existen diferencias significativas en el número de especies de insectos inductores de agallas (29 y 30 respectivamente, en los 2 periodos de muestreo; sin embargo, la comunidad de hace 9 años presenta un reemplazo del 16 % de las especies y se asemeja a la actual en 55%. Variaciones ambientales y actividades antropogénicas favorecieron la proliferación de lianas y de cecidógenos relacionados con esas plantas. En los 2 periodos de muestreo, tanto árboles como lianas, albergaron un número semejante de insectos inductores de agallas.A comparison (richness and composition of the galls inducing insects at canopy forest, in the Parque Natural Metropolitano (PNM, a tropical dry forest of the Pacific coast of Panama was done, in a difference period of 9 years. Sampling was carried out from January 1997 to March 1998 and from August 2005 to June 2006. The crane from the Smithsonian Institution for Tropical Research (STRI was used in order to access to the canopy. After the results, there are not significant differences in the number of insects which induce the production of galls (29 and 30 respectively, nevertheless the community from 9 years before, presents the replacement of 16% of the species and is similar in 55% to the present fauna. Environmental changes and anthropogenic activities have produced the proliferation of vines and cecidogens. In both periods of time, the trees

  14. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental..., 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company... ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to...

  15. The effect of the use of android-based application in learning together to improve students' academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfa, Andi Maria; Sugiyarto, Kristian H.; Ikhsan, Jaslin

    2017-05-01

    Poor achievement of students' performance on Chemistry may result from unfavourable learning processes. Therefore, innovation on learning process must be created. Regarding fast development of mobile technology, learning process cannot ignore the crucial role of the technology. This research and development (R&D) studies was done to develop android based application and to study the effect of its integration in Learning together (LT) into the improvement of students' learning creativity and cognitive achievement. The development of the application was carried out by adapting Borg & Gall and Dick & Carey model. The developed-product was reviewed by chemist, learning media practitioners, peer reviewers, and educators. After the revision based on the reviews, the application was used in the LT model on the topic of Stoichiometry in a senior high school. The instruments were questionnaires to get comments and suggestion from the reviewers about the application, and the another questionnaire was to collect the data of learning creativity. Another instrument used was a set of test by which data of students' achievement was collected. The results showed that the use of the mobile based application on Learning Together can bring about significant improvement of students' performance including creativity and cognitive achievement.

  16. 76 FR 59177 - Maine Disaster #ME-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major ] disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  17. Kommunikatsioon ja maaelu maine / Ants Laansalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laansalu, Ants, 1938-2011

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 156-159. Autori hinnangul mõjutas meedias EL-i põllumajanduspoliitika kohta loodud negatiivne maine oluliselt Eesti põllumajanduspoliitika kujundamist riigi tasandil kuni 2000. a. ja ettevõtlus tasandil kuni 2003. a.

  18. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  19. Main Strategies for Autonomous Robotic Controller Design

    OpenAIRE

    Paterega, I.

    2011-01-01

    This review gives an overall introduction to the artificial evolution mechanism. It presents the main strategies for robotic controller design. It gives a review of the pertinent literature, focusing on approaches that use neural networks, evolutionary computing, and fuzzy logic. Various applications of artificial evolution in robotics are surveyed and classified.

  20. Main facts 1995; Faits marquants 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations.

  1. Rotor dynamic analysis of main coolant pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chong Won; Seo, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Choong Hwan; Shin, Jae Chul; Wang, Lei Tian [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    A rotor dynamic analysis program DARBS/MCP, for the main coolant pump of the integral reactor, has been developed. The dynamic analysis model of the main coolant pump includes a vertical shaft, three grooved radial journal bearings and gaps that represent the structure-fluid interaction effects between the rotor and the lubricant fluid. The electromagnetic force from the motor and the hydro-dynamic force induced by impeller are the major sources of vibration that may affect the rotor system stability. DARBS/MCP is a software that is developed to effectively analyze the dynamics of MCP rotor systems effectively by applying powerful numerical algorithms such as FEM with modal truncation and {lambda}-matrix method for harmonic analysis. Main design control parameters, that have much influence to the dynamic stability, have been found by Taguchi's sensitivity analysis method. Design suggestions to improve the stability of MCP rotor system have been documented. The dynamic bearing parameters of the journal bearings used for main coolant pump have been determined by directly solving the Reynolds equation using FDM method. Fluid-structure interaction effect that occurs at the small gaps between the rotor and the stator were modeled as equivalent seals, the electromagnetic force effect was regarded as a linear negative radial spring and the impeller was modeled as a rigid disk with hydrodynamic and static radial force. Although there exist critical speeds in the range of operational speeds for type I and II rotor systems, the amplitude of vibration appears to be less than the vibration limit set by the API standards. Further more, it has been verified that the main design parameters such as the clearance and length of journal bearings, and the static radial force of impeller should be properly adjusted, in order to the improve dynamic stability of the rotor system. (author). 39 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs: A Comparative Analysis of the Main Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mihaela FUNIERU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive open online courses have been recently introduced as a modern learning method mainly due to the great progress made in the fields of Information Technology and, moreover, the ever increasing number of technologies supported by the Internet. The rapidly growing diversity of MOOC providers and the popularity of this fast emerging learning option influenced this analysis to compare the main characteristics of the most popular MOOC platforms at this time, Coursera and edX. The platforms have been compared from both a technical and a user perspective and each detailed feature was graded based on its strengths and weaknesses.

  3. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  4. Learning Experiences Reuse Based on an Ontology Modeling to Improve Adaptation in E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj M'tir, Riadh; Rumpler, Béatrice; Jeribi, Lobna; Ben Ghezala, Henda

    2014-01-01

    Current trends in e-Learning focus mainly on personalizing and adapting the learning environment and learning process. Although their increasingly number, theses researches often ignore the concepts of capitalization and reuse of learner experiences which can be exploited later by other learners. Thus, the major challenge of distance learning is…

  5. Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this…

  6. Using Weblog in Cooperative Learning to Improve the Achievement of History Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lim Hooi; Leng, Chin Hai; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Weblog in Cooperative Learning to enhance students' learning of History. The main issues of this study were the lack of interest and low achievement scores in History learning. The objectives of this study are to explore the incorporation of Weblog in Cooperative Learning within the teaching and learning…

  7. Investigating Relationships between Features of Learning Designs and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul; Cheng, Kin Fai

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of eLearning in 21 courses in Hong Kong universities that had a blended design of face-to-face classes combined with online learning. The main focus of the study was to examine possible relationships between features of online learning designs and student learning outcomes. Data-collection strategies included expert…

  8. Interest Learning about English in Junior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-qin

    2015-01-01

    In modern time, interest learning play a more and more important role in the children’study. So the paper plays a key on the interest learning in junior middle school. And the paper mainly explores theoretical research, the reason of interest learning and the way to motivate junior middle students’interest learning in English learning.

  9. The effects of Nut gall on dental remineralization%天然药物没食子对早期釉质龋再矿化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵今; 李新尚; 林静; 李新霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of the natural medicine Nut gall on the remineralization of dental enamel. Methods: Sixty extracted bovine anterior teeth were used in this study. On the labial surface of each tooth, 1 artificial subsurface lesion windows ( 10 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm) were created by immersion in demineralizing solution. The specimens with early caries were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n = 20/group) and treated with fluoride( NaF), Nut gall and deionized water respectively. Then they were subjected to the pH-cycling regime for 12 days. The average fluorescence loss F (%) were determined with quantitative labeling fluorescence (QLF) and the morphological structure of enamel surface was observed by SEM after treatments. Results: Treatment of the demineralized specimens in the 3 groups increased QLF values respectively( P < 0.05 ). Nut gall and NaF showed similar effects ( P > 0.05 ), and stronger than deionized water( P <0.05). Conclusion: Nut gall might be useful to enhance the dental remineralization.%目的:观察没食子对早期釉质龋再矿化作用.方法:60 个新鲜拔除的牛前牙,将标本唇面切割为10 mm×10 mm×2 mm的牙釉质小块,随机分为3 组,进行脱矿处理,形成人工龋标本后置于再矿化液,分别用氟化钠、没食子、去离子水处理,经过12 d pH循环,药物作用过程前后采用荧光法检测进行定量研究,采用扫描电镜进行定性研究.结果:经过再矿化循环后,各组荧光量均有升高,由高到低依次为氟化钠、没食子、去离子水.统计分析没食子组与氟化钠组比较无明显差异(P>0.05),而与去离子水组比较有差异(P<0.05).扫描电镜显示氟化物及没食子处理组有颗粒沉积,牙面恢复较为平坦,而去离子水组牙面恢复情况不及前2 组.结论:没食子有利于增进早期釉质龋的再矿化作用.

  10. Effects of Fungicide Fenaminosulf and Plant Growth Regulator on Gall For-mation of Zizania latifolia%杀菌剂敌磺钠及植物生长调节剂对茭白孕茭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应荣; 崔海峰; 倪方群; 俞晓平; 叶子弘

    2014-01-01

    以‘龙茭二号’为研究对象,通过在茭白植株不同生长发育阶段分别喷施杀菌剂敌磺钠和植物生长调节剂,比较分析其对茭白结茭的促进效果。对6个不同处理组合及对照材料的株高、内源激素含量变化及结茭情况的统计分析发现:喷施一定浓度的敌磺钠对茭白结茭具有明显的促进作用,以敌磺钠(标准浓度)+营养液和敌磺钠(标准浓度)对茭白结茭产量的提高最为明显。植物生长调节剂处理能明显促进茭白早期植株生长,但对最终株高影响不大。采用间接酶联免疫法对茭白茎部3种激素(IAA、ABA和GA3)含量进行的比较分析表明:敌磺钠处理能够明显降低ABA含量,但对IAA和GA3含量没有明显影响;茭白结茭前ABA含量的降低可能有助于茭白结茭。%In this research, the promotion of fungicide fenaminosulf and plant growth regulator in the gall for-mation had been produced by spraying fenaminosulf and plant growth regulator combinations at different growth development phases of Zizania latifolia‘Longjiao 2’. After comparative and statistical analyzing of the plant heights, changes of endogenous hormone (IAA, ABA and GA3) in stem and yields of gall formation, it was found that the spraying of fenaminosulf with a certain concentration could signiifcantly promote the yields of gall formation in Z. latifolia, especially the spraying combinations of fenaminosulf (standard concentration) with nutrient solution and fenaminosulf (standard concentration). The promotions of plant growth regulator were also found, which was related to the different contents of plant growth regulator. Besides, the treatments of plant growth regulator could signiifcantly promote the early growth of plants, but little effect on the ifnal plants height. Using the methods of indirect ELISA, the contents of IAA, ABA and GA3 at the residual part of stem in Z. latifolia were compared and analysed. It was showed

  11. 健脾祛痰通瘿络治疗桥本氏甲状腺炎验案1则%Spleen Expectoranting Tong Gall Collaterals Treatment for Hashimoto's Thyroiditis:1 Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包扬; 李婷

    2014-01-01

    桥本氏甲状腺炎(HT)发病率高,病情易反复,部分患者可发生终身性甲减。笔者从中医络病角度出发治疗桥本氏甲状腺炎,即应用健脾祛痰通瘿络方法治疗本病,取得较好疗效,用1例验案详细说明辨证用药。%Hashimoto's thyroiditis has high incidence, it can occur in patients with hypothyroidis. The author discusses the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from the perspective of Chinese medicine, appling the spleen expectoranting gall collaterals to treat the disease and obtain good curative effect.

  12. THE MAIN PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei DIAMANDESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the industry is one of the main economic sectors, with a major contribution to achieving and maintaining a high rate of economic growth. The processing industry operation to high economic performance requires changes in structural terms, the re-engineering of processes and management. In this regard, one of the main actions taken at the level of companies in the manufacturing industry is the implementation of quality systems. Practicing quality management system not only allows businesses to react to changes taking place in business, but also to inflict them by the controlling of the future. This paper aims to analyze the principles of Total Quality Management – TQM and will highlight the advantages that organizations could obtain by applying each principle separately in the process of management.

  13. MAIN APPROACHES TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article tasks: defi ne main approaches to business development strategy formation. Methodology: methodological basis includes systemic, replication and dialectic general scientifi c approaches. Results: it is established that the activity approach as a leading methodology of strategy development assumes correlation between the activity category and the concepts: needs, interests, incentives, goals, refl ection (evaluation, and self-development. Systemic approach assumes to consider strategy as a system having a defi nite structure and interconnections within the system components. Conclusions/relevance: for Russian businesses the main goal in the management system is not a prompt response to current environmental changes, but formation of a strategic vision of the business’ future, elaboration of a fl exible and viable development strategy, to foresee tactical and strategic threats for the business activity, to remove them timely, as well as to use strategic management ideas in practice for sustainable growth.

  14. Spiropyran main-chain conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Michael; Komber, Hartmut

    2013-01-11

    The first main-chain conjugated copolymers based on alternating spiropyran (SP) and 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F8) units synthesized via Suzuki polycondensation (SPC) are presented. The reaction conditions of SPC are optimized to obtain materials of type P(para-SP-F8) with appreciably high molecular weights up to M(w) ≈ 100 kg mol(-1). (13)C NMR is used to identify the random orientation of the non-symmetric SP unit in P(p-SP-F8). Ultrasound-induced isomerization of P(p-SP-F8) to the corresponding merocyanine form P(p-MC-F8) yields a deep-red solution. This isomerization reaction is followed by (1)H NMR in solution using sonication, whereby the color increasingly changes to deep red. The possibility to incorporate multiple SP units into main-chain polymers significantly broadens existing SP-based polymeric architectures.

  15. Early history of the Fermilab Main Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, E.; /Fermilab

    1983-10-01

    This note is written in response to a request from Phil Livdahl for corrections, and additions to a TM he is writing on Staffing Levels at Fermilab during Initial Construction Years and to a note that Hank Hinterberger is preparing on milestones. In my spare time over the past few years I have taken the original files of the Main Ring Section, my own notes from that period, and various other collections of relevant paper, and arranged them in a set of 44 large loose leaf binders in chronological order. I call this set of volumes the 'Main Ring Chronological Archives'. In response to Phil's request I have recently skimmed through these records of the period and extracted a small subset of documents which relate to the specific questions that Phil is addressing: staffing. administration, and milestones.

  16. The geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Roberts, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    Information available on the geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo is presented. Attention is given to the process of mapping the magnetic field, the last version of International Geomagnetic Reference Field Model, and maps of the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and their interpretation. Particular consideration is given to the existing geodynamo theories, with special relation given to the Braginsky and Meytlis theory of core turbulence in which the turbulence differs fundamentally from classical turbulence of Kolmogorov type.

  17. DR21 Main: A Collapsing Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The molecular cloud, DR21 Main, is an example of a large-scale gravitational collapse about an axis near the plane of the sky where the collapse is free of major disturbances due to rotation or other effects. Using flux maps, polarimetric maps, and measurements of the field inclination by comparing the line widths of ion and neutral species, we estimate the temperature, mass, magnetic field, and the turbulent kinetic, mean magnetic, and gravitational potential energies, and present a 3D model...

  18. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  19. MAIN DIRECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC LINGUODIDACTIС DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana A. Kucheruk

    2014-01-01

    Article considers the problem of electronic linguistics. In the article it is grounded topicality of creating and using of new software tools of information and communication technologies to improve the quality of Ukrainian-language education. By the analysis and synthesis of scientific and methodological ideas we have defined the main directions of development of the domestic electronic linguistics. These areas relate to the development of electronic lexicographic works for educational purpo...

  20. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, K; Brott, I; Langer, N; de Koter, A

    2012-01-01

    Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity, effective temperature, projected rotational velocity and surface nitrogen abundance. This method relies on stellar evolution models for different metallicities, masses and rotation rates. We use the population synthesis code STARMAKER to show the range of applicability of our method. We apply this method to 79 early B-type main sequence stars near the LMC clusters NGC 2004 and N 11 and the SMC clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346. From all stars within the sample, 17 were found to be suitable for an age analysis. For ten of them, which are rapidly rotating stars without a strong nitrogen enhancement, it has been previously concluded that they did not evolve as rotationally mixed single stars. This is confirmed by our analysis, which fla...