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Sample records for learned codes current

  1. Current lead thermal analysis code 'CURRENT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahito; Tada, Eisuke; Shimamoto, Susumu; Hata, Kenichiro.

    1985-08-01

    Large gas-cooled current lead with the capacity more than 30 kA and 22 kV is required for superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils for fusion application. The current lead is used to carry electrical current from the power supply system at room temperature to the superconducting coil at 4 K. Accordingly, the thermal performance of the current lead is significantly important to determine the heat load requirements of the coil system at 4 K. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has being developed the large gas-cooled current leads with the optimum condition in which the heat load is around 1 W per 1 kA at 4 K. In order to design the current lead with the optimum thermal performances, JAERI developed thermal analysis code named as ''CURRENT'' which can theoretically calculate the optimum geometric shape and cooling conditions of the current lead. The basic equations and the instruction manual of the analysis code are described in this report. (author)

  2. A numerical similarity approach for using retired Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for electronic phenotyping in the Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Health System (SCILHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Phillips, Lori C; Turchin, Alexander; Weiler, Sarah; Mandl, Kenneth D; Murphy, Shawn N

    2015-12-11

    Interoperable phenotyping algorithms, needed to identify patient cohorts meeting eligibility criteria for observational studies or clinical trials, require medical data in a consistent structured, coded format. Data heterogeneity limits such algorithms' applicability. Existing approaches are often: not widely interoperable; or, have low sensitivity due to reliance on the lowest common denominator (ICD-9 diagnoses). In the Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS) we endeavor to use the widely-available Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedure codes with ICD-9. Unfortunately, CPT changes drastically year-to-year - codes are retired/replaced. Longitudinal analysis requires grouping retired and current codes. BioPortal provides a navigable CPT hierarchy, which we imported into the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) data warehouse and analytics platform. However, this hierarchy does not include retired codes. We compared BioPortal's 2014AA CPT hierarchy with Partners Healthcare's SCILHS datamart, comprising three-million patients' data over 15 years. 573 CPT codes were not present in 2014AA (6.5 million occurrences). No existing terminology provided hierarchical linkages for these missing codes, so we developed a method that automatically places missing codes in the most specific "grouper" category, using the numerical similarity of CPT codes. Two informaticians reviewed the results. We incorporated the final table into our i2b2 SCILHS/PCORnet ontology, deployed it at seven sites, and performed a gap analysis and an evaluation against several phenotyping algorithms. The reviewers found the method placed the code correctly with 97 % precision when considering only miscategorizations ("correctness precision") and 52 % precision using a gold-standard of optimal placement ("optimality precision"). High correctness precision meant that codes were placed in a reasonable hierarchal position that a reviewer

  3. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  4. An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

  5. Learning and coding in biological neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete, Ila Rani

    How can large groups of neurons that locally modify their activities learn to collectively perform a desired task? Do studies of learning in small networks tell us anything about learning in the fantastically large collection of neurons that make up a vertebrate brain? What factors do neurons optimize by encoding sensory inputs or motor commands in the way they do? In this thesis I present a collection of four theoretical works: each of the projects was motivated by specific constraints and complexities of biological neural networks, as revealed by experimental studies; together, they aim to partially address some of the central questions of neuroscience posed above. We first study the role of sparse neural activity, as seen in the coding of sequential commands in a premotor area responsible for birdsong. We show that the sparse coding of temporal sequences in the songbird brain can, in a network where the feedforward plastic weights must translate the sparse sequential code into a time-varying muscle code, facilitate learning by minimizing synaptic interference. Next, we propose a biologically plausible synaptic plasticity rule that can perform goal-directed learning in recurrent networks of voltage-based spiking neurons that interact through conductances. Learning is based on the correlation of noisy local activity with a global reward signal; we prove that this rule performs stochastic gradient ascent on the reward. Thus, if the reward signal quantifies network performance on some desired task, the plasticity rule provably drives goal-directed learning in the network. To assess the convergence properties of the learning rule, we compare it with a known example of learning in the brain. Song-learning in finches is a clear example of a learned behavior, with detailed available neurophysiological data. With our learning rule, we train an anatomically accurate model birdsong network that drives a sound source to mimic an actual zebrafinch song. Simulation and

  6. 2-D skin-current toroidal-MHD-equilibrium code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Niland, R.A.; Coonrod, J.; Levine, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A two-dimensional, toroidal, ideal MHD skin-current equilibrium computer code is described. The code is suitable for interactive implementation on a minicomptuer. Some examples of the use of the code for design and interpretation of toroidal cusp experiments are presented

  7. Optimal interference code based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye; Chen, Qian; Hu, Xiaobo; Cao, Ercong; Qian, Weixian; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of pseudo-random code, by the case of m sequence. Depending on the description of coding theory, we introduce the jamming methods. We simulate the interference effect or probability model by the means of MATLAB to consolidate. In accordance with the length of decoding time the adversary spends, we find out the optimal formula and optimal coefficients based on machine learning, then we get the new optimal interference code. First, when it comes to the phase of recognition, this study judges the effect of interference by the way of simulating the length of time over the decoding period of laser seeker. Then, we use laser active deception jamming simulate interference process in the tracking phase in the next block. In this study we choose the method of laser active deception jamming. In order to improve the performance of the interference, this paper simulates the model by MATLAB software. We find out the least number of pulse intervals which must be received, then we can make the conclusion that the precise interval number of the laser pointer for m sequence encoding. In order to find the shortest space, we make the choice of the greatest common divisor method. Then, combining with the coding regularity that has been found before, we restore pulse interval of pseudo-random code, which has been already received. Finally, we can control the time period of laser interference, get the optimal interference code, and also increase the probability of interference as well.

  8. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  9. When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Cui, Xuefeng; Yu, Ge; Guo, Lili; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays

  10. Direct calculation of current drive efficiency in FISIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional RF modeling codes use a parameterization (1) of current drive efficiencies to calculate fast wave driven currents. This parameterization assumes a uniform quasi-linear diffusion coefficient and requires a priori knowledge of the wave polarizations. These difficulties may be avoided by a direct calculation of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient from the Kennel-Englemann form with the field polarizations calculated by the full wave code, FISIC (2). Current profiles are calculated using the adjoint formulation (3). Comparisons between the two formulations are presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  12. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  13. A Dual Coding View of Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical perspective on acquiring sight vocabulary and developing meaningful vocabulary is presented. Dual Coding Theory assumes that cognition occurs in two independent but connected codes: a verbal code for language and a nonverbal code for mental imagery. The mixed research literature on using pictures in teaching sight vocabulary is…

  14. An analytical demonstration of coupling schemes between magnetohydrodynamic codes and eddy current codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueqiang; Albanese, R.; Rubinacci, G.; Portone, A.; Villone, F.

    2008-01-01

    In order to model a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability that strongly couples to external conducting structures (walls and/or coils) in a fusion device, it is often necessary to combine a MHD code solving for the plasma response, with an eddy current code computing the fields and currents of conductors. We present a rigorous proof of the coupling schemes between these two types of codes. One of the coupling schemes has been introduced and implemented in the CARMA code [R. Albanese, Y. Q. Liu, A. Portone, G. Rubinacci, and F. Villone, IEEE Trans. Magn. 44, 1654 (2008); A. Portone, F. Villone, Y. Q. Liu, R. Albanese, and G. Rubinacci, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 085004 (2008)] that couples the MHD code MARS-F[Y. Q. Liu, A. Bondeson, C. M. Fransson, B. Lennartson, and C. Breitholtz, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] and the eddy current code CARIDDI[R. Albanese and G. Rubinacci, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 102, 1 (1998)]. While the coupling schemes are described for a general toroidal geometry, we give the analytical proof for a cylindrical plasma.

  15. When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2017-06-28

    Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays an important role. Up to now, these two problems have always been considered separately, assuming that data coding and ranking are two independent and irrelevant problems. However, is there any internal relationship between sparse coding and ranking score learning? If yes, how to explore and make use of this internal relationship? In this paper, we try to answer these questions by developing the first joint sparse coding and ranking score learning algorithm. To explore the local distribution in the sparse code space, and also to bridge coding and ranking problems, we assume that in the neighborhood of each data point, the ranking scores can be approximated from the corresponding sparse codes by a local linear function. By considering the local approximation error of ranking scores, the reconstruction error and sparsity of sparse coding, and the query information provided by the user, we construct a unified objective function for learning of sparse codes, the dictionary and ranking scores. We further develop an iterative algorithm to solve this optimization problem.

  16. Current issues in billing and coding in interventional pain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, L

    2000-10-01

    Interventional pain management is a dynamic field with changes occurring on a daily basis, not only with technology but also with regulations that have a substantial financial impact on practices. Regulations are imposed not only by the federal government and other regulatory agencies, and also by a multitude of other payors, state governments and medical boards. Documentation of medical necessity with coding that correlates with multiple components of the patient's medical record, operative report, and billing statement is extremely important. Numerous changes which have occurred in the practice of interventional pain management in the new millennium continue to impact the financial viability of interventional pain practices along with patient access to these services. Thus, while complying with regulations of billing, coding and proper, effective, and ethical practice of pain management, it is also essential for physicians to understand financial aspects and the impact of various practice patterns. This article provides guidelines which are meant to provide practical considerations for billing and coding of interventional techniques in the management of chronic pain based on the current state of the art and science of interventional pain management. Hence, these guidelines do not constitute inflexible treatment, coding, billing or documentation recommendations. It is expected that a provider will establish a plan of care on a case-by-case basis taking into account an individual patient's medical condition, personal needs, and preferences, along with physician's experience and in a similar manner, billing and coding practices will be developed. Based on an individual patient's needs, treatment, billing and coding, different from what is outlined here is not only warranted but essential.

  17. Real-time Color Codes for Assessing Learning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dzelzkalēja, L; Kapenieks, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective assessment is an important way for improving the learning process. There are existing guidelines for assessing the learning process, but they lack holistic digital knowledge society considerations. In this paper the authors propose a method for real-time evaluation of students’ learning process and, consequently, for quality evaluation of teaching materials both in the classroom and in the distance learning environment. The main idea of the proposed Color code method (CCM) is to use...

  18. Blending Classroom Teaching and Learning with QR Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni; Kankaanranta, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case study was to explore the feasibility of the Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The interest was especially to explore how mobile devices and QR codes can enhance and blend teaching and learning. The data were collected with a teacher interview and pupil surveys. The learning…

  19. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-02-01

    A series of six workshops was held to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems include transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems are based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. 13 refs., 1 tab

  20. Evaluating QR Code Case Studies Using a Mobile Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The feasibility was analyzed through a mobile learning framework, which includes the core characteristics of mobile learning. The study is part of a larger research where the aim is to develop a…

  1. A Fast Optimization Method for General Binary Code Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fumin; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-09-22

    Hashing or binary code learning has been recognized to accomplish efficient near neighbor search, and has thus attracted broad interests in recent retrieval, vision and learning studies. One main challenge of learning to hash arises from the involvement of discrete variables in binary code optimization. While the widely-used continuous relaxation may achieve high learning efficiency, the pursued codes are typically less effective due to accumulated quantization error. In this work, we propose a novel binary code optimization method, dubbed Discrete Proximal Linearized Minimization (DPLM), which directly handles the discrete constraints during the learning process. Specifically, the discrete (thus nonsmooth nonconvex) problem is reformulated as minimizing the sum of a smooth loss term with a nonsmooth indicator function. The obtained problem is then efficiently solved by an iterative procedure with each iteration admitting an analytical discrete solution, which is thus shown to converge very fast. In addition, the proposed method supports a large family of empirical loss functions, which is particularly instantiated in this work by both a supervised and an unsupervised hashing losses, together with the bits uncorrelation and balance constraints. In particular, the proposed DPLM with a supervised `2 loss encodes the whole NUS-WIDE database into 64-bit binary codes within 10 seconds on a standard desktop computer. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on several large-scale datasets and the generated binary codes are shown to achieve very promising results on both retrieval and classification tasks.

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: current clinical practice, coding, and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerer, Douglas J E; Kolovos, Nikoleta S; Boyd, Kayla V; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique for providing life support for patients experiencing both pulmonary and cardiac failure by maintaining oxygenation and perfusion until native organ function is restored. ECMO is used routinely at many specialized hospitals for infants and less commonly for children with respiratory or cardiac failure from a variety of causes. Its usage is more controversial in adults, but select medical centers have reported favorable findings in patients with ARDS and other causes of severe pulmonary failure. ECMO is also rarely used as a rescue therapy in a small subset of adult patients with cardiac failure. This article will review the current uses and techniques of ECMO in the critical care setting as well as the evidence supporting its usage. In addition, current practice management related to coding and reimbursement for this intensive therapy will be discussed.

  3. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in NFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, K. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takayasu, M. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Sennann-gun (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic codes currently used in NFI for the LWR fuel development and licensing application including transient and design basis accident analyses of LWR plants. The current status of the codes are described in the context of code capability, modeling feature, and experience of code application related to the fuel development and licensing. Finally, the anticipated use of the future thermal-hydraulic code in NFI is briefly given.

  6. Code-Switching Functions in Modern Hebrew Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Yona

    2016-01-01

    The teaching and learning of Modern Hebrew outside of Israel is essential to Jewish education and identity. One of the most contested issues in Modern Hebrew pedagogy is the use of code-switching between Modern Hebrew and learners' first language. Moreover, this is one of the longest running disputes in the broader field of second language…

  7. On A Nonlinear Generalization of Sparse Coding and Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuchen; Ho, Jeffrey; Vemuri, Baba

    2013-01-01

    Existing dictionary learning algorithms are based on the assumption that the data are vectors in an Euclidean vector space ℝ d , and the dictionary is learned from the training data using the vector space structure of ℝ d and its Euclidean L 2 -metric. However, in many applications, features and data often originated from a Riemannian manifold that does not support a global linear (vector space) structure. Furthermore, the extrinsic viewpoint of existing dictionary learning algorithms becomes inappropriate for modeling and incorporating the intrinsic geometry of the manifold that is potentially important and critical to the application. This paper proposes a novel framework for sparse coding and dictionary learning for data on a Riemannian manifold, and it shows that the existing sparse coding and dictionary learning methods can be considered as special (Euclidean) cases of the more general framework proposed here. We show that both the dictionary and sparse coding can be effectively computed for several important classes of Riemannian manifolds, and we validate the proposed method using two well-known classification problems in computer vision and medical imaging analysis.

  8. Current Status of the LIFE Fast Reactors Fuel Performance Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacout, A.M.; Billone, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The LIFE-4 (Rev. 1) code was calibrated and validated using data from (U,Pu)O2 mixed-oxide fuel pins and UO2 blanket rods which were irradiation tested under steady-state and transient conditions. – It integrates a broad material and fuel-pin irradiation database into a consistent framework for use and extrapolation of the database to reactor design applications. – The code is available and running on different computer platforms (UNIX & PC) – Detailed documentations of the code’s models, routines, calibration and validation data sets are available. LIFE-METAL code is based on LIFE4 with modifications to include key phenomena applicable to metallic fuel, and metallic fuel properties – Calibrated with large database from irradiations in EBR-II – Further effort for calibration and detailed documentation. Recent activities with the codes are related to reactor design studies and support of licensing efforts for 4S and KAERI SFR designs. Future activities are related to re-assessment of the codes calibration and validation and inclusion of models for advanced fuels (transmutation fuels)

  9. Deep Learning Methods for Improved Decoding of Linear Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachmani, Eliya; Marciano, Elad; Lugosch, Loren; Gross, Warren J.; Burshtein, David; Be'ery, Yair

    2018-02-01

    The problem of low complexity, close to optimal, channel decoding of linear codes with short to moderate block length is considered. It is shown that deep learning methods can be used to improve a standard belief propagation decoder, despite the large example space. Similar improvements are obtained for the min-sum algorithm. It is also shown that tying the parameters of the decoders across iterations, so as to form a recurrent neural network architecture, can be implemented with comparable results. The advantage is that significantly less parameters are required. We also introduce a recurrent neural decoder architecture based on the method of successive relaxation. Improvements over standard belief propagation are also observed on sparser Tanner graph representations of the codes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the neural belief propagation decoder can be used to improve the performance, or alternatively reduce the computational complexity, of a close to optimal decoder of short BCH codes.

  10. Learning to Estimate Dynamical State with Probabilistic Population Codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G Makin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracking moving objects, including one's own body, is a fundamental ability of higher organisms, playing a central role in many perceptual and motor tasks. While it is unknown how the brain learns to follow and predict the dynamics of objects, it is known that this process of state estimation can be learned purely from the statistics of noisy observations. When the dynamics are simply linear with additive Gaussian noise, the optimal solution is the well known Kalman filter (KF, the parameters of which can be learned via latent-variable density estimation (the EM algorithm. The brain does not, however, directly manipulate matrices and vectors, but instead appears to represent probability distributions with the firing rates of population of neurons, "probabilistic population codes." We show that a recurrent neural network-a modified form of an exponential family harmonium (EFH-that takes a linear probabilistic population code as input can learn, without supervision, to estimate the state of a linear dynamical system. After observing a series of population responses (spike counts to the position of a moving object, the network learns to represent the velocity of the object and forms nearly optimal predictions about the position at the next time-step. This result builds on our previous work showing that a similar network can learn to perform multisensory integration and coordinate transformations for static stimuli. The receptive fields of the trained network also make qualitative predictions about the developing and learning brain: tuning gradually emerges for higher-order dynamical states not explicitly present in the inputs, appearing as delayed tuning for the lower-order states.

  11. Large-Signal Code TESLA: Current Status and Recent Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chernyavskiy, Igor A; Vlasov, Alexander N; Cooke, Simon J; Abe, David K; Levush, Baruch; Antonsen, Jr., Thomas M; Nguyen, Khanh T

    2008-01-01

    .... One such tool is the large-signal code TESLA, which was successfully applied for the modeling of single-beam and multiple-beam klystron devices at the Naval Research Laboratory and which is now used by number of U.S. companies...

  12. Error Resilience in Current Distributed Video Coding Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonoli Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In distributed video coding the signal prediction is shifted at the decoder side, giving therefore most of the computational complexity burden at the receiver. Moreover, since no prediction loop exists before transmission, an intrinsic robustness to transmission errors has been claimed. This work evaluates and compares the error resilience performance of two distributed video coding architectures. In particular, we have considered a video codec based on the Stanford architecture (DISCOVER codec and a video codec based on the PRISM architecture. Specifically, an accurate temporal and rate/distortion based evaluation of the effects of the transmission errors for both the considered DVC architectures has been performed and discussed. These approaches have been also compared with H.264/AVC, in both cases of no error protection, and simple FEC error protection. Our evaluations have highlighted in all cases a strong dependence of the behavior of the various codecs to the content of the considered video sequence. In particular, PRISM seems to be particularly well suited for low-motion sequences, whereas DISCOVER provides better performance in the other cases.

  13. Software Quality and Security in Teachers' and Students' Codes When Learning a New Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon Hershkovitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, schools (as well as universities have added cyber security to their computer science curricula. This topic is still new for most of the current teachers, who would normally have a standard computer science background. Therefore the teachers are trained and then teaching their students what they have just learned. In order to explore differences in both populations’ learning, we compared measures of software quality and security between high-school teachers and students. We collected 109 source files, written in Python by 18 teachers and 31 students, and engineered 32 features, based on common standards for software quality (PEP 8 and security (derived from CERT Secure Coding Standards. We use a multi-view, data-driven approach, by (a using hierarchical clustering to bottom-up partition the population into groups based on their code-related features and (b building a decision tree model that predicts whether a student or a teacher wrote a given code (resulting with a LOOCV kappa of 0.751. Overall, our findings suggest that the teachers’ codes have a better quality than the students’ – with a sub-group of the teachers, mostly males, demonstrate better coding than their peers and the students – and that the students’ codes are slightly better secured than the teachers’ codes (although both populations show very low security levels. The findings imply that teachers might benefit from their prior knowledge and experience, but also emphasize the lack of continuous involvement of some of the teachers with code-writing. Therefore, findings shed light on computer science teachers as lifelong learners. Findings also highlight the difference between quality and security in today’s programming paradigms. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  14. How Current Android Malware Seeks to Evade Automated Code Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rasthofer , Siegfried; Asrar , Irfan; Huber , Stephan; Bodden , Eric

    2015-01-01

    Part 4: Challenges of Security and Reliability; International audience; First we report on a new threat campaign, underway in Korea, which infected around 20,000 Android users within two months. The campaign attacked mobile users with malicious applications spread via different channels, such as email attachments or SMS spam. A detailed investigation of the Android malware resulted in the identification of a new Android malware family Android/BadAccents. The family represents current state-of...

  15. Using QR Codes to Differentiate Learning for Gifted and Talented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2015-01-01

    QR codes are two-dimensional square patterns that are capable of coding information that ranges from web addresses to links to YouTube video. The codes save time typing and eliminate errors in entering addresses incorrectly. These codes make learning with technology easier for students and motivationally engage them in news ways.

  16. Current and anticipated uses of the CATHARE code at EDF and FRAMATOME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandrille, J.L.; Vacher, J.L.; Poizat, F.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents current industrial applications of the CATHARE code in the fields of Safety Studies and Simulators where the code is intensively used by FRAMATOME, EDF and CEA, the development partners of CATHARE. Future needs in these fields are also recapitulated.

  17. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories

  18. Current and anticipated uses of the CATHARE code at EDF and FRAMATOME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrille, J.L.; Vacher, J.L.; Poizat, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents current industrial applications of the CATHARE code in the fields of Safety Studies and Simulators where the code is intensively used by FRAMATOME, EDF and CEA, the development partners of CATHARE. Future needs in these fields are also recapitulated

  19. A Machine Learning Perspective on Predictive Coding with PAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Byron; de Freitas, Nando

    2011-01-01

    PAQ8 is an open source lossless data compression algorithm that currently achieves the best compression rates on many benchmarks. This report presents a detailed description of PAQ8 from a statistical machine learning perspective. It shows that it is possible to understand some of the modules of PAQ8 and use this understanding to improve the method. However, intuitive statistical explanations of the behavior of other modules remain elusive. We hope the description in this report will be a sta...

  20. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  1. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae. Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ and Maximum likelihood (ML methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40% for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37% for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  2. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-bing; Feng, Jie; Ward, Robert D; Wan, Ping; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Wei-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF) to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish) and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae). Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40%) for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37%) for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  3. A commentary on the current status and the future role of the European accident code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butland, A.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the history of the project to produce the European Accident code (EAC), leading to the planned release of a version of EAC-2 at the end of 1989. The requirements of a computer code to model the initiation phase of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs) are discussed, paying particular attention to the lessons learnt in the CABRI project. The current status and content of the EAC-2 code are examined in relation to these requirements, noting how the sophisticated modelling plans for EAC-2 make it a benchmark code. The validation status of EAC-2 and future plans are discussed, noting that currently it consists solely of stand-alone validation of the modules used in EAC-2, rather than validation of the combined code. The future role of EAC-2 is briefly discussed in relation to the fast reactor plans in the EEC countries. (author)

  4. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  5. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  6. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  7. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  8. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density

  9. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  10. Teaching Qualitative Research: Experiential Learning in Group-Based Interviews and Coding Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLyser, Dydia; Potter, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes experiential-learning approaches to conveying the work and rewards involved in qualitative research. Seminar students interviewed one another, transcribed or took notes on those interviews, shared those materials to create a set of empirical materials for coding, developed coding schemes, and coded the materials using those…

  11. Supporting Situated Learning Based on QR Codes with Etiquetar App: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Miguel Olmedo; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Soldani, Xavier; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Sayago, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    EtiquetAR is an authoring tool for supporting the design and enactment of situated learning experiences based on QR tags. Practitioners use etiquetAR for creating, managing and personalizing collections of QR codes with special properties: (1) codes can have more than one link pointing at different multimedia resources, (2) codes can be updated…

  12. Development of Learning Management in Moral Ethics and Code of Ethics of the Teaching Profession Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsong, S.; Siharak, S.; Srikanok, V.

    2018-02-01

    The purposes of this research were to develop the learning management, which was prepared for the enhancement of students’ Moral Ethics and Code of Ethics in Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi (RMUTT). The contextual study and the ideas for learning management development was conducted by the document study, focus group method and content analysis from the document about moral ethics and code of ethics of the teaching profession concerning Graduate Diploma for Teaching Profession Program. The main tools of this research were the summarize papers and analyse papers. The results of development showed the learning management for the development of moral ethics and code of ethics of the teaching profession for Graduate Diploma for Teaching Profession students could promote desired moral ethics and code of ethics of the teaching profession character by the integrated learning techniques which consisted of Service Learning, Contract System, Value Clarification, Role Playing, and Concept Mapping. The learning management was presented in 3 steps.

  13. Towards Automatic Learning of Heuristics for Mechanical Transformations of Procedural Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Vigueras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trends in next-generation exascale systems go towards integrating a wide range of specialized (co-processors into traditional supercomputers. Due to the efficiency of heterogeneous systems in terms of Watts and FLOPS per surface unit, opening the access of heterogeneous platforms to a wider range of users is an important problem to be tackled. However, heterogeneous platforms limit the portability of the applications and increase development complexity due to the programming skills required. Program transformation can help make programming heterogeneous systems easier by defining a step-wise transformation process that translates a given initial code into a semantically equivalent final code, but adapted to a specific platform. Program transformation systems require the definition of efficient transformation strategies to tackle the combinatorial problem that emerges due to the large set of transformations applicable at each step of the process. In this paper we propose a machine learning-based approach to learn heuristics to define program transformation strategies. Our approach proposes a novel combination of reinforcement learning and classification methods to efficiently tackle the problems inherent to this type of systems. Preliminary results demonstrate the suitability of this approach.

  14. A computational study on altered theta-gamma coupling during learning and phase coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zhang

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the role of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in the brain in the context of learning and memory. Here we have used a neural network model which is capable of producing coupling of theta phase to gamma amplitude firstly to explore its ability to reproduce reported learning changes and secondly to memory-span and phase coding effects. The spiking neural network incorporates two kinetically different GABA(A receptor-mediated currents to generate both theta and gamma rhythms and we have found that by selective alteration of both NMDA receptors and GABA(A,slow receptors it can reproduce learning-related changes in the strength of coupling between theta and gamma either with or without coincident changes in theta amplitude. When the model was used to explore the relationship between theta and gamma oscillations, working memory capacity and phase coding it showed that the potential storage capacity of short term memories, in terms of nested gamma-subcycles, coincides with the maximal theta power. Increasing theta power is also related to the precision of theta phase which functions as a potential timing clock for neuronal firing in the cortex or hippocampus.

  15. Role of Symbolic Coding and Rehearsal Processes in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; Jeffery, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Results were interpreted supporting a social learning view of observational learning that emphasizes contral processing of response information in the acquisition phase and motor reproduction and incentive processes in the overt enactment of what has been learned. (Author)

  16. Noise Residual Learning for Noise Modeling in Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The noise model is one of the inherently difficult challenges in DVC. This paper considers Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes...

  17. Learning design: reflections upon the current landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock Craft

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The mounting wealth of open and readily available information and the accelerated evolution of social, mobile and creative technologies call for a re-conceptualisation of the role of educators: from providers of knowledge to designers of learning. This call is reverberated by the rising trend of research in learning design (LD. Addressing this, the Art and Science of Learning Design workshop brought together leading voices in the field, and provided a forum for discussing its key issues. It focused on three major themes: (1 practices, methods and methodologies, (2 tools and resources and (3 theoretical frameworks. This paper proposes a definition of LD, reviews the main contributions from the workshop, and suggests some challenges for future research.

  18. Two dimensional code for modeling of high ione cyclotron harmonic fast wave heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekov, D.; Kasilov, S.; Kernbichler, W.

    2016-01-01

    A two dimensional numerical code for computation of the electromagnetic field of a fast magnetosonic wave in a tokamak at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency has been developed. The code computes the finite difference solution of Maxwell equations for separate toroidal harmonics making use of the toroidal symmetry of tokamak plasmas. The proper boundary conditions are prescribed at the realistic tokamak vessel. The currents in the RF antenna are specified externally and then used in Ampere law. The main poloidal tokamak magnetic field and the ''kinetic'' part of the dielectric permeability tensor are treated iteratively. The code has been verified against known analytical solutions and first calculations of current drive in the spherical torus are presented.

  19. U.S. Sodium Fast Reactor Codes and Methods: Current Capabilities and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J.; Fanning, T. H.

    2017-06-26

    The United States has extensive experience with the design, construction, and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) over the last six decades. Despite the closure of various facilities, the U.S. continues to dedicate research and development (R&D) efforts to the design of innovative experimental, prototype, and commercial facilities. Accordingly, in support of the rich operating history and ongoing design efforts, the U.S. has been developing and maintaining a series of tools with capabilities that envelope all facets of SFR design and safety analyses. This paper provides an overview of the current U.S. SFR analysis toolset, including codes such as SAS4A/SASSYS-1, MC2-3, SE2-ANL, PERSENT, NUBOW-3D, and LIFE-METAL, as well as the higher-fidelity tools (e.g. PROTEUS) being integrated into the toolset. Current capabilities of the codes are described and key ongoing development efforts are highlighted for some codes.

  20. Grammar Coding in the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekker, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the revised system of grammar coding for verbs in the fourth edition of the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English" (OALD4), comparing it with two other similar dictionaries. It is shown that the OALD4 is found to be more favorable on many criteria than the other comparable dictionaries. (16 references) (VWL)

  1. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space.

  2. Uniform physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents for implementation in general computer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter Meincke

    1996-01-01

    New uniform closed-form expressions for physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents are derived for truncated incremental wedge strips. In contrast to previously reported expressions, the new expressions are well-behaved for all directions of incidence and observation and take a finite...... value for zero strip length. Consequently, the new equivalent edge currents are, to the knowledge of the author, the first that are well-suited for implementation in general computer codes...

  3. Advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  5. The current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the "prokaryotic" and the "botanical" code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Ventura, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Cyanobacterial taxonomy developed in the botanical world because Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta have traditionally been identified as algae. However, they possess a prokaryotic cell structure, and phylogenetically they belong to the Bacteria. This caused nomenclature problems as the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; the "Botanical Code") differ from those of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP; the "Prokaryotic Code"). While the ICN recognises names validly published under the ICNP, Article 45(1) of the ICN has not yet been reciprocated in the ICNP. Different solutions have been proposed to solve the current problems. In 2012 a Special Committee on the harmonisation of the nomenclature of Cyanobacteria was appointed, but its activity has been minimal. Two opposing proposals to regulate cyanobacterial nomenclature were recently submitted, one calling for deletion of the cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is regulated by the ICNP, the second to consistently apply the rules of the ICNP to all cyanobacteria. Following a general overview of the current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the two codes we present five case studies of genera for which nomenclatural aspects have been discussed in recent years: Microcystis, Planktothrix, Halothece, Gloeobacter and Nostoc.

  6. Towards a universal code formatter through machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parr, T. (Terence); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThere are many declarative frameworks that allow us to implement code formatters relatively easily for any specific language, but constructing them is cumbersome. The first problem is that "everybody" wants to format their code differently, leading to either many formatter variants or a

  7. Identifying and acting on potentially inappropriate care? Inadequacy of current hospital coding for this task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P David; Smart, David R

    2017-06-01

    Recent Australian attempts to facilitate disinvestment in healthcare, by identifying instances of 'inappropriate' care from large Government datasets, are subject to significant methodological flaws. Amongst other criticisms has been the fact that the Government datasets utilized for this purpose correlate poorly with datasets collected by relevant professional bodies. Government data derive from official hospital coding, collected retrospectively by clerical personnel, whilst professional body data derive from unit-specific databases, collected contemporaneously with care by clinical personnel. Assessment of accuracy of official hospital coding data for hyperbaric services in a tertiary referral hospital. All official hyperbaric-relevant coding data submitted to the relevant Australian Government agencies by the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia for financial year 2010-2011 were reviewed and compared against actual hyperbaric unit activity as determined by reference to original source documents. Hospital coding data contained one or more errors in diagnoses and/or procedures in 70% of patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen that year. Multiple discrete error types were identified, including (but not limited to): missing patients; missing treatments; 'additional' treatments; 'additional' patients; incorrect procedure codes and incorrect diagnostic codes. Incidental observations of errors in surgical, anaesthetic and intensive care coding within this cohort suggest that the problems are not restricted to the specialty of hyperbaric medicine alone. Publications from other centres indicate that these problems are not unique to this institution or State. Current Government datasets are irretrievably compromised and not fit for purpose. Attempting to inform the healthcare policy debate by reference to these datasets is inappropriate. Urgent clinical engagement with hospital coding departments is warranted.

  8. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  9. Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers’ current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases

  10. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  11. Current Status of the Elevated Temperature Structure Design Codes for VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Bum; Kim, Seok-Hoon; Park, Keun-Bae; Lee, Won-Jae

    2006-01-01

    An elevated temperature structure design and analysis is one of the key issues in the VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) project to achieve an economic production of hydrogen which will be an essential energy source for the near future. Since the operating temperature of a VHTR is above 850 .deg. C, the existing code and standards are insufficient for a high temperature structure design. Thus the issues concerning a material selection and behaviors are being studied for the main structural components of a VHTR in leading countries such as US, France, UK, and Japan. In this study, the current status of the ASME code, French RCC-MR, UK R5, and Japanese code were investigated and the necessary R and D items were discussed

  12. Quick Response (QR) Codes for Audio Support in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Kathleen Murray

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the potential benefits and barriers of using quick response (QR) codes as a means by which to provide audio materials to middle-school students learning Spanish as a foreign language. Eleven teachers of Spanish to middle-school students created transmedia materials containing QR codes linking to audio resources. Students…

  13. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Scope of coverage and current initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the broad scope of coverage of nuclear codes, standards and guides produced and administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Background information is provided regarding the evolution of the present activities. Details are provided on current initiatives intended to permit ASME to meet the needs of a changing nuclear industry on a worldwide scale. During the early years of commercial nuclear power, ASME produced a code for the construction of nuclear vessels used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, containment and auxiliary systems. In response to industry growth, ASME Code coverage soon broadened to include rules for construction of other nuclear components, and inservice inspection of nuclear reactor coolant systems. In the years following this, the scope of ASME nuclear codes, standards and guides has been broadened significantly to include air cleaning activities for nuclear power reactors, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, quality assurance programs, cranes for nuclear facilities, qualification of mechanical equipment, and concrete reactor vessels and containments. ASME focuses on globalization of its codes, standards and guides by encouraging and promoting their use in the international community and by actively seeking participation of international members on its technical and supervisory committees and in accreditation activities. Details are provided on current international representation. Initiatives are underway to separate the technical requirements from administrative and enforcement requirements, to convert to hard metric units, to provide for non-U. S. materials, and to provide for translations into non-English languages. ASME activity as an accredited ISO 9000 registrar for suppliers of mechanical equipment is described. Rules are being developed for construction of containment systems for nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste transport packagings. Intensive

  14. Learning of spatio-temporal codes in a coupled oscillator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Ashwin, Peter; Townley, Stuart

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a learning strategy that allows one to transmit information between two coupled phase oscillator systems (called teaching and learning systems) via frequency adaptation. The dynamics of these systems can be modeled with reference to a number of partially synchronized cluster states and transitions between them. Forcing the teaching system by steady but spatially nonhomogeneous inputs produces cyclic sequences of transitions between the cluster states, that is, information about inputs is encoded via a "winnerless competition" process into spatio-temporal codes. The large variety of codes can be learned by the learning system that adapts its frequencies to those of the teaching system. We visualize the dynamics using "weighted order parameters (WOPs)" that are analogous to "local field potentials" in neural systems. Since spatio-temporal coding is a mechanism that appears in olfactory systems, the developed learning rules may help to extract information from these neural ensembles.

  15. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, F.; Reventos, F. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-07-01

    Spanish activities in the field of Applied Thermal-Hydraulics are steadily increasing as the codes are becoming practicable enough to efficiently sustain engineering decision in the Nuclear Power industry. Before reaching this point, a lot of effort has been devoted to achieve this goal. This paper briefly describes this process, points at the current applications and draws conclusions on the limitations. Finally it establishes the applications where the use of T-H codes would be worth in the future, this in turn implies further development of the codes to widen the scope of application and improve the general performance. Due to the different uses of the codes, the applications mainly come from the authority, industry, universities and research institutions. The main conclusion derived from this paper establishes that further code development is justified if the following requisites are considered: (1) Safety relevance of scenarios not presently covered is established. (2) A substantial gain in margins or the capability to use realistic assumptions is obtained. (3) A general consensus on the licensability and methodology for application is reached. The role of Regulatory Body is stressed, as the most relevant outcome of the project may be related to the evolution of the licensing frame.

  16. Current status of the transient integral fuel element performance code URANUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preusser, T.; Lassmann, K.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the behavior of fuel pins during normal and off-normal operation, the integral fuel rod code URANUS has been extended to include a transient version. The paper describes the current status of the program system including a presentation of newly developed models for hypothetical accident investigation. The main objective of current development work is to improve the modelling of fuel and clad material behavior during fast transients. URANUS allows detailed analysis of experiments until the onset of strong material transport phenomena. Transient fission gas analysis is carried out due to the coupling with a special version of the LANGZEIT-KURZZEIT-code (KfK). Fuel restructuring and grain growth kinetics models have been improved recently to better characterize pre-experimental steady-state operation; transient models are under development. Extensive verification of the new version has been carried out by comparison with analytical solutions, experimental evidence, and code-to-code evaluation studies. URANUS, with all these improvements, has been successfully applied to difficult fast breeder fuel rod analysis including TOP, LOF, TUCOP, local coolant blockage and specific carbide fuel experiments. Objective of further studies is the description of transient PCMI. It is expected that the results of these developments will contribute significantly to the understanding of fuel element structural behavior during severe transients. (orig.)

  17. Developing a Code of Practice for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Ethical and legal objections to learning analytics are barriers to development of the field, thus potentially denying students the benefits of predictive analytics and adaptive learning. Jisc, a charitable organization that champions the use of digital technologies in UK education and research, has attempted to address this with the development of…

  18. The current status and future plans for the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCBEND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Shuttleworth, T.; Grimstone, M.; Hutton, L.; Armishaw, M.; Bird, A.; France, N.; Connolly, S.

    2001-01-01

    MONK and MCBEND are software tools used for criticality/reactor physics and shielding/dosimetry/general radiation transport applications respectively. The codes are developed by a collaboration comprising AEA Technology and BNFL, and AEA Technology's ANSWERS Software Service supplies them to customers throughout the world on a commercial basis. In keeping with this commercial nature it is vital that the codes' development programmes evolve to meet the diverse expectations of the current and potential customer base. This involves striving to maintain an acceptable balance in the development of the various components that comprise a modern software package. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND by indicating how the task of trying to achieve this difficult balance has been addressed in the recent past and is being addressed for the future. (orig.)

  19. Current status of the reactor physics code WIMS and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, B.A.; Hosking, J.G.; Smith, P.J.; Powney, D.J.; Tollit, B.S.; Newton, T.D.; Perry, R.; Ware, T.C.; Smith, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The current status of the WIMS reactor physics code is presented. • Applications range from 2D lattice calculations up to 3D whole core geometries. • Gamma transport and thermal-hydraulic feedback models added. • Calculations methodologies described for several Gen II, III and IV reactor types. - Abstract: The WIMS modular reactor physics code has been under continuous development for over fifty years. This paper discusses the current status of WIMS and recent developments, in particular developments to the resonance shielding methodology and 3D transport solvers. Traditionally, WIMS is used to perform 2D lattice calculations, typically to generate homogenized reactor physics parameters for a whole core code such as PANTHER. However, with increasing computational resources there has been a growing trend for performing transport calculations on larger problems, up to and including 3D full core models. To this end, a number of the WIMS modules have been parallelised to allow efficient performance for whole core calculations, and WIMS includes a 3D method of characteristics solver with reflective and once-through tracking methods, which can be used to analyse problems of varying size and complexity. A time-dependent flux solver has been incorporated and thermal-hydraulic modelling capability is also being added to allow steady-state and transient coupled calculations to be performed. WIMS has been validated against a range of experimental data and other codes, in particular for water and graphite moderated thermal reactors. Future developments will include improved parallelization, enhancing the thermal-hydraulic feedback models and validating the WIMS/PANTHER code system for BWRs and fast reactors.

  20. LIFELONG LEARNING THROUGH SECOND LIFE: CURRENT TRENDS, POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL-CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong Learning (LLL has been a remarkable response to people-centered educational demand of 21st century. In order to provide effective formal, non-formal, and informal learning, immersive educational activities undertaken throughout life should be aimed to create a learning society in which people can experience individual and collective learning with no constrains of time or location. The concept of lifelong learning within the context of distance immersive education encompasses diverse 3D activities. The three dimensional, Web-based structured activities supported by distance learning technologies can be viewed as interactive tools which foster LLL. In this perspective, Second Life (SL can be regarded as one of the learning simulation milieus that allow learners to participate in various educational LLL activities in individual or group forms. The following paper examines how SL, taking advantage of its simulative nature and the possibility for creative interaction among participants, which are also common in games, allows the learners to participate in immersive constructivist learning activities. The article will also touch on the current uses of SL as a tool for LLL, as well as its potentials for further development according to the current trends in adult education. Further, the authors will discuss its limitations and will make suggestions towards a more complete pedagogical use.

  1. Effects of the 2013 Psychiatric Current Procedural Terminology Codes Revision on Psychotherapy in Psychiatric Billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Tami L; Olesiuk, William J; Sherman, Laura J; Ali, Mir M; Mutter, Ryan; Teich, Judith L

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the changes to the psychiatric Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes implemented in 2013 were associated with changes in types of services for which psychiatrists billed. Analyses were conducted using paid private insurance claims from a large commercial database. The participant cohort comprised psychiatrists with at least one psychiatry visit reported in the database in each calendar year studied: 2012 (N of visits=778,445), 2013 (N=748,317), and 2014 (N=754,760). The percentage of visits in which psychiatrists billed for psychotherapy declined from 51.4% in 2012 to 42.1% in 2014. The decline held after the analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, plan type, and region. The update to CPT codes resulted in a decrease in visits for which psychiatrists billed for psychotherapy. Further research should explore whether the change in billing corresponds to changes in service delivery.

  2. Remembering to learn: independent place and journey coding mechanisms contribute to memory transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Amir S; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2012-02-08

    The neural mechanisms that integrate new episodes with established memories are unknown. When rats explore an environment, CA1 cells fire in place fields that indicate locations. In goal-directed spatial memory tasks, some place fields differentiate behavioral histories ("journey-dependent" place fields) while others do not ("journey-independent" place fields). To investigate how these signals inform learning and memory for new and familiar episodes, we recorded CA1 and CA3 activity in rats trained to perform a "standard" spatial memory task in a plus maze and in two new task variants. A "switch" task exchanged the start and goal locations in the same environment; an "altered environment" task contained unfamiliar local and distal cues. In the switch task, performance was mildly impaired, new firing maps were stable, but the proportion and stability of journey-dependent place fields declined. In the altered environment, overall performance was strongly impaired, new firing maps were unstable, and stable proportions of journey-dependent place fields were maintained. In both tasks, memory errors were accompanied by a decline in journey codes. The different dynamics of place and journey coding suggest that they reflect separate mechanisms and contribute to distinct memory computations. Stable place fields may represent familiar relationships among environmental features that are required for consistent memory performance. Journey-dependent activity may correspond with goal-directed behavioral sequences that reflect expectancies that generalize across environments. The complementary signals could help link current events with established memories, so that familiarity with either a behavioral strategy or an environment can inform goal-directed learning.

  3. Machine-Learning Algorithms to Code Public Health Spending Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan S; Leider, Jonathon P; Resnick, Beth A; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David

    Government public health expenditure data sets require time- and labor-intensive manipulation to summarize results that public health policy makers can use. Our objective was to compare the performances of machine-learning algorithms with manual classification of public health expenditures to determine if machines could provide a faster, cheaper alternative to manual classification. We used machine-learning algorithms to replicate the process of manually classifying state public health expenditures, using the standardized public health spending categories from the Foundational Public Health Services model and a large data set from the US Census Bureau. We obtained a data set of 1.9 million individual expenditure items from 2000 to 2013. We collapsed these data into 147 280 summary expenditure records, and we followed a standardized method of manually classifying each expenditure record as public health, maybe public health, or not public health. We then trained 9 machine-learning algorithms to replicate the manual process. We calculated recall, precision, and coverage rates to measure the performance of individual and ensembled algorithms. Compared with manual classification, the machine-learning random forests algorithm produced 84% recall and 91% precision. With algorithm ensembling, we achieved our target criterion of 90% recall by using a consensus ensemble of ≥6 algorithms while still retaining 93% coverage, leaving only 7% of the summary expenditure records unclassified. Machine learning can be a time- and cost-saving tool for estimating public health spending in the United States. It can be used with standardized public health spending categories based on the Foundational Public Health Services model to help parse public health expenditure information from other types of health-related spending, provide data that are more comparable across public health organizations, and evaluate the impact of evidence-based public health resource allocation.

  4. Simulations of vertical disruptions with VDE code: Hiro and Evans currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xujing; Di Hu Team; Leonid Zakharov Team; Galkin Team

    2014-10-01

    The recently created numerical code VDE for simulations of vertical instability in tokamaks is presented. The numerical scheme uses the Tokamak MHD model, where the plasma inertia is replaced by the friction force, and an adaptive grid numerical scheme. The code reproduces well the surface currents generated at the plasma boundary by the instability. Five regimes of the vertical instability are presented: (1) Vertical instability in a given plasma shaping field without a wall; (2) The same with a wall and magnetic flux ΔΨ|plX< ΔΨ|Xwall(where X corresponds to the X-point of a separatrix); (3) The same with a wall and magnetic flux ΔΨ|plX> ΔΨ|Xwall; (4) Vertical instability without a wall with a tile surface at the plasma path; (5) The same in the presence of a wall and a tile surface. The generation of negative Hiro currents along the tile surface, predicted earlier by the theory and measured on EAST in 2012, is well-reproduced by simulations. In addition, the instability generates the force-free Evans currents at the free plasma surface. The new pattern of reconnection of the plasma with the vacuum magnetic field is discovered. This work is supported by US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  5. OBJECT OF THE CONTRACT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE CURRENT CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Antoanetta TOMESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An indispensable element of social relations, primarily the contract governs our existence. Virtually anything in our lives is governed by contracts. Any move we make, school, work performed, marriage, holidays, a house or a new car, will lead to the acceptance of a contract, or are a consequence of their existence. In the light of the codifications set forth in the current Civil Code, which regularly follows the modern proposals for contract rules, the legislator gives us a clear perspective on its essential conditions of validity. Thus, along with the ability to contract and the consent of the parties, as essential conditions of validity of the contract, the cause and object of the contract also arise. The purpose of this study is therefore to reflect upon the meaning of some terms such as "the object of the contract", "the object of the obligation" or "the object of the benefit" in agreement with the regulations contained in the current Civil Code, especially because in practice but sometimes also in legal doctrine, sufficient attention is not given to the legal sense of each of them, the current rule bringing clarifying regulations.

  6. Predictive codes of familiarity and context during the perceptual learning of facial identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A. J.; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-11-01

    Face recognition is a key component of successful social behaviour. However, the computational processes that underpin perceptual learning and recognition as faces transition from unfamiliar to familiar are poorly understood. In predictive coding, learning occurs through prediction errors that update stimulus familiarity, but recognition is a function of both stimulus and contextual familiarity. Here we show that behavioural responses on a two-option face recognition task can be predicted by the level of contextual and facial familiarity in a computational model derived from predictive-coding principles. Using fMRI, we show that activity in the superior temporal sulcus varies with the contextual familiarity in the model, whereas activity in the fusiform face area covaries with the prediction error parameter that updated facial familiarity. Our results characterize the key computations underpinning the perceptual learning of faces, highlighting that the functional properties of face-processing areas conform to the principles of predictive coding.

  7. Abstract feature codes: The building blocks of the implicit learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Katharina; Esser, Sarah; Haider, Hilde

    2017-07-01

    According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions. These dimensions have remained underspecified so far. It is especially not clear whether stimulus and response characteristics are processed in separate modules. Here, we suggest that feature dimensions as they are described in the TEC should be viewed as the basic content of modules of implicit learning. This means that the modules process all stimulus and response information related to certain feature dimensions of the perceptual environment. In 3 experiments, we investigated by means of a serial reaction time task the nature of the basic units of implicit learning. As a test case, we used stimulus location sequence learning. The results show that a stimulus location sequence and a response location sequence cannot be learned without interference (Experiment 2) unless one of the sequences can be coded via an alternative, nonspatial dimension (Experiment 3). These results support the notion that spatial location is one module of the implicit learning system and, consequently, that there are no separate processing units for stimulus versus response locations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Current and anticipated use of thermal-hydraulic codes for BWR transient and accident analyses in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Kenji; Ebata, Shigeo [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    This paper summarizes the current and anticipated use of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes for the BWR transient and accident analyses in Japan. The codes may be categorized into the licensing codes and the best estimate codes for the BWR transient and accident analyses. Most of the licensing codes have been originally developed by General Electric. Some codes have been updated based on the technical knowledge obtained in the thermal hydraulic study in Japan, and according to the BWR design changes. The best estimates codes have been used to support the licensing calculations and to obtain the phenomenological understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena during a BWR transient or accident. The best estimate codes can be also applied to a design study for a next generation BWR to which the current licensing model may not be directly applied. In order to rationalize the margin included in the current BWR design and develop a next generation reactor with appropriate design margin, it will be required to improve the accuracy of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic model. In addition, regarding the current best estimate codes, the improvement in the user interface and the numerics will be needed.

  9. Online Learning Integrity Approaches: Current Practices and Future Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Post, Anita; Hapke, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to help institutions respond to the stipulation of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 by adopting cost-effective academic integrity solutions without compromising the convenience and flexibility of online learning. Current user authentication solutions such as user ID and password, security…

  10. The use of QR Code as a learning technology: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Besana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a pilot study on the potential benefits of QR (Quick Response Codes as a tool for facilitating and enhancing learning processes. An analysis is given of the strengths and added value of QR technologies applied to museum visits, with precautions regarding the design of learning environments like the one presented. Some possible future scenarios are identified for implementing these technologies in contexts more strictly related to teaching and education.

  11. Segmentation of MR images via discriminative dictionary learning and sparse coding: Application to hippocampus labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Tong; Wolz, Robin; Coupe, Pierrick; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We propose a novel method for the automatic segmentation of brain MRI images by using discriminative dictionary learning and sparse coding techniques. In the proposed method, dictionaries and classifiers are learned simultaneously from a set of brain atlases, which can then be used for the reconstruction and segmentation of an unseen target image. The proposed segmentation strategy is based on image reconstruction, which is in contrast to most existing atlas-based labe...

  12. International pressure vessels and piping codes and standards. Volume 2: Current perspectives; PVP-Volume 313-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.; Asada, Yasuhide; Adams, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The topics in this volume include: (1) Recent or imminent changes to Section 3 design sections; (2) Select perspectives of ASME Codes -- Section 3; (3) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- an international outlook; (4) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- ASME Code Sections 3, 8 and 11; (5) Codes and Standards Perspectives for Analysis; (6) Selected design perspectives on flow-accelerated corrosion and pressure vessel design and qualification; (7) Select Codes and Standards perspectives for design and operability; (8) Codes and Standards perspectives for operability; (9) What's new in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code?; (10) A look at ongoing activities of ASME Sections 2 and 3; (11) A look at current activities of ASME Section 11; (12) A look at current activities of ASME Codes and Standards; (13) Simplified design methodology and design allowable stresses -- 1 and 2; (14) Introduction to Power Boilers, Section 1 of the ASME Code -- Part 1 and 2. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers

  13. Supervised Learning Based on Temporal Coding in Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Hesham

    2017-08-01

    Gradient descent training techniques are remarkably successful in training analog-valued artificial neural networks (ANNs). Such training techniques, however, do not transfer easily to spiking networks due to the spike generation hard nonlinearity and the discrete nature of spike communication. We show that in a feedforward spiking network that uses a temporal coding scheme where information is encoded in spike times instead of spike rates, the network input-output relation is differentiable almost everywhere. Moreover, this relation is piecewise linear after a transformation of variables. Methods for training ANNs thus carry directly to the training of such spiking networks as we show when training on the permutation invariant MNIST task. In contrast to rate-based spiking networks that are often used to approximate the behavior of ANNs, the networks we present spike much more sparsely and their behavior cannot be directly approximated by conventional ANNs. Our results highlight a new approach for controlling the behavior of spiking networks with realistic temporal dynamics, opening up the potential for using these networks to process spike patterns with complex temporal information.

  14. The assertive communication: a current need of the learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Amayuela Mora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental purpose of this article is to characterize the assertiveness as a component of the communicative competence. The study of the communicative process is a current need, since from the quality of the communication depends to a great extent the student’s formation. The learning process in the university context requires an assertive communicative process. In this paper the assertiveness is defined as a communicative skill and is valued the importance of an assertive behavior through its positive impact in the learning process.

  15. Modeling cross-field drifts and current with the B2 code for the CIT divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Milovich, J.L.; Rensink, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We have modified the B2 edge-plasma code to include the effects of classical fluid drifts across the magnetic field lines and plasma currents. This report presents preliminary results of these effects for the CIT parameter regime. The basic plasma model described by Braams involves solving the continuity equation, the parallel momentum balance equation, and separate energy balance equations for the ions and the electrons. If multiple ion species are present, they are all assumed to have a common temperature, but their densities and parallel velocities are solved for using additional continuity and parallel momentum balance equations for each species. Momentum and heat transport parallel to the magnetic field, B, are given by the classical collisional theory. On the other hand, transport perpendicular to B is represented by anomalous diffusion coefficients which are adjusted to agree with experimental measurements. These transport coefficients are generally taken to be constant in radius and poloidal angle, although this is not necessary. The goal of our work has been to include both the classical cross-field drift terms and the effects of parallel currents in the equations used in the B2 code. The motivation for including the cross-field terms comes from simple model calculations which indicate that the classical flows can contribute an important asymmetry which may help explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. Radial electric fields which arise near the separatrix cause E x B poloidal rotation which may also be related to the L-to-H mode transition through its effect on edge turbulence. Including the parallel currents is done to provide a tool for understanding the biased divertor experiments on DIII-D at General Atomics. Such biasing may provide an effective means of controlling the asymmetry of the power flow to different divertor plates

  16. Reframing the Principle of Specialisation in Legitimation Code Theory: A Blended Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw; Larbi-Siaw, Otu

    2017-01-01

    This study argues that in developing a robust framework for students in a blended learning environment, Structural Alignment (SA) becomes the third principle of specialisation in addition to Epistemic Relation (ER) and Social Relation (SR). We provide an extended code: (ER+/-, SR+/-, SA+/-) that present strong classification and framing to the…

  17. The Effects of Single and Dual Coded Multimedia Instructional Methods on Chinese Character Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Learning Chinese characters is a difficult task for adult English native speakers due to the significant differences between the Chinese and English writing system. The visuospatial properties of Chinese characters have inspired the development of instructional methods using both verbal and visual information based on the Dual Coding Theory. This…

  18. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  19. Teacher Candidates Implementing Universal Design for Learning: Enhancing Picture Books with QR Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Marya; Pontrello, Camille

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if teacher candidates could gain knowledge of the principles of Universal Design for Learning by enhancing traditional picture books with Quick Response (QR) codes and to determine if the process of making these enhancements would impact teacher candidates' comfort levels with using technology on both…

  20. Code to Learn: Where Does It Belong in the K-12 Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-León, Jesús; Robles, Gregorio; Román-González, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of computer programming in K-12 has become mainstream in the last years, as countries around the world are making coding part of their curriculum. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical studies that investigate how learning to program at an early age affects other school subjects. In this regard, this paper compares three…

  1. Using supervised machine learning to code policy issues: Can classifiers generalize across contexts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles

  2. Machine-learning-assisted correction of correlated qubit errors in a topological code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baireuther

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault-tolerant quantum computation requires an efficient means to detect and correct errors that accumulate in encoded quantum information. In the context of machine learning, neural networks are a promising new approach to quantum error correction. Here we show that a recurrent neural network can be trained, using only experimentally accessible data, to detect errors in a widely used topological code, the surface code, with a performance above that of the established minimum-weight perfect matching (or blossom decoder. The performance gain is achieved because the neural network decoder can detect correlations between bit-flip (X and phase-flip (Z errors. The machine learning algorithm adapts to the physical system, hence no noise model is needed. The long short-term memory layers of the recurrent neural network maintain their performance over a large number of quantum error correction cycles, making it a practical decoder for forthcoming experimental realizations of the surface code.

  3. Spallation neutron production and the current intra-nuclear cascade and transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.

    2001-01-01

    A recent renascent interest in energetic proton-induced production of neutrons originates largely from the inception of projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources, like the planned European Spallation Source (ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, and also from the application for radioactive beams. In the framework of such a neutron production, of major importance is the search for ways for the most efficient conversion of the primary beam energy into neutron production. Although the issue has been quite successfully addressed experimentally by varying the incident proton energy for various target materials and by covering a huge collection of different target geometries --providing an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data-- the ultimate challenge is to increase the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market. To scrutinize these codes, calculations of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, average neutron multiplicities, neutron multiplicity and energy distributions, and the development of hadronic showers are confronted with recent experimental data of the NESSI collaboration. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target generally within less than 10% deviation, while production cross-section measurements for light charged particles on thin targets point out that appreciable distinctions exist within these models. (orig.)

  4. Spallation neutron production and the current intra-nuclear cascade and transport codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Enke, M.; Galin, J.; Herbach, C.-M.; Hilscher, D.; Jahnke, U.; Letourneau, A.; Lott, B.; Neef, R.-D.; Nünighoff, K.; Paul, N.; Péghaire, A.; Pienkowski, L.; Schaal, H.; Schröder, U.; Sterzenbach, G.; Tietze, A.; Tishchenko, V.; Toke, J.; Wohlmuther, M.

    A recent renascent interest in energetic proton-induced production of neutrons originates largely from the inception of projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources, like the planned European Spallation Source (ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, and also from the application for radioactive beams. In the framework of such a neutron production, of major importance is the search for ways for the most efficient conversion of the primary beam energy into neutron production. Although the issue has been quite successfully addressed experimentally by varying the incident proton energy for various target materials and by covering a huge collection of different target geometries --providing an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data-- the ultimate challenge is to increase the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market. To scrutinize these codes, calculations of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, average neutron multiplicities, neutron multiplicity and energy distributions, and the development of hadronic showers are confronted with recent experimental data of the NESSI collaboration. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target generally within less than 10% deviation, while production cross-section measurements for light charged particles on thin targets point out that appreciable distinctions exist within these models.

  5. Current status and applications of intergrated safety assessment and simulation code system for ISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J. M.; Hortal, J.; Perea, M. Sanchez; Melendez, E. [Modeling and Simulation Area (MOSI), Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), Madrid (Spain); Queral, E.; Rivas-Lewicky, J. [Energy and Fuels Department, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    This paper reviews current status of the unified approach known as integrated safety assessment (ISA), as well as the associated SCAIS (simulation codes system for ISA) computer platform. These constitute a proposal, which is the result of collaborative action among the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), University of Madrid (UPM), and NFQ Solutions S.L, aiming to allow independent regulatory verification of industry quantitative risk assessments. The content elaborates on discussions of the classical treatment of time in conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) sequences and states important conclusions that can be used to avoid systematic and unacceptable underestimation of the failure exceedance frequencies. The unified ISA method meets this challenge by coupling deterministic and probabilistic mutual influences. The feasibility of the approach is illustrated with some examples of its application to a real size plant.

  6. Temperature and current dependent electroluminescence measurements on colour-coded multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbauer, Werner [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); FH Deggendorf (Germany); Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Benstetter, Guenther [FH Deggendorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift.

  7. Temperature and current dependent electroluminescence measurements on colour-coded multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergbauer, Werner; Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold; Benstetter, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift

  8. Stitching Codeable Circuits: High School Students' Learning About Circuitry and Coding with Electronic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litts, Breanne K.; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lui, Debora A.; Walker, Justice T.; Widman, Sari A.

    2017-10-01

    Learning about circuitry by connecting a battery, light bulb, and wires is a common activity in many science classrooms. In this paper, we expand students' learning about circuitry with electronic textiles, which use conductive thread instead of wires and sewable LEDs instead of lightbulbs, by integrating programming sensor inputs and light outputs and examining how the two domains interact. We implemented an electronic textiles unit with 23 high school students ages 16-17 years who learned how to craft and code circuits with the LilyPad Arduino, an electronic textile construction kit. Our analyses not only confirm significant increases in students' understanding of functional circuits but also showcase students' ability in designing and remixing program code for controlling circuits. In our discussion, we address opportunities and challenges of introducing codeable circuit design for integrating maker activities that include engineering and computing into classrooms.

  9. Side Information and Noise Learning for Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow and Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The coding efficiency of DVC critically depends on the quality of side information generation and accuracy of noise modeling. This paper considers...... Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes using optical flow to improve side information generation and clustering to improve noise modeling. The optical flow technique is exploited at the decoder side to compensate weaknesses of block based methods, when using motion-compensation to generate...... side information frames. Clustering is introduced to capture cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in the noise modeling. This paper also proposes techniques to learn from previously decoded (WZ) frames. Different techniques are combined by calculating a number of candidate soft side...

  10. Summary of papers on current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, R.

    1997-07-01

    The author reviews a range of recent papers which discuss possible uses and future development needs for thermal/hydraulic codes in the nuclear industry. From this review, eight common recommendations are extracted. They are: improve the user interface so that more people can use the code, so that models are easier and less expensive to prepare and maintain, and so that the results are scrutable; design the code so that it can easily be coupled to other codes, such as core physics, containment, fission product behaviour during severe accidents; improve the numerical methods to make the code more robust and especially faster running, particularly for low pressure transients; ensure that future code development includes assessment of code uncertainties as integral part of code verification and validation; provide extensive user guidelines or structure the code so that the `user effect` is minimized; include the capability to model multiple fluids (gas and liquid phase); design the code in a modular fashion so that new models can be added easily; provide the ability to include detailed or simplified component models; build on work previously done with other codes (RETRAN, RELAP, TRAC, CATHARE) and other code validation efforts (CSAU, CSNI SET and IET matrices).

  11. Summary of papers on current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, R.

    1997-01-01

    The author reviews a range of recent papers which discuss possible uses and future development needs for thermal/hydraulic codes in the nuclear industry. From this review, eight common recommendations are extracted. They are: improve the user interface so that more people can use the code, so that models are easier and less expensive to prepare and maintain, and so that the results are scrutable; design the code so that it can easily be coupled to other codes, such as core physics, containment, fission product behaviour during severe accidents; improve the numerical methods to make the code more robust and especially faster running, particularly for low pressure transients; ensure that future code development includes assessment of code uncertainties as integral part of code verification and validation; provide extensive user guidelines or structure the code so that the 'user effect' is minimized; include the capability to model multiple fluids (gas and liquid phase); design the code in a modular fashion so that new models can be added easily; provide the ability to include detailed or simplified component models; build on work previously done with other codes (RETRAN, RELAP, TRAC, CATHARE) and other code validation efforts (CSAU, CSNI SET and IET matrices)

  12. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Imitation Learning Based on an Intrinsic Motivation Mechanism for Efficient Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eTriesch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis regarding the development of imitation learning is presented that is rooted in intrinsic motivations. It is derived from a recently proposed form of intrinsically motivated learning (IML for efficient coding in active perception, wherein an agent learns to perform actions with its sense organs to facilitate efficient encoding of the sensory data. To this end, actions of the sense organs that improve the encoding of the sensory data trigger an internally generated reinforcement signal. Here it is argued that the same IML mechanism might also support the development of imitation when general actions beyond those of the sense organs are considered: The learner first observes a tutor performing a behavior and learns a model of the the behavior's sensory consequences. The learner then acts itself and receives an internally generated reinforcement signal reflecting how well the sensory consequences of its own behavior are encoded by the sensory model. Actions that are more similar to those of the tutor will lead to sensory signals that are easier to encode and produce a higher reinforcement signal. Through this, the learner's behavior is progressively tuned to make the sensory consequences of its actions match the learned sensory model. I discuss this mechanism in the context of human language acquisition and bird song learning where similar ideas have been proposed. The suggested mechanism also offers an account for the development of mirror neurons and makes a number of predictions. Overall, it establishes a connection between principles of efficient coding, intrinsic motivations and imitation.

  14. Non-coding RNAs and plant male sterility: current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankita; Bohra, Abhishek

    2018-02-01

    Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident. Recent breakthroughs in rice definitively associate ncRNAs with PGMS and TGMS. In case of CMS, the exact mechanism through which the mitochondrial ORFs exert influence on the development of male gametophyte remains obscure in several crops. High-throughput sequencing has enabled genome-wide discovery and validation of these regulatory molecules and their target genes, describing their potential roles performed in relation to CMS. Discovery of ncRNA localized in plant mtDNA with its possible implication in CMS induction is intriguing in this respect. Still, conclusive evidences linking ncRNA with CMS phenotypes are currently unavailable, demanding complementing genetic approaches like transgenics to substantiate the preliminary findings. Here, we review the recent literature on the contribution of ncRNAs in conferring male sterility to plants, with an emphasis on microRNAs. Also, we present a perspective on improved understanding about ncRNA-mediated regulatory pathways that control male sterility in plants. A refined understanding of plant male sterility would strengthen crop hybrid industry to deliver hybrids with improved performance.

  15. Enhanced motor learning with bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation: Impact of polarity or current flow direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naros, Georgios; Geyer, Marc; Koch, Susanne; Mayr, Lena; Ellinger, Tabea; Grimm, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) is superior to unilateral TDCS when targeting motor learning. This effect could be related to either the current flow direction or additive polarity-specific effects on each hemisphere. This sham-controlled randomized study included fifty right-handed healthy subjects in a parallel-group design who performed an exoskeleton-based motor task of the proximal left arm on three consecutive days. Prior to training, we applied either sham, right anodal (a-TDCS), left cathodal (c-TDCS), concurrent a-TDCS and c-TDCS with two independent current sources and return electrodes (double source (ds)-TDCS) or classical bilateral stimulation (bi-TDCS). Motor performance improved over time for both unilateral (a-TDCS, c-TDCS) and bilateral (bi-TDCS, ds-TDCS) TDCS montages. However, only the two bilateral paradigms led to an improvement of the final motor performance at the end of the training period as compared to the sham condition. There was no difference between the two bilateral stimulation conditions (bi-TDCS, ds-TDCS). Bilateral TDCS is more effective than unilateral stimulation due to its polarity-specific effects on each hemisphere rather than due to its current flow direction. This study is the first systematic evaluation of stimulation polarity and current flow direction of bi-hemispheric motor cortex TDCS on motor learning of proximal upper limb muscles. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy comparison among different machine learning techniques for detecting malicious codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a machine learning based model for malware detection is proposed. It can detect newly released malware i.e. zero day attack by analyzing operation codes on Android operating system. The accuracy of Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network for detecting malicious code has been compared for the proposed model. In the experiment 400 benign files, 100 system files and 500 malicious files have been used to construct the model. The model yields the best accuracy 88.9% when neural network is used as classifier and achieved 95% and 82.8% accuracy for sensitivity and specificity respectively.

  17. Current and anticipated uses of thermalhydraulic and neutronic codes at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksan, S.N.; Zimmermann, M.A.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-07-01

    The thermalhydraulic and/or neutronic codes in use at PSI mainly provide the capability to perform deterministic safety analysis for Swiss NPPs and also serve as analysis tools for experimental facilities for LWR and ALWR simulations. In relation to these applications, physical model development and improvements, and assessment of the codes are also essential components of the activities. In this paper, a brief overview is provided on the thermalhydraulic and/or neutronic codes used for safety analysis of LWRs, at PSI, and also of some experiences and applications with these codes. Based on these experiences, additional assessment needs are indicated, together with some model improvement needs. The future needs that could be used to specify both the development of a new code and also improvement of available codes are summarized.

  18. Current and anticipated uses of thermalhydraulic and neutronic codes at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, S.N.; Zimmermann, M.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1997-01-01

    The thermalhydraulic and/or neutronic codes in use at PSI mainly provide the capability to perform deterministic safety analysis for Swiss NPPs and also serve as analysis tools for experimental facilities for LWR and ALWR simulations. In relation to these applications, physical model development and improvements, and assessment of the codes are also essential components of the activities. In this paper, a brief overview is provided on the thermalhydraulic and/or neutronic codes used for safety analysis of LWRs, at PSI, and also of some experiences and applications with these codes. Based on these experiences, additional assessment needs are indicated, together with some model improvement needs. The future needs that could be used to specify both the development of a new code and also improvement of available codes are summarized

  19. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.

  20. DeepNet: An Ultrafast Neural Learning Code for Seismic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhen, J.; Protopopescu, V.; Reister, D.

    1999-01-01

    A feed-forward multilayer neural net is trained to learn the correspondence between seismic data and well logs. The introduction of a virtual input layer, connected to the nominal input layer through a special nonlinear transfer function, enables ultrafast (single iteration), near-optimal training of the net using numerical algebraic techniques. A unique computer code, named DeepNet, has been developed, that has achieved, in actual field demonstrations, results unattainable to date with industry standard tools

  1. Joint Machine Learning and Game Theory for Rate Control in High Efficiency Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Kwong, Sam; Jia, Yuheng

    2017-08-25

    In this paper, a joint machine learning and game theory modeling (MLGT) framework is proposed for inter frame coding tree unit (CTU) level bit allocation and rate control (RC) optimization in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). First, a support vector machine (SVM) based multi-classification scheme is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of CTU-level Rate-Distortion (R-D) model. The legacy "chicken-and-egg" dilemma in video coding is proposed to be overcome by the learning-based R-D model. Second, a mixed R-D model based cooperative bargaining game theory is proposed for bit allocation optimization, where the convexity of the mixed R-D model based utility function is proved, and Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is achieved by the proposed iterative solution search method. The minimum utility is adjusted by the reference coding distortion and frame-level Quantization parameter (QP) change. Lastly, intra frame QP and inter frame adaptive bit ratios are adjusted to make inter frames have more bit resources to maintain smooth quality and bit consumption in the bargaining game optimization. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MLGT based RC method can achieve much better R-D performances, quality smoothness, bit rate accuracy, buffer control results and subjective visual quality than the other state-of-the-art one-pass RC methods, and the achieved R-D performances are very close to the performance limits from the FixedQP method.

  2. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A code for 2D space-charge dominated beam dynamics study in beam trans- port lines is developed. The code is used for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of z-uniform beam in a channel containing solenoids and drift space. It can also simulate a transport line where quadrupoles are used for focusing the beam.

  3. Current and anticipated uses of the thermal hydraulics codes at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, R.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of Thermal-Hydraulic computer code usage in nuclear regulatory organizations has undergone a considerable shift since the codes were originally conceived. Less work is being done in the area of Design Basis Accidents, , and much more emphasis is being placed on analysis of operational events, probabalistic risk/safety assessment, and maintenance practices. All of these areas need support from Thermal-Hydraulic computer codes to model the behavior of plant fluid systems, and they all need the ability to perform large numbers of analyses quickly. It is therefore important for the T/H codes of the future to be able to support these needs, by providing robust, easy-to-use, tools that produce easy-to understand results for a wider community of nuclear professionals. These tools need to take advantage of the great advances that have occurred recently in computer software, by providing users with graphical user interfaces for both input and output. In addition, reduced costs of computer memory and other hardware have removed the need for excessively complex data structures and numerical schemes, which make the codes more difficult and expensive to modify, maintain, and debug, and which increase problem run-times. Future versions of the T/H codes should also be structured in a modular fashion, to allow for the easy incorporation of new correlations, models, or features, and to simplify maintenance and testing. Finally, it is important that future T/H code developers work closely with the code user community, to ensure that the code meet the needs of those users

  4. Current and anticipated uses of the thermal hydraulics codes at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, R.

    1997-07-01

    The focus of Thermal-Hydraulic computer code usage in nuclear regulatory organizations has undergone a considerable shift since the codes were originally conceived. Less work is being done in the area of {open_quotes}Design Basis Accidents,{close_quotes}, and much more emphasis is being placed on analysis of operational events, probabalistic risk/safety assessment, and maintenance practices. All of these areas need support from Thermal-Hydraulic computer codes to model the behavior of plant fluid systems, and they all need the ability to perform large numbers of analyses quickly. It is therefore important for the T/H codes of the future to be able to support these needs, by providing robust, easy-to-use, tools that produce easy-to understand results for a wider community of nuclear professionals. These tools need to take advantage of the great advances that have occurred recently in computer software, by providing users with graphical user interfaces for both input and output. In addition, reduced costs of computer memory and other hardware have removed the need for excessively complex data structures and numerical schemes, which make the codes more difficult and expensive to modify, maintain, and debug, and which increase problem run-times. Future versions of the T/H codes should also be structured in a modular fashion, to allow for the easy incorporation of new correlations, models, or features, and to simplify maintenance and testing. Finally, it is important that future T/H code developers work closely with the code user community, to ensure that the code meet the needs of those users.

  5. Combined convective and diffusive modeling of the ring current and radiation belt electron dynamics using the VERB-4D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ring current and radiation belts are key elements in the global dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. Comprehensive mathematical models are useful tools that allow us to understand the multiscale dynamics of these charged particle populations. In this work, we present results of simulations of combined ring current - radiation belt electron dynamics using the four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB-4D) code. The VERB-4D code solves the modified Fokker-Planck equation including convective terms and models simultaneously ring current (1 - 100 keV) and radiation belt (100 keV - several MeV) electron dynamics. We apply the code to the number of geomagnetic storms that occurred in the past, compare the results with different satellite observations, and show how low-energy particles can affect the high-energy populations. Particularly, we use data from Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) mission that provides a very good MLT coverage with 1.5-hour time resolution. The POES data allow us to validate the approach of the VERB-4D code for modeling MLT-dependent processes such as electron drift, wave-particle interactions, and magnetopause shadowing. We also show how different simulation parameters and empirical models can affect the results, making a particular emphasis on the electric and magnetic field models. This work will help us reveal advantages and disadvantages of the approach behind the code and determine its prediction efficiency.

  6. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschendorff, V.; Sommer, F.; Depisch, F.

    1997-07-01

    In Germany, one third of the electrical power is generated by nuclear plants. ATHLET and S-RELAP5 are successfully applied for safety analyses of the existing PWR and BWR reactors and possible future reactors, e.g. EPR. Continuous development and assessment of thermal-hydraulic codes are necessary in order to meet present and future needs of licensing organizations, utilities, and vendors. Desired improvements include thermal-hydraulic models, multi-dimensional simulation, computational speed, interfaces to coupled codes, and code architecture. Real-time capability will be essential for application in full-scope simulators. Comprehensive code validation and quantification of uncertainties are prerequisites for future best-estimate analyses.

  7. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschendorff, V.; Sommer, F.; Depisch, F.

    1997-01-01

    In Germany, one third of the electrical power is generated by nuclear plants. ATHLET and S-RELAP5 are successfully applied for safety analyses of the existing PWR and BWR reactors and possible future reactors, e.g. EPR. Continuous development and assessment of thermal-hydraulic codes are necessary in order to meet present and future needs of licensing organizations, utilities, and vendors. Desired improvements include thermal-hydraulic models, multi-dimensional simulation, computational speed, interfaces to coupled codes, and code architecture. Real-time capability will be essential for application in full-scope simulators. Comprehensive code validation and quantification of uncertainties are prerequisites for future best-estimate analyses

  8. Code-switching as a communication, learning, and social negotiation stategy in first-year learners of Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfast, Juni Søderberg; Jørgensen, Jens Normann

    2003-01-01

    The term code-switching is used in two related, yet different fields of linguistics: Second Language Acquisition and bilinguals studies. In the former code-switching is analyzed in terms of learning strategies, whereas the latter applies the competence view.The present paper intends to detect the...

  9. Learning-Based Just-Noticeable-Quantization- Distortion Modeling for Perceptual Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Sehwan; Bae, Sung-Ho; Kim, Munchurl; Ko, Hyunsuk

    2018-07-01

    Conventional predictive video coding-based approaches are reaching the limit of their potential coding efficiency improvements, because of severely increasing computation complexity. As an alternative approach, perceptual video coding (PVC) has attempted to achieve high coding efficiency by eliminating perceptual redundancy, using just-noticeable-distortion (JND) directed PVC. The previous JNDs were modeled by adding white Gaussian noise or specific signal patterns into the original images, which were not appropriate in finding JND thresholds due to distortion with energy reduction. In this paper, we present a novel discrete cosine transform-based energy-reduced JND model, called ERJND, that is more suitable for JND-based PVC schemes. Then, the proposed ERJND model is extended to two learning-based just-noticeable-quantization-distortion (JNQD) models as preprocessing that can be applied for perceptual video coding. The two JNQD models can automatically adjust JND levels based on given quantization step sizes. One of the two JNQD models, called LR-JNQD, is based on linear regression and determines the model parameter for JNQD based on extracted handcraft features. The other JNQD model is based on a convolution neural network (CNN), called CNN-JNQD. To our best knowledge, our paper is the first approach to automatically adjust JND levels according to quantization step sizes for preprocessing the input to video encoders. In experiments, both the LR-JNQD and CNN-JNQD models were applied to high efficiency video coding (HEVC) and yielded maximum (average) bitrate reductions of 38.51% (10.38%) and 67.88% (24.91%), respectively, with little subjective video quality degradation, compared with the input without preprocessing applied.

  10. The Current Perspectives, Theories and Practices of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Metcalf, David

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is a highly popular multidisciplinary study field around the world. It has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers in different disciplines who have realized the potential to apply mobile technologies to enhance learning. Thus, mobile learning has been defined differently by different people. This study is…

  11. [Learning virtual routes: what does verbal coding do in working memory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyselinck, Valérie; Grison, Élise; Gras, Doriane

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were run to complete our understanding of the role of verbal and visuospatial encoding in the construction of a spatial model from visual input. In experiment 1 a dual task paradigm was applied to young adults who learned a route in a virtual environment and then performed a series of nonverbal tasks to assess spatial knowledge. Results indicated that landmark knowledge as asserted by the visual recognition of landmarks was not impaired by any of the concurrent task. Route knowledge, assessed by recognition of directions, was impaired both by a tapping task and a concurrent articulation task. Interestingly, the pattern was modulated when no landmarks were available to perform the direction task. A second experiment was designed to explore the role of verbal coding on the construction of landmark and route knowledge. A lexical-decision task was used as a verbal-semantic dual task, and a tone decision task as a nonsemantic auditory task. Results show that these new concurrent tasks impaired differently landmark knowledge and route knowledge. Results can be interpreted as showing that the coding of route knowledge could be grounded on both a coding of the sequence of events and on a semantic coding of information. These findings also point on some limits of Baddeley's working memory model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [Birth and succession of a current of learning in Korean medicine: the supporting yang current of learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun

    2014-04-01

    In this study, I aim to reveal how Lee Gyoojoons medicine has given birth to a current of learning, the supporting yang current of learning, and describe its historical significance. Before anything, I'd like to throw the question of whether if there were any currents within the traditional Korean medicine. There are no records of medical currents being widely discussed until now in medical history of Korea; however, the current of Lee Jema's sasang medicine is the most noticeable one. Among the contemporaries of Lee Jema, during the late Chosun, there was also another famed medical practitioner called Lee Gyoojoon. Lee Gyoojoon mainly practiced his medicine within Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do area, his apprentices have formed a group and have succeeded his medical practice. Based on the analyses of Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices and the Somun Oriental Medical Society, which is known as a successor group to Lee Gyoojoon's medicine today, they are fully satisfying the five requirements to establish a medical current: first, they held Lee Gyoojoon as the first and foremost, representative practitioner of their current; second, they advocate the supporting yang theory suggested by Lee Gyoojoon, which is originated from his theory of Mind; third, books such as the Major Essentials of Huangdi's Internal Classic Plain Questions, and the Double Grinded Medical Mirror, were being used as the main textbooks to educate their students or to practice medicine. Fourth, Lee Gyoojoon's medical ideas were being transcended quite clearly within his group of apprentices, including Seo Byungoh, Lee Wonse, and the Somun Oriental Medical Society. Fifth, Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices were first produced through the Sukgok School, however, nowadays they are being produced through medical groups formed by Lee Wonse, the Somun Oriental Medical Society, regarding the propagation of medical theories, compilation of textbooks, publication of academic journals, etc. Then, what do the existence of the

  13. Code to Learn: Where Does It Belong in the K-12 Curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Moreno León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of computer programming in K-12 has become mainstream in the last years, as countries around the world are making coding part of their curriculum. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical studies that investigate how learning to program at an early age affects other school subjects. In this regard, this paper compares three quasi-experimental research designs conducted in three different schools (n=129 students from 2nd and 6th grade, in order to assess the impact of introducing programming with Scratch at different stages and in several subjects. While both 6th grade experimental groups working with coding activities showed a statistically significant improvement in terms of academic performance, this was not the case in the 2nd grade classroom. Notable disparity was also found regarding the subject in which the programming activities were included, as in social studies the effect size was double that in mathematics.

  14. Code to Learn: Where Does It Belong in the K-12 Curriculum?

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Moreno León; Gregorio Robles; Marcos Román-González

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of computer programming in K-12 has become mainstream in the last years, as countries around the world are making coding part of their curriculum. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical studies that investigate how learning to program at an early age affects other school subjects. In this regard, this paper compares three quasi-experimental research designs conducted in three different schools (n=129 students from 2nd and 6th grade), in order to assess the impact of intro...

  15. Learning about Probability from Text and Tables: Do Color Coding and Labeling through an Interactive-User Interface Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Learning from visual representations is enhanced when learners appropriately integrate corresponding visual and verbal information. This study examined the effects of two methods of promoting integration, color coding and labeling, on learning about probabilistic reasoning from a table and text. Undergraduate students (N = 98) were randomly…

  16. QR Codes as Mobile Learning Tools for Labor Room Nurses at the San Pablo Colleges Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of QR codes as mobile learning tools and examine factors that impact on their usefulness, acceptability and feasibility in assisting the nurses' learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Study participants consisted of 14 regular, full-time, board-certified LR nurses. Over a two-week period,…

  17. Overview of current RFSP-code capabilities for CANDU core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouben, B.

    1996-01-01

    RFSP (Reactor Fuelling Simulation Program) is the major finite-reactor computer code in use at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the design and analysis of CANDU reactor cores. An overview is given of the major computational capabilities available in RFSP. (author) 11 refs., 29 figs

  18. Neutrons and gamma transport in atmosphere by Tripoli-2 code. Energy deposit and electron current time function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, T.; Nimal, J.C.; Ulpat, J.P.; Faucheux, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Tripoli-2 computer code has been adapted to calculate, in addition to energy deposit in matter by neutrons (Kerma) the energy deposit by gamma produced in neutronic impacts and the induced recoil electron current. The energy deposit conduces at air ionization, consequently at a conductibility. This knowledge added at that of electron current permit to resolve the Maxwell equations of electromagnetic field. The study is realized for an atmospheric explosion 100 meters high. The calculations of energy deposit and electron current have been conducted as far as 2.5km [fr

  19. ABCXYZ: vector potential (A) and magnetic field (B) code (C) for Cartesian (XYZ) geometry using general current elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Breazeal, J.; Finan, C.H.; Johnston, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    ABCXYZ is a computer code for obtaining the Cartesian components of the vector potential and the magnetic field on an observed grid from an arrangement of current-carrying wires. Arbitrary combinations of straight line segments, arcs, and loops are allowed in the specification of the currents. Arbitrary positions and orientations of the current-carrying elements are also allowed. Specification of the wire diameter permits the computation of well-defined fields, even in the interiors of the conductors. An optical feature generates magnetic field lines. Extensive graphical and printed output is available to the user including contour, grid-line, and field-line plots. 12 figures, 1 table

  20. Software Quality and Security in Teachers' and Students' Codes When Learning a New Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutnaru, Shlomi; Hershkovitz, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, schools (as well as universities) have added cyber security to their computer science curricula. This topic is still new for most of the current teachers, who would normally have a standard computer science background. Therefore the teachers are trained and then teaching their students what they have just learned. In order to…

  1. [Transposition errors during learning to reproduce a sequence by the right- and the left-hand movements: simulation of positional and movement coding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakhovetskiĭ, V A; Bobrova, E V; Skopin, G N

    2012-01-01

    Transposition errors during the reproduction of a hand movement sequence make it possible to receive important information on the internal representation of this sequence in the motor working memory. Analysis of such errors showed that learning to reproduce sequences of the left-hand movements improves the system of positional coding (coding ofpositions), while learning of the right-hand movements improves the system of vector coding (coding of movements). Learning of the right-hand movements after the left-hand performance involved the system of positional coding "imposed" by the left hand. Learning of the left-hand movements after the right-hand performance activated the system of vector coding. Transposition errors during learning to reproduce movement sequences can be explained by neural network using either vector coding or both vector and positional coding.

  2. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  3. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  4. Current and future multimodal learning analytics data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spikol, Daniel; Prieto, Luis P.; Rodriguez-Triana, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA) captures, integrates and analyzes learning traces from different sources in order to obtain a more holistic understanding of the learning process, wherever it happens. MMLA leverages the increasingly widespread availability of diverse sensors, high......-frequency data collection technologies and sophisticated machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques. The aim of this workshop is twofold: first, to expose participants to, and develop, different multimodal datasets that reflect how MMLA can bring new insights and opportunities to investigate complex...... learning processes and environments; second, to collaboratively identify a set of grand challenges for further MMLA research, built upon the foundations of previous workshops on the topic....

  5. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira

    1997-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission's research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment

  6. Shared acoustic codes underlie emotional communication in music and speech-Evidence from deep transfer learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho

    Full Text Available Music and speech exhibit striking similarities in the communication of emotions in the acoustic domain, in such a way that the communication of specific emotions is achieved, at least to a certain extent, by means of shared acoustic patterns. From an Affective Sciences points of view, determining the degree of overlap between both domains is fundamental to understand the shared mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. From a Machine learning perspective, the overlap between acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech opens new possibilities to enlarge the amount of data available to develop music and speech emotion recognition systems. In this article, we investigate time-continuous predictions of emotion (Arousal and Valence in music and speech, and the Transfer Learning between these domains. We establish a comparative framework including intra- (i.e., models trained and tested on the same modality, either music or speech and cross-domain experiments (i.e., models trained in one modality and tested on the other. In the cross-domain context, we evaluated two strategies-the direct transfer between domains, and the contribution of Transfer Learning techniques (feature-representation-transfer based on Denoising Auto Encoders for reducing the gap in the feature space distributions. Our results demonstrate an excellent cross-domain generalisation performance with and without feature representation transfer in both directions. In the case of music, cross-domain approaches outperformed intra-domain models for Valence estimation, whereas for Speech intra-domain models achieve the best performance. This is the first demonstration of shared acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech in the time-continuous domain.

  7. Shared acoustic codes underlie emotional communication in music and speech—Evidence from deep transfer learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Music and speech exhibit striking similarities in the communication of emotions in the acoustic domain, in such a way that the communication of specific emotions is achieved, at least to a certain extent, by means of shared acoustic patterns. From an Affective Sciences points of view, determining the degree of overlap between both domains is fundamental to understand the shared mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. From a Machine learning perspective, the overlap between acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech opens new possibilities to enlarge the amount of data available to develop music and speech emotion recognition systems. In this article, we investigate time-continuous predictions of emotion (Arousal and Valence) in music and speech, and the Transfer Learning between these domains. We establish a comparative framework including intra- (i.e., models trained and tested on the same modality, either music or speech) and cross-domain experiments (i.e., models trained in one modality and tested on the other). In the cross-domain context, we evaluated two strategies—the direct transfer between domains, and the contribution of Transfer Learning techniques (feature-representation-transfer based on Denoising Auto Encoders) for reducing the gap in the feature space distributions. Our results demonstrate an excellent cross-domain generalisation performance with and without feature representation transfer in both directions. In the case of music, cross-domain approaches outperformed intra-domain models for Valence estimation, whereas for Speech intra-domain models achieve the best performance. This is the first demonstration of shared acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech in the time-continuous domain. PMID:28658285

  8. Shared acoustic codes underlie emotional communication in music and speech-Evidence from deep transfer learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Schuller, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Music and speech exhibit striking similarities in the communication of emotions in the acoustic domain, in such a way that the communication of specific emotions is achieved, at least to a certain extent, by means of shared acoustic patterns. From an Affective Sciences points of view, determining the degree of overlap between both domains is fundamental to understand the shared mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. From a Machine learning perspective, the overlap between acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech opens new possibilities to enlarge the amount of data available to develop music and speech emotion recognition systems. In this article, we investigate time-continuous predictions of emotion (Arousal and Valence) in music and speech, and the Transfer Learning between these domains. We establish a comparative framework including intra- (i.e., models trained and tested on the same modality, either music or speech) and cross-domain experiments (i.e., models trained in one modality and tested on the other). In the cross-domain context, we evaluated two strategies-the direct transfer between domains, and the contribution of Transfer Learning techniques (feature-representation-transfer based on Denoising Auto Encoders) for reducing the gap in the feature space distributions. Our results demonstrate an excellent cross-domain generalisation performance with and without feature representation transfer in both directions. In the case of music, cross-domain approaches outperformed intra-domain models for Valence estimation, whereas for Speech intra-domain models achieve the best performance. This is the first demonstration of shared acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech in the time-continuous domain.

  9. Phonetic radicals, not phonological coding systems, support orthographic learning via self-teaching in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luan; Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Hsieh, Miao-Ling; Marinus, Eva

    2018-07-01

    According to the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995), phonological decoding is fundamental to acquiring orthographic representations of novel written words. However, phonological decoding is not straightforward in non-alphabetic scripts such as Chinese, where words are presented as characters. Here, we present the first study investigating the role of phonological decoding in orthographic learning in Chinese. We examined two possible types of phonological decoding: the use of phonetic radicals, an internal phonological aid, andthe use of Zhuyin, an external phonological coding system. Seventy-three Grade 2 children were taught the pronunciations and meanings of twelve novel compound characters over four days. They were then exposed to the written characters in short stories, and were assessed on their reading accuracy and on their subsequent orthographic learning via orthographic choice and spelling tasks. The novel characters were assigned three different types of pronunciation in relation to its phonetic radical - (1) a pronunciation that is identical to the phonetic radical in isolation; (2) a common alternative pronunciation associated with the phonetic radical when it appears in other characters; and (3) a pronunciation that is unrelated to the phonetic radical. The presence of Zhuyin was also manipulated. The children read the novel characters more accurately when phonological cues from the phonetic radicals were available and in the presence of Zhuyin. However, only the phonetic radicals facilitated orthographic learning. The findings provide the first empirical evidence of orthographic learning via self-teaching in Chinese, and reveal how phonological decoding functions to support learning in non-alphabetic writing systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. E-LEARNING: CURRENT STATE, TRENDS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Краснова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the main trends of development of e-learning in formal and non-formal education in different countries. The article discusses the main quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the market of e-learning education. The authors define main reasons the development of e-learning education in higher education. The authors note that the demand for e-learning by various groups of users will push the education authorities and educational institutions to develop different forms of e-learning and implement new business models of universities. In most universities in Europe and the United States adopted or will be adopted for the institutional strategy of development of e-learning.

  11. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Finite element circuit theory of the numerical code EDDYMULT for solving eddy current problems in a multi-torus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Ozeki, Takahisa

    1986-07-01

    The finite element circuit theory is extended to the general eddy current problem in a multi-torus system, which consists of various torus conductors and axisymmetric coil systems. The numerical procedures are devised to avoid practical restrictions of computer storage and computing time, that is, the reduction technique of eddy current eigen modes to save storage and the introduction of shape function into the double area integral of mode coupling to save time. The numerical code EDDYMULT based on the theory is developed to use in designing tokamak device from the viewpoints of the evaluation of electromagnetic loading on the device components and the control analysis of tokamak equilibrium. (author)

  13. Some aspects on parental protection in the current Romanian Civil Code

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cojocaru

    2013-01-01

    The new Civil Code has come to meet the diversification and complexity of social relationships, the growing interference between economic and social life in Romania and the one in Europe and in the world and not least the connection in a greater extent of the Romanian law to the European law. The issues which could occur, given precisely such interconnection with the European law, are those which give rise to issues of civil law enforcement in space, especially when the question would be the ...

  14. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission`s research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment.

  15. Development and analysis of hydraulic-material transfer analysis code taking density current into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Iriya, Yoshikazu

    1999-03-01

    It is an important issue to select site for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in a stable environment. Modelling of hydraulics in the freshwater/seawater boundaries is required. In this study, the analyzer code has been modified, in order to enable the analysis under more various conditions. Input/output functions were modified, after the functions of each module and major parameters were reconsidered. The modification included the change of input mode, from dialogue mode to file mode. Specifications of input/output and parameters are described. (A. Yamamoto)

  16. Impact of School Uniforms on Student Discipline and the Learning Climate: A Comparative Case Study of Two Middle Schools with Uniform Dress Codes and Two Middle Schools without Uniform Dress Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Charles Dewitt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of uniform dress codes on a school's climate for student behavior and learning in four middle schools in North Carolina. The research will compare the perceptions of parents, teachers, and administrators in schools with uniform dress codes against schools without uniform dress codes. This…

  17. Mobile Learning in Nursing Undergraduates in China: Current Status, Attitudes and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Zhang, Qiannan; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Yanling; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    To explore the current status, attitudes and barriers of nursing undergraduates toward mobile learning, 157 nursing students were investigated. more than half of them used mobile learning frequently in past half year. The mean score of students' intention towards mobile learning was 10.5 (ranged from 6 to 15), and it related to students' gender, expected effect, ease of operation, influence of other students, self-learning management and perceived interest. Some barriers affected students' mobile learning. Therefore, students had positive attitude and perception toward mobile learning, then we should create enough conditions to promote students' mobile learning.

  18. Artificial Intelligence Learning Semantics via External Resources for Classifying Diagnosis Codes in Discharge Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin; Hsu, Chia-Jung; Lou, Yu-Sheng; Yeh, Shih-Jen; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Su, Sui-Lung; Chen, Hsiang-Cheng

    2017-11-06

    Automated disease code classification using free-text medical information is important for public health surveillance. However, traditional natural language processing (NLP) pipelines are limited, so we propose a method combining word embedding with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Our objective was to compare the performance of traditional pipelines (NLP plus supervised machine learning models) with that of word embedding combined with a CNN in conducting a classification task identifying International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes in discharge notes. We used 2 classification methods: (1) extracting from discharge notes some features (terms, n-gram phrases, and SNOMED CT categories) that we used to train a set of supervised machine learning models (support vector machine, random forests, and gradient boosting machine), and (2) building a feature matrix, by a pretrained word embedding model, that we used to train a CNN. We used these methods to identify the chapter-level ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes in a set of discharge notes. We conducted the evaluation using 103,390 discharge notes covering patients hospitalized from June 1, 2015 to January 31, 2017 in the Tri-Service General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve as an evaluation measure, and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) and F-measure as the global measure of effectiveness. In 5-fold cross-validation tests, our method had a higher testing accuracy (mean AUC 0.9696; mean F-measure 0.9086) than traditional NLP-based approaches (mean AUC range 0.8183-0.9571; mean F-measure range 0.5050-0.8739). A real-world simulation that split the training sample and the testing sample by date verified this result (mean AUC 0.9645; mean F-measure 0.9003 using the proposed method). Further analysis showed that the convolutional layers of the CNN effectively identified a large number of keywords and automatically

  19. Assessment and E-Learning: Current Issues and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Neil; Sakui, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment…

  20. Blended learning in anesthesia education: current state and future model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Jaya; Kurup, Viji

    2012-12-01

    Educators in anesthesia residency programs across the country are facing a number of challenges as they attempt to integrate blended learning techniques in their curriculum. Compared with the rest of higher education, which has made advances to varying degrees in the adoption of online learning anesthesiology education has been sporadic in the active integration of blended learning. The purpose of this review is to discuss the challenges in anesthesiology education and relevance of the Universal Design for Learning framework in addressing them. There is a wide chasm between student demand for online education and the availability of trained faculty to teach. The design of the learning interface is important and will significantly affect the learning experience for the student. This review examines recent literature pertaining to this field, both in the realm of higher education in general and medical education in particular, and proposes the application of a comprehensive learning model that is new to anesthesiology education and relevant to its goals of promoting self-directed learning.

  1. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  2. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEd Dave van Breukelen; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries; MEd Frank Schure

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), that aims to improve student learning,

  3. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, D.H.J.; de Vries, M.J.; Schure, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  4. Code Development and Validation Towards Modeling and Diagnosing Current Redistribution in an ITER-Type Superconducting Cable Subject to Current Imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Gille, P.E.; Gonzales, C.; Kuppel, S.; Torre, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of ITER magnet R and D activities, a significant number of conductor short-samples or inserts were tested throughout the past decades, either for development on cable layouts or for industrial qualifications. On a certain number of them critical properties degradations were encountered, some of which were identified to be caused by current imbalance between the different strands bundles twisted inside the cable. In order to address the analyses of those samples as reliably as possible, CEA developed a dedicated home code named Coupled Algorithm Resistive Modelling Electrical Network (CARMEN) having basically two specific functionalities: -a first routine which is devoted to compute strand bundles trajectories, with bundles down to the individual strand scale. This point allows to obtain a realistic E(J) law over the full conductor length -a second routine which is devoted to model inter-bundle currents redistribution, taking into account the magnetic field map. It basically makes use of a relevant discrete electrical network with defined sections including E(J) law obtained from the above-mentioned subroutine As a result, the E-J or E-T curves can be calculated and compared to the experimental data, provided adapted inputs on sample features are considered, such as strand contact resistances in joints, inter-bundles resistances or cable geometry. In a first part, the paper describes the different hypotheses that built the code structure, and in a second part, the application to the ITER TFCl insert coil is presented, focusing particularly on the validation of the potential use of the code to stand as a diagnostic tool for currents imbalance probing

  5. Learning to Act Like a Lawyer: A Model Code of Professional Responsibility for Law Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Tanovich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Law students are the future of the legal profession. How well prepared are they when they leave law school to assume the professional and ethical obligations that they owe themselves, the profession and the public? This question has led to a growing interest in Canada in the teaching of legal ethics. It is also led to a greater emphasis on the development of clinical and experiential learning as exemplified in the scholarship and teaching of Professor Rose Voyvodic. Less attention, however, has been placed on identifying the general ethical responsibilities of law students when not working in a clinic or other legal context. This can be seen in the presence of very few Canadian articles exploring the issue, and more significantly, in the paucity of law school discipline policies or codes of conduct that set out the professional obligations owed by law students. This article develops an idea that Professor Voyvodic and I talked about on a number of occasions. It argues that all law schools should have a code of conduct which is separate and distinct from their general University code and which resembles, with appropriate modifications, the relevant set of rules of professional responsibility law students will be bound by when called to the Bar. A student code of conduct which educates law students about their professional obligations is an important step in deterring such conduct while in law school and preparing students for ethical practice. The idea of a law school code of professional responsibility raises a number of questions. Why is it necessary for law schools to have their own student code of conduct? The article provides a threefold response. First, law students are members of the legal profession and a code of conduct should reflect this. Second, it must be relevant and comprehensive in order to ensure that it can inspire students to be ethical lawyers. And, third, as a practical matter, the last few years have witnessed a number of

  6. Plasma simulation by macroscale, electromagnetic particle code and its application to current-drive by relativistic electron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.; Sato, T.

    1985-01-01

    A new implicit macroscale electromagnetic particle simulation code (MARC) which allows a large scale length and a time step in multi-dimensions is described. Finite mass electrons and ions are used with relativistic version of the equation of motion. The electromagnetic fields are solved by using a complete set of Maxwell equations. For time integration of the field equations, a decentered (backward) finite differencing scheme is employed with the predictor - corrector method for small noise and super-stability. It is shown both in analytical and numerical ways that the present scheme efficiently suppresses high frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves in a plasma, and that it accurately reproduces low frequency waves such as ion acoustic waves, Alfven waves and fast magnetosonic waves. The present numerical scheme has currently been coded in three dimensions for application to a new tokamak current-drive method by means of relativistic electron beam injection. Some remarks of the proper macroscale code application is presented in this paper

  7. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: lessons learned and implications for the regulation of marketing of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K

    2013-10-01

    To identify lessons learned from 30 years of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (‘the Code’) and identify lessons learned for the regulation of marketing foods and beverages to children. Historical analysis of 30 years of implementing the Code. Latin America and the Caribbean. None. Legislation to restrict marketing of breast-milk substitutes is necessary but not sufficient; equally important are the promulgation of implementing regulations, effective enforcement and public monitoring of compliance. A system of funding for regular monitoring of compliance with legislation should be explicitlyd eveloped and funded from the beginning. Economic sanctions, while important, are likely to be less effective than reports that affect a company’s public image negatively. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in leveraging public opinion and galvanizing consumer pressure to ensure that governments adopt regulations and companies adhere to them. Continual clinical, epidemiological and policy research showing the link between marketing and health outcomes and between policy and better health is essential. Implementation of the Code has not come easily as it places the interests of underfinanced national governments and international and non-governmental organizations promoting breast-feeding against those of multinational corporations that make hundreds of millions of dollars annually marketing infant formulas. Efforts to protect, promote and support breast-feeding have been successful with indicators of breast-feeding practices increasing globally. The lessons learned can inform current efforts to regulate the marketing of foods and beverages to children.

  8. LeARN: a platform for detecting, clustering and annotating non-coding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiex Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, sequencing projects have led to the development of a number of annotation systems dedicated to the structural and functional annotation of protein-coding genes. These annotation systems manage the annotation of the non-protein coding genes (ncRNAs in a very crude way, allowing neither the edition of the secondary structures nor the clustering of ncRNA genes into families which are crucial for appropriate annotation of these molecules. Results LeARN is a flexible software package which handles the complete process of ncRNA annotation by integrating the layers of automatic detection and human curation. Conclusion This software provides the infrastructure to deal properly with ncRNAs in the framework of any annotation project. It fills the gap between existing prediction software, that detect independent ncRNA occurrences, and public ncRNA repositories, that do not offer the flexibility and interactivity required for annotation projects. The software is freely available from the download section of the website http://bioinfo.genopole-toulouse.prd.fr/LeARN

  9. Current and Future Trends in Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first number of the second volume of the EAI Transactions on Serious Games focuses on the results presented on the European Conference on Game-Based Learning. This event, already on the 8th edition, has set standards in terms of presentation of research and practice and in the pointing out of new and future trends in the development of Game-Based Learning. As such, we are quite thrilled to be able to report them here.

  10. Kinetic instabilities of thin current sheets: Results of two-and-one-half-dimensional Vlasov code simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, I.; Buechner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear triggering of the instability of thin current sheets is investigated by two-and-one-half- dimensional Vlasov code simulations. A global drift-resonant instability (DRI) is found, which results from the lower-hybrid-drift waves penetrating from the current sheet edges to the center where they resonantly interact with unmagnetized ions. This resonant nonlinear instability grows faster than a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability obtained in previous studies. The DRI is either asymmetric or symmetric mode or a combination of the two, depending on the relative phase of the lower-hybrid-drift waves at the edges of the current sheet. With increasing particle mass ratio the wavenumber of the fastest-growing mode increases as kL z ∼(m i /m e ) 1/2 /2 and the growth rate of the DRI saturates at a finite level

  11. Some aspects on parental protection in the current Romanian Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina COJOCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The new Civil Code has come to meet the diversification and complexity of social relationships, the growing interference between economic and social life in Romania and the one in Europe and in the world and not least the connection in a greater extent of the Romanian law to the European law. The issues which could occur, given precisely such interconnection with the European law, are those which give rise to issues of civil law enforcement in space, especially when the question would be the application of the Romanian civil law or the foreign civil law, and one of the typical situations in this respect is the law governing parental authority when spouses have different nationalities and misunderstandings arise between them regarding parental authority. Our analysis starts from a hypothetical case, but which may occur in fact, namely the intention of the parent in whose favour was handed down the custody ruling concerning the child, to move in another state together with the child, without having the agreement of the other parent in this respect.

  12. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  13. The Role of Architectural and Learning Constraints in Neural Network Models: A Case Study on Visual Space Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; De Filippo De Grazia, Michele; Zorzi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The recent "deep learning revolution" in artificial neural networks had strong impact and widespread deployment for engineering applications, but the use of deep learning for neurocomputational modeling has been so far limited. In this article we argue that unsupervised deep learning represents an important step forward for improving neurocomputational models of perception and cognition, because it emphasizes the role of generative learning as opposed to discriminative (supervised) learning. As a case study, we present a series of simulations investigating the emergence of neural coding of visual space for sensorimotor transformations. We compare different network architectures commonly used as building blocks for unsupervised deep learning by systematically testing the type of receptive fields and gain modulation developed by the hidden neurons. In particular, we compare Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs), which are stochastic, generative networks with bidirectional connections trained using contrastive divergence, with autoencoders, which are deterministic networks trained using error backpropagation. For both learning architectures we also explore the role of sparse coding, which has been identified as a fundamental principle of neural computation. The unsupervised models are then compared with supervised, feed-forward networks that learn an explicit mapping between different spatial reference frames. Our simulations show that both architectural and learning constraints strongly influenced the emergent coding of visual space in terms of distribution of tuning functions at the level of single neurons. Unsupervised models, and particularly RBMs, were found to more closely adhere to neurophysiological data from single-cell recordings in the primate parietal cortex. These results provide new insights into how basic properties of artificial neural networks might be relevant for modeling neural information processing in biological systems.

  14. Learning Concepts, Language, and Literacy in Hybrid Linguistic Codes: The Multilingual Maze of Urban Grade 1 Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    From the field of developmental psycholinguistics and from conceptual development theory there is evidence that excessive linguistic "code-switching" in early school education may pose some hazards for the learning of young multilingual children. In this article the author addresses the issue, invoking post-Piagetian and neo-Vygotskian…

  15. English Learners with Learning Disabilities: What Is the Current State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ashley; Rodríguez, Diane

    2017-01-01

    As the demographics across the United States continues to change, specifically with increases in school age English Learners who speak a home language other than English, it is imperative that schools meet the diverse needs of these children. This article summarizes studies about English Learners with learning disabilities. It reports on the…

  16. Efficient Coding and Energy Efficiency Are Promoted by Balanced Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Currents in Neuronal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; Shen, Zhou; Wang, Chen; Yu, Yuguo

    2018-01-01

    Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission. We observed in such a network that there exists an optimal E/I synaptic current ratio in the network by which the information transmission achieves the maximum with relatively low energy cost. The coding energy efficiency which is defined as the mutual information divided by the energy cost, achieved the maximum with the balanced synaptic current. Although background noise degrades information transmission and imposes an additional energy cost, we find an optimal noise intensity that yields the largest information transmission and energy efficiency at this optimal E/I synaptic transmission ratio. The maximization of energy efficiency also requires a certain part of energy cost associated with spontaneous spiking and synaptic activities. We further proved this finding with analytical solution based on the response function of bistable neurons, and demonstrated that optimal net synaptic currents are capable of maximizing both the mutual information and energy efficiency. These results revealed that the development of E/I synaptic current balance could lead a cortical network to operate at a highly efficient information transmission rate at a relatively low energy cost. The generality of neuronal models and the recurrent network configuration used here suggest that the existence of an optimal E/I cell ratio for highly efficient energy

  17. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  18. User's guide for SLWDN9, a code for calculating flux-surfaced-averaging of alpha densities, currents, and heating in non-circular tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Miley, G.M.

    1980-03-01

    The code calculates flux-surfaced-averaged values of alpha density, current, and electron/ion heating profiles in realistic, non-circular tokamak plasmas. The code is written in FORTRAN and execute on the CRAY-1 machine at the Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center

  19. Learning analytics fundaments, applications, and trends : a view of the current state of the art to enhance e-learning

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual and empirical perspective on learning analytics, its goal being to disseminate the core concepts, research, and outcomes of this emergent field. Divided into nine chapters, it offers reviews oriented on selected topics, recent advances, and innovative applications. It presents the broad learning analytics landscape and in-depth studies on higher education, adaptive assessment, teaching and learning. In addition, it discusses valuable approaches to coping with personalization and huge data, as well as conceptual topics and specialized applications that have shaped the current state of the art. By identifying fundamentals, highlighting applications, and pointing out current trends, the book offers an essential overview of learning analytics to enhance learning achievement in diverse educational settings. As such, it represents a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in updating their knowledge and finding inspirations for their future work.

  20. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  1. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Duane; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  2. Lessons learned in the verification, validation and application of a coupled heat and fluid flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of the authors recent studies in the verification, validation and application of a coupled heat and fluid flow code. Verification has been done against eight analytic and semi-analytic solutions. These solutions include those involving thermal buoyancy flow and fracture flow. Comprehensive field validation studies over a period of four years are discussed. The studies are divided into three stages: (1) history matching, (2) double-blind prediction and confirmation, (3) design optimization. At each stage, parameter sensitivity studies are performed. To study the applications of mathematical models, a problem proposed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) is solved using this verified and validated numerical model as well as two simpler models. One of the simpler models is a semi-analytic method assuming the uncoupling of the heat and fluid flow processes. The other is a graphical method based on a large number of approximations. Variations are added to the basic IEA problem to point out the limits of ranges of applications of each model. A number of lessons are learned from the above investigations. These are listed and discussed

  3. Learning binary code via PCA of angle projection for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fumeng; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wei, Xueqi; Wu, Congzhong

    2018-01-01

    With benefits of low storage costs and high query speeds, binary code representation methods are widely researched for efficiently retrieving large-scale data. In image hashing method, learning hashing function to embed highdimensions feature to Hamming space is a key step for accuracy retrieval. Principal component analysis (PCA) technical is widely used in compact hashing methods, and most these hashing methods adopt PCA projection functions to project the original data into several dimensions of real values, and then each of these projected dimensions is quantized into one bit by thresholding. The variances of different projected dimensions are different, and with real-valued projection produced more quantization error. To avoid the real-valued projection with large quantization error, in this paper we proposed to use Cosine similarity projection for each dimensions, the angle projection can keep the original structure and more compact with the Cosine-valued. We used our method combined the ITQ hashing algorithm, and the extensive experiments on the public CIFAR-10 and Caltech-256 datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Learning Joint-Sparse Codes for Calibration-Free Parallel MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Tan, Sha; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Qiegen; Ying, Leslie; Xiao, Taohui; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    The integration of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (CS-PI) has shown an increased popularity in recent years to accelerate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Among them, calibration-free techniques have presented encouraging performances due to its capability in robustly handling the sensitivity information. Unfortunately, existing calibration-free methods have only explored joint-sparsity with direct analysis transform projections. To further exploit joint-sparsity and improve reconstruction accuracy, this paper proposes to Learn joINt-sparse coDes for caliBration-free parallEl mR imaGing (LINDBERG) by modeling the parallel MR imaging problem as an - - minimization objective with an norm constraining data fidelity, Frobenius norm enforcing sparse representation error and the mixed norm triggering joint sparsity across multichannels. A corresponding algorithm has been developed to alternatively update the sparse representation, sensitivity encoded images and K-space data. Then, the final image is produced as the square root of sum of squares of all channel images. Experimental results on both physical phantom and in vivo data sets show that the proposed method is comparable and even superior to state-of-the-art CS-PI reconstruction approaches. Specifically, LINDBERG has presented strong capability in suppressing noise and artifacts while reconstructing MR images from highly undersampled multichannel measurements.

  5. Current Developments and Best Practice in Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rocha Trinidade

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the many documents regularly emitted by those dedicated to this activity, it is comparatively easy to describe factual developments in the field of open and distance education in different places in the world. However, it is much more difficult to produce judgements of value about their quality. Quality is a subjective rather than an absolute concept and may be examined from different analytical perspectives: consumers' satisfaction level, intrinsic value of scientific and technical content of learning materials, soundness of learning strategies, efficiency of organisation and procedures, adequate use of advanced technologies, reliability of student support mechanisms, etc.These parameters should be put into the context of specific objectives, nature of target populations and availability of different kinds of resources. In a specific geographic, social, economic and cultural situation a given set of solutions might be judged as adequate and deserving the qualification of "good practice," while in a different context it could be considered of rather poor quality.The selection of examples in this article is the sole responsibility of the authors: neither should the chosen cases be considered as clearly better than any other one, nor missing cases be interpreted as lack of appreciation or a negative judgement.Finally, the authors are aware of the risks of interpreting trends and trying to extrapolate them into the near future: readers should use their own judgement in accepting (or forcefully rejecting these projections.

  6. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  7. Current state of the auto-evaluation process of the behaviour code in the safety of research reactors in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani A, Y. R.; Salgado G, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    In Mexico, the regulator organism in nuclear matter is the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, and a nuclear research reactor exists, the TRIGA Mark III, operated by the National Institute of Nuclear Research. In this work the main aspects of the current state and the future challenges are presented with relationship to the installation of the auto-evaluation process of the behaviour code in the safety of research reactors for the TRIGA reactor case. Additionally, the legal mark of the licensing process for the nuclear activities in a research reactor is described in a brief way, and the main characteristics of the reactor, the uses for the isotopes production, the administration and the verification of the safety, the administration program of the radiological protection, the emergency plan and the operation personnel qualification are emphasized. (Author)

  8. Variational full wave calculation of fast wave current drive in DIII-D using the ALCYON code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A.; Moreau, D.

    1992-04-01

    Initial fast wave current drive simulations performed with the ALCYON code for the 60 MHz DIII-D experiment are presented. Two typical shots of the 1991 summer campaign were selected with magnetic field intensities of 1 and 2 teslas respectively. The results for the wave electromagnetic field in the plasma chamber are displayed. They exhibit a strong enrichment of the poloidal mode number m-spectrum which leads to the upshift of the parallel wavenumber, κ perpendicular, and to the wave absorption. The m-spectrum is bounded when the local poloidal wavenumber reaches the Alfven wavenumber and the κ perpendicular upshifts do not destroy the wave directionality. Linear estimations of the driven current are made. The current density profiles are found to be peaked and we find that about 88 kA can be driven in the 1 tesla/1.7 keV phase with 1.7 MW coupled to the electrons. In the 2 tesla/3.4 keV case, 47 kA are driven with a total power of 1.5 MW, 44% of which are absorbed on the hydrogen minority, through the second harmonic ion cyclotron resonance. The global efficiency is then 0.18 x 10 19 A m -2 W -1 if one considers only the effective power going to the electrons

  9. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  10. Understanding Teachers' Professional Learning Goals from Their Current Professional Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2018-01-01

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers' current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases have different reasons for engaging in professional…

  11. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  12. Applying machine learning to predict patient-specific current CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple apple

    This work shows the application of machine learning to predict current CD4 cell count of an HIV- .... Pre-processing ... remaining data elements of the PR and RT datasets. ... technique based on the structure of the human brain's neuron.

  13. TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER DATA DENOISING BY DICTIONARY LEARNING OF SPARSE CODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Smigiel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud processing is basically a signal processing issue. The huge amount of data which are collected with Terrestrial Laser Scanners or photogrammetry techniques faces the classical questions linked with signal or image processing. Among others, denoising and compression are questions which have to be addressed in this context. That is why, one has to turn attention to signal theory because it is susceptible to guide one's good practices or to inspire new ideas from the latest developments of this field. The literature have been showing for decades how strong and dynamic, the theoretical field is and how efficient the derived algorithms have become. For about ten years, a new technique has appeared: known as compressive sensing or compressive sampling, it is based first on sparsity which is an interesting characteristic of many natural signals. Based on this concept, many denoising and compression techniques have shown their efficiencies. Sparsity can also be seen as redundancy removal of natural signals. Taken along with incoherent measurements, compressive sensing has appeared and uses the idea that redundancy could be removed at the very early stage of sampling. Hence, instead of sampling the signal at high sampling rate and removing redundancy as a second stage, the acquisition stage itself may be run with redundancy removal. This paper gives some theoretical aspects of these ideas with first simple mathematics. Then, the idea of compressive sensing for a Terrestrial Laser Scanner is examined as a potential research question and finally, a denoising scheme based on a dictionary learning of sparse coding is experienced. Both the theoretical discussion and the obtained results show that it is worth staying close to signal processing theory and its community to take benefit of its latest developments.

  14. Learning Morse Code Alters Microstructural Properties in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus: A DTI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaffke, Lara; Leemans, Alexander; Schweizer, Lauren M.; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role ...

  15. Essential Tremor: What We Can Learn from Current Pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ondo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. Methods: We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Results: Many medications have multiple mechanisms of actions, making simple correlations difficult. Medications that increase the duration of opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptors are most consistently associated with tremor improvement. Interestingly, drugs that increase GABA availability have not been associated with improved tremor. Other mechanisms possibly associated with tremor improvement include antagonism of alpha-2 delta subunits associated with calcium channels, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, and inhibition of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Drugs that block voltage-gaited sodium channels do not affect tremor. The ideal beta-adrenergic blocker requires B2 affinity (non-cardiac selective, has no sympathomimetic properties, does not require membrane stabilization properties, and may benefit from good central nervous system penetration. Discussion: To date, serendipitous observations have provided most of our understanding of tremor cellular physiology. Based on similarities to currently effective drugs or rational approximations and inferences, several currently available agents should be considered for tremor trials.

  16. Essential Tremor: What We Can Learn from Current Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo, William

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Many medications have multiple mechanisms of actions, making simple correlations difficult. Medications that increase the duration of opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors are most consistently associated with tremor improvement. Interestingly, drugs that increase GABA availability have not been associated with improved tremor. Other mechanisms possibly associated with tremor improvement include antagonism of alpha-2 delta subunits associated with calcium channels, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, and inhibition of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Drugs that block voltage-gaited sodium channels do not affect tremor. The ideal beta-adrenergic blocker requires B2 affinity (non-cardiac selective), has no sympathomimetic properties, does not require membrane stabilization properties, and may benefit from good central nervous system penetration. To date, serendipitous observations have provided most of our understanding of tremor cellular physiology. Based on similarities to currently effective drugs or rational approximations and inferences, several currently available agents should be considered for tremor trials.

  17. The Future of e-Learning in Medical Education: Current Trend and Future Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of e-learning modalities are widely integrated in medical education. However, some of the key questions related to the role of e-learning remain unanswered, such as (1 what is an effective approach to integrating technology into pre-clinical vs. clinical training?; (2 what evidence exists regarding the type and format of e-learning technology suitable for medical specialties and clinical settings?; (3 which design features are known to be effective in designing on-line patient simulation cases, tutorials, or clinical exams?; and (4 what guidelines exist for determining an appropriate blend of instructional strategies, including online learning, face-to-face instruction, and performance-based skill practices? Based on the existing literature and a variety of e-learning examples of synchronous learning tools and simulation technology, this paper addresses the following three questions: (1 what is the current trend of e-learning in medical education?; (2 what do we know about the effective use of e-learning?; and (3 what is the role of e-learning in facilitating newly emerging competency-based training? As e-learning continues to be widely integrated in training future physicians, it is critical that our efforts in conducting evaluative studies should target specific e-learning features that can best mediate intended learning goals and objectives. Without an evolving knowledge base on how best to design e-learning applications, the gap between what we know about technology use and how we deploy e-learning in training settings will continue to widen.

  18. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik; Bang, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  19. Examining the linguistic coding differences hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed.

  20. Game E-Learning Code Master Dengan Konsep Mmorpg Menggunakan Adobe Flex 3

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Purnomo; Monika Leslivania; Daniel Daniel; Lisye Mareta Cahya

    2010-01-01

    The research objective is to design a web-based e-learning game that could be used to be a learning facility of C language programming and as an online game so it could be enjoyed by everybody easily in internet. Flex usage in this game online is to implement RIA (Rich Internet Application) concept in the game so e-learning process is hoped to be more interesting and interactive. E-learning game is also designed in MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game) concept. The research ...

  1. How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-07-13

    Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT

  2. Lessons learned from new construction utility demand side management programs and their implications for implementing building energy codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, B.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Danko, S.L.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) through its Building Energy Standards Program (BESP). The purpose of this task was to identify demand-side management (DSM) strategies for new construction that utilities have adopted or developed to promote energy-efficient design and construction. PNL conducted a survey of utilities and used the information gathered to extrapolate lessons learned and to identify evolving trends in utility new-construction DSM programs. The ultimate goal of the task is to identify opportunities where states might work collaboratively with utilities to promote the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy-efficient building energy codes.

  3. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  4. Game E-Learning Code Master Dengan Konsep Mmorpg Menggunakan Adobe Flex 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Purnomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to design a web-based e-learning game that could be used to be a learning facility of C language programming and as an online game so it could be enjoyed by everybody easily in internet. Flex usage in this game online is to implement RIA (Rich Internet Application concept in the game so e-learning process is hoped to be more interesting and interactive. E-learning game is also designed in MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game concept. The research method used is analysis and design method. Analysis method is done through literature study, user analysis, and similar game analysis. Meanwhile, design method is about monitor display, gameplay and system design. The conclution of this research is that this game provides an interesting learning media of C language program accordingly to subject material at class and also easier to use through website. 

  5. Current algorithms used in reactor safety codes and the impact of future computer development on these algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Woodruff, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Computational methods and solution procedures used in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reactor safety systems codes, Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) and Reactor Leak and Power Safety Excursion Code (RELAP), are reviewed. Methods used in TRAC-PF1/MOD1, including the stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) technique, which permits fast computations by allowing time steps larger than the material Courant stability limit, are described in detail, and the differences from RELAP5/MOD2 are noted. Developments in computing, including parallel and vector processing, and their applicability to nuclear reactor safety codes are described. These developments, coupled with appropriate numerical methods, make detailed faster-than-real-time reactor safety analysis a realistic near-term possibility

  6. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águida Foerster

    Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.

  7. Codes of Journalism Ethics in Russia and the United States: Traditions and the Current Practice of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bykov, Aleksei Yuryevich; Georgieva, Elena Savova; Danilova, Yuliya Sokratovna; Baychik, Anna Vitalyevna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to identify the main categories stated in the codes of journalism ethics in Russia and the United States, as well as the principles of their practical application. As a part of the comparative analysis of the codes of the journalism organizations of the two countries, we identify factors affecting the adoption and contents of the documents and the approaches to the regulation of different areas of professional activity which were reflected in these documents. The...

  8. Lesson learned from the application to LOBI tests of CATHARE and RELAP5 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari has participated to the LOBI project since its very beginning, contributing to almost all the international activities in this field, such as task group meetings, International Standards Problems, Seminars, etc. System codes like RELAP4/MOD6, RELAP5/MOD1, RELAP5/MOD1-EUR, RELAP5/MOD2, CATHARE 1 and CATHARE 2 were applied to the design and post test evaluation of a wide series of both LOBI/MOD1 and LOBI/MOD2 experiments, including Large Break LOCAs, Small and Intermediate Break LOCAs, long lasting transients and characterization tests. The LOBI data base demonstrated its usefulness in assessing capabilities and limitations of these codes and in qualifying a code use strategy. (author)

  9. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined.

  10. The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Theory of Digital Natives in the Light of Current and Future E-Learning Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo von der Heiden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The digital generation has many names: Net Generation, Generation@ or Digital Natives. The meaning behind these terms is, that the current generation of students is digitally and media literate, technology-savvy and are able to use other learning approaches than former generations. But these topics are discussed controversial and even the cause-effect-relationship is not as clear as it seems. Did the digital generation really have other learning approaches, or do they have only the possibility to live other learning modes? Against this background this article tries to shed some light on this debate. Therefore we use current and future projects performed at RWTH Aachen University to illustrate the relevance, value and significance due to the theory of the digital natives.

  12. Differentiation of ileostomy from colostomy procedures: assessing the accuracy of current procedural terminology codes and the utility of natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Elaine; Davila, Jessica A; Hou, Jason; Hodge, Krystle; Li, Linda T; Suliburk, James W; Kao, Lillian S; Berger, David H; Liang, Mike K

    2013-08-01

    Large databases provide a wealth of information for researchers, but identifying patient cohorts often relies on the use of current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. In particular, studies of stoma surgery have been limited by the accuracy of CPT codes in identifying and differentiating ileostomy procedures from colostomy procedures. It is important to make this distinction because the prevalence of complications associated with stoma formation and reversal differ dramatically between types of stoma. Natural language processing (NLP) is a process that allows text-based searching. The Automated Retrieval Console is an NLP-based software that allows investigators to design and perform NLP-assisted document classification. In this study, we evaluated the role of CPT codes and NLP in differentiating ileostomy from colostomy procedures. Using CPT codes, we conducted a retrospective study that identified all patients undergoing a stoma-related procedure at a single institution between January 2005 and December 2011. All operative reports during this time were reviewed manually to abstract the following variables: formation or reversal and ileostomy or colostomy. Sensitivity and specificity for validation of the CPT codes against the mastery surgery schedule were calculated. Operative reports were evaluated by use of NLP to differentiate ileostomy- from colostomy-related procedures. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with ileostomy or colostomy procedures were calculated for CPT codes and NLP for the entire cohort. CPT codes performed well in identifying stoma procedures (sensitivity 87.4%, specificity 97.5%). A total of 664 stoma procedures were identified by CPT codes between 2005 and 2011. The CPT codes were adequate in identifying stoma formation (sensitivity 97.7%, specificity 72.4%) and stoma reversal (sensitivity 74.1%, specificity 98.7%), but they were inadequate in identifying ileostomy (sensitivity 35.0%, specificity 88.1%) and colostomy (75

  13. Applying machine learning to predict patient-specific current CD 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work shows the application of machine learning to predict current CD4 cell count of an HIV-positive patient using genome sequences, viral load and time. A regression model predicting actual CD4 cell counts and a classification model predicting if a patient's CD4 cell count is less than 200 was built using a support ...

  14. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  15. Summary of the Current Status of Lessons Learned From Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    This presentation introduced the current status of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, and in particular, the recommendations released by a NRC Near-term Task Force to enhance reactor safety in the 21. century. The near-term recommendations are focused on emergency power and emergency cooling availability during station blackout accidents

  16. Stroop-like effects in a new-code learning task: A cognitive load theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan-Liran, Batel; Miller, Paul

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether and how learning is biased by competing task-irrelevant information that creates extraneous cognitive load, we assessed the efficiency of university students with a learning paradigm in two experiments. The paradigm asked participants to learn associations between eight words and eight digits. We manipulated congruity of the digits' ink colour with the words' semantics. In Experiment 1 word stimuli were colour words (e.g., blue, yellow) and in Experiment 2 colour-related word concepts (e.g., sky, banana). Marked benefits and costs on learning due to variation in extraneous cognitive load originating from processing task-irrelevant information were evident. Implications for cognitive load theory and schooling are discussed.

  17. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  18. Learning by Doing: Teaching Decision Making through Building a Code of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Notes that applying abstract ethical principles to the practical business of building a code of applied ethics for a technical communication department teaches students that they share certain unarticulated or unconscious values that they can translate into ethical principles. Suggests that combining abstract theory with practical policy writing…

  19. Hebbian learning in a model with dynamic rate-coded neurons: an alternative to the generative model approach for learning receptive fields from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamker, Fred H; Wiltschut, Jan

    2007-09-01

    Most computational models of coding are based on a generative model according to which the feedback signal aims to reconstruct the visual scene as close as possible. We here explore an alternative model of feedback. It is derived from studies of attention and thus, probably more flexible with respect to attentive processing in higher brain areas. According to this model, feedback implements a gain increase of the feedforward signal. We use a dynamic model with presynaptic inhibition and Hebbian learning to simultaneously learn feedforward and feedback weights. The weights converge to localized, oriented, and bandpass filters similar as the ones found in V1. Due to presynaptic inhibition the model predicts the organization of receptive fields within the feedforward pathway, whereas feedback primarily serves to tune early visual processing according to the needs of the task.

  20. Simulation of lower hybrid current drive in enhanced reversed shear plasmas in the tokamak fusion test reactor using the lower hybrid simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Enhanced Reversed Shear (ERS) mode has already shown great potential for improving the performance of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and other devices. Sustaining the ERS, however, remains an outstanding problem. Lower hybrid (LH) current drive is a possible method for modifying the current profile and controlling its time evolution. To predict its effectiveness in TFTR, the Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) model is used in the TRANSP code and the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC). Among the results from the simulations are the following. (1) Single-pass absorption is expected in TFTR ERS plasmas. The simulations show that the LH current follows isotherms of the electron temperature. The ability to control the location of the minimum in the q profile (q min ) has been demonstrated by varying the phase velocity of the launched LH waves and observing the change in the damping location. (2) LH current drive can been used to sustain the q min location. The tendency of qmin to drift inward, as the inductive current diffuses during the formation phase of the reversed shear discharge, is prevented by the LH current driven at a fixed radial location. If this results in an expanded plasma volume with improved confinement as high power neutral beam injection is applied, the high bootstrap currents induced during this phase can then maintain the larger qmin radius. (3) There should be no LH wave damping on energetic beam particles. The values of perpendicular index of refraction in the calculations never exceed about 20, while ions at TFR injection energies are resonant with waves having values closer to 100. Other issues being addressed in the study include the LH current drive efficiency in the presence of high bootstrap currents, and the effect of fast electron diffusion on LH current localization

  1. Geoethics: what can we learn from existing bio-, ecological, and engineering ethics codes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.; Palka, John

    2014-05-01

    Many scientific disciplines are concerned about ethics, and codes of ethics for these professions exist, generally through the professional scientific societies such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), American Geological Institute (AGI), American Association of Petroleum Engineers (AAPE), National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), Ecological Society of America (ESA), and many others worldwide. These vary considerably in depth and specificity. In this poster, we review existing codes with the goal of extracting fundamentals that should/can be broadly applied to all geo-disciplines. Most of these codes elucidate a set of principles that cover practical issues such as avoiding conflict of interest, avoiding plagiarism, not permitting illegitimate use of intellectual products, enhancing the prestige of the profession, acknowledging an obligation to perform services only in areas of competence, issuing public statements only in an objective manner, holding paramount the welfare of the public, and in general conducting oneself honorably, responsibly, and lawfully. It is striking that, given that the work of these societies and their members is relevant to the future of the earth, few discuss in any detail ethical obligations regarding our relation to the planet itself. The AGU code, for example, only states that "Members have an ethical obligation to weigh the societal benefits of their research against the costs and risks to human and animal welfare and impacts on the environment and society." The NSPE and AGI codes go somewhat further: "Engineers are encouraged to adhere to the principles of sustainable development in order to protect the environment for future generations," and "Geoscientists should strive to protect our natural environment. They should understand and anticipate the environmental consequences of their work and should disclose the consequences of recommended actions. They should acknowledge that resource extraction and use are necessary

  2. High Order Tensor Formulation for Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) has gained attention for its successful role as a reconstruction and a classification tool in the computer vision and machine learning community. Current CSC methods can only reconstruct singlefeature 2D images

  3. Pupil dilation indicates the coding of past prediction errors: Evidence for attentional learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2018-04-01

    The attentional learning theory of Pearce and Hall () predicts more attention to uncertain cues that have caused a high prediction error in the past. We examined how the cue-elicited pupil dilation during associative learning was linked to such error-driven attentional processes. In three experiments, participants were trained to acquire associations between different cues and their appetitive (Experiment 1), motor (Experiment 2), or aversive (Experiment 3) outcomes. All experiments were designed to examine differences in the processing of continuously reinforced cues (consistently followed by the outcome) versus partially reinforced, uncertain cues (randomly followed by the outcome). We measured the pupil dilation elicited by the cues in anticipation of the outcome and analyzed how this conditioned pupil response changed over the course of learning. In all experiments, changes in pupil size complied with the same basic pattern: During early learning, consistently reinforced cues elicited greater pupil dilation than uncertain, randomly reinforced cues, but this effect gradually reversed to yield a greater pupil dilation for uncertain cues toward the end of learning. The pattern of data accords with the changes in prediction error and error-driven attention formalized by the Pearce-Hall theory. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Investigating students' view on STEM in learning about electrical current through STS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Grade 11 students' views on Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) with the integration of learning about electrical current based on Science Technology Society (STS) approach [8]. The participants were 60 Grade 11 students in Demonstration Secondary School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. The methodology is in the respect of interpretive paradigm. The teaching and learning about Electrical Current through STS approach carried out over 6 weeks. The Electrical Current unit through STS approach was developed based on framework[8] that consists of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision making, and (5) socialization stage. To start with, the question "what if this world is lack of electricity" was challenged in the class in order to move students to find the problem of how to design Electricity Generation from Clean Energy. Students were expected to apply scientific and other knowledge to design of Electricity Generation. Students' views on STEM were collected during their learning by participant' observation and students' tasks. Their views on STEM were categorized when they applied their knowledge for designing the Electricity Generation. The findings indicated that students cooperatively work to solve the problem when applying knowledge about the content of Science and Mathematics and processing skill of Technology and Engineering. It showed that students held the integration of science, technology, engineering and mathematics to design their possible solutions in learning about Electrical Current. The paper also discusses implications for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  5. Current Status of Experimental and Theoretical Work on Sodium/Fuel Interaction (SFI) at Karlsruhe 'Code Developments'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, H.; Bojarsky, E.; Reiser, H.; Caldarola, L.; Jacobs, H.; Zyszkowski, W.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical work follows two main lines: A. Code development; B. Theoretical work on fragmentation. Two computer codes have been developed. The first code contains a heat transfer model (during the vaporization phase) based on the inverse Leidenfrost phenomenon (which has been observed experimentally in water). The exact solution of the heat diffusion equation in a sphere is included in the code. The code accounts for the time history of each fuel particle by means of specially averaged temperature values. The presence of fission gases can also be taken into account. A size distribution of fuel particles has also been incorporated in the code as well as the effect of the friction due to the channel walls and that of the pressure losses at channel outlet. An extensive parametric study has been carried out with this code. The main conclusions are the following: 1. Total mechanical work strongly decreases with the fragmentation and/or mixing time constants. 2. Vapour blanketing during the vaporization phase is effective only if accompanied by a relatively slow process of fragmentation and mixing. In this case total mechanical work strongly decreased with degree of vapour blanketing. 3. Total mechanical work rises with initial length of sodium piston. 4. Time to empty the 120 cm long channel is 15-20 msecs. for values of the fragmentation and/or mixing time constants of the order of 5-10 msecs. 5. Effects due to particle size distribution and gas content are important only fora rapid fragmentation and mixing process. It must be painted out that (as far as the gas is concerned) this conclusion is valid only within the limits of the effects (due to the gas) which have been considered in the model. Propagation effects can be analysed by using the second code. The interaction region can be subdivided into an arbitrary number of sections, each containing fuel and coolant. The thermal conductivity of the liquid sodium has also been taken into account, as well as the

  6. Color-Coded Graphic Organizers for Teaching Writing to Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Kathy B.; Morgan, Joseph John

    2017-01-01

    A commonly used method for supporting the writing of students with learning disabilities (LD), graphic organizers have been shown to effectively support instruction for students with LD in a variety of content areas (Dexter & Hughes, 2011). Students with LD often struggle with the process of developing their ideas into organized sentences; the…

  7. Effects of Dual Coded Multimedia Instruction Employing Image Morphing on Learning a Logographic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Blackwell, Aleka Akoyunoglou

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of alphabetic languages, which use letters governed by grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, often find it particularly challenging to learn a logographic language whose writing system employs symbols with no direct sound-to-spelling connection but links to the visual and semantic information. The visuospatial properties of…

  8. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  9. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  10. The neural coding of feedback learning across child and adolescent development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Braams, B.R.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Koolschijn, P.C.M.P.; Crone, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn from environmental cues is an important contributor to successful performance in a variety of settings, including school. Despite the progress in unraveling the neural correlates of cognitive control in childhood and adolescence, relatively little is known about how these brain

  11. Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT, which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

  12. ASTEC V2 severe accident integral code main features, current V2.0 modelling status, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelard, P.; Reinke, N.; Arndt, S.; Belon, S.; Cantrel, L.; Carenini, L.; Chevalier-Jabet, K.; Cousin, F.; Eckel, J.; Jacq, F.; Marchetto, C.; Mun, C.; Piar, L.

    2014-01-01

    The severe accident integral code ASTEC, jointly developed since almost 20 years by IRSN and GRS, simulates the behaviour of a whole nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions, including severe accident management by engineering systems and procedures. Since 2004, the ASTEC code is progressively becoming the reference European severe accident integral code through in particular the intensification of research activities carried out in the frame of the SARNET European network of excellence. The first version of the new series ASTEC V2 was released in 2009 to about 30 organizations worldwide and in particular to SARNET partners. With respect to the previous V1 series, this new V2 series includes advanced core degradation models (issued from the ICARE2 IRSN mechanistic code) and necessary extensions to be applicable to Gen. III reactor designs, notably a description of the core catcher component to simulate severe accidents transients applied to the EPR reactor. Besides these two key-evolutions, most of the other physical modules have also been improved and ASTEC V2 is now coupled to the SUNSET statistical tool to make easier the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The ASTEC models are today at the state of the art (in particular fission product models with respect to source term evaluation), except for quenching of a severely damage core. Beyond the need to develop an adequate model for the reflooding of a degraded core, the main other mean-term objectives are to further progress on the on-going extension of the scope of application to BWR and CANDU reactors, to spent fuel pool accidents as well as to accidents in both the ITER Fusion facility and Gen. IV reactors (in priority on sodium-cooled fast reactors) while making ASTEC evolving towards a severe accident simulator constitutes the main long-term objective. This paper presents the status of the ASTEC V2 versions, focussing on the description of V2.0 models for water-cooled nuclear plants

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex modulates arithmetic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Roland H; Rütsche, Bruno; Ruff, Christian C; Hauser, Tobias U

    2015-07-01

    The successful acquisition of arithmetic skills is an essential step in the development of mathematical competencies and has been associated with neural activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). It is unclear, however, whether this brain region plays a causal role in arithmetic skill acquisition and whether arithmetic learning can be modulated by means of non-invasive brain stimulation of this key region. In the present study we addressed these questions by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left PPC during a short-term training that simulates the typical path of arithmetic skill acquisition (specifically the transition from effortful procedural to memory-based problem-solving strategies). Sixty participants received either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS while practising complex multiplication and subtraction problems. The stability of the stimulation-induced learning effects was assessed in a follow-up test 24 h after the training. Learning progress was modulated by tDCS. Cathodal tDCS (compared with sham) decreased learning rates during training and resulted in poorer performance which lasted over 24 h after stimulation. Anodal tDCS showed an operation-specific improvement for subtraction learning. Our findings extend previous studies by demonstrating that the left PPC is causally involved in arithmetic learning (and not only in arithmetic performance) and that even a short-term tDCS application can modulate the success of arithmetic knowledge acquisition. Moreover, our finding of operation-specific anodal stimulation effects suggests that the enhancing effects of tDCS on learning can selectively affect just one of several cognitive processes mediated by the stimulated area. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Task-specific effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Maria Saucedo Marquez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a relatively new non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates neural processes. When applied to the human primary motor cortex (M1, tDCS has beneficial effects on motor skill learning and consolidation in healthy controls and in patients. However, it remains unclear whether tDCS improves motor learning in a general manner or whether these effects depend on which motor task is acquired. Here we compare whether the effect of tDCS differs when the same individual acquires (1 a Sequential Finger Tapping Task (SEQTAP and (2 a Visual Isometric Pinch Force Task (FORCE. Both tasks have been shown to be sensitive to tDCS applied over M1, however, the underlying processes mediating learning and memory formation might benefit differently from anodal-tDCS. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an anodal-tDCS group or sham-group. Using a double-blind, sham-controlled cross-over design, tDCS was applied over M1 while subjects acquired each of the motor tasks over 3 consecutive days, with the order being randomized across subjects. We found that anodal-tDCS affected each task differently: The SEQTAP task benefited from anodal-tDCS during learning, whereas the FORCE task showed improvements only at retention. These findings suggest that anodal tDCS applied over M1 appears to have a task-dependent effect on learning and memory formation.

  15. LEARNING ALGORITHM EFFECT ON MULTILAYER FEED FORWARD ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PERFORMANCE IN IMAGE CODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMER MAHMOUD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors that affect the performance of Artificial Neural Networks is the learning algorithm. The performance of Multilayer Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network performance in image compression using different learning algorithms is examined in this paper. Based on Gradient Descent, Conjugate Gradient, Quasi-Newton techniques three different error back propagation algorithms have been developed for use in training two types of neural networks, a single hidden layer network and three hidden layers network. The essence of this study is to investigate the most efficient and effective training methods for use in image compression and its subsequent applications. The obtained results show that the Quasi-Newton based algorithm has better performance as compared to the other two algorithms.

  16. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  17. Synaptic learning rules and sparse coding in a model sensory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca A Finelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits exploit numerous strategies for encoding information. Although the functional significance of individual coding mechanisms has been investigated, ways in which multiple mechanisms interact and integrate are not well understood. The locust olfactory system, in which dense, transiently synchronized spike trains across ensembles of antenna lobe (AL neurons are transformed into a sparse representation in the mushroom body (MB; a region associated with memory, provides a well-studied preparation for investigating the interaction of multiple coding mechanisms. Recordings made in vivo from the insect MB demonstrated highly specific responses to odors in Kenyon cells (KCs. Typically, only a few KCs from the recorded population of neurons responded reliably when a specific odor was presented. Different odors induced responses in different KCs. Here, we explored with a biologically plausible model the possibility that a form of plasticity may control and tune synaptic weights of inputs to the mushroom body to ensure the specificity of KCs' responses to familiar or meaningful odors. We found that plasticity at the synapses between the AL and the MB efficiently regulated the delicate tuning necessary to selectively filter the intense AL oscillatory output and condense it to a sparse representation in the MB. Activity-dependent plasticity drove the observed specificity, reliability, and expected persistence of odor representations, suggesting a role for plasticity in information processing and making a testable prediction about synaptic plasticity at AL-MB synapses.

  18. REMEMBERING TO LEARN: INDEPENDENT PLACE AND JOURNEY CODING MECHANISMS CONTRIBUTE TO MEMORY TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Amir S.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that integrate new episodes with established memories are unknown. When rats explore an environment, CA1 cells fire in place fields that indicate locations. In goal-directed spatial memory tasks, some place fields differentiate behavioral histories (journey-dependent place fields) while others do not (journey-independent place fields). To investigate how these signals inform learning and memory for new and familiar episodes, we recorded CA1 and CA3 activity in rats train...

  19. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qi

    Full Text Available Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications.

  20. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications.

  1. Polarity-Specific Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Disrupts Auditory Pitch Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko eMatsushita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is attracting increasing interest because of its potential for therapeutic use. While its effects have been investigated mainly with motor and visual tasks, less is known in the auditory domain. Past tDCS studies with auditory tasks demonstrated various behavioural outcomes, possibly due to differences in stimulation parameters or task measurements used in each study. Further research using well-validated tasks are therefore required for clarification of behavioural effects of tDCS on the auditory system. Here, we took advantage of findings from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study, which demonstrated that the right auditory cortex is modulated during fine-grained pitch learning of microtonal melodic patterns. Targeting the right auditory cortex with tDCS using this same task thus allowed us to test the hypothesis that this region is causally involved in pitch learning. Participants in the current study were trained for three days while we measured pitch discrimination thresholds using microtonal melodies on each day using a psychophysical staircase procedure. We administered anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS to three groups of participants over the right auditory cortex on the second day of training during performance of the task. Both the sham and the cathodal groups showed the expected significant learning effect (decreased pitch threshold over the three days of training; in contrast we observed a blocking effect of anodal tDCS on auditory pitch learning, such that this group showed no significant change in thresholds over the three days. The results support a causal role for the right auditory cortex in pitch discrimination learning.

  2. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries, A K L; Verkes, R J; Bulten, B H; Cools, R; de Bruijn, E R A

    2013-12-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model predicts an FRN on negative prediction errors, as well as implying a role for the FRN in learning and the adaptation of behavior. However, these predictions have recently been challenged. Notably, studies so far have used tasks in which the outcomes have been contingent on the response. In these paradigms, the need to adapt behavioral responses is present only for negative, not for positive feedback. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of positive as well as negative violations of expectancy on FRN amplitudes, without the usual confound of behavioral adjustments. A reversal-learning task was employed in which outcome value and outcome expectancy were orthogonalized; that is, both positive and negative outcomes were equally unexpected. The results revealed a double dissociation, with effects of valence but not expectancy on the FRN and, conversely, effects of expectancy but not valence on the P300. While FRN amplitudes were largest for negative-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome expectancy, P300 amplitudes were largest for unexpected-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome valence. These FRN effects were interpreted to reflect an evaluation along a good-bad dimension, rather than reflecting a negative prediction error or a role in behavioral adaptation. By contrast, the P300 reflects the updating of information relevant for behavior in a changing context.

  3. Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visually Guided Learning of Grip Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Minarik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to be an effective non-invasive brain stimulation method for improving cognitive and motor functioning in patients with neurological deficits. tDCS over motor cortex (M1, for instance, facilitates motor learning in stroke patients. However, the literature on anodal tDCS effects on motor learning in healthy participants is inconclusive, and the effects of tDCS on visuo-motor integration are not well understood. In the present study we examined whether tDCS over the contralateral motor cortex enhances learning of grip-force output in a visually guided feedback task in young and neurologically healthy volunteers. Twenty minutes of 1 mA anodal tDCS were applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the dominant (right hand, during the first half of a 40 min power-grip task. This task required the control of a visual signal by modulating the strength of the power-grip for six seconds per trial. Each participant completed a two-session sham-controlled crossover protocol. The stimulation conditions were counterbalanced across participants and the sessions were one week apart. Performance measures comprised time-on-target and target-deviation, and were calculated for the periods of stimulation (or sham and during the afterphase respectively. Statistical analyses revealed significant performance improvements over the stimulation and the afterphase, but this learning effect was not modulated by tDCS condition. This suggests that the form of visuomotor learning taking place in the present task was not sensitive to neurostimulation. These null effects, together with similar reports for other types of motor tasks, lead to the proposition that tDCS facilitation of motor learning might be restricted to cases or situations where the motor system is challenged, such as motor deficits, advanced age, or very high task demand.

  4. NanoString, a novel digital color-coded barcode technology: current and future applications in molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hin-Fung; Xue, Vivian Weiwen; Koh, Su-Pin; Chiu, Ya-Ming; Ng, Lawrence Po-Wah; Wong, Sze-Chuen Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sample is a gold mine of resources for molecular diagnosis and retrospective clinical studies. Although molecular technologies have expanded the range of mutations identified in FFPE samples, the applications of existing technologies are limited by the low nucleic acids yield and poor extraction quality. As a result, the routine clinical applications of molecular diagnosis using FFPE samples has been associated with many practical challenges. NanoString technologies utilize a novel digital color-coded barcode technology based on direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression and offer high levels of precision and sensitivity. Each color-coded barcode is attached to a single target-specific probe corresponding to a single gene which can be individually counted without amplification. Therefore, NanoString is especially useful for measuring gene expression in degraded clinical specimens. Areas covered: This article describes the applications of NanoString technologies in molecular diagnostics and challenges associated with its applications and the future development. Expert commentary: Although NanoString technology is still in the early stages of clinical use, it is expected that NanoString-based cancer expression panels would play more important roles in the future in classifying cancer patients and in predicting the response to therapy for better personal therapeutic care.

  5. Learning from a provisioning site: code of conduct compliance and behaviour of whale sharks in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Anna; Araujo, Gonzalo; Penketh, Luke; Heath, Anna; McCoy, Emer; Labaja, Jessica; Lucey, Anna; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    While shark-based tourism is a rapidly growing global industry, there is ongoing controversy about the effects of provisioning on the target species. This study investigated the effect of feeding on whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, in terms of arrival time, avoidance and feeding behaviour using photo-identification and focal follows. Additionally, compliance to the code of conduct in place was monitored to assess tourism pressure on the whale sharks. Newly identified sharks gradually arrived earlier to the provisioning site after their initial sighting, indicating that the animals learn to associate the site with food rewards. Whale sharks with a long resighting history showed anticipatory behaviour and were recorded at the site on average 5 min after the arrival of feeder boats. Results from a generalised linear mixed model indicated that animals with a longer resighting history were less likely to show avoidance behaviour to touches or boat contact. Similarly, sequential data on feeding behaviour was modelled using a generalised estimating equations approach, which suggested that experienced whale sharks were more likely to display vertical feeding behaviour. It was proposed that the continuous source of food provides a strong incentive for the modification of behaviours, i.e., learning, through conditioning. Whale sharks are large opportunistic filter feeders in a mainly oligotrophic environment, where the ability to use novel food sources by modifying their behaviour could be of great advantage. Non-compliance to the code of conduct in terms of minimum distance to the shark (2 m) increased from 79% in 2012 to 97% in 2014, suggesting a high tourism pressure on the whale sharks in Oslob. The long-term effects of the observed behavioural modifications along with the high tourism pressure remain unknown. However, management plans are traditionally based on the precautionary principle, which aims to take preventive actions even

  6. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basol, Mit; Kielb, John F.; MuHooly, John F.; Smit, Kobus

    2007-01-01

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  7. Modulation of motor performance and motor learning by transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Fritsch, Brita

    2011-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown preliminary success in improving motor performance and motor learning in healthy individuals, and restitution of motor deficits in stroke patients. This brief review highlights some recent work. Within the past years, behavioural studies have confirmed and specified the timing and polarity specific effects of tDCS on motor skill learning and motor adaptation. There is strong evidence that timely co-application of (hand/arm) training and anodal tDCS to the contralateral M1 can improve motor learning. Improvements in motor function as measured by clinical scores have been described for combined tDCS and training in stroke patients. For this purpose, electrode montages have been modified with respect to interhemispheric imbalance after brain injury. Cathodal tDCS applied to the unlesioned M1 or bihemispheric M1 stimulation appears to be well tolerated and useful to induce improvements in motor function. Mechanistic studies in humans and animals are discussed with regard to physiological motor learning. tDCS is well tolerated, easy to use and capable of inducing lasting improvements in motor function. This method holds promise for the rehabilitation of motor disabilities, although acute studies in patients with brain injury are so far lacking.

  8. E-learning tools for education: regulatory aspects, current applications in radiology and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A; Selvaggi, S; Sicignano, G; Vollono, E; Iervolino, L; Amato, F; Molinari, A; Grassi, R

    2008-02-01

    E-learning, an abbreviation of electronic learning, indicates the provision of education and training on the Internet or the World Wide Web. The impact of networks and the Internet on radiology is undoubtedly important, as it is for medicine as a whole. The Internet offers numerous advantages compared with other mass media: it provides access to a large amount of information previously known only to individual specialists; it is flexible, permitting the use of images or video; and it allows linking to Web sites on a specific subject, thus contributing to further expand knowledge. Our purpose is to illustrate the regulatory aspects (including Internet copyright laws), current radiological applications and future prospects of e-learning. Our experience with the installation of an e-learning platform is also presented. We performed a PubMed search on the published literature (without time limits) dealing with e-learning tools and applications in the health sector with specific reference to radiology. The search included all study types in the English language with the following key words: e-learning, education, teaching, online exam, radiology and radiologists. The Fiaso study was referred to for the regulatory aspects of e-learning. The application of e-learning to radiology requires the development of a model that involves selecting and creating e-learning platforms, creating and technologically adapting multimedia teaching modules, creating and managing a unified catalogue of teaching modules, planning training actions, defining training pathways and Continuing Education in Medicine (CME) credits, identifying levels of teaching and technological complexity of support tools, sharing an organisational and methodological model, training the trainers, operators' participation and relational devices, providing training, monitoring progress of the activities, and measuring the effectiveness of training. Since 2004, a platform--LiveLearning--has been used at our

  9. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.

    2015-01-01

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  10. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsmeyer, S. [European Commission JRC, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Herranz, L.E.; Iglesias, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  11. Enhanced motor learning following task-concurrent dual transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Karok

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 has beneficial effects on motor performance and motor learning in healthy subjects and is emerging as a promising tool for motor neurorehabilitation. Applying tDCS concurrently with a motor task has recently been found to be more effective than applying stimulation before the motor task. This study extends this finding to examine whether such task-concurrent stimulation further enhances motor learning on a dual M1 montage. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects received anodal tDCS to the right M1, dual tDCS (anodal current over right M1 and cathodal over left M1 and sham tDCS in a repeated-measures design. Stimulation was applied for 10 mins at 1.5 mA during an explicit motor learning task. Response times (RT and accuracy were measured at baseline, during, directly after and 15 mins after stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was recorded from both hemispheres before and after stimulation using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. RESULTS: Task-concurrent stimulation with a dual M1 montage significantly reduced RTs by 23% as early as with the onset of stimulation (p<0.01 with this effect increasing to 30% at the final measurement. Polarity-specific changes in cortical excitability were observed with MEPs significantly reduced by 12% in the left M1 and increased by 69% in the right M1. CONCLUSION: Performance improvement occurred earliest in the dual M1 condition with a stable and lasting effect. Unilateral anodal stimulation resulted only in trendwise improvement when compared to sham. Therefore, task-concurrent dual M1 stimulation is most suited for obtaining the desired neuromodulatory effects of tDCS in explicit motor learning.

  12. Value and probability coding in a feedback-based learning task utilizing food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricomi, Elizabeth; Lempert, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    For the consequences of our actions to guide behavior, the brain must represent different types of outcome-related information. For example, an outcome can be construed as negative because an expected reward was not delivered or because an outcome of low value was delivered. Thus behavioral consequences can differ in terms of the information they provide about outcome probability and value. We investigated the role of the striatum in processing probability-based and value-based negative feedback by training participants to associate cues with food rewards and then employing a selective satiety procedure to devalue one food outcome. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain activity related to receipt of expected rewards, receipt of devalued outcomes, omission of expected rewards, omission of devalued outcomes, and expected omissions of an outcome. Nucleus accumbens activation was greater for rewarding outcomes than devalued outcomes, but activity in this region did not correlate with the probability of reward receipt. Activation of the right caudate and putamen, however, was largest in response to rewarding outcomes relative to expected omissions of reward. The dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen) at the time of feedback also showed a parametric increase correlating with the trialwise probability of reward receipt. Our results suggest that the ventral striatum is sensitive to the motivational relevance, or subjective value, of the outcome, while the dorsal striatum codes for a more complex signal that incorporates reward probability. Value and probability information may be integrated in the dorsal striatum, to facilitate action planning and allocation of effort. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Does transcranial direct current stimulation affect the learning of a fine sequential hand motor skill with motor imagery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Learning a fine sequential hand motor skill, comparable to playing the piano or learning to type, improves not only due to physical practice, but also due to motor imagery. Previous studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and motor imagery independently affect motor

  14. Study of neoclassical transport and bootstrap current for W7-X in the 1/upsilon regime, using results from the PIES code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemov, V V; Kalyuzhnyj, V N; Kasilov, S V; Drevlak, M; Nuehrenberg, J; Kernbichler, W; Reiman, A; Monticello, D

    2004-01-01

    For the magnetic field of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) standard high-mirror configuration, computed by the PIES code, taking into account real coil geometry, neoclassical transport and bootstrap current are analysed in the 1/upsilon regime using methods based on the integration along magnetic field lines in a given magnetic field. The zero beta and (beta) = 1% cases are studied. The results are compared to the corresponding results for the vacuum magnetic field directly produced by modular coils. A significant advantage of W7-X over a conventional stellarator resulting from reduced neoclassical transport and from reduced bootstrap current follows from the computations although the neoclassical transport is somewhat larger than that previously obtained for the ideal W7-X model configuration

  15. Bootstrap current control studies in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator using the free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Rodriguez, H.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; Sanchez, R.; Tribaldos, V.; Geiger, J.

    2018-02-01

    The recently developed free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code (Hirshman et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 062504; Peraza-Rodriguez et al 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 082516) is used for the first time to study scenarios with considerable bootstrap currents for the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Bootstrap currents in the range of tens of kAs can lead to the formation of unwanted magnetic island chains or stochastic regions within the plasma and alter the boundary rotational transform due to the small shear in W7-X. The latter issue is of relevance since the island divertor operation of W7-X relies on a proper positioning of magnetic island chains at the plasma edge to control the particle and energy exhaust towards the divertor plates. Two scenarios are examined with the new free-plasma-boundary capabilities of SIESTA: a freely evolving bootstrap current one that illustrates the difficulties arising from the dislocation of the boundary islands, and a second one in which off-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is applied to compensate the effects of the bootstrap current and keep the island divertor configuration intact. SIESTA finds that off-axis ECCD is indeed able to keep the location and phase of the edge magnetic island chain unchanged, but it may also lead to an undesired stochastization of parts of the confined plasma if the EC deposition radial profile becomes too narrow.

  16. Code of Conduct for wind-power projects - Phases 1 and 2; Code of Conduct fuer windkraftprojekte. Phase 1 und 2 - Systemanalyse, Lessons Learned und Bewertung bestehender Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, freischaffender Berater, Binningen (Switzerland); Ziegler, Ch. [Inter Act, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    This paper discusses the results of the first two phases of a project concerning wind-power projects. The paper deals with the results of a system analysis, takes a look at lessons learned and presents an appraisal of existing instruments. A system-analysis of wind-power projects is presented with emphasis on social factors and the role of stakeholders. The success factors concerning social acceptance of wind-power projects and their special characteristics are discussed. Lessons learned are examined. Instruments for the sustainable implementation of projects are looked at, in particular with a focus on social acceptance

  17. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  18. Report on the Implementation of the Code and the Guidance in Burkina Faso: Experiences and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabayaogo, Delwendé

    2015-01-01

    Burkina Faso started the implementation of the code of conduct since 2008 as a member state of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The process went through several steps and actions. The first step was the implementation of a regulatory infrastructure with the development of legislation and regulation framework and the establishment of a regulatory body (National Authority for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety). The key legislation is the law n°032-2012/AN on nuclear safety and safeguards. Then, the country undertook actions for the enforcement of the regulations through licensing and inspections regime. This leads to the recovering of orphan sources and the establishment of a national register of radioactive sources using RAIS software. In 2009 and 2010, the regulatory body proceeded to a wide spread inventory of radioactive sources and search of orphan sources in the country covering the thirteen regions according to the administrative division. The registered sources belong mainly to the categories III and IV. There is a low quantity of categories I and II sources. As Burkina Faso has no facility for disused sources and waste management, a contract of return is requested for their importation during the licensing process. The objective is to set a good management of the sources and assure their security. Some sources imported many years ago have no more suppliers and no return contract. An action is currently running for the repatriation of some of them with the support of IAEA. In supporting the government effort for safety and security of sources, an integrated Nuclear Security Plan has been developed by an INSERV mission taking account the radioactive material. The good implementation of these activities and the principles of the code needs a well trained staff. ARSN developed a program of training for its regulatory staff and make it participate to IAEA trainings. Our success stories are likely the well drafted law on nuclear safety and

  19. Computer code determination of tolerable accel current and voltage limits during startup of an 80 kV MFTF sustaining neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Eckard, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    We have used a Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) version of the WOLF ion source extractor design computer code to determine tolerable accel current and voltage limits during startup of a prototype 80 kV Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) sustaining neutral beam source. Arc current limits are also estimated. The source extractor has gaps of 0.236, 0.721, and 0.155 cm. The effective ion mass is 2.77 AMU. The measured optimum accel current density is 0.266 A/cm 2 . The gradient grid electrode runs at 5/6 V/sub a/ (accel voltage). The suppressor electrode voltage is zero for V/sub a/ < 3 kV and -3 kV for V/sub a/ greater than or equal to 3 kV. The accel current density for optimum beam divergence is obtained for 1 less than or equal to V/sub a/ less than or equal to 80 kV, as are the beam divergence and emittance

  20. Physical, taxonomic code, and other data from current meter and other instruments in New York Bight from DOLPHIN and other platforms; 14 March 1971 to 03 August 1975 (NODC Accession 7601385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, taxonomic code, and other data were collected using current meter and other instruments from DOLPHIN and other platforms in New York Bight. Data were...

  1. Predictions of the spontaneous symmetry-breaking theory for visual code completeness and spatial scaling in single-cell learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C J

    2001-05-01

    This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.

  2. A new high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate volcanic blasts and pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, T. E.; Clarke, A.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.; Widiwijayanti, C.

    2005-12-01

    For the first time the dynamics of directed blasts from explosive lava-dome decompression have been investigated by means of transient, multiphase flow simulations in 2D and 3D. Multiphase flow models developed for the analysis of pyroclastic dispersal from explosive eruptions have been so far limited to 2D axisymmetric or Cartesian formulations which cannot properly account for important 3D features of the volcanic system such as complex morphology and fluid turbulence. Here we use a new parallel multiphase flow code, named PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code) (Esposti Ongaro et al., 2005), able to simulate the transient and 3D thermofluid-dynamics of pyroclastic dispersal produced by collapsing columns and volcanic blasts. The code solves the equations of the multiparticle flow model of Neri et al. (2003) on 3D domains extending up to several kilometres in 3D and includes a new description of the boundary conditions over topography which is automatically acquired from a DEM. The initial conditions are represented by a compact volume of gas and pyroclasts, with clasts of different sizes and densities, at high temperature and pressure. Different dome porosities and pressurization models were tested in 2D to assess the sensitivity of the results to the distribution of initial gas pressure, and to the total mass and energy stored in the dome, prior to 3D modeling. The simulations have used topographies appropriate for the 1997 Boxing Day directed blast on Montserrat, which eradicated the village of St. Patricks. Some simulations tested the runout of pyroclastic density currents over the ocean surface, corresponding to observations of over-water surges to several km distances at both locations. The PDAC code was used to perform 3D simulations of the explosive event on the actual volcano topography. The results highlight the strong topographic control on the propagation of the dense pyroclastic flows, the triggering of thermal instabilities, and the elutriation

  3. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  4. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  5. Current Techniques of Teaching and Learning in Bariatric Surgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Mirjam; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; van Wagensveld, Bart; Pierie, Jean-Pierre

    The gastric sleeve resection and gastric bypass are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures. This article provides an overview of current teaching and learning methods of those techniques in resident and fellow training. A database search was performed on Pubmed, Embase, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) to identify the methods used to provide training in bariatric surgery worldwide. After exclusion based on titles and abstracts, full texts of the selected articles were assessed. Included articles were reviewed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. In total, 2442 titles were identified and 14 full text articles met inclusion criteria. Four publications described an ex vivo training course, and 6 focused on at least 1 step of the gastric bypass procedure. Two randomized controlled trials (RCT) provided high-quality evidence on training aspects. Surgical coaching caused significant improvement of Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (BOSATS) scores (3.60 vs. 3.90, p = 0.017) and reduction of technical errors (18 vs. 10, p = 0.003). A preoperative warm-up increased global rating scales (GRS) scores on depth perception (p = 0.02), bimanual dexterity (p = 0.01), and efficiency of movements (p = 0.03). Stepwise education, surgical coaching, warming up, Internet-based knowledge modules, and ex vivo training courses are effective in relation to bariatric surgical training of residents and fellows, possibly shortening their learning curves. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of alternating current circuit simulation as essential learning support for senior high school student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayang Dwinta Trisniarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study an interactive simulation of Alternating Current circuit was developed by using Articulate Storyline 2 and Adobe Flash CS 6 programs. The aim of this study was providing a computer interactive simulation as essential learning support for Senior High School student. One of the most important features of AC circuit simulation is the easily and continuous material to attain learning objectivity and interest toward students. This AC circuit simulation is built to create real-time sine wave graphs so that student could compare the result if the variable were changed gradually. The validation is held through several experts and reviewers due to get obtained through questionnaires. The results of this research could be concluded that AC circuit simulation for Senior High School Physics have good criteria based on user interface, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 16.67% of respondents rated good, and 33.33% of respondents rated very good. Based on maintenance, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 20% of respondents rated good, and 30% of respondents rated very good. Then based on usability, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated good and 93.33% rated very good. Furthermore, based on understanding, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated enough, 30% of respondents rated good, and 73.33% of respondents rated very good. The use of AC circuit simulation could improve the senior high school students’ cognitive ability on the Physics’s course, i.e. with the average score increased from 68.67 to 80.5 based on 30 students.

  7. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  8. An Extension to the Constructivist Coding Hypothesis as a Learning Model for Selective Feedback when the Base Rate Is High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Stewart, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Elwin, Juslin, Olsson, and Enkvist (2007) and Henriksson, Elwin, and Juslin (2010) offered the constructivist coding hypothesis to describe how people code the outcomes of their decisions when availability of feedback is conditional on the decision. They provided empirical evidence only for the 0.5 base rate condition. This commentary argues that…

  9. Classification of multispectral or hyperspectral satellite imagery using clustering of sparse approximations on sparse representations in learned dictionaries obtained using efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Daniela; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2018-01-02

    An approach for land cover classification, seasonal and yearly change detection and monitoring, and identification of changes in man-made features may use a clustering of sparse approximations (CoSA) on sparse representations in learned dictionaries. The learned dictionaries may be derived using efficient convolutional sparse coding to build multispectral or hyperspectral, multiresolution dictionaries that are adapted to regional satellite image data. Sparse image representations of images over the learned dictionaries may be used to perform unsupervised k-means clustering into land cover categories. The clustering process behaves as a classifier in detecting real variability. This approach may combine spectral and spatial textural characteristics to detect geologic, vegetative, hydrologic, and man-made features, as well as changes in these features over time.

  10. Modulation of Speech Motor Learning with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Inferior Parietal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael L. D. Deroche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal lobe (IPL is a region of the cortex believed to participate in speech motor learning. In this study, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the IPL could influence the extent to which healthy adults (1 adapted to a sensory alteration of their own auditory feedback, and (2 changed their perceptual representation. Seventy subjects completed three tasks: a baseline perceptual task that located the phonetic boundary between the vowels /e/ and /a/; a sensorimotor adaptation task in which subjects produced the word “head” under conditions of altered or unaltered feedback; and a post-adaptation perceptual task identical to the first. Subjects were allocated to four groups which differed in current polarity and feedback manipulation. Subjects who received anodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably increasing cortical excitability lowered their first formant frequency (F1 by 10% in opposition to the upward shift in F1 in their auditory feedback. Subjects who received the same stimulation with unaltered feedback did not change their production. Subjects who received cathodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably decreasing cortical excitability showed a 5% adaptation to the F1 alteration similar to subjects who received sham tDCS. A subset of subjects returned a few days later to reiterate the same protocol but without tDCS, enabling assessment of any facilitatory effects of the previous tDCS. All subjects exhibited a 5% adaptation effect. In addition, across all subjects and for the two recording sessions, the phonetic boundary was shifted toward the vowel /e/ being repeated, consistently with the selective adaptation effect, but a correlation between perception and production suggested that anodal tDCS had enhanced this perceptual shift. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated that anodal tDCS could (1 enhance the motor adaptation to a sensory alteration, and (2 potentially affect the

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p learning effect. For cathodal tDCS, no significant effects on learning or on excitability could be seen. Our results showed that anodal tDCS over V1 resulted in improved visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  12. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements

  13. Instance-based Policy Learning by Real-coded Genetic Algorithms and Its Application to Control of Nonholonomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Atsushi; Sakuma, Jun; Ono, Isao; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    The stabilization control of nonholonomic systems have been extensively studied because it is essential for nonholonomic robot control problems. The difficulty in this problem is that the theoretical derivation of control policy is not necessarily guaranteed achievable. In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning (RL) method with instance-based policy (IBP) representation, in which control policies for this class are optimized with respect to user-defined cost functions. Direct policy search (DPS) is an approach for RL; the policy is represented by parametric models and the model parameters are directly searched by optimization techniques including genetic algorithms (GAs). In IBP representation an instance consists of a state and an action pair; a policy consists of a set of instances. Several DPSs with IBP have been previously proposed. In these methods, sometimes fail to obtain optimal control policies when state-action variables are continuous. In this paper, we present a real-coded GA for DPSs with IBP. Our method is specifically designed for continuous domains. Optimization of IBP has three difficulties; high-dimensionality, epistasis, and multi-modality. Our solution is designed for overcoming these difficulties. The policy search with IBP representation appears to be high-dimensional optimization; however, instances which can improve the fitness are often limited to active instances (instances used for the evaluation). In fact, the number of active instances is small. Therefore, we treat the search problem as a low dimensional problem by restricting search variables only to active instances. It has been commonly known that functions with epistasis can be efficiently optimized with crossovers which satisfy the inheritance of statistics. For efficient search of IBP, we propose extended crossover-like mutation (extended XLM) which generates a new instance around an instance with satisfying the inheritance of statistics. For overcoming multi-modality, we

  14. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  15. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  16. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  17. Reviewing the current state of machine learning for artificial intelligence with regards to the use of contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    Kinch, Martin W.; Melis, Wim J.C.; Keates, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    This paper will consider the current state of Machine Learning for Artificial Intelligence, more specifically for applications, such as: Speech Recognition, Game Playing and Image Processing. The artificial world tends to make limited use of context in comparison to what currently happens in human life, while it would benefit from improvements in this area. Additionally, the process of transferring knowledge between application domains is another important area where artificial system can imp...

  18. Courses for tutors in problem-based learning. Current challenges at four Swedish universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Susan Setterud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the tutor in problem-based learning (PBL is to help students become selfregulated learners. Tutors need training to acquire the necessary facilitating skills for this task. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how PBL tutor training is currently arranged at four universities in Sweden: Linköping University, Lund Medical Faculty, Uppsala Medical School and Örebro School of Medicine. Moreover, we seek to analyse how the content and format of the tutor training courses correspond to the desired skills and competencies for PBL tutors described in the literature. We draw especially on work coming out of three pioneering universities for PBL: McMaster University, Canada; Maastricht University, The Netherlands; and Linköping University, Sweden. One aim has been to construct a framework for analysis that uses categories specifying the knowledge base, capabilities and skills to support students’ learning processes which characterise the full-fledged PBL tutor. For this framework, we have used the following categories: Knowledge of PBL and pedagogical theories, Personal traits, Student-centeredness, Ability to handle group processes, and Subject knowledge. We collected descriptions of the course design and content from the four universities, and assessed to what extent these categories were represented within the courses. Our results show that all categories inform the course content at all four universities, though the design varies between courses. In summary, we show that the four PBL tutor training courses are all designed to enable participants to experience PBL first-hand both as members of a tutorial group and as tutors. They all also include a theoretical base and offer opportunities for discussion and reflection with peers; however, there are some differences in design between the courses. According to participants, all four courses provide good preparation for the tutor role. Yet, we see a need for the

  19. Do Current Connectionist Learning Models Account for Reading Development in Different Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Florian; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Wimmer, Heinz; Zorzi, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Learning to read a relatively irregular orthography, such as English, is harder and takes longer than learning to read a relatively regular orthography, such as German. At the end of grade 1, the difference in reading performance on a simple set of words and nonwords is quite dramatic. Whereas children using regular orthographies are already close…

  20. Entrepreneurship Education in Malaysia's Public Institutions of Higher Learning--A Review of the Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Yusoff, Mohd Nor Hakimin; Zainol, Fakhrul Anwar; Bin Ibrahim, Mohamed Dahlan

    2015-01-01

    The need for a practical and applicable model for entrepreneurial learning is becoming critical. In this study, we aimed to collect data related to entrepreneurship education practices by all institutes of higher learning (IHLs) in Malaysia as well as challenges faced, facilities, and supports offered by the universities. Given the important role…

  1. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  2. The Current Status and Future Prospects of Corporate e-Learning in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil

    2007-01-01

    Corporate e-Learning in Korea has grown rapidly over the previous six years (2000-2005). This study argues that the main cause of this heightened interest in corporate e-Learning in Korea was not that companies needed to provide high-quality training programs through the Internet, but rather that the government took initiative to transform the…

  3. Concept Development in Learning Physics: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Huttunen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the development and differentiation of concepts in the learning process. An important part of this development process is the re-organisation or re-structuring process in which students' conceptual knowledge and concepts change. This study proposes a new view of concept…

  4. Comparison of a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Method Based on Peptide Ion Current Area to the Isotope Coded Affinity Tag Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ah Goo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several research groups have published methods for the determination of proteomic expression profiling by mass spectrometry without the use of exogenously added stable isotopes or stable isotope dilution theory. These so-called label-free, methods have the advantage of allowing data on each sample to be acquired independently from all other samples to which they can later be compared in silico for the purpose of measuring changes in protein expression between various biological states. We developed label free software based on direct measurement of peptide ion current area (PICA and compared it to two other methods, a simpler label free method known as spectral counting and the isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT method. Data analysis by these methods of a standard mixture containing proteins of known, but varying, concentrations showed that they performed similarly with a mean squared error of 0.09. Additionally, complex bacterial protein mixtures spiked with known concentrations of standard proteins were analyzed using the PICA label-free method. These results indicated that the PICA method detected all levels of standard spiked proteins at the 90% confidence level in this complex biological sample. This finding confirms that label-free methods, based on direct measurement of the area under a single ion current trace, performed as well as the standard ICAT method. Given the fact that the label-free methods provide ease in experimental design well beyond pair-wise comparison, label-free methods such as our PICA method are well suited for proteomic expression profiling of large numbers of samples as is needed in clinical analysis.

  5. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Area Promotes Implicit Motor Learning in a Golf Putting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Frank F; Yeung, Andrew Y; Poolton, Jamie M; Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Gilberto K K; Masters, Rich S W

    2015-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is characterized by low dependence on working memory and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. However, current paradigms for implicit motor learning are based on behavioral interventions that are often task-specific and limited when applied in practice. To investigate whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area during motor learning suppressed working memory activity and reduced explicit verbal-analytical involvement in movement control, thereby promoting implicit motor learning. Twenty-seven healthy individuals practiced a golf putting task during a Training Phase while receiving either real cathodal tDCS stimulation over the left DLPFC area or sham stimulation. Their performance was assessed during a Test phase on another day. Verbal working memory capacity was assessed before and after the Training Phase, and before the Test Phase. Compared to sham stimulation, real stimulation suppressed verbal working memory activity after the Training Phase, but enhanced golf putting performance during the Training Phase and the Test Phase, especially when participants were required to multi-task. Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may foster implicit motor learning and performance in complex real-life motor tasks that occur during sports, surgery or motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on learning fine-motor sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Renee E; Wu, Allan D; Samra, Jasmine K; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2017-01-05

    The cerebellum has been shown to be important for skill learning, including the learning of motor sequences. We investigated whether cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would enhance learning of fine motor sequences. Because the ability to generalize or transfer to novel task variations or circumstances is a crucial goal of real world training, we also examined the effect of tDCS on performance of novel sequences after training. In Study 1, participants received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation while simultaneously practising three eight-element key press sequences in a non-repeating, interleaved order. Immediately after sequence practice with concurrent tDCS, a transfer session was given in which participants practised three interleaved novel sequences. No stimulation was given during transfer. An inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS was found during practice, such that the rate of learning was slowed in comparison to the anodal and sham groups. In Study 2, participants received anodal or sham stimulation and a 24 h delay was added between the practice and transfer sessions to reduce mental fatigue. Although this consolidation period benefitted subsequent transfer for both tDCS groups, anodal tDCS enhanced transfer performance. Together, these studies demonstrate polarity-specific effects on fine motor sequence learning and generalization.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Current breathomics-a review on data pre-processing techniques and machine learning in metabolomics breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinska, A.; Hauschild, A. C.; Fijten, R. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    been extensively developed. Yet, the application of machine learning methods for fingerprinting VOC profiles in the breathomics is still in its infancy. Therefore, in this paper, we describe the current state of the art in data pre-processing and multivariate analysis of breathomics data. We start...... different conditions (e.g. disease stage, treatment). Independently of the utilized analytical method, the most important question, 'which VOCs are discriminatory?', remains the same. Answers can be given by several modern machine learning techniques (multivariate statistics) and, therefore, are the focus...

  8. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  9. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  10. The Current Status and Future Prospects of Corporate e-Learning in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolil Lim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate e-Learning in Korea has grown rapidly over the previous six years (2000-2005. This study argues that the main cause of this heightened interest in corporate e-Learning in Korea was not that companies needed to provide high-quality training programs through the Internet, but rather that the government took initiative to transform the state into an information-based society. The policies for quantitative growth with minimum levels of quality and uniformity have been dominant and have resulted in the lack of diverse e-Learning types for authentic practices in workplaces. This paper suggests that in order to cope with the new competency requirements of employees, corporate e-Learning should be guided both by governmental support and by company initiative.

  11. 'E-learning' modalities in the current era of Medical Education in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2014-09-01

    There are a number of e-Learning modalities, some or all of which may be used throughout a medical, dental, nursing or any other health related undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what e-learning is along with some of the modalities, their common advantages and limitations. This publication ends with practical implications of these modalities for Pakistan.

  12. Ethical and educational considerations in coding hand surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifchez, Scott D; Leinberry, Charles F; Rivlin, Michael; Blazar, Philip E

    2014-07-01

    To assess treatment coding knowledge and practices among residents, fellows, and attending hand surgeons. Through the use of 6 hypothetical cases, we developed a coding survey to assess coding knowledge and practices. We e-mailed this survey to residents, fellows, and attending hand surgeons. In additionally, we asked 2 professional coders to code these cases. A total of 71 participants completed the survey out of 134 people to whom the survey was sent (response rate = 53%). We observed marked disparity in codes chosen among surgeons and among professional coders. Results of this study indicate that coding knowledge, not just its ethical application, had a major role in coding procedures accurately. Surgical coding is an essential part of a hand surgeon's practice and is not well learned during residency or fellowship. Whereas ethical issues such as deliberate unbundling and upcoding may have a role in inaccurate coding, lack of knowledge among surgeons and coders has a major role as well. Coding has a critical role in every hand surgery practice. Inconstancies among those polled in this study reveal that an increase in education on coding during training and improvement in the clarity and consistency of the Current Procedural Terminology coding rules themselves are needed. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. For Whom Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Extensions of a Dual-Coding Theory of Multimedia Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.; Sims, Valerie K.

    1994-01-01

    In 2 experiments, 162 high- and low-spatial ability students viewed a computer-generated animation and heard a concurrent or successive explanation. The concurrent group generated more creative solutions to transfer problems and demonstrated a contiguity effect consistent with dual-coding theory. (SLD)

  14. Dual Coding Theory and Computer Education: Some Media Experiments To Examine the Effects of Different Media on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, James L.

    Dual Coding Theory has quite specific predictions about how information in different media is stored, manipulated and recalled. Different combinations of media are expected to have significant effects upon the recall and retention of information. This obviously may have important consequences in the design of computer-based programs. The paper…

  15. The Current Status of E-learning and Strategies to Enhance Educational Competitiveness in Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Leem

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of e-Learning in Korean higher education and find ways to encourage the further use and development of e-Learning systems that aim to enhance Korea's academic competitiveness. A total of 201 universities in Korea (27 national and public, 163 private, and 11 national universities of education were examined in this study. At the time of the study, 85 percent of the universities and colleges had investigated implementing e-Learning. There were special e-Learning teams in most national and public universities, as well as private universities and colleges. Findings from this study found that both teachers and learners alike, lacked meaningful support systems and opportunities to actively participate in e-Learning programs. Although such lack of support was found to be endemic, such lack of support and opportunity was found to be more accute in private universities, private colleges, universities of education, than mid-sized, small-sized, and provincial universities and colleges. Except for a few mid- and small-sized universities and colleges, most large universities and colleges were equipped with technical support such as infrastructure and operational platforms. These same schools, however, did not provide institutional support, nor did they employ appropriate policies needed to further the quality and enhancement of e-Learning offerings. Also, there was no meaningful link found between schools and industry, nor was there adequate financial support in place for the implementation of e-Learning systems, simply because many universities failed to allocate sufficient funding for e-Learning.In conclusion, the strategies for enhancing university competitiveness through e-Learning are as follows: 1 establishing support strategies according to the types of universities; 2 developing quality assurance systems for e-Learning; 3 enhancing support systems for professors and learners; 4 developing

  16. Evolving a Dynamic Predictive Coding Mechanism for Novelty Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Haggett, Simon J.; Chu, Dominique; Marshall, Ian W.

    2007-01-01

    Novelty detection is a machine learning technique which identifies new or unknown information in data sets. We present our current work on the construction of a new novelty detector based on a dynamical version of predictive coding. We compare three evolutionary algorithms, a simple genetic algorithm, NEAT and FS-NEAT, for the task of optimising the structure of an illustrative dynamic predictive coding neural network to improve its performance over stimuli from a number of artificially gener...

  17. Flaws in current human training protocols for spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: lessons learned from instructional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eLotte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill while the computer learns to automatically recognize these EEG patterns, using signal processing. Most research so far was focused on signal processing, mostly neglecting the human in the loop. However, how well the user masters the BCI skill is also a key element explaining BCI robustness. Indeed, if the user is not able to produce stable and distinct EEG patterns, then no signal processing algorithm would be able to recognize them. Unfortunately, despite the importance of BCI training protocols, they have been scarcely studied so far, and used mostly unchanged for years.In this paper, we advocate that current human training approaches for spontaneous BCI are most likely inappropriate. We notably study instructional design literature in order to identify the key requirements and guidelines for a successful training procedure that promotes a good and efficient skill learning. This literature study highlights that current spontaneous BCI user training procedures satisfy very few of these requirements and hence are likely to be suboptimal. We therefore identify the flaws in BCI training protocols according to instructional design principles, at several levels: in the instructions provided to the user, in the tasks he/she has to perform, and in the feedback provided. For each level, we propose new research directions that are theoretically expected to address some of these flaws and to help users learn the BCI skill more efficiently.

  18. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  19. Programming Entity Framework Code First

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of the Code First data modeling approach in ADO.NET Entity Framework, and learn how to build and configure a model based on existing classes in your business domain. With this concise book, you'll work hands-on with examples to learn how Code First can create an in-memory model and database by default, and how you can exert more control over the model through further configuration. Code First provides an alternative to the database first and model first approaches to the Entity Data Model. Learn the benefits of defining your model with code, whether you're working with an exis

  20. Description of Self-efficacy and Initial Cognitive Abilities on the Students’ Physics Learning of the Direct Current Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenudin; Maknun, J.; Muslim

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine description of self -efficacy and initial cognitive abilities on the students of MAN 1 Bandung (senior high school) in learning physics on the subject of electrical circuits Direct Current (DC) before they get academy ask assigned in the classroom. From the results of this research can be used as a reference to provide appropriate measures for the advancement of student learning. The theory used in this research is the theory of Bandura. The design in this study using case study and data collection is done by tests and questionnaires, sampling techniques used by random sampling, the study was conducted on 10th grade students of MAN 1 Bandung by the amount of students 35 participants. The results of data analysis showed that the percentage of students who have moderate self-efficacy amounted to 67.05 %, and cognitive ability 50 %, this shows that the process of learning that takes place in school before that junior high school is not much scientific implement processes that provide students the opportunity to discover new things, then learning approaches of right is Problem Based Learning (PBL).

  1. Visualizing code and coverage changes for code review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwaal, Sebastiaan; van Deursen, A.; De Souza Coelho, R.; Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the tasks of reviewers is to verify that code modifications are well tested. However, current tools offer little support in understanding precisely how changes to the code relate to changes to the tests. In particular, it is hard to see whether (modified) test code covers the changed code.

  2. [Current teaching, learning and examination methods in medical education and potential applications in rehabilitative issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, S R; Morfeld, M; Gülich, M; Lay, W; Horn, K; Mau, W

    2007-04-01

    With introduction of the new Federal Medical Licensing Regulations (Approbationsordnung) in Germany, integrated teaching in "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment" (Querschnittsbereich Q12) has become obligatory for the first time. Furthermore, the new Regulations require the medical faculties in Germany to realize an innovative didactic orientation in teaching. This paper provides an overview of recent applications of teaching techniques and examination methods in medical education with special consideration of the new integrated course Q12 and further teaching methods related to rehabilitative issues. Problem-oriented learning (POL), problem-based learning (PBL), bedside teaching, eLearning, and the examination methods Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and Triple Jump are in the focus. This overview is intended as the basis for subsequent publications of the Commission for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Training of the German Society of Rehabilitation Science (DGRW), which will present examples of innovative teaching material.

  3. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  4. Prediction of Human Drug Targets and Their Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Kumari, Priyanka; Chaube, Radha

    2018-01-01

    Identification of drug targets and drug target interactions are important steps in the drug-discovery pipeline. Successful computational prediction methods can reduce the cost and time demanded by the experimental methods. Knowledge of putative drug targets and their interactions can be very useful for drug repurposing. Supervised machine learning methods have been very useful in drug target prediction and in prediction of drug target interactions. Here, we describe the details for developing prediction models using supervised learning techniques for human drug target prediction and their interactions.

  5. A Review of Current Machine Learning Techniques Used in Manufacturing Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ademujimi , Toyosi ,; Brundage , Michael ,; Prabhu , Vittaldas ,

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Intelligent Diagnostics and Maintenance Solutions; International audience; Artificial intelligence applications are increasing due to advances in data collection systems, algorithms, and affordability of computing power. Within the manufacturing industry, machine learning algorithms are often used for improving manufacturing system fault diagnosis. This study focuses on a review of recent fault diagnosis applications in manufacturing that are based on several prominent machine learnin...

  6. The "Magic Cure" A Review of the Current Controversial Approaches for Treating Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Larry B.

    1987-01-01

    In view of popular press coverage of controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities, the article briefly reviews evidence concerning the following: neurophysiological retraining (patterning, optometric visual training, cerebellar-vestibular remediation, and applied kinesiology); and orthomolecular medicine (concerning megavitamins,…

  7. Dynamic pricing and learning: Historical origins, current research, and new directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, A.V.

    The topic of dynamic pricing and learning has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years, from different scientific communities. We survey these literature streams: we provide a brief introduction to the historical origins of quantitative research on pricing and demand estimation,

  8. Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education--Trends and Current Situation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Gerhard; Grafe, Silke

    2012-01-01

    German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as…

  9. The development and current situation of e-learning in Spanish Vocational Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jorge Garcia Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study aimed to analyze organizational models at institutional level, technological tools and educational resources that distinguish online vocational studies throughout the Spanish territory. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection. The most relevant results of the study were: there is an increase in the number of students enrolled in vocational training distance learning studies, materials specifically created and distributed in an open format for distance learning are used in some regions, absolute hegemony of Moodle as a virtual learning environment with its synchronous and asynchronous communication tools, existence of a gap between regions regarding the ratio of students per module and the hours devoted to tutorials, distance learning national implementation for the most vocational training studies, and creation of an interactive map specifically in order to show information collected in the study. Considering this situation, there are certain aspects which differ significantly among regions and which could be improved in two ways: firstly, throughout better communication and coordination, and secondly, by means of exchanging experiences between regions.

  10. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Current Programs and Projects. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    For many years, foreign language teachers have used the computer to provide supplemental exercises in the instruction of foreign languages. In recent years, advances in computer technology have motivated teachers to reassess the computer and consider it a valuable part of daily foreign language learning. Innovative software programs, authoring…

  11. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Learning Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Diane S.; Kennedy, Catriona M.; Kilbride, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    As people with learning disabilities now live longer, they will experience the same age-related illnesses as the general population and cancer is a prime example of this. In women, cancer screening is used to detect early on-set of cancer of the breast and abnormalities of the cervix which might, if left untreated, develop into cancer.…

  12. The social learning discourse: trends, themes and interdisciplinary influences in current research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodela, R.

    2013-01-01

    The literature on social learning advances a critique to the command-and-control approach to resource management, and often, this critique is made by borrowing insights and ideas from disciplines other than resource management, which led to certain conceptual and methodological turns that now

  13. What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

  14. Variation of the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) and brain connectivity during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branislava; Swart, Marte; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; Kema, Ido P.; Aleman, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Associative emotional learning, which is important for the social emotional functioning of individuals and is often impaired in psychiatric illnesses, is in part mediated by dopamine and glutamate pathways in the brain. The protein DARPP-32 is involved in the regulation of dopaminergic and

  15. Social media as an open-learning resource in medical education: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, S; Jalali, A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies evaluate the use of social media as an open-learning resource in education, but there is a little published knowledge of empirical evidence that such open-learning resources produce educative outcomes, particularly with regard to student performance. This study undertook a systematic review of the published literature in medical education to determine the state of the evidence as to empirical studies that conduct an evaluation or research regarding social media and open-learning resources. The authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2012 to 2017. This search included using keywords related to social media, medical education, research, and evaluation, while restricting the search to peer reviewed, English language articles only. To meet inclusion criteria, manuscripts had to employ evaluative methods and undertake empirical research. Empirical work designed to evaluate the impact of social media as an open-learning resource in medical education is limited as only 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of these studies used undergraduate medical education as the backdrop to investigate open-learning resources, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. YouTube appears to have little educational value due to the unsupervised nature of content added on a daily basis. Overall, extant reviews have demonstrated that we know a considerable amount about social media use, although to date, its impacts remain unclear. There is a paucity of outcome-based, empirical studies assessing the impact of social media in medical education. The few empirical studies identified tend to focus on evaluating the affective outcomes of social media and medical education as opposed to understanding any linkages between social media and performance outcomes. Given the potential for social media use in medical education, more empirical evaluative studies are required to determine educational value.

  16. An On-Chip Learning Neuromorphic Autoencoder With Current-Mode Transposable Memory Read and Virtual Lookup Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwasuk; Son, Hyunwoo; Seong, Kihwan; Kim, Byungsub; Park, Hong-June; Sim, Jae-Yoon

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an IC implementation of on-chip learning neuromorphic autoencoder unit in a form of rate-based spiking neural network. With a current-mode signaling scheme embedded in a 500 × 500 6b SRAM-based memory, the proposed architecture achieves simultaneous processing of multiplications and accumulations. In addition, a transposable memory read for both forward and backward propagations and a virtual lookup table are also proposed to perform an unsupervised learning of restricted Boltzmann machine. The IC is fabricated using 28-nm CMOS process and is verified in a three-layer network of encoder-decoder pair for training and recovery of images with two-dimensional pixels. With a dataset of 50 digits, the IC shows a normalized root mean square error of 0.078. Measured energy efficiencies are 4.46 pJ per synaptic operation for inference and 19.26 pJ per synaptic weight update for learning, respectively. The learning performance is also estimated by simulations if the proposed hardware architecture is extended to apply to a batch training of 60 000 MNIST datasets.

  17. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This module covers the relationships between current and voltage; resistance in a series circuit; how to determine the values of current, voltage, resistance, and power in resistive series circuits; the effects of source internal resistance; and an introduction to the troubleshooting of series circuits. This module is divided into five lessons:…

  18. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  19. A Mouse Model of Visual Perceptual Learning Reveals Alterations in Neuronal Coding and Dendritic Spine Density in the Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Xu; Li, Yue; Lou, Shihao; Ma, Xiao; An, Xu; Liu, Hui; Peng, Jing; Ma, Danyi; Zhou, Yifeng; Yang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can improve spatial vision in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. Although previous studies of humans and large animals have explored the neural basis of VPL, elucidation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remains a challenge. Owing to the advantages of molecular genetic and optogenetic manipulations, the mouse is a promising model for providing a mechanistic understanding of VPL. Here, we thoroughly evaluated the effects and p...

  20. Social media as an open-learning resource in medical education: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available S Sutherland,1 A Jalali2 1Department of Critical Care, The Ottawa Hospital, ²Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: Numerous studies evaluate the use of social media as an open-learning resource in education, but there is a little published knowledge of empirical evidence that such open-learning resources produce educative outcomes, particularly with regard to student performance. This study undertook a systematic review of the published literature in medical education to determine the state of the evidence as to empirical studies that conduct an evaluation or research regarding social media and open-learning resources.Methods: The authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2012 to 2017. This search included using keywords related to social media, medical education, research, and evaluation, while restricting the search to peer reviewed, English language articles only. To meet inclusion criteria, manuscripts had to employ evaluative methods and undertake empirical research.Results: Empirical work designed to evaluate the impact of social media as an open-learning resource in medical education is limited as only 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of these studies used undergraduate medical education as the backdrop to investigate open-learning resources, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. YouTube appears to have little educational value due to the unsupervised nature of content added on a daily basis. Overall, extant reviews have demonstrated that we know a considerable amount about social media use, although to date, its impacts remain unclear.Conclusion: There is a paucity of outcome-based, empirical studies assessing the impact of social media in medical education. The few empirical studies identified tend to focus on evaluating the affective outcomes of social media and medical education as opposed to

  1. Case studies in Gaussian process modelling of computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Marc C.; Anderson, Clive W.; Conti, Stefano; O'Hagan, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a number of recent applications in which an emulator of a computer code is created using a Gaussian process model. Tools are then applied to the emulator to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity analysis is used both as an aid to model improvement and as a guide to how much the output uncertainty might be reduced by learning about specific inputs. Uncertainty analysis allows us to reflect output uncertainty due to unknown input parameters, when the finished code is used for prediction. The computer codes themselves are currently being developed within the UK Centre for Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics

  2. An Investigation of Incorporating Dialogical Argumentation into Peer Instruction (PI for Pre-Service Teacher Learning of Current Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Jacob Kola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is a quasi-experimental research employing the pretest-posttest design. 52 pre-service teachers from a college of education were sampled with 26 pre-service teachers in both the control group (CG and experimental group (EG. The instruments used to collect data were Physics Achievement Test (PAT, Peer Instruction Dialogical Argumentation Questionnaire (PIDAQ, and Adopted Physics ConcepTest (APC for teaching the experimental group. The instruments were validated by experts in science education and physics. The reliability of the PAT, based on a pilot test conducted, shows that the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.876. The data obtained were analyzed using t-test, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, and descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that the incorporation of DA into PI has an impact on the students’ learning of current electricity. The study considered some implications of the findings on the teaching and learning of physics.

  3. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  4. Coding of DNA samples and data in the pharmaceutical industry: current practices and future directions--perspective of the I-PWG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, M A; Cohen, N; Warner, A W; Shaw, P M; Groenen, P; Snapir, A

    2011-04-01

    DNA samples collected in clinical trials and stored for future research are valuable to pharmaceutical drug development. Given the perceived higher risk associated with genetic research, industry has implemented complex coding methods for DNA. Following years of experience with these methods and with addressing questions from institutional review boards (IRBs), ethics committees (ECs) and health authorities, the industry has started reexamining the extent of the added value offered by these methods. With the goal of harmonization, the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) conducted a survey to gain an understanding of company practices for DNA coding and to solicit opinions on their effectiveness at protecting privacy. The results of the survey and the limitations of the coding methods are described. The I-PWG recommends dialogue with key stakeholders regarding coding practices such that equal standards are applied to DNA and non-DNA samples. The I-PWG believes that industry standards for privacy protection should provide adequate safeguards for DNA and non-DNA samples/data and suggests a need for more universal standards for samples stored for future research.

  5. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  6. A Mouse Model of Visual Perceptual Learning Reveals Alterations in Neuronal Coding and Dendritic Spine Density in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Xu; Li, Yue; Lou, Shihao; Ma, Xiao; An, Xu; Liu, Hui; Peng, Jing; Ma, Danyi; Zhou, Yifeng; Yang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can improve spatial vision in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. Although previous studies of humans and large animals have explored the neural basis of VPL, elucidation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remains a challenge. Owing to the advantages of molecular genetic and optogenetic manipulations, the mouse is a promising model for providing a mechanistic understanding of VPL. Here, we thoroughly evaluated the effects and properties of VPL on spatial vision in C57BL/6J mice using a two-alternative, forced-choice visual water task. Briefly, the mice underwent prolonged training at near the individual threshold of contrast or spatial frequency (SF) for pattern discrimination or visual detection for 35 consecutive days. Following training, the contrast-threshold trained mice showed an 87% improvement in contrast sensitivity (CS) and a 55% gain in visual acuity (VA). Similarly, the SF-threshold trained mice exhibited comparable and long-lasting improvements in VA and significant gains in CS over a wide range of SFs. Furthermore, learning largely transferred across eyes and stimulus orientations. Interestingly, learning could transfer from a pattern discrimination task to a visual detection task, but not vice versa. We validated that this VPL fully restored VA in adult amblyopic mice and old mice. Taken together, these data indicate that mice, as a species, exhibit reliable VPL. Intrinsic signal optical imaging revealed that mice with perceptual training had higher cut-off SFs in primary visual cortex (V1) than those without perceptual training. Moreover, perceptual training induced an increase in the dendritic spine density in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of V1. These results indicated functional and structural alterations in V1 during VPL. Overall, our VPL mouse model will provide a platform for investigating the neurobiological basis of VPL.

  7. A mouse model of visual perceptual learning reveals alterations in neuronal coding and dendritic spine density in the visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual perceptual learning (VPL can improve spatial vision in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. Although previous studies of humans and large animals have explored the neural basis of VPL, elucidation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remains a challenge. Owing to the advantages of molecular genetic and optogenetic manipulations, the mouse is a promising model for providing a mechanistic understanding of VPL. Here, we thoroughly evaluated the effects and properties of VPL on spatial vision in C57BL/6J mice using a two-alternative, forced-choice visual water task. Briefly, the mice underwent prolonged training at near the individual threshold of contrast or spatial frequency (SF for pattern discrimination or visual detection for 35 consecutive days. Following training, the contrast-threshold trained mice showed an 87% improvement in contrast sensitivity (CS and a 55% gain in visual acuity (VA. Similarly, the SF-threshold trained mice exhibited comparable and long-lasting improvements in VA and significant gains in CS over a wide range of SFs. Furthermore, learning largely transferred across eyes and stimulus orientations. Interestingly, learning could transfer from a pattern discrimination task to a visual detection task, but not vice versa. We validated that this VPL fully restored VA in adult amblyopic mice and old mice. Taken together, these data indicate that mice, as a species, exhibit reliable VPL. Intrinsic signal optical imaging revealed that mice with perceptual training had higher cut-off SFs in primary visual cortex (V1 than those without perceptual training. Moreover, perceptual training induced an increase in the dendritic spine density in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of V1. These results indicated functional and structural alterations in V1 during VPL. Overall, our VPL mouse model will provide a platform for investigating the neurobiological basis of VPL.

  8. Fundamentals, current state of the development of, and prospects for further improvement of the new-generation thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code for simulation of fast reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipchenkov, V. M.; Anfimov, A. M.; Afremov, D. A.; Gorbunov, V. S.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Osipov, S. L.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Usov, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conceptual fundamentals of the development of the new-generation system thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code are presented. The code is intended to simulate the thermalhydraulic processes that take place in the loops and the heat-exchange equipment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and during accidents. The paper provides a brief overview of Russian and foreign system thermal-hydraulic codes for modeling liquid-metal coolants and gives grounds for the necessity of development of a new-generation HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code. Considering the specific engineering features of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with the BN-1200 and the BREST-OD-300 reactors, the processes and the phenomena are singled out that require a detailed analysis and development of the models to be correctly described by the system thermal-hydraulic code in question. Information on the functionality of the computational code is provided, viz., the thermalhydraulic two-phase model, the properties of the sodium and the lead coolants, the closing equations for simulation of the heat-mass exchange processes, the models to describe the processes that take place during the steam-generator tube rupture, etc. The article gives a brief overview of the usability of the computational code, including a description of the support documentation and the supply package, as well as possibilities of taking advantages of the modern computer technologies, such as parallel computations. The paper shows the current state of verification and validation of the computational code; it also presents information on the principles of constructing of and populating the verification matrices for the BREST-OD-300 and the BN-1200 reactor systems. The prospects are outlined for further development of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, introduction of new models into it, and enhancement of its usability. It is shown that the program of development and

  9. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  10. Current and proposed revisions, changes, and modifications to American codes and standards to address packaging, handling, and transportation of radioactive materials and how they relate to comparable international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borter, W.H.; Froehlich, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses current and proposed revisions, additions, and modifications to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (i.e., ''ASMEthe Code'') Section III, Division 3 and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASME N14.6. It provides insight into the ongoing processes of the associated committees and highlights important revisions, changes, and modifications to this Code and Standard. The ASME Code has developed and issued Division 3 to address items associated with the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. It currently only addresses ''General Requirements'' in Subsections WA and ''Class TP (Type B) Containments'' (Transportation Packages) in Subsection WB, but is in the process of adding a new Subsection WC to address ''Class SC'' (Storage Containments). ANSI/ASME Standard N14.6 which interacts with components constructed to Division 3 by addressinges special lifting devices for radioactive material shipping containers. This Standard is in the process of a complete re-write. This Code and Standard can be classified as ''dynamic'' in that their committees meet at least four times a year to evaluate proposed modifications and additions that reflect current safety practices in the nuclear industry. These evaluations include the possible addition of new materials, fabrication processes, examination methods, and testing requirements. An overview of this ongoing process is presented in this paper along with highlights of the more important proposed revisions, changes, and modifications and how they relate to United States (US) and international regulations and guidance like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Requirement No. TS-R-1

  11. The Languages of Neurons: An Analysis of Coding Mechanisms by Which Neurons Communicate, Learn and Store Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris H. Baslow

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper evidence is provided that individual neurons possess language, and that the basic unit for communication consists of two neurons and their entire field of interacting dendritic and synaptic connections. While information processing in the brain is highly complex, each neuron uses a simple mechanism for transmitting information. This is in the form of temporal electrophysiological action potentials or spikes (S operating on a millisecond timescale that, along with pauses (P between spikes constitute a two letter “alphabet” that generates meaningful frequency-encoded signals or neuronal S/P “words” in a primary language. However, when a word from an afferent neuron enters the dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field between two neurons, it is translated into a new frequency-encoded word with the same meaning, but in a different spike-pause language, that is delivered to and understood by the efferent neuron. It is suggested that this unidirectional inter-neuronal language-based word translation step is of utmost importance to brain function in that it allows for variations in meaning to occur. Thus, structural or biochemical changes in dendrites or synapses can produce novel words in the second language that have changed meanings, allowing for a specific signaling experience, either external or internal, to modify the meaning of an original word (learning, and store the learned information of that experience (memory in the form of an altered dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field.

  12. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human population doses: Comparative analysis of CREAM code results with currently computer codes of Nuclear Regulatory Authority; Dosis en la poblacion: comparacion de los resultados del codigo CREAM con resultados de modelos vigentes en la ARN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Jimenez, Maria Teresa; Curti, Adriana [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mtalonso@sede.arn.gov.ar; acurti@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2001-07-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority is performing an analysis with PC CREAM, developed at the NRPB, for updating computer programs and models used for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. For CREAM dose assessment verification for local scenarios, this paper presents a comparison of population doses assessed with the computer codes used nowadays and with CREAM, for unitary releases of main radionuclides in nuclear power plant discharges. The results of atmospheric dispersion processes and the transfer of radionuclides through the environment for local scenarios are analysed. The programs used are PLUME for atmospheric dispersion, FARMLAND for the transfer of radionuclides into foodstuffs following atmospheric deposition in the terrestrial environment and ASSESSOR for individual and collective dose assessments.This paper presents the general assumptions made for dose assessments. The results show some differences between doses due to differences in models, in the complexity level of the same models, or in parameters. (author)

  14. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  15. Battery powered thought: enhancement of attention, learning, and memory in healthy adults using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-15

    This article reviews studies demonstrating enhancement with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of attention, learning, and memory processes in healthy adults. Given that these are fundamental cognitive functions, they may also mediate stimulation effects on other higher-order processes such as decision-making and problem solving. Although tDCS research is still young, there have been a variety of methods used and cognitive processes tested. While these different methods have resulted in seemingly contradictory results among studies, many consistent and noteworthy effects of tDCS on attention, learning, and memory have been reported. The literature suggests that although tDCS as typically applied may not be as useful for localization of function in the brain as some other methods of brain stimulation, tDCS may be particularly well-suited for practical applications involving the enhancement of attention, learning, and memory, in both healthy subjects and in clinical populations. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Students' Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque A. Haolader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learn-ing/teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing students and its effect on students' competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion survey and competence test. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used for data interpretation and analysis in this descriptive type of research study. Findings revealed that the learning materials are mainly theory oriented and mostly cover those contents usually common in exams. About half of teachers are aware of the taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing, but they rarely put importance on it. In the classroom, teachers spend only a little time for delivering content at the level of apply/analyse. However, a significant number of tasks performed in labs are practical and occupation relevant and can be classified at higher levels of the taxonomy. In student assessment, the test-items assess mainly theoretical knowledge at the level of remember. The effect of these practices is reflected in demonstrating student performance in a competence test. The study concludes with some recommendations.

  17. Differential effects of bihemispheric and unihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation in young and elderly adults in verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Valentina; Nitsche, Michael; Iasevoli, Luigi; Cucuzza, Gabriella; Caltagirone, Carlo; Marangolo, Paola

    2017-03-15

    For the past few years, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of several pathologies has been investigated. In the language domain, several studies, in healthy and brain-damaged populations, have already shown that tDCS is effective in enhancing naming, repetition and semantic word generation. In those studies, different tDCS electrode configurations have been tested, however, a direct comparison between different montages in verbal learning has never been conducted. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of bihemispheric and unihemispheric tDCS on verbal learning task performance in two groups (young vs. elderly). Fifteen healthy volunteers participated per group. Each participant received three stimulation conditions: unihemispheric anodal tDCS over the left temporal area, bihemispheric tDCS over the left (anodal) and right (cathodal) temporal areas and a sham condition. During active stimulation, tDCS (20min, 2mA) was applied while each participant learned twenty pseudowords (arbitrarily assigned to corresponding pictures). No significant differences were found between the three conditions for the young group with regard to accuracy and vocal reaction times. In contrast, in the elderly group, real stimulation improved performance compared to sham but bihemispheric tDCS was more efficient than unilateral stimulation. These results suggest that bihemispheric stimulation is more effective in improving language learning but this effect is age-dependent. The hypothesis is advanced that cortical changes in the course of aging might differentially impact on tDCS efficacy on behavioral performance. These data may also have implications for treatment of stroke patients with language impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Simulation-based learning and internal medicine: Opportunities and current perspectives for a national harmonized program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, J; Abbara, S; Terrier, B; Samson, M; Tesnières, A; Fournier, J P; Braun, M

    2018-03-13

    Simulation-based learning (SBL) is developing rapidly in France and the question of its use in the teaching of internal medicine (IM) is essential. While HAS encourages its integration into medical education, French Young Internists (AJI) set up a working group to reflect on the added-value of this tool in our specialty. Different sorts of SBL exist: human, synthetic and electronic. It enables student to acquire and evaluate technical skills (strengths, invasive procedures, etc.) and non-technical skills (relational, reasoning…). The debriefing that follows the simulation session is an essential time in pedagogical terms. It enables the acquisition of knowledge by encouraging the students' reflection to reshape their reasoning patterns by self-correcting. IM interns are supportive of its use. The simulation would allow young internists to acquire skills specific to our specialty such as certain gestures, complex consulting management, the synthesis of difficult clinical cases. SBL remains confronted with human and financial cost issues. The budgets allocated to the development and maintenance of simulation centres are uneven, making the supply of training unequal on the territory. Simulation sessions are time-consuming and require teacher training. Are faculties ready to train and invest their time in simulation, even though the studies do not allow us to conclude on its pedagogical validity? Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Current state of the effectiveness of problem-based learning in prosthodontics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ehsan; Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the available literature on the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in prosthodontics. Both electronic and manual searches were performed by two reviewers. Of the 440 studies identified, ten met the inclusion criteria (Kappa=0.83). Various assessment tools such as standardized examinations (National Board Dental Examination and North East Regional Board of Dental Examiners exam) (22 percent), tutor evaluation (practical and examinations performance) (20 percent), curriculum time (20 percent) and number of units (10 percent), peer evaluation (10 percent), and self-evaluation (100 percent) were used in the included studies. Thirty percent of the studies adopted a control group for all measurements, 30 percent did for only some measurements, and the others lacked any control group. Although 30 percent of the studies implemented a hybrid PBL, the other studies did not mention the type of PBL. Based on the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP), all of the included studies were rated as being of weak quality. Heterogeneity across these studies in outcome variables, study designs, levels of PBL intervention, and study population limits any attempt to generalize the outcomes. The generally poor quality assessment outcomes warrant further studies on the effectiveness of PBL in prosthodontics education compared to a non-PBL curriculum.

  20. Current direction, temperature, salinity, and taxonomic code data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1979-08-18 to 1981-01-21 (NODC Accession 8100502)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, current direction, and taxonomic data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from August 18, 1979 to January...

  1. Striatal and Tegmental Neurons Code Critical Signals for Temporal-Difference Learning of State Value in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentao Wen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons.

  2. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Computer codes for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    Computer codes for fusion safety analysis have been under development in the United States for about a decade. This paper will discuss five codes that are currently under development by the Fusion Safety Program. The purpose and capability of each code will be presented, a sample given, followed by a discussion of the present status and future development plans

  4. Nutrigenomics in human intervention studies: current status, lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonas; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Hoeft, Birgit; Bendik, Igor; Weber, Peter; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-03-01

    Nutrigenomics applications comprise transcript-, proteome- and metabolome-profiling techniques in which responses to diets or individual ingredients are assessed in biological samples. They may also include the characterization of heterogeneity in relevant genes that affect the biological processes. This review explores various areas of nutrition and food sciences in which transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-analyses have been applied in human intervention studies, including nutrigenetics aspects and discusses the advantages and limitations of the methodologies. Despite the power of the profiling techniques to generate huge data sets, a critical assessment of the study outcomes emphasizes the current constraints in data interpretation, including huge knowledge gaps, the need for improved study designs and more comprehensive phenotyping of volunteers before selection for study participation. In this respect, nutrigenomics faces the same problems as all other areas of the life sciences, employing the same tools. However, there is a growing trend toward systemic approaches in which different technologies are combined and applied to the same sample, allowing physiological changes to be assessed more robustly throughout all molecular layers of mRNA, protein and metabolite changes. Nutrigenomics is thereby maturing as a branch of the life sciences and is gaining significant recognition in the scientific community. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  6. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  7. Virtual Speed Mentoring in the Workplace--Current Approaches to Personal Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chuck; Langlois, Kristen; Watson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Informal learning is the biggest undiscovered treasure in today's workplace. Marcia Conner, author and often-cited voice for workplace learning, suggests that "Informal learning accounts for over 75% of the learning taking place in organizations today" (1997). IBM understands the value of the hyper-connected informal workplace and…

  8. Individual differences in learning correlate with modulation of brain activity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Brian; Wada, Atsushi; Parasuraman, Raja

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability. In accomplishing this goal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) concurrently with tDCS stimulation (1 mA, 30 minutes duration) using a visual search task simulating real world conditions. The experiment consisted of three fMRI sessions: pre-training (no performance feedback), training (performance feedback which included response accuracy and target location and either real tDCS or sham stimulation given), and post-training (no performance feedback). The right posterior parietal cortex was selected as the site of anodal tDCS based on its known role in visual search and spatial attention processing. Our results identified a region in the right precentral gyrus, known to be involved with visual spatial attention and orienting, that showed tDCS induced task related changes in cortical excitability that were associated with individual differences in improved performance. This same region showed greater activity during the training session for target feedback of incorrect (target-error feedback) over correct trials for the tDCS stim over sham group indicating greater attention to target features during training feedback when trials were incorrect. These results give important insight into the nature of neural excitability induced by tDCS as it relates to variability in

  9. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  10. Representing high-dimensional data to intelligent prostheses and other wearable assistive robots: A first comparison of tile coding and selective Kanerva coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travnik, Jaden B; Pilarski, Patrick M

    2017-07-01

    Prosthetic devices have advanced in their capabilities and in the number and type of sensors included in their design. As the space of sensorimotor data available to a conventional or machine learning prosthetic control system increases in dimensionality and complexity, it becomes increasingly important that this data be represented in a useful and computationally efficient way. Well structured sensory data allows prosthetic control systems to make informed, appropriate control decisions. In this study, we explore the impact that increased sensorimotor information has on current machine learning prosthetic control approaches. Specifically, we examine the effect that high-dimensional sensory data has on the computation time and prediction performance of a true-online temporal-difference learning prediction method as embedded within a resource-limited upper-limb prosthesis control system. We present results comparing tile coding, the dominant linear representation for real-time prosthetic machine learning, with a newly proposed modification to Kanerva coding that we call selective Kanerva coding. In addition to showing promising results for selective Kanerva coding, our results confirm potential limitations to tile coding as the number of sensory input dimensions increases. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explicitly examine representations for realtime machine learning prosthetic devices in general terms. This work therefore provides an important step towards forming an efficient prosthesis-eye view of the world, wherein prompt and accurate representations of high-dimensional data may be provided to machine learning control systems within artificial limbs and other assistive rehabilitation technologies.

  11. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.

  12. Battlefield Tourniquets: Lessons Learned in Moving Current Care Toward Best Care in an Army Medical Department at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Dubick, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding prevention and control by tourniquet use by out-of-hospital caregivers is a major breakthrough in military medicine of current wars. The present review documents developments in tourniquet practices since 2001 among the US military services for aid in improving doctrine, policy, and especially care in wars to come. Tourniquets are an adjunct for resuscitation in self-care and buddy aid and today are issued to all military servicepersons who deploy into a combat zone. In the US Army, virtually every Soldier is trained in first aid tourniquet use; since 2009 they are instructed early and often to use them early and often. Despite substantial knowledge gains among the services in tourniquet use and resulting improvements in casualty survival, current evidence shows persistent difficulties in achieving best care with tourniquet use for individual trauma patients. Nevertheless, contemporary tourniquet use incorporates key lessons learned over the last 14 years of war that include: (1) tourniquet use reliably stops bleeding from limb wounds and prevents mortality in prehospital settings; and (2) brief tourniquet use appears to be safe. These 2 lessons have become so evident that civilian emergency medical systems have begun using them, albeit unevenly. Collection and interpretation of data of casualties with tourniquet use have showed that such intervention has lifesaving benefit through 2 mechanisms: control of both ongoing hemorrhage and shock severity. The next generation of interventions in bleeding control involves developing the skill sets, education, and standards of tourniquet users which may improve hemorrhage control in wars to come.

  13. Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…

  14. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  15. From geospatial observations of ocean currents to causal predictors of spatio-economic activity using computer vision and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin; Ayache, Stephane; Escalera, Sergio; Baró Solé, Xavier; Capponi, Cecile; Panciatici, Patrick; Guyon, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    The big data transformation currently revolutionizing science and industry forges novel possibilities in multi-modal analysis scarcely imaginable only a decade ago. One of the important economic and industrial problems that stand to benefit from the recent expansion of data availability and computational prowess is the prediction of electricity demand and renewable energy generation. Both are correlates of human activity: spatiotemporal energy consumption patterns in society are a factor of both demand (weather dependent) and supply, which determine cost - a relation expected to strengthen along with increasing renewable energy dependence. One of the main drivers of European weather patterns is the activity of the Atlantic Ocean and in particular its dominant Northern Hemisphere current: the Gulf Stream. We choose this particular current as a test case in part due to larger amount of relevant data and scientific literature available for refinement of analysis techniques. This data richness is due not only to its economic importance but also to its size being clearly visible in radar and infrared satellite imagery, which makes it easier to detect using Computer Vision (CV). The power of CV techniques makes basic analysis thus developed scalable to other smaller and less known, but still influential, currents, which are not just curves on a map, but complex, evolving, moving branching trees in 3D projected onto a 2D image. We investigate means of extracting, from several image modalities (including recently available Copernicus radar and earlier Infrared satellites), a parameterized representation of the state of the Gulf Stream and its environment that is useful as feature space representation in a machine learning context, in this case with the EC's H2020-sponsored 'See.4C' project, in the context of which data scientists may find novel predictors of spatiotemporal energy flow. Although automated extractors of Gulf Stream position exist, they differ in methodology

  16. High Order Tensor Formulation for Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2017-12-25

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) has gained attention for its successful role as a reconstruction and a classification tool in the computer vision and machine learning community. Current CSC methods can only reconstruct singlefeature 2D images independently. However, learning multidimensional dictionaries and sparse codes for the reconstruction of multi-dimensional data is very important, as it examines correlations among all the data jointly. This provides more capacity for the learned dictionaries to better reconstruct data. In this paper, we propose a generic and novel formulation for the CSC problem that can handle an arbitrary order tensor of data. Backed with experimental results, our proposed formulation can not only tackle applications that are not possible with standard CSC solvers, including colored video reconstruction (5D- tensors), but it also performs favorably in reconstruction with much fewer parameters as compared to naive extensions of standard CSC to multiple features/channels.

  17. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  18. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  19. A single session of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation does not modulate implicit task sequence learning and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Branislav; Müri, René; Meier, Beat

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is assumed to affect cortical excitability and dependent on the specific stimulation conditions either to increase or decrease learning. The purpose of this study was to modulate implicit task sequence learning with tDCS. As cortico-striatal loops are critically involved in implicit task sequence learning, tDCS was applied above the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In Experiment 1, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied before the start of the sequence learning task. In Experiment 2, stimulation was applied during the sequence learning task. Consolidation of learning was assessed after 24 h. The results of both experiments showed that implicit task sequence learning occurred consistently but it was not modulated by different tDCS conditions. Similarly, consolidation measured after a 24 h-interval including sleep was also not affected by stimulation. These results indicate that a single session of DLPFC tDCS is not sufficient to modulate implicit task sequence learning. This study adds to the accumulating evidence that tDCS may not be as effective as originally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Light-water reactor safety analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Ransom, V.H.; Ybarrondo, L.J.; Liles, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the evolution of light-water reactor safety analysis codes is presented. Included is a summary comparison of the technical capabilities of major system codes. Three recent codes are described in more detail to serve as examples of currently used techniques. Example comparisons between calculated results using these codes and experimental data are given. Finally, a brief evaluation of current code capability and future development trends is presented

  1. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  2. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  3. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  4. Libraries as Facilitators of Coding for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Crystle

    2017-01-01

    Learning to code has been an increasingly frequent topic of conversation both in academic circles and popular media. Learning to code recently received renewed attention with the announcement of the White House's Computer Science for All initiative (Smith 2016). This initiative intends "to empower all American students from kindergarten…

  5. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  6. Neurocognitive Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Arithmetic Learning and Performance: A Simultaneous tDCS-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tobias U; Rütsche, Bruno; Wurmitzer, Karoline; Brem, Silvia; Ruff, Christian C; Grabner, Roland H

    A small but increasing number of studies suggest that non-invasive brain stimulation by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate arithmetic processes that are essential for higher-order mathematical skills and that are impaired in dyscalculic individuals. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such stimulation effects, and whether they are specific to cognitive processes involved in different arithmetic tasks. We addressed these questions by applying tDCS during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were solving two types of complex subtraction problems: repeated problems, relying on arithmetic fact learning and problem-solving by fact retrieval, and novel problems, requiring calculation procedures. Twenty participants receiving left parietal anodal plus right frontal cathodal stimulation were compared with 20 participants in a sham condition. We found a strong cognitive and neural dissociation between repeated and novel problems. Repeated problems were solved more accurately and elicited increased activity in the bilateral angular gyri and medial plus lateral prefrontal cortices. Solving novel problems, in contrast, was accompanied by stronger activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulci and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Most importantly, tDCS decreased the activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while solving novel (compared to repeated) problems, suggesting that the cathodal stimulation rendered this region unable to respond to the task-specific cognitive demand. The present study revealed that tDCS during arithmetic problem-solving can modulate the neural activity in proximity to the electrodes specifically when the current demands lead to an engagement of this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation capacity development in Africa: Current landscape of international partners’ initiatives, lessons learned and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tarsilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the copious resources allocated by international development partners to enhance African countries’ capacity to evaluate the performance and impact of development programmes and policies, most evaluation capacity building (ECB efforts have not yielded the expected results. Time and energy have been focused on the measurement of short-term effects whilst long-term results have largely remained elusive. As a result, a variety of actors across the continent are calling for more innovative strategies. In particular, more efforts are currently being made to revitalise the evaluation function in international development at the global level and to enhance a shift from short-term training to more contextually relevant, systemic learning, equity and sustainability efforts. This article aims to provide a critical overview of ECB initiatives undertaken by international development partners in Africa over five years (2009–2014 that worked well and investigate how they could be improved. The common issues stress the need for harmonisation and collaboration between international partners and African institutions and more effective collaboration with in country institutions and organisations committed to evaluation capacity development (ECD. The analysis in this article is timely and relevant for both the strengthening of socalled made-in Africa evaluation methods and approaches and the roll-out of systemic and organic ECD strategies. The debate spurred by this article is likely to contribute to the current global debate on what strategies ought to be taken as part of the post-2015 agenda. This inturn will spur the debate on ECD to increase in importance and undoubtedly in intensity.

  8. Code quality issues in student programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, H.W.; Heeren, B.J.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Because low quality code can cause serious problems in software systems, students learning to program should pay attention to code quality early. Although many studies have investigated mistakes that students make during programming, we do not know much about the quality of their code. This study

  9. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  10. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  11. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  12. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  13. Research and Trends in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning from 2006 to 2011: A Content Analysis of Quick Response Code (QR-Code) and Its Application in Selected Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Goh Bak; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd.; Zakaria, Abd. Razak; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of selected articles in the field of QR code and its application in educational context that were published in journals and proceedings of international conferences and workshops from 2006 to 2011. These articles were cross analysed by published years, journal, and research topics. Further analysis was…

  14. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  15. TASS code topical report. V.1 TASS code technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Suk K.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. C.; Yoon, H. Y.

    1997-02-01

    TASS 1.0 code has been developed at KAERI for the initial and reload non-LOCA safety analysis for the operating PWRs as well as the PWRs under construction in Korea. TASS code will replace various vendor's non-LOCA safety analysis codes currently used for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs in Korea. This can be achieved through TASS code input modifications specific to each reactor type. The TASS code can be run interactively through the keyboard operation. A simimodular configuration used in developing the TASS code enables the user easily implement new models. TASS code has been programmed using FORTRAN77 which makes it easy to install and port for different computer environments. The TASS code can be utilized for the steady state simulation as well as the non-LOCA transient simulations such as power excursions, reactor coolant pump trips, load rejections, loss of feedwater, steam line breaks, steam generator tube ruptures, rod withdrawal and drop, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The malfunctions of the control systems, components, operator actions and the transients caused by the malfunctions can be easily simulated using the TASS code. This technical report describes the TASS 1.0 code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code technical manual has been prepared as a part of the TASS code manual which includes TASS code user's manual and TASS code validation report, and will be submitted to the regulatory body as a TASS code topical report for a licensing non-LOCA safety analysis for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs operating and under construction in Korea. (author). 42 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs

  16. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  17. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  18. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  19. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  20. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  2. A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: its current use, effectiveness, and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. PMID:25179615

  3. A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: its current use, effectiveness, and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia J; Metz, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  4. Examining the Role of Orthographic Coding Ability in Elementary Students with Previously Identified Reading Disability, Speech or Language Impairment, or Comorbid Language and Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Erin Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role orthographic coding might play in distinguishing between membership in groups of language-based disability types. The sample consisted of 36 second and third-grade subjects who were administered the PAL-II Receptive Coding and Word Choice Accuracy subtest as a measure of orthographic coding…

  5. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  6. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P 1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  7. Vectorization of the KENO V.a criticality safety code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Dodds, H.L.; Petrie, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the vector processor, which is used in the current generation of supercomputers and is beginning to be used in workstations, provides the potential for dramatic speed-up for codes that are able to process data as vectors. Unfortunately, the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo codes prevents the old scalar version of these codes from taking advantage of the vector processors. New Monte Carlo algorithms that process all the histories undergoing the same event as a batch are required. Recently, new vectorized Monte Carlo codes have been developed that show significant speed-ups when compared to the scalar version of themselves or equivalent codes. This paper discusses the vectorization of an already existing and widely used criticality safety code, KENO V.a All the changes made to KENO V.a are transparent to the user making it possible to upgrade from the standard scalar version of KENO V.a to the vectorized version without learning a new code

  8. A Coding Scheme to Analyse the Online Asynchronous Discussion Forums of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The current study describes the development of a content analysis coding scheme to examine transcripts of online asynchronous discussion groups in higher education. The theoretical framework comprises the theories regarding knowledge construction in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) based on a sociocultural perspective. The coding…

  9. Promoting practical clinical management learning: the current situation about Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Marian

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about work-based learning in information management for student nurses. It seeks, through a literature review, to make a case for and promote Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses within their clinical environment. The profession of nursing, like many other jobs, is facing the increasing usage of information technology in day-to-day operations. Admission and discharges of patients have been held on computer databases since at least the 1980s. With the new Labour Government in 1997, increasing focus was placed on the effectiveness of the National Health Service and using computers as one way to assist in achieving greater effectiveness. Nurse education therefore needed to reflect this need and support trainee nurses to acquire skills in Information and Communications Technology. This paper is part of an ongoing professional doctorate inquiry into Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses. A literature search was conducted on teaching information and technology skills via Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Most of the available studies were neither based on the UK nor were they about student nurses. As there is a dearth of published work in this specific area, relevant, related and tangential literature was reviewed. It is argued that current practice and published work on Information and Communications Technology capability development by student nurses hardly exists. The literature confirmed that success in this area requires sound change management, an understanding of National Health Service culture, and effective people leadership skills. Nurse educators and managers need to pay more attention to understand how organizations work, particularly organizations where student nurses carry out their work. As the search revealed a significant gap in the literature in this area, a practical conceptual framework to fully analyse, develop and

  10. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  11. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  12. How Does a Principal in Detroit Public Schools Produce a Productive Learning Environment within the Current System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Marcus G.

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, the researcher investigates the success of productive learning environments in Detroit Public Schools. Using interviews with three productive principals from the Detroit school system, the researcher explores three related issues in public schooling. The first issue is the definition of a productive learning environment. By…

  13. A Comparison of Professional-Level Faculty and Student Perceptions of Active Learning: Its Current Use, Effectiveness, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia J.; Metz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has…

  14. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  15. Applying the computer code ''beam scanning' for obtaining the electron beam energy spectrum and monitoring the beam scanning system with a faraday cup and edge current sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of experiments simulation, obtained in the development of technique for controlling the parameters of the electron beam in a compact radiation sterilization installation are presented. Calculations were performed with a help of a computer code ''BEAM SCANNING'', developed in MRTI. Proposed a method to obtain the spectrum of the electron beam by simulation the experiments in which a Faraday cup waveforms were measured. Preliminary results are presented. Also the results of the experiments and calculations obtained in the development of the amplitude angle sensors are presented. The experiments for the beam irradiation of lead plates proposed as current sensors were modeled. Results are presented in comparison with experimental data. Also are presented the simulation results for the device designed to control scanning system.

  16. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  17. Survey of coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The basic principle and limitations of coded aperture imaging for x-ray and gamma cameras are discussed. Current trends include (1) use of time varying apertures, (2) use of ''dilute'' apertures with transmission much less than 50%, and (3) attempts to derive transverse tomographic sections, unblurred by other planes, from coded images

  18. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  19. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  20. SAFIPA-Meraka Institute code-sprints program; a mechanism to enhance the development capacity of emerging developers – observations and lessons learned

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -MERAKA code-sprints program, a possibility for development is identified. NAP, an initiative to enhance inclusion and empower persons with disabilities, has shown that initiatives need to come from within the community to succeed. A popular slogan... ownership of development efforts. This paper investigates the feasibility of the “ICT for Society through Society” paradigm at the hand of the SAFIPA-MERAKA code-sprints program, an analysis of the Information and Communications Technology...

  1. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  2. Current pain education within undergraduate medical studies across Europe: Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emma V; Battelli, Daniele; Gordon, David; Kopf, Andreas; Ribeiro, Sofia; Puig, Margarita M; Kress, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved pain is a substantial public health concern necessitating improvements in medical education. The Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study aimed to determine current levels and methods of undergraduate pain medicine education in Europe. Design and methods Using a cross-sectional design, publicly available curriculum information was sought from all medical schools in 15 representative European countries in 2012–2013. Descriptive analyses were performed on: the provision of pain teaching in dedicated pain modules, other modules or within the broader curriculum; whether pain teaching was compulsory or elective; the number of hours/credits spent teaching pain; pain topics; and teaching and assessment methods. Results Curriculum elements were publicly available from 242 of 249 identified schools (97%). In 55% (133/242) of schools, pain was taught only within compulsory non-pain-specific modules. The next most common approaches were for pain teaching to be provided wholly or in part via a dedicated pain module (74/242; 31%) or via a vertical or integrated approach to teaching through the broader curriculum, rather than within any specific module (17/242; 7%). The curricula of 17/242 schools (7%) showed no evidence of any pain teaching. Dedicated pain modules were most common in France (27/31 schools; 87%). Excluding France, only 22% (47/211 schools) provided a dedicated pain module and in only 9% (18/211) was this compulsory. Overall, the median number of hours spent teaching pain was 12.0 (range 4–56.0 h; IQR: 12.0) for compulsory dedicated pain modules and 9.0 (range 1.0–60.0 h; IQR: 10.5) for other compulsory (non-pain specific) modules. Pain medicine was principally taught in classrooms and assessed by conventional examinations. There was substantial international variation throughout. Conclusions Documented pain teaching in many European medical schools falls far short of what might be expected given the

  3. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  4. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  5. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  7. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  8. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex does not enhance the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Carlsen, Anthony N; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2018-05-01

    A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules. Here, we investigated whether applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex (M1) would enhance the typically found benefits of learning a novel motor skill with a self-controlled KR schedule. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal task in one of four groups using a factorial combination of KR schedule (self-controlled vs. yoked) and tDCS (anodal vs. sham). Testing occurred on two consecutive days with spatial and temporal accuracy measured on both days and learning was assessed using 24-h retention and transfer tests without KR. All groups improved their performance in practice and a significant effect for practicing with a self-controlled KR schedule compared to a yoked schedule was found for temporal accuracy in transfer, but a similar advantage was not evident in retention. There were no significant differences as a function of KR schedule or tDCS for spatial accuracy in retention or transfer. The lack of a significant tDCS effect suggests that M1 may not strongly contribute to self-controlled KR learning advantages; however, caution is advised with this interpretation as typical self-controlled learning benefits were not strongly replicated in the present experiment.

  9. QR CODES IN EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan DURAK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances brought applications of innovations to education. Conventional education increasingly flourishes with new technologies accompanied by more learner active environments. In this continuum, there are learners preferring self-learning. Traditional learning materials yield attractive, motivating and technologically enhanced learning materials. The QR (Quick Response Codes are one of these innovations. The aim of this study is to redesign a lesson unit supported with QR Codes and to get the learner views about the redesigned material. For this purpose, the redesigned lesson unit was delivered to 15 learners in Balıkesir University in the academic year of 2013-2014. The learners were asked to study the material. The learners who had smart phones and Internet access were chosen for the study. To provide sectional diversity, three groups were created. The group learners were from Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science and Literature and Faculty of Engineering. After the semi-structured interviews were held, the learners were asked about their pre-knowledge about QR Codes, QR Codes’ contribution to learning, difficulties with using QR Codes about and design issues. Descriptive data analysis was used in the study. The findings were interpreted on the basis of Theory of Diffusion of Innovations and Theory of Uses and Gratifications. After the research, the themes found were awareness of QR Code, types of QR Codes and applications, contributions to learning, and proliferation of QR Codes. Generally, the learners participating in the study reported that they were aware of QR Codes; that they could use the QR Codes; and that using QR Codes in education was useful. They also expressed that such features as visual elements, attractiveness and direct routing had positive impact on learning. In addition, they generally mentioned that they did not have any difficulty using QR Codes; that they liked the design; and that the content should

  10. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  11. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  12. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  13. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...... and noise modeling and also learn from the previous decoded Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames, side information and noise learning (SING) is proposed. The SING scheme introduces an optical flow technique to compensate the weaknesses of the block based SI generation and also utilizes clustering of DCT blocks to capture...... cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in noise modeling. During decoding, the updated information is used to iteratively reestimate the motion and reconstruction in the proposed motion and reconstruction reestimation (MORE) scheme. The MORE scheme not only reestimates the motion vectors...

  14. Information and Communication Technology to Facilitate Learning for Students in the Health Professions: Current Uses, Gaps, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ellen; Corcoran, Mary; Barnett, Jacqueline S.; Birkmeier, Marisa; Cohn, Rhea; Ekmekci, Ozgur; Falk, Nancy L.; Harrod, Thomas; Herrmann, Debra; Robinson, Sean; Walker, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the U.S. Healthcare System along with the need for institutions of higher education to prepare a work force ready to address the challenges of today and tomorrow have highlighted the need to incorporate technology in its broadest sense as part of the student learning experience. In health professional education, this becomes challenging…

  15. Focalised stimulation using high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) to investigate declarative verbal learning and memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolin, Stevan; Loo, Colleen K; Bai, Siwei; Dokos, Socrates; Martin, Donel M

    2015-08-15

    Declarative verbal learning and memory are known to be lateralised to the dominant hemisphere and to be subserved by a network of structures, including those located in frontal and temporal regions. These structures support critical components of verbal memory, including working memory, encoding, and retrieval. Their relative functional importance in facilitating declarative verbal learning and memory, however, remains unclear. To investigate the different functional roles of these structures in subserving declarative verbal learning and memory performance by applying a more focal form of transcranial direct current stimulation, "High Definition tDCS" (HD-tDCS). Additionally, we sought to examine HD-tDCS effects and electrical field intensity distributions using computer modelling. HD-tDCS was administered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC), planum temporale (PT), and left medial temporal lobe (LMTL) to stimulate the hippocampus, during learning on a declarative verbal memory task. Sixteen healthy participants completed a single blind, intra-individual cross-over, sham-controlled study which used a Latin Square experimental design. Cognitive effects on working memory and sustained attention were additionally examined. HD-tDCS to the LDLPFC significantly improved the rate of verbal learning (p=0.03, η(2)=0.29) and speed of responding during working memory performance (p=0.02, η(2)=0.35), but not accuracy (p=0.12, η(2)=0.16). No effect of tDCS on verbal learning, retention, or retrieval was found for stimulation targeted to the LMTL or the PT. Secondary analyses revealed that LMTL stimulation resulted in increased recency (p=0.02, η(2)=0.31) and reduced mid-list learning effects (p=0.01, η(2)=0.39), suggesting an inhibitory effect on learning. HD-tDCS to the LDLPFC facilitates the rate of verbal learning and improved efficiency of working memory may underlie performance effects. This focal method of administrating tDCS has potential for probing

  16. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  17. Cost reducing code implementation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Randall L.; Griswold, Michael E.; Jones, Gary C.; Daley, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Sargent and Lundy's Code consulting experience reveals a wide variety of approaches toward implementing the requirements of various nuclear Codes Standards. This paper will describe various Code implementation strategies which assure that Code requirements are fully met in a practical and cost-effective manner. Applications to be discussed includes the following: new construction; repair, replacement and modifications; assessments and life extensions. Lessons learned and illustrative examples will be included. Preferred strategies and specific recommendations will also be addressed. Sargent and Lundy appreciates the opportunity provided by the Korea Atomic Industrial Forum and Korean Nuclear Society to share our ideas and enhance global cooperation through the exchange of information and views on relevant topics

  18. University of Washington/ Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Tidal Current Technology Test Protocol, Instrumentation, Design Code, and Oceanographic Modeling Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The University of Washington (UW) - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (UW-NNMREC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate to advance research and development (R&D) of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy technology, specifically renewable energy captured from ocean tidal currents. UW-NNMREC is endeavoring to establish infrastructure, capabilities and tools to support in-water testing of marine energy technology. NREL is leveraging its experience and capabilities in field testing of wind systems to develop protocols and instrumentation to advance field testing of MHK systems. Under this work, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to develop a common instrumentation system and testing methodologies, standards and protocols. UW-NNMREC is also establishing simulation capabilities for MHK turbine and turbine arrays. NREL has extensive experience in wind turbine array modeling and is developing several computer based numerical simulation capabilities for MHK systems. Under this CRADA, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to augment single device and array modeling codes. As part of this effort UW NNMREC will also work with NREL to run simulations on NREL's high performance computer system.

  19. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  20. Physics of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Jones, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The title given this paper is a bit presumptuous, since one can hardly expect to cover the physics incorporated into all the codes already written and currently being written. The authors focus on those codes which have been found to be particularly useful in the analysis and design of linacs. At that the authors will be a bit parochial and discuss primarily those codes used for the design of radio-frequency (rf) linacs, although the discussions of TRANSPORT and MARYLIE have little to do with the time structures of the beams being analyzed. The plan of this paper is first to describe rather simply the concepts of emittance and brightness, then to describe rather briefly each of the codes TRANSPORT, PARMTEQ, TBCI, MARYLIE, and ISIS, indicating what physics is and is not included in each of them. It is expected that the vast majority of what is covered will apply equally well to protons and electrons (and other particles). This material is intended to be tutorial in nature and can in no way be expected to be exhaustive. 31 references, 4 figures

  1. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  2. Emerging issues and current trends in assistive technology use 2007-2010: practising, assisting and enabling learning for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Chris; Brown, David; Evett, Lindsay; Standen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Following an earlier review in 2007, a further review of the academic literature relating to the uses of assistive technology (AT) by children and young people was completed, covering the period 2007-2011. As in the earlier review, a tripartite taxonomy: technology uses to train or practise, technology uses to assist learning and technology uses to enable learning, was used in order to structure the findings. The key markers for research in this field and during these three years were user involvement, AT on mobile mainstream devices, the visibility of AT, technology for interaction and collaboration, new and developing interfaces and inclusive design principles. The paper concludes by locating these developments within the broader framework of the Digital Divide.

  3. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  4. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-0012] Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the current model building energy codes or their equivalent. DOE is interested in better understanding... codes, Standard 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (or...

  5. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  6. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  7. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  8. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  9. TRAC code development status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spore, J.W.; Liles, D.R.; Nelson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the characteristics and current status of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code. Recent error corrections and user-convenience features are described, and several user enhancements are identified. Current plans for the release of the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code and some preliminary MOD2 results are presented. This new version of the TRAC code implements stability-enhancing two-step numerics into the 3-D vessel, using partial vectorization to obtain a code that has run 400% faster than the MOD1 code

  10. Stimulating cognition in schizophrenia: A controlled pilot study of the effects of prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation upon memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; Tracy, Derek K; Joyce, Daniel; Patel, Shinal; Rodzinka-Pasko, Joanna; Dolan, Hayley; Hodsoll, John; Collier, Tracy; Rothwell, John; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    Schizophrenia is characterized by prominent cognitive deficits, impacting on memory and learning; these are strongly associated with the prefrontal cortex. To combine two interventions, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the prefrontal cortex and cognitive training, to examine change in cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. A double blind, sham-controlled pilot study of 49 patients with schizophrenia, randomized into real or sham tDCS stimulation groups. Subjects participated in 4 days of cognitive training (days 1, 2, 14, 56) with tDCS applied at day-1 and day-14. The primary outcome measure was change in accuracy on working memory and implicit learning tasks from baseline. The secondary outcome measure was the generalization of learning to non-trained task, indexed by the CogState neuropsychological battery. Data analysis was conducted using multilevel modelling and multiple regressions. 24 participants were randomized to real tDCS and 25 to sham. The working memory task demonstrated a significant mean difference in performance in the tDCS treatment group: at day-2 (b = 0.68, CI 0.14-1.21; p = 0.044) and at day-56 (b = 0.71, 0.16-1.26; p = 0.044). There were no significant effects of tDCS on implicit learning. Trend evidence of generalization onto untrained tasks of attention and vigilance task (b = 0.40, 0.43-0.77; p = 0.058) was found. This is the first study to show a significant longer-term effect of tDCS on working memory in schizophrenia. Given the current lack of effective therapies for cognitive deficits, tDCS may offer an important novel approach to modulating brain networks to ameliorate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, J.J.-Y.; Bensmail, H.; Yao, N.; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.

  12. Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, J.J.-Y.

    2013-09-26

    Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  14. The Role of the Syllable in Foreign Language Learning: Improving Oral Production through Dual-Coded, Sound-Synchronised, Typographic Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenton, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The CNRS-financed authoring system SWANS (Synchronised Web Authoring Notation System), now used in several CercleS centres, was developed by teams from four laboratories as a personalised learning tool for the purpose of making available knowledge about lexical stress patterns and mother-tongue interference in L2 speech production--helping…

  15. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  16. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...... images such as halftones. By utilizing randomized subsampling in the template selection, the speed becomes acceptable for practical image coding...

  17. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  18. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  19. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  20. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  1. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  2. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  4. Investigating the Simulink Auto-Coding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdoni, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Model based program design is the most clear and direct way to develop algorithms and programs for interfacing with hardware. While coding "by hand" results in a more tailored product, the ever-growing size and complexity of modern-day applications can cause the project work load to quickly become unreasonable for one programmer. This has generally been addressed by splitting the product into separate modules to allow multiple developers to work in parallel on the same project, however this introduces new potentials for errors in the process. The fluidity, reliability and robustness of the code relies on the abilities of the programmers to communicate their methods to one another; furthermore, multiple programmers invites multiple potentially differing coding styles into the same product, which can cause a loss of readability or even module incompatibility. Fortunately, Mathworks has implemented an auto-coding feature that allows programmers to design their algorithms through the use of models and diagrams in the graphical programming environment Simulink, allowing the designer to visually determine what the hardware is to do. From here, the auto-coding feature handles converting the project into another programming language. This type of approach allows the designer to clearly see how the software will be directing the hardware without the need to try and interpret large amounts of code. In addition, it speeds up the programming process, minimizing the amount of man-hours spent on a single project, thus reducing the chance of human error as well as project turnover time. One such project that has benefited from the auto-coding procedure is Ramses, a portion of the GNC flight software on-board Orion that has been implemented primarily in Simulink. Currently, however, auto-coding Ramses into C++ requires 5 hours of code generation time. This causes issues if the tool ever needs to be debugged, as this code generation will need to occur with each edit to any part of

  5. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  6. Fast Convolutional Sparse Coding in the Dual Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2017-09-27

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is an important building block of many computer vision applications ranging from image and video compression to deep learning. We present two contributions to the state of the art in CSC. First, we significantly speed up the computation by proposing a new optimization framework that tackles the problem in the dual domain. Second, we extend the original formulation to higher dimensions in order to process a wider range of inputs, such as color inputs, or HOG features. Our results show a significant speedup compared to the current state of the art in CSC.

  7. Fast Convolutional Sparse Coding in the Dual Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is an important building block of many computer vision applications ranging from image and video compression to deep learning. We present two contributions to the state of the art in CSC. First, we significantly speed up the computation by proposing a new optimization framework that tackles the problem in the dual domain. Second, we extend the original formulation to higher dimensions in order to process a wider range of inputs, such as color inputs, or HOG features. Our results show a significant speedup compared to the current state of the art in CSC.

  8. Status of SPACE Safety Analysis Code Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hyuk; Yang, Chang Keun; Kim, Se Yun; Ha, Sang Jun

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korean the Korean nuclear industry started developing a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for safety analysis of PWR(Pressurized Water Reactor). The new code is named as SPACE(Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant). The SPACE code can solve two-fluid, three-field governing equations in one dimensional or three dimensional geometry. The SPACE code has many component models required for modeling a PWR, such as reactor coolant pump, safety injection tank, etc. The programming language used in the new code is C++, for new generation of engineers who are more comfortable with C/C++ than old FORTRAN language. This paper describes general characteristics of SPACE code and current status of SPACE code development

  9. The effect of current global economic crisis on Danish companies and what we can learn from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Turcan, Romeo V.

    The paper explores the effects of the current global economic crisis on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the responses these SMEs undertake to cope with these effects. In other words, how entrepreneurs respond to the decline in their firm’s performance that is the result of this global...... economic crisis. Two theoretical lenses are identified to guide the understanding of entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings: turnaround strategy, and escalating commitment. To explore entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings, entrepreneurs of SMEs were...

  10. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  11. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  12. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  13. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  14. CodeRAnts: A recommendation method based on collaborative searching and ant colonies, applied to reusing of open source code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Caicedo-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CodeRAnts, a new recommendation method based on a collaborative searching technique and inspired on the ant colony metaphor. This method aims to fill the gap in the current state of the matter regarding recommender systems for software reuse, for which prior works present two problems. The first is that, recommender systems based on these works cannot learn from the collaboration of programmers and second, outcomes of assessments carried out on these systems present low precision measures and recall and in some of these systems, these metrics have not been evaluated. The work presented in this paper contributes a recommendation method, which solves these problems.

  15. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  16. NESTLE: A nodal kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Faure, F.-X.; Sarsour, H.N.; Engrand, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The NESTLE nodal kinetics code has been developed for utilization as a stand-alone code for steady-state and transient reactor neutronic analysis and for incorporation into system transient codes, such as TRAC and RELAP. The latter is desirable to increase the simulation fidelity over that obtained from currently employed zero- and one-dimensional neutronic models and now feasible due to advances in computer performance and efficiency of nodal methods. As a stand-alone code, requirements are that it operate on a range of computing platforms from memory-limited personal computers (PCs) to supercomputers with vector processors. This paper summarizes the features of NESTLE that reflect the utilization and requirements just noted

  17. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  18. Expressing Youth Voice through Video Games and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Crystle

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research focuses on the impact of video games and coding on learning. The research often elevates learning the technical skills associated with video games and coding or the importance of problem solving and computational thinking, which are, of course, necessary and relevant. However, the literature less often explores how young…

  19. GAMERA - The New Magnetospheric Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J.; Sorathia, K.; Zhang, B.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) code has been a main-line magnetospheric simulation code for 30 years. The code base, designed in the age of memory to memory vector ma- chines,is still in wide use for science production but needs upgrading to ensure the long term sustainability. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent efforts to update and improve that code base and also highlight some recent results. The new project GAM- ERA, Grid Agnostic MHD for Extended Research Applications, has kept the original design characteristics of the LFM and made significant improvements. The original de- sign included high order numerical differencing with very aggressive limiting, the ability to use arbitrary, but logically rectangular, grids, and maintenance of div B = 0 through the use of the Yee grid. Significant improvements include high-order upwinding and a non-clipping limiter. One other improvement with wider applicability is an im- proved averaging technique for the singularities in polar and spherical grids. The new code adopts a hybrid structure - multi-threaded OpenMP with an overarching MPI layer for large scale and coupled applications. The MPI layer uses a combination of standard MPI and the Global Array Toolkit from PNL to provide a lightweight mechanism for coupling codes together concurrently. The single processor code is highly efficient and can run magnetospheric simulations at the default CCMC resolution faster than real time on a MacBook pro. We have run the new code through the Athena suite of tests, and the results compare favorably with the codes available to the astrophysics community. LFM/GAMERA has been applied to many different situations ranging from the inner and outer heliosphere and magnetospheres of Venus, the Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We present example results the Earth's magnetosphere including a coupled ring current (RCM), the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and the inner heliosphere.

  20. Beta band transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS applied after initial learning facilitate retrieval of a motor sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eKrause

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary motor cortex (M1 contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS. Alpha (10 Hz, beta (20 Hz or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for ten minutes. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions.Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. TDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioural modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization.

  1. Patient safety in external beam radiotherapy, results of the ACCIRAD project: Current status of proactive risk assessment, reactive analysis of events, and reporting and learning systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian; Bly, Ritva; Bulot, Mireille; Godet, Jean-Luc; Jahnen, Andreas; Krengli, Marco; Maingon, Philippe; Prieto Martin, Carlos; Przybylska, Kamila; Skrobała, Agnieszka; Valero, Marc; Jarvinen, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    To describe the current status of implementation of European directives for risk management in radiotherapy and to assess variability in risk management in the following areas: 1) in-country regulatory framework; 2) proactive risk assessment; (3) reactive analysis of events; and (4) reporting and learning systems. The original data were collected as part of the ACCIRAD project through two online surveys. Risk assessment criteria are closely associated with quality assurance programs. Only 9/32 responding countries (28%) with national regulations reported clear "requirements" for proactive risk assessment and/or reactive risk analysis, with wide variability in assessment methods. Reporting of adverse error events is mandatory in most (70%) but not all surveyed countries. Most European countries have taken steps to implement European directives designed to reduce the probability and magnitude of accidents in radiotherapy. Variability between countries is substantial in terms of legal frameworks, tools used to conduct proactive risk assessment and reactive analysis of events, and in the reporting and learning systems utilized. These findings underscore the need for greater harmonisation in common terminology, classification and reporting practices across Europe to improve patient safety and to enable more reliable inter-country comparisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Current state of training in pharmacy education using a problem-based learning/tutorial model with simulated patients and standardized patients at National University Corporation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Tetsumi; Nitta, Atsumi; Akaike, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Simulated/standardized patient-based (SP) education and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial education become a powerful tool to heighten the pharmacy students' will to learn in order to cultivate the responsibility to contribute to public health and welfare as a clinical professional and to facilitate students' competences to solve problems by themselves. What this program is trying to do is: 1) to establish the system to train, educate and supply SP who are effective in the training and education of pharmacy students in close cooperation with the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals; 2) to improve the quality of the current PBL tutorial education and thereby establish it as an advanced education program in the education of senior students. We carried out the questionnaire to National University Corporation which establishes a school of pharmacy, as to the training and education of SP. The analysis of the answers to the questionnaire revealed the present status of SP in the Pharmaceutical Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Pharmaceutical Common Achievement Test, and the existence of the problems on how to standardize SP as well as how to cover such expenses. Furthermore, the activity of the first year consisted of the exchange and sharing of information regarding the existing method of training and education of SP and PBL tutorial education and the identification of the problems to be solved in order to improve the quality of the educational program.

  3. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  4. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  5. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  6. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  7. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  8. Online and offline effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy older adults: a randomized double-blind sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaei, Afshin; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Zoghi, Maryam; Hafez Yosephi, Mohaddese; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double blinded sham-controlled study was to determine the effect of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on online and offline motor learning in healthy older individuals. Thirty participants were randomly assigned in experimental (n = 15) or sham tDCS (n = 15) groups. Participants in experimental group received 2 mA cerebellar a-tDCS for 20 min. However, the tDCS was turned off after 30 seconds in sham group. Response time (RT) and error rate (ER) in serial RT test were assessed before, during 35 minutes and 48 h after the intervention. Reduction of RT and ER following the intervention session was considered as short-term (35 min post intervention) and long-term offline learning (48 h post intervention), respectively. Online RT and ER reduction were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). RT was significantly reduced 48 hours post intervention in cerebellar a-tDCS group (P = 0.03). Moreover, RT was significantly increased after 35 minutes and 48 hours in sham tDCS group (P = 0.03, P = 0.007), which indicates a lack of short-term and long-term offline learning in older adults. A-tDCS on cerebellar region produced more short-term and long-term offline improvement in RT (P = 0.014, P = 0.01) compared to sham tDCS. In addition, online, short-term and long-term (48 h) offline error reduced in cerebellar a-tDCS as compared to sham-control group, although this reduction was not significant (P > 0.05). A deficit suggests that a direct comparison to a younger group was made. The findings suggested that cerebellar a-tDCS might be useful for improvement of offline motor learning in older individuals. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  10. Effect of Inter-sentential vs Intra-sentential Code-Switching: With a Focus on Past Tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Kashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at the comparative effect of inter-sentential vs intra-sentential code-switching on learning past tense. Initially, through non-random convenient sampling, the researcher chose 90 female EFL learners at the elementary level. Next, Key English Test (KET was administered to the 90 learners and the results were used to select 60 participants for the purpose of this study. The participants were then divided into two groups each consisting of 30 learners. Afterwards, a grammar pretest having 30 items focusing on past simple tense was given to both groups. Following that, the grammatical explanations were provided for the two groups for ten sessions using code-switching.  The first experimental group received inter-sentential code switching in line with Reyes’s (2004 as a switch between two languages, where a sentence in one of the languages is completed and the next sentence starts with the other language (Reyes, 2004. In the second experimental group, in line with Reyes’s (2004, the switching occurred within a sentence. The results of statistical analysis indicated that inter-sentential code-switching proved more effective compared to intra-sentential code-switching on the learning of past tense by EFL learners. Based on the findings of the present study, EFL teachers are encouraged to use inter-sentential code-switching more compared to intra-sentential code-switching when it comes to teaching grammar.

  11. Performance evaluation based on data from code reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej, Sekáč

    2016-01-01

    Context. Modern code review tools such as Gerrit have made available great amounts of code review data from different open source projects as well as other commercial projects. Code reviews are used to keep the quality of produced source code under control but the stored data could also be used for evaluation of the software development process. Objectives. This thesis uses machine learning methods for an approximation of review expert’s performance evaluation function. Due to limitations in ...

  12. VOA: a 2-d plasma physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltgroth, P.G.

    1975-12-01

    A 2-dimensional relativistic plasma physics code was written and tested. The non-thermal components of the particle distribution functions are represented by expansion into moments in momentum space. These moments are computed directly from numerical equations. Currently three species are included - electrons, ions and ''beam electrons''. The computer code runs on either the 7600 or STAR machines at LLL. Both the physics and the operation of the code are discussed

  13. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  14. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  15. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  16. Building Standards and Codes for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, James G.; Pierlert, James H.

    1977-01-01

    Current activity intended to lead to energy conservation measures in building codes and standards is reviewed by members of the Office of Building Standards and Codes Services of the National Bureau of Standards. For journal availability see HE 508 931. (LBH)

  17. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left premotor cortex (PMC) stabilizes a newly learned motor sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Jan; Kemmet, Sylvia; Krause, Vanessa; Keitel, Ariane; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    While the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in the acquisition the premotor cortex (PMC) has been related to over-night consolidation of a newly learned motor skill. The present study aims at investigating the possible contribution of the left PMC for the stabilization of a motor sequence immediately after acquisition as determined by susceptibility to interference. Thirty six healthy volunteers received anodal, cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left PMC either immediately prior to or during training on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) with the right hand. TDCS was applied for 10min, respectively. Reaction times were measured prior to training (t1), at the end of training (t2), and after presentation of an interfering random pattern (t3). Beyond interference from learning, the random pattern served as control condition in order to estimate general effects of tDCS on reaction times. TDCS applied during SRTT training did not result in any significant effects neither on acquisition nor on susceptibility to interference. In contrast to this, tDCS prior to SRTT training yielded an unspecific facilitation of reaction times at t2 independent of tDCS polarity. At t3, reduced susceptibility to interference was found following cathodal stimulation. The results suggest the involvement of the PMC in early consolidation and reveal a piece of evidence for the hypothesis that behavioral tDCS effects vary with the activation state of the stimulated area. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Hello Ruby adventures in coding

    CERN Document Server

    Liukas, Linda

    2015-01-01

    "Code is the 21st century literacy and the need for people to speak the ABCs of Programming is imminent." --Linda Liukas Meet Ruby--a small girl with a huge imagination. In Ruby's world anything is possible if you put your mind to it. When her dad asks her to find five hidden gems Ruby is determined to solve the puzzle with the help of her new friends, including the Wise Snow Leopard, the Friendly Foxes, and the Messy Robots. As Ruby stomps around her world kids will be introduced to the basic concepts behind coding and programming through storytelling. Learn how to break big problems into small problems, repeat tasks, look for patterns, create step-by-step plans, and think outside the box. With hands-on activities included in every chapter, future coders will be thrilled to put their own imaginations to work.

  19. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  20. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  1. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  2. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. Elaboration of data and documents intended to complement and expand the German series of nuclear engineering codes. 4. Technical report. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of corrosion fatigue in ferritic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concerning the processes of crack initiation under cyclic loading in a high-temperature water environment, examinations are performed in the USA for amending the design-basis curves published in ASME section III, which are comparable to those contained in the KTA code 3201.2. A revision of ASME section III has not yet been published. The same applies to the processes of crack propagation under cyclic loading in a high-temperature water environment, US experts examining for the purpose of amendment the limiting curves of cyclic crack propagation rates of carbon and low-alloyed steels in a water environment published in ASME section XI. (Orig./CB) [de

  4. Synthesizing Certified Code

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach for formally demonstrating software quality. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates that can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it requires detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding annotations to th...

  5. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  6. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  7. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  8. International assessment of PCA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE

  9. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded...

  10. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  11. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  12. Learning through reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    Universities can from the student?s point of view be seen as places of learning an explicit curriculum of a particular discipline. From a fieldwork among physicist students at the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark, I argue that the learning of cultural code-curricula in higher educational...... institutions designate in ambiguous ways. I argue claim that students also have to learn institutional cultural codes, which are not the explicit curricula presented in textbooks, but a socially designated cultural code-curricula learned through everyday interactions at the university institutes. I further...... argue that this code-curriculum is learned through what I shall term indefinite learning processes, which are mainly pre-discursive to the newcomer...

  13. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules, F9-F11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with three of the functional modules in the code. Those are the Morse-SGC for the SCALE system, Heating 7.2, and KENO V.a. The manual describes the latest released versions of the codes.

  14. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules, F9-F11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with three of the functional modules in the code. Those are the Morse-SGC for the SCALE system, Heating 7.2, and KENO V.a. The manual describes the latest released versions of the codes

  15. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  16. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today's safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL

  17. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G.; Peebles, R.C.; Smith, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today's safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL

  18. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today`s safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL.

  19. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  20. The code of ethics for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, F; Sanjari, M; Aala, M; Peymani, M; Aramesh, K; Parsapour, A; Maddah, Ss Bagher; Cheraghi, Ma; Mirzabeigi, Gh; Larijani, B; Dastgerdi, M Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Nurses are ever-increasingly confronted with complex concerns in their practice. Codes of ethics are fundamental guidance for nursing as many other professions. Although there are authentic international codes of ethics for nurses, the national code would be the additional assistance provided for clinical nurses in their complex roles in care of patients, education, research and management of some parts of health care system in the country. A national code can provide nurses with culturally-adapted guidance and help them to make ethical decisions more closely to the Iranian-Islamic background. Given the general acknowledgement of the need, the National Code of Ethics for Nurses was compiled as a joint project (2009-2011). The Code was approved by the Health Policy Council of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and communicated to all universities, healthcare centers, hospitals and research centers early in 2011. The focus of this article is on the course of action through which the Code was compiled, amended and approved. The main concepts of the code will be also presented here. No doubt, development of the codes should be considered as an ongoing process. This is an overall responsibility to keep the codes current, updated with the new progresses of science and emerging challenges, and pertinent to the nursing practice.