WorldWideScience

Sample records for learn subject matter

  1. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  2. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  3. Development Of Phisyics Learning Documents Based Student's Learning Style In The Matter Of Temperature And Heat Subjects Of Class X High School

    OpenAIRE

    Resty Noriwita, Indah Resty Noriwita Indah; Nasir, Muhammad Nasir Muhammad; Ma’aruf, Zuhdi Ma’aruf Zuhdi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to produce a learning documents physicsbased learning styles of students in the matter of temperature and heat of class subjectS X SMA valid. The subjects were learning documents that consists of a lesson plan (RPP), worksheets (LKS), medium of learning and achievement test of cognitive, affective, process, and psychomotor. Data collection instrument in this study is an instrument validity device physics-based learning students' learning styles in the matter of temperature and...

  4. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Engaging Subject Matter Experts to Support Museum Alliance Science Briefings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Lee, Janice C.; Rivera, Thalia; Walker, Allyson; Spisak, Marilyn

    2018-06-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University and is part of the NASA SMD Science Activation Collective. The NASA’s Universe of Learning projects pull on the expertise of subject matter experts (scientist and engineers) from across the broad range of NASA Astrophysics themes and missions. One such project, which draws strongly on the expertise of the community, is the NASA’s Universe of Learning Science Briefings, which is done in collaboration with the NASA Museum Alliance. This collaboration presents a monthly hour-long discussion on relevant NASA astrophysics topics or events to an audience composed largely of informal educators from informal learning environments. These professional learning opportunities use experts and resources within the astronomical community to support increased interest and engagement of the informal learning community in NASA Astrophysics-related concepts and events. Briefings are designed to create a foundation for this audience using (1) broad science themes, (2) special events, or (3) breaking science news. The NASA’s Universe of Learning team engages subject matter experts to be speakers and present their science at these briefings to provide a direct connection to NASA Astrophysics science and provide the audience an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and engineers involved in NASA missions. To maximize the usefulness of the Museum Alliance Science Briefings, each briefing highlights resources related to the science theme to support informal educators in incorporating science content into their venues and/or interactions with the public. During this

  5. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  6. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Electromagnetism by Integrating Concept Maps and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj

    2015-01-01

    This case study explored the development of two pre-service teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) of electromagnetism while integrating the use of concept maps (CM) and collaborative learning (CL) strategies. The study aimed at capturing how these pre-service teachers' SMK in electromagnetism was enhanced after having been taught SMK in a…

  7. Constructing Videocases to Help Novices Learn to Facilitate Discussions in Science and English: How Does Subject Matter Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaen, Cheryl L.; Lundeberg, Mary; Terpstra, Marjorie; Cooper, Marjorie; Niu, Rui; Fu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Learning to conduct interactive classroom discussions is a high priority for becoming an effective teacher, and most teachers view conducting productive classroom discussions as a complex undertaking. Because the dynamics of facilitating classroom discussions are multifaceted and hard to analyze in real time, there is a growing interest in how…

  8. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of tutors' subject-matter expertise on student effort and achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); A. van der Arend (Arie); J.H.C. Moust (Jos); I. Kokx (Irma); L. Boon (Louis)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To investigate the effects of tutors' subject-matter expertise on students' levels of academic achievement and study effort in a problem-based health sciences curriculum. Also, to study differences in turors' behaviors and the influences of these differences on students'

  10. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  11. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on 'de Broglie Matter Waves' Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Gorecek Baybars

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the Faculty of Education-Science Teaching students (2nd year / 48 individual in the academic year of 2010-2011. The study was planned as a single group pretest-posttest design. A two-step question was used in the study, prior to and after the instruction. Lessons were conducted using the 7E learning model in the instruction process. When all these results are evaluated, it can be said that the conceptual understanding of the prospective teachers regarding "de Broglie; matter waves" has been taken place. In general, when all the sections are examined, it has been observed that the prospective teachers have more alternative concepts prior to the instruction and more scientific concepts after the instruction. In this process, besides instruction, the prospective teachers have not taken any place in a different application regarding the basic concepts of quantum physics. Therefore, it has been determined that the 7E learning model used in the research and the activities included in the 7E learning model are effective in conceptual understanding.

  12. The influence of discovery learning model application to the higher order thinking skills student of Srijaya Negara Senior High School Palembang on the animal kingdom subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riandari, F.; Susanti, R.; Suratmi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to find out the information in concerning the influence of discovery learning model application to the higher order thinking skills at the tenth grade students of Srijaya Negara senior high school Palembang on the animal kingdom subject matter. The research method used was pre-experimental with one-group pretest-posttest design. The researchconducted at Srijaya Negara senior high school Palembang academic year 2016/2017. The population sample of this research was tenth grade students of natural science 2. Purposive sampling techniquewas applied in this research. Data was collected by(1) the written test, consist of pretest to determine the initial ability and posttest to determine higher order thinking skills of students after learning by using discovery learning models. (2) Questionnaire sheet, aimed to investigate the response of the students during the learning process by using discovery learning models. The t-test result indicated there was significant increasement of higher order thinking skills students. Thus, it can be concluded that the application of discovery learning modelhad a significant effect and increased to higher order thinking skills students of Srijaya Negara senior high school Palembang on the animal kingdom subject matter.

  13. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on "de Broglie Matter Waves" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecek Baybars, Meryem; Kucukozer, Huseyin

    2018-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the…

  15. What subject matter questions motivate the use of machine learning approaches compared to statistical models for probability prediction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald

    2014-07-01

    This is a discussion of the following papers: "Probability estimation with machine learning methods for dichotomous and multicategory outcome: Theory" by Jochen Kruppa, Yufeng Liu, Gérard Biau, Michael Kohler, Inke R. König, James D. Malley, and Andreas Ziegler; and "Probability estimation with machine learning methods for dichotomous and multicategory outcome: Applications" by Jochen Kruppa, Yufeng Liu, Hans-Christian Diener, Theresa Holste, Christian Weimar, Inke R. König, and Andreas Ziegler. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in Nollywood films: the example of 30 days in Atlanta. ... Abstract. Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral ...

  17. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  18. Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In recognition of the growing need to better address cyber risk and cyber management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) held a Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity Research Gaps and Needs of the Nation’s Water and Wastewater Systems Sector on March 30th and 31st, 2016, at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The workshop was designed to create a forum for subject matter experts (SMEs) to exchange ideas and address important cybersecurity challenges facing the water sector.

  19. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  20. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  1. Primary teachers' subject matter knowledge: decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Yayan, Betül

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate primary teachers' subject matter knowledge in the domain of decimals and more elaborately to investigate their performance and difficulties in reading scale, ordering numbers, finding the nearest decimal and doing operations, such as addition and subtraction. The difficulties in these particular areas are analysed and suggestions are made regarding their causes. Further, factors that influence this knowledge were explored. The sample of the study was 63 primary teachers. A decimal concepts test including 18 tasks was administered and the total scores for the 63 primary teachers ranged from 3 to 18 with a mean and median of 12. Fifty per cent of the teachers were above the mean score. The detailed investigation of the responses revealed that the primary teachers faced similar difficulties that students and pre-service teachers faced. Discrepancy on teachers' knowledge revealed important differences based on educational level attained, but not the number of years of teaching experience and experience in teaching decimals. Some suggestions have been made regarding the implications for pre- and in-service teacher training.

  2. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  3. The Application Model of Learning Cycle 5e in Subject Matter of Magnitude and Derivative at Class VII Junior High School 1 Sengah Temila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Nofita Sari

    2016-10-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan model learning cycle 5 e pada materi besaran pokok dan turunankelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Sengah Temila. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian quasi eksperiment dengan rancangan posttest only design control design. Alat pengumpul data yang digunakan adalah tes pilihan jamak. Hipotesis diuji menggunakanuji t satu pihak. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data disimpulkan bahwa: (1 hasil belajar siswa setelah diterapkan model learning cycle 5 e pada materi besaran pokok dan turunan kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Sengah Temilatergolong baik, (2 hasil belajar siswa setelah diterapkan model learning cycle 5 e pada materi besaran pokok dan turunan kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Sengah Temilatergolong kurang, dan (3 hasil belajar siswa setelah diterapkan model learning cycle 5 e lebih baik daripada hasil belajar siswa setelah diterapkan model pembelajaran konvensional pada materi besaran pokok dan turunan kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Sengah Temila. Kata kunci: besaran pokok dan turunan, hasil belajar, model learning cycle 5e

  4. Active Learning: 101 Strategies To Teach Any Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mel

    This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…

  5. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    COPYRIGHT© BACHUDO SCIENCE CO. ... students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter as perceived by students on reading ... percent and above in English language (WAEC,. 2007). ... to the learners. ... mathematics.

  6. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  7. Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects using MATLAB and ... Keywords: electrical engineering; MATLAB; graphic user interface (GUI); educational software. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. The Professional Learning Experiences of Non-Mathematics Subject Specialist Teachers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Younghusband, Alice Christine

    2017-01-01

    Certified teachers in British Columbia (BC) schools can be assigned to teach secondary mathematics without having a major, minor, or formal background in mathematics. This is known as out-of-field teaching. These non-mathematics subject specialist teachers (NMSSTs) must learn or relearn the subject matter of mathematics to teach secondary mathematics. This study investigates what professional learning activities NMSSTs participate in to gain subject matter content knowledge in mathematics, wh...

  9. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import authentication is sought contain widespread and gross misstatements of fact. (b) As necessary, the Department may...

  10. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter of... all Office Directors and President of the Central Liquidity Facility), and Regional Directors. [61 FR...

  11. Prospective Science Teachers' Subject-Matter Knowledge about Overflow Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Eser

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospective science teachers' subject-matter knowledge (SMK) about overflow container. This study was carried out in the form of a case study in spring term of the academic year of 2013-2014 with seven sophomore prospective science teachers who were studying at Elementary Science Teaching Department in…

  12. A Subject Matter Expert View of Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA selected for funding the PLANETS project: Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science. The PLANETS partnership develops planetary science and engineering curricula for out of classroom time (OST) education settings. This partnership is between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the US Geological Survey (USGS), curriculum developers at the Boston Museum of Science (MOS) Engineering is Everywhere (EiE), science and engineering teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University (NAU) Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL), and OST teacher networks across the world. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus was on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We have begun development of a third module for elementary school students. The first model teaches about the science and engineering of the availability of water in the Solar System, finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities, initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by L. Edgar et al., Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration (233008) The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing in planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In these activities and discussions, we include observation and measurement techniques and tools as well as collection and use of specific data of interest to scientists. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by R. Anderson et al., Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students (232683) The third module

  13. Women, Subjectivities and Learning to Be Adaptable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance understandings of the subjectivities that influence auxiliary-level female employees' work and learning experiences in general legal practice. Moreover, the aim is to maximise the opportunities for these workers. Design/methodology/approach: A broader critical ethnographic study investigated…

  14. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...... an unequivocally positive academic learning effect. The review extracts and discusses some of the factors that are consistently emphasized in the research literature as central to ensuring successful subject integration in school gardens. Taking these as a point of departure, it is concluded that developing...

  15. How Technology Matters to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Did technology make a difference, for good or ill, in students' learning of economics in the three courses described in Dan Berrett's story, first published in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" and reprinted in this issue? That's the question that "Liberal Education" has asked this author to discuss. By…

  16. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  17. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, André F; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects. We additionally investigated whether classification would be mood state independent by including depressed and remitted subjects alike. We applied Gaussian process classifiers to investigate the discriminatory power of structural MRI (gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas) and resting-state fMRI (resting-state networks implicated in mood disorders: default mode network [DMN], salience network [SN], and lateralized frontoparietal networks [FPNs]) in depressed (n=42) and remitted (n=49) medication-free subjects with MDD and BD. Depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be classified based on the gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas as well as DMN functional connectivity with 69.1% prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy using the FPNs and SN did not exceed chance level. It was not possible to discriminate between remitted subjects with MDD and BD. For the first time, we showed that medication-free subjects with MDD and BD can be differentiated based on structural MRI as well as resting-state functional connectivity. Importantly, the results indicated that research concerning diagnostic neuroimaging tools distinguishing between MDD and BD should consider mood state as only depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be correctly classified. Future studies, in larger samples are needed to investigate whether the results can be generalized to medication-naïve or first-episode subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  18. Learning sequences on the subject of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The ten learning sequences follow on one another. Each picks on a particular aspect from the energy field. The subject notebooks are self-contained and can therefore be used independently. Apart from actual data and energy-related information, the information for the teacher contains: - proposals for teaching - suggestions for further activities - sample solutions for the pupil's sheets - references to the literature and media. The worksheets for the pupils are different; it should be possible to use the learning sequences in all classes of secondary school stage 1. The multicoloured foils for projectors should motivate, on the one hand, and on the other hand should help to check the results of learning. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  20. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  1. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Transforming the Subject Matter: Examining the Intellectual Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2007-01-01

    This article questions the basic assumptions of pedagogical content knowledge by analyzing the ideas of Jerome Bruner, Joseph Schwab, and John Dewey concerning transforming the subject matter. It argues that transforming the subject matter is not only a pedagogical but also a complex curricular task in terms of developing a school subject or a…

  3. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  4. 14 CFR 17.11 - Matters not subject to protest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition: (a) FAA purchases from or through, state, local, and tribal governments and public authorities...) Other transactions which do not fall into the category of procurement contracts subject to the AMS. ...

  5. Strength of Temporal White Matter Pathways Predicts Semantic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Biel, Davina; Peñaloza, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jörn; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Noesselt, Toemme; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-11-15

    Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber tracking. Critically, the automatic method allowed assessing the white matter microstructure along the tract. Results demonstrate that the microstructural properties of the left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus predict contextual learning, whereas the left uncinate was associated with cross-situational learning. In addition, we identified regions of special importance within these pathways: the posterior middle temporal gyrus, thought to serve as a lexical interface and specifically related to contextual learning; the anterior temporal lobe, known to be an amodal hub for semantic processing and related to cross-situational learning; and the white matter near the hippocampus, a structure fundamental for the initial stages of new-word learning and, remarkably, related to both types of word learning. No significant associations were found for the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus or the arcuate. While previous results suggest that learning new phonological word forms is mediated by the arcuate fasciculus, these findings show that the temporal pathways are the crucial neural substrate supporting one of the most striking human abilities: our capacity to identify correct associations between words and meanings under referential indeterminacy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The language-processing network is cortically (i.e., gray matter) well defined. However, the role of the

  6. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  7. Subject matter of the All-Union Coordination Conference. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudkevich, M.I.; Tselik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V.

    1984-06-01

    Conference on reviewing plans for new research and experimental design projects in the coking industry for 1984-85 took place on 13-17 June 1983. Participants represented the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy, Institute for the Chemistry of Coal and other research institutes, technical schools and coking plants. The titles of the more important papers delivered at the conference are given. Main directions in research and development, test results of new processes and technology, automation and mechanization in the industry, preparation of coal batches for coking, studies on coals from the eastern deposits, methods for evaluating blast furnace cokes, and other subject areas related to the coking and chemical industry were covered in the papers delivered at the conference. Altogether 179 on-going and new projects were discussed at the conference.

  8. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  9. Objective versus subjective outcome measures of biofeedback: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Amanda; Rudick, Kristen; Richter, Meg; Zderic, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical epidemiologic studies suggest that once established, voiding dysfunction can become a lifelong condition if not treated correctly early on in life. Biofeedback is one component of a voiding retraining program to help children with voiding dysfunction. Our goal was to compare objective non-invasive urodynamic data obtained during office biofeedback sessions with patient reported voiding symptom scores. Charts of 55 children referred in 2010 for pelvic floor muscle biofeedback therapy for urinary incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with any anatomic diagnoses were excluded. Forty-seven (86%) females and eight males (14%) with a mean age of 8.2 years made up the cohort. Uroflow curves, voided volumes, and post-void residuals were recorded at each visit and served as objective data. Volumes were normalized as a percentage of expected bladder capacity according to age. The patient reported symptom score and patient reported outcome (improved, no change or worse) served as subjective measures of intervention. The primary referral diagnoses were day and night wetting in 37 (67%) and daytime incontinence in 18 (33%) children. A history of urinary tract infection (UTI) was noted in 32 (64%) patients, and 25% were maintained on antibiotic prophylaxis during the study period. Twenty-nine percent were maintained on anticholinergic medication. Patients attended an average of 2.5 biofeedback sessions. Voided volumes and post void residual volumes were unchanged, 50% of the abnormal uroflow curves normalized over the course of treatment (p biofeedback were rated an improved in 26 (47%), no change in 15 (27%), worse in three (5%) patients, and not rated in 11 patients (21%). Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback is associated with patient-reported improvement in symptoms, reduction in voiding symptom score, and normalization of uroflow curves, but these improvements are not correlated with objective parameters of voided volumes and post-void residual urine

  10. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  11. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  12. Sustainability Matters for Undergraduate Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Catherine L.; Wei, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that infusing sustainability into undergraduate courses and programs can simultaneously benefit institutional goals, student learning outcomes, and society at large. In addition to being a globally relevant and urgent topic, sustainability can enhance learning of disciplinary concepts and development of broad…

  13. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...... sent to 50 students and I received 18 answers (38%). The second survey was sent to 86 students and I received 48 answers (56%). These figures provides a good indication.The answers showed a marked positive effect: the students felt welcome, accepted and respected; the learning environment was more......A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...

  14. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. ... (1999), which gave the South African education system the opportunity to benchmark mathematics and .... petition and rewards (Ramnarain, 2013; Vedder-.

  15. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  16. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  17. The Implementation of APIQ Creative Mathematics Game Method in the Subject Matter of Greatest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdul; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Arifin, A. Nurani M.; Upu, Hamzah; Mulbar, Usman; Alimuddin; Arsyad, Nurdin; Ruslan; Rusli; Djadir; Sutamrin; Hamda; Minggi, Ilham; Awi; Zaki, Ahmad; Ahmad, Asdar; Ihsan, Hisyam

    2018-01-01

    One of causal factors for uninterested feeling of the students in learning mathematics is a monotonous learning method, like in traditional learning method. One of the ways for motivating students to learn mathematics is by implementing APIQ (Aritmetika Plus Intelegensi Quantum) creative mathematics game method. The purposes of this research are (1) to describe students’ responses toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matter of Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) and (2) to find out whether by implementing this method, the student’s learning completeness will improve or not. Based on the results of this research, it is shown that the responses of the students toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method in the subject matters of GCF and LCM were good. It is seen in the percentage of the responses were between 76-100%. (2) The implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matters of GCF and LCM improved the students’ learning.

  18. Material Matters: Increasing Emotional Engagement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven S.; Statler, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Organizational scholars and neuroscientists suggest that when people are more emotionally engaged, they learn more effectively. Clinical art therapists suggest that the experience as well as the expression of emotions can be enabled or constrained by different materials. So then, what materials can be employed by management educators to achieve…

  19. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study ...

  20. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  1. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  2. Urban Extension: Aligning with the Needs of Urban Audiences Through Subject-Matter Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Gaolach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational program model is the principle approach Extension uses to deliver on its mission of “taking knowledge to the people.” However, with county-based faculty fully engaged in long-term program delivery, they may have little or no capacity to address emerging issues faced by urban communities. Urban governments often seek the research capacity of a university in addition to, or instead of, the traditional Extension programming model but sometimes turn first to other urban-serving universities. Washington State University Extension has addressed these challenges by establishing subject-matter centers. This article examines how subject-matter centers can add capacity to traditional Extension offices in order to be responsive to emerging local needs, suggesting models that other university Extension programs may use or adapt to their local communities. These models also foster more community engagement and articulate greater public value for the institution as a whole.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING APPROACHES IN IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN ACID-BASE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmat Sahputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning in the understanding of acid-base chemistry in schools needs to be improved so research to determine differences in learning outcomes between students taught using environmental approaches and methods lectures in class XI SMA on acid-base subject needs to be done. In this study, using a quasi-experimental method using a data collection tool achievement test essay form. The test statistic results of the post-test learning has been obtained Asymp value. Sig (2-tailed 0,026 that showed the differences between students' learning outcomes with a control experimental class with effect size of 0.63 or much influence difference with the percentage 23.57% which indicated that the learning environment approach can improve learning outcomes of high school students.

  4. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  5. Sociomateriality in medical practice and learning: attuning to what matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara

    2014-01-01

    In current debates about professional practice and education, increasing emphasis is placed on understanding learning as a process of ongoing participation rather than one of acquiring knowledge and skills. However, although this socio-cultural view is important and useful, issues have emerged in studies of practice-based learning that point to certain oversights. Three issues are described here: (i) the limited attention paid to the importance of materiality - objects, technologies, nature, etc.-- in questions of learning; (ii) the human-centric view of practice that fails to note the relations among social and material forces, and (iii) the conflicts between ideals of evidence-based standardised models and the sociomaterial contingencies of clinical practice. It is argued here that a socio-material approach to practice and learning offers important insights for medical education. This view is in line with a growing field of research in the materiality of everyday life, which embraces wide-ranging families of theory that can be only briefly mentioned in this short paper. The main premise they share is that social and material forces, culture, nature and technology, are enmeshed in everyday practice. Objects and humans act upon one another in ways that mutually transform their characteristics and activity. Examples from research in medical practice show how materials actively influence clinical practice, how learning itself is a material matter, how protocols are in fact temporary sociomaterial achievements, and how practices form unique and sometimes conflicting sociomaterial worlds, with diverse diagnostic and treatment approaches for the same thing. This discussion concludes with implications for learning in practice. What is required is a shift from an emphasis on acquiring knowledge to participating more wisely in particular situations. This focus is on learning how to attune to minor material fluctuations and surprises, how to track one's own and others

  6. Developing a Democratic View of Academic Subject Matters: John Dewey, William Chandler Bagley, and Boyd Henry Bode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, the ideal of democracy influenced the conceptions people had of the academic subject matters. A common criticism was that abstract academic subjects served aristocratic societies. Although most theorists considered the academic subjects to be important, they had differing views on the conception of…

  7. Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A L

    1997-04-01

    In this article, a program of research known as Fostering Communities of Learners is described. This program is in place in several schools and classrooms serving inner-city students from 6 to 12 years of age. Based on theoretical advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, the program is successful at improving both literacy skills and domain-area subject matter knowledge (e.g., environmental science and biology). Building on young children's emergent strategic and metacognitive knowledge, together with their skeletal biological theories, the program leads children to discover the deep principles of the domain and to develop flexible learning and inquiry strategies of wide applicability.

  8. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  9. Subject Matter Specialists and Organizational Effectiveness of Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Tamil Nadu and Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Puthuparambil Bashir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken with the objective of determining the socio-personal characteristics of Subject Matter Specialists (SMS of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK and their relationship with organizational effectiveness. Altogether 65 SMS’ from 12 KVKs across Tamil Nadu and Kerala were selected. The study has concluded that most of respondents were middle aged with more than half of them being female. Majority of them was married, had work experience of below five years and had attended three to five trainings. Most of the respondents had high level of job satisfaction team-work and one-fourth felt a medium to high job stress. More than half of the respondents felt medium level of work load. There was a positive and significant correlation at one per cent level between job satisfaction / team work and organizational effectiveness of KVKs whereas job stress had a negative and significant correlation at five per cent level. Hence it may be concluded that team work, job satisfaction and job stress play a significant role in improving the organizational effectiveness of KVK. More emphasis must be given for team building enhance the job satisfaction level and reduce the job stress among Subject Matter Specialists of KVKs.

  10. Glucose metabolism, gray matter structure, and memory decline in subjective memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheef, Lukas; Spottke, Annika; Daerr, Moritz; Joe, Alexius; Striepens, Nadine; Kölsch, Heike; Popp, Julius; Daamen, Marcel; Gorris, Dominik; Heneka, Michael T; Boecker, Henning; Biersack, Hans J; Maier, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2012-09-25

    To identify biological evidence for Alzheimer disease (AD) in individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI) and unimpaired cognitive performance and to investigate the longitudinal cognitive course in these subjects. [¹⁸F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) and structural MRI were acquired in 31 subjects with SMI and 56 controls. Cognitive follow-up testing was performed (average follow-up time: 35 months). Differences in baseline brain imaging data and in memory decline were assessed between both groups. Associations of memory decline with brain imaging data were tested. The SMI group showed hypometabolism in the right precuneus and hypermetabolism in the right medial temporal lobe. Gray matter volume was reduced in the right hippocampus in the SMI group. At follow-up, subjects with SMI showed a poorer performance than controls on measures of episodic memory. Longitudinal memory decline in the SMI group was associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the right precuneus at baseline. The cross-sectional difference in 2 independent neuroimaging modalities indicates early AD pathology in SMI. The poorer memory performance at follow-up and the association of reduced longitudinal memory performance with hypometabolism in the precuneus at baseline support the concept of SMI as the earliest manifestation of AD.

  11. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  12. White matter microstructure changes induced by motor skill learning utilizing a body machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Casadio, Maura; Weber, Kenneth A; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Parrish, Todd B

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify white matter microstructure changes following bilateral upper extremity motor skill training to increase our understanding of learning-induced structural plasticity and enhance clinical strategies in physical rehabilitation. Eleven healthy subjects performed two visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 9 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders and upper arms using a body machine interface. Before the start and within 2days of the completion of training, whole brain diffusion tensor MR imaging data were acquired. Motor training increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the posterior and anterior limbs of the internal capsule, the corona radiata, and the body of the corpus callosum by 4.19% on average indicating white matter microstructure changes induced by activity-dependent modulation of axon number, axon diameter, or myelin thickness. These changes may underlie the functional reorganization associated with motor skill learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  14. Transgenic Learning for STEAM Subjects and Virtual Containers for OER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Daniel; Corbí, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Transgenic learning is a disruptive approach in education. It encourages modification of moving parts of the educational chain. This article provides a view of transgenic learning focused on the delivery of enriched learning contents in STEAM areas. It discusses the mutagenic role that the virtual containers may play in current distance education.…

  15. Human Subjects Protection: A Source for Ethical Service-Learning Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Human subjects research ethics were developed to ensure responsible conduct when university researchers learn by interacting with community members. As service-learning students also learn by interacting with community members, a similar set of principles may strengthen the ethical practice of service-learning. This article identifies ethical…

  16. Analysis of Blended Learning Implementation on Waste Treatment Subjects in Agricultural Vocational School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, Y.; Nurmayani, S.; Mujdalipah, S.

    2018-02-01

    Waste treatment is one of the productive subjects in vocational high school in programs of Agricultural Processing Technology which is one of the objectives learning has been assigned in graduate competency standards (SKL) of Vocational High School. Based on case studies that have been conducted in SMK Pertanian Pembangunan Negeri Lembang, waste treatment subjects had still use the lecture method or conventional method, and students are less enthusiastic in learning process. Therefore, the implementation of more interactive learning models such as blended learning with Edmodo is one of alternative models to resolve the issue. So, the purpose of this study is to formulate the appropriate learning syntax for the implementation of blended learning with Edmodo to agree the requirement characteristics of students and waste treatment subject and explain the learning outcome obtained by students in the cognitive aspects on the subjects of waste treatment. This research was conducted by the method of classroom action research (CAR) with a Mc. Tagart model. The result from this research is the implementation of blended learning with Edmodo on the subjects of waste treatment can improve student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects with the maximum increase in the value of N-gain 0.82, as well as student learning completeness criteria reaching 100% on cycle 2. Based on the condition of subject research the formulation of appropriate learning syntax for implementation of blended learning model with Edmodo on waste treatment subject are 1) Self-paced learning, 2) Group networking, 3) Live Event- collaboration, 4) Association - communication, 5) Assessment - Performance material support. In summary, implementation of blended learning model with Edmodo on waste treatment subject can improve improve student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects and conducted in five steps on syntax.

  17. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  18. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  19. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  20. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  1. {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of white matter signal hyperintensity areas in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Meyerhoff, D J [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Norman, D [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Fein, G [Department of Veterans Affairs Psychiatry Service, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Weiner, M W [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; [DVA Medical Center, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are commonly seen on MRI of elderly subjects. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic changes in the white matter of elderly subjects with extensive WMSH. We used water-suppressed proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare six subjects with extensive WMSH with eight age-matched elderly subjects with minimal or absent WMSH, and phosphorus ({sup 31}P) MRSI to compare nine subjects with extensive WMSH and seven age-matched elderly subjects without extensive WMSH. Relative to region-matched tissue in elderly controls, extensive WMSH were associated with increased signal from choline-containing metabolites, no significant change of signal from N-acetylaspartate, and a trend to a decreased phosphomonoester (PME) resonance. These findings suggest that WMSH may be associated with an alteration of brain myelin phospholipids in the absence of axonal damage. There were no differences in energy phosphates, consistent with lack of ongoing brain ischemia. Within the group with extensive WMSH, PME resonance measures were significantly lower in WMSH than in contralateral normal-appearing white matter. These results provide information on pathophysiology of WMSH and a basis for comparison with WMSH in Alzheimer`s disease, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  3. Cross-sectional variations of white and grey matter in older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Chetouani

    2018-01-01

    Altogether, our findings show that cross-sectional variations in overall white brain matter are linked to the metabolism of Alzheimer-like cortical areas and to cognitive performance in older hypertensive patients with only subjective memory complaints. Additional relationships with central BP strengthen the hypothesis of a contributing pathogenic role of hypertension.

  4. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  5. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  6. Promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in science and maths subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Putu Fika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.

  7. Painting galaxies into dark matter halos using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shankar; Davé, Romeel; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2018-05-01

    We develop a machine learning (ML) framework to populate large dark matter-only simulations with baryonic galaxies. Our ML framework takes input halo properties including halo mass, environment, spin, and recent growth history, and outputs central galaxy and halo baryonic properties including stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR), metallicity (Z), neutral (H I) and molecular (H_2) hydrogen mass. We apply this to the MUFASA cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, and show that it recovers the mean trends of output quantities with halo mass highly accurately, including following the sharp drop in SFR and gas in quenched massive galaxies. However, the scatter around the mean relations is under-predicted. Examining galaxies individually, at z = 0 the stellar mass and metallicity are accurately recovered (σ ≲ 0.2 dex), but SFR and H I show larger scatter (σ ≳ 0.3 dex); these values improve somewhat at z = 1, 2. Remarkably, ML quantitatively recovers second parameter trends in galaxy properties, e.g. that galaxies with higher gas content and lower metallicity have higher SFR at a given M*. Testing various ML algorithms, we find that none perform significantly better than the others, nor does ensembling improve performance, likely because none of the algorithms reproduce the large observed scatter around the mean properties. For the random forest algorithm, we find that halo mass and nearby (˜200 kpc) environment are the most important predictive variables followed by growth history, while halo spin and ˜Mpc scale environment are not important. Finally we study the impact of additionally inputting key baryonic properties M*, SFR, and Z, as would be available e.g. from an equilibrium model, and show that particularly providing the SFR enables H I to be recovered substantially more accurately.

  8. The effect of multiple intelligence-based learning towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, W. N.; Rochintaniawati, D.; Agustin, R. R.

    2018-05-01

    This research was focused on investigating the effect of multiple intelligence -based learning as a learning approach towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter. The one-group pre-test - post-test design was used in this research towards a sample which was according to the suitable situation of the research sample, n = 13 students of the 7th grade in a private school in Bandar Seri Begawan. The students’ concept mastery was measured using achievement test and given at the pre-test and post-test, meanwhile the students’ interest level was measured using a Likert Scale for interest. Based on the analysis of the data, the result shows that the normalized gain was .61, which was considered as a medium improvement. in other words, students’ concept mastery in matter increased after being taught using multiple intelligence-based learning. The Likert scale of interest shows that most students have a high interest in learning matter after being taught by multiple intelligence-based learning. Therefore, it is concluded that multiple intelligence – based learning helped in improving students’ concept mastery and gain students’ interest in learning matter.

  9. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  10. Subject Specialist Mentors in the Lifelong Learning Sector: The Subject Specialist Mentor Model; is it working? A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This short article explores whether using a mentoring model supports our Subject Specialist Mentors (SSMs with their role of mentoring trainees on Initial Teacher Training (ITT courses. Although there are many mentoring models to choose from, our model is based around mentoring within the Lifelong Learning Sector (LLS where trainees need support for their subject specialism as well as their generic teaching skills. The main focus is the use of coaching and mentoring skills taking into consideration guiding, supporting and challenging the trainee during the lifetime of the mentor/trainee relationship. The SSMs found that using our model as a tool helped to structure meetings and to ensure that the trainee had the necessary support to enable them to become proficient, competent subject specialist teachers. In conclusion, it was found that there is a need for the use of a model or a framework to help the Subject Specialist Mentor (SSM with such an important role.

  11. Psychophysics of associative learning: Quantitative properties of subjective contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Susana; Lefèvre, Françoise; Jozefowiez, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Allan and collaborators (Allan, Hannah, Crump, & Siegel, 2008; Allan, Siegel, & Tangen, 2005; Siegel, Allan, Hannah, & Crump, 2009) recently proposed to apply signal detection theory to the analysis of contingency judgment tasks. When exposed to a flow of stimuli, participants are asked to judge whether there is a contingent relation between a cue and an outcome, that is, whether the subjective cue-outcome contingency exceeds a decision threshold. In this context, we tested the following hypotheses regarding the relation between objective and subjective cue-outcome contingency: (a) The underlying distributions of subjective cue-outcome contingency are Gaussian; (b) The mean distribution of subjective contingency is a linear function of objective cue-outcome contingency; and (c) The variance in the distribution of subjective contingency is constant. The hypotheses were tested by combining a streamed-trial contingency assessment task with a confidence rating procedure. Participants were exposed to rapid flows of stimuli at the end of which they had to judge whether an outcome was more (Experiment 1) or less (Experiment 2) likely to appear following a cue and how sure they were of their judgment. We found that although Hypothesis A seems reasonable, Hypotheses B and C were not. Regarding Hypothesis B, participants were more sensitive to positive than to negative contingencies. Regarding Hypothesis C, the perceived cue-outcome contingency became more variable when the contingency became more positive or negative, but only to a slight extent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  13. The Role of Subjective Task Value in Service-Learning Engagement among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulan; Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan

    2016-01-01

    Most service-learning studies in higher education focused on its effects on students’ development. The dynamic processes and mechanisms of students’ development during service-learning, however, have not been explored thoroughly. Student engagement in service-learning may affect service-learning outcomes and be affected by subjective task value at the same time. The present study aimed to explore the effect of subjective task value on Chinese college student engagement during service-learning. Fifty-four Chinese college students participated in a 9-weeks service-learning program of interacting with children with special needs. Students’ engagement and subjective task value were assessed via self-report questionnaires and 433 weekly reflective journals. The results indicated that the cognitive, emotional and behavioral engagement of Chinese college students demonstrated different developmental trends during service-learning process. Subjective task value played an essential role in student engagement in service-learning activities. However, the role of subjective task value varied with different stages. Finally, the implications for implementing service-learning in Chinese education were discussed. PMID:27445919

  14. The Role of Subjective Task Value in Service-Learning Engagement among Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulan; Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan

    2016-01-01

    Most service-learning studies in higher education focused on its effects on students' development. The dynamic processes and mechanisms of students' development during service-learning, however, have not been explored thoroughly. Student engagement in service-learning may affect service-learning outcomes and be affected by subjective task value at the same time. The present study aimed to explore the effect of subjective task value on Chinese college student engagement during service-learning. Fifty-four Chinese college students participated in a 9-weeks service-learning program of interacting with children with special needs. Students' engagement and subjective task value were assessed via self-report questionnaires and 433 weekly reflective journals. The results indicated that the cognitive, emotional and behavioral engagement of Chinese college students demonstrated different developmental trends during service-learning process. Subjective task value played an essential role in student engagement in service-learning activities. However, the role of subjective task value varied with different stages. Finally, the implications for implementing service-learning in Chinese education were discussed.

  15. E-LEARNING METHOD APPLIED TO TECHNICAL GRAPHICS SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANTA Adrian Mihai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the author’s endeavors in creating video courses for the students from the Faculty of Engineering in Braila related to subjects involving technical graphics . There are also mentioned the steps taken in completing the method and how to achieve a feedback on the rate of access to these types of courses by the students.

  16. Second Graders' Emerging Particle Models of Matter in the Context of Learning through Model-Based Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarapungavan, Ala; Bryan, Lynn; Wills, Jamison

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of second graders' learning about the nature of matter in the context of content-rich, model-based inquiry instruction. The goal of instruction was to help students learn to use simple particle models to explain states of matter and phase changes. We examined changes in students' ideas about matter, the coherence…

  17. The Language of Schooling: A Challenge to Subject Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Moe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the importance of language as a means to acquire knowledge in traditional content subjects at school. The article's aim is threefold: to introduce the term language of schooling; to point to some recent research findings in the field; to discuss what a focus on language in subject classes could mean in a school context. This article builds on findings from the project Language descriptors for migrant and minority students’ success in compulsory education hosted by the European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML in Graz in 2012 and 2013 ( Moe et al. 2015 and materials collected in connection with an ECML think tank on the language of schooling in September 2016 (ECML 2016.

  18. Teacher´s Discourses and Subjectivity in Physics Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze some didactical interviews with two high school students about collision in Mechanics. After presenting some categories of analysis, we will show how subjective conditions and relationship to both knowledge and interviewer played important roles in the development of a searching process and in the production of mental schemes. Simultaneously, we will point out how and why interviewer interference was resonant or dissonant with those conditions.

  19. Effectiveness of students worksheet based on mastery learning in genetics subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahati, R. R. P.; Yanti, F.; Susanti, D.

    2018-05-01

    Genetics is one of the subjects that must be followed by students in Biology education department. Generally, students do not like the genetics subject because of genetics concepts difficult to understand and the unavailability of a practical students worksheet. Consequently, the complete learning process (mastery learning) is not fulfilled and low students learning outcomes. The aim of this study develops student worksheet based on mastery learning that practical in genetics subject. This research is a research and development using 4-D models. The data analysis technique used is the descriptive analysis that describes the results of the practicalities of students worksheets based on mastery learning by students and lecturer of the genetic subject. The result is the student worksheet based on mastery learning on genetics subject are to the criteria of 80,33% and 80,14%, which means that the students worksheet practical used by lecturer and students. Student’s worksheet based on mastery learning effective because it can increase the activity and student learning outcomes.

  20. Academic Performance in Introductory Accounting: Do Learning Styles Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…

  1. White matter organization in cervical spinal cord relates differently to age and control of grip force in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Feydy, Antoine; Maier, Marc A

    2010-03-17

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to elucidate relations between CNS structure and function. We hypothesized that the degree of spinal white matter organization relates to the accuracy of control of grip force. Healthy subjects of different age were studied using DTI and visuomotor tracking of precision grip force. The latter is a prime component of manual dexterity. A regional analysis of spinal white matter [fractional anisotropy (FA)] across multiple cervical levels (C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7) and in different regions of interest (left and right lateral or medial spinal cord) was performed. FA was highest at the C2-C3 level, higher on the right than the left side, and higher in the lateral than in the medial spinal cord (p level in the lateral spinal cord, in which the corticospinal tract innervates spinal circuitry controlling hand and digit muscles. FA of the medial spinal cord correlated consistently with age across all cervical levels, whereas FA of the lateral spinal cord did not. The results suggest (1) a functionally relevant specialization of lateral spinal cord white matter and (2) an increased sensitivity to age-related decline in medial spinal cord white matter in healthy subjects.

  2. DOES FAMILY BACKGROUND MATTER FOR LEARNING IN EAST AFRICA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East....... Even so, family background does not fully explain why children of school starting age display large differences in learning between countries....... Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the contribution of family background to learning differences. We find that learning differences between children from less-advantaged households and those from more-advantaged households equals around one year or more of effective learning on average...

  3. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  5. Subjectivities between teaching and pedagogical apparatus: what move us to learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What move us to learn are intangible and invisible subjective processes set in motion in the body and with the body. Social practices and interpersonal forms of relations shape our perceptions of ‘self’ and ‘other’ constructing repertoires that characterize our insertions in the different communities in which we are part. The relations between subjectivity and institutional structures are guided by tensions which extend themselves to the formal conditions of learning. Desires, motivations, affects, doubts and instabilities trespass the timings of learning when being confronted with the resources and pedagogical apparatuses we utilize. Visual culture education proposes to tension and problematize these various trespassing trying to establish transits between subject and collectivity, cultural practices and subjectivities, the thoughtless and the objective, through living experiences which animate us to question and to continue learning as educators and/or students.

  6. Learning and Cognition - The interplay between the Subject and the Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak; Fast, Alf Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between learning, epistemology and intersubjectivity in the context of problem-based learning and project-oriented work at a university level. It aims to show how the collaboration of students in a group over a longer period of time can put...... emphasis on the knowledge - practice discussion, and thereby on some of the values required to progress in science as a field and to develop knowledge. This article focuses on how to describe the dialectical interplay between the individual’s learning and the groups’ learning process, in the development...... of a project in a field. This process of a dialectical interplay is a matter of cognition and development of the self, and the development of competencies and knowledge. Learning is a process based on the involvement of the self, engaging in the interaction with a problem and with others. The process...

  7. Multiple Intelligences, Motivations and Learning Experience Regarding Video-Assisted Subjects in a Rural University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina; Anderson, Neil; Tabibzadeh, Seyed Asadollah

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates multiple intelligences in relation to online video experiences, age, gender, and mode of learning from a rural Australian university. The inter-relationships between learners' different intelligences and their motivations and learning experience with the supplementary online videos utilised in their subjects are…

  8. DISTANCE LEARNING AS A PERSPECTIVE FORM IN DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT-REFERENCE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna R. Kovalska

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state and the level of studying of methodological and theoretical bases of distance learning were analyzed and researched; the methodological bases were formed, a list of characteristics was revealed, relevant only to distance learning; a list of advantages and disadvantages of distance learning using for the development of subject-reference competence of information technology teachers was revealed.

  9. Cooperative Learning and Learning Achievement in Social Science Subjects for Sociable Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpratiwi; Darsono; Sasmiati; Pujiyatli

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The research objective was to compare students' learning achievement for sociable learning motivation students in social science (IPS) using cooperative learning. Research Methods: This research used a quasi-experimental method with a pre-test/post-test design involving 35 fifth-grade students. The learning process was conducted four…

  10. Motor learning in healthy humans is associated to gray matter changes: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Ceccarelli, Antonia; Pagani, Elisabetta; Gatti, Roberto; Rossi, Alice; Stefanelli, Laura; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria Assunta

    2010-04-15

    We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to: 1) map gray matter (GM) volume changes associated with motor learning in young healthy individuals; 2) evaluate if GM changes persist three months after cessation of motor training; and 3) assess whether the use of different schemes of motor training during the learning phase could lead to volume modifications of specific GM structures. From 31 healthy subjects, motor functional assessment and brain 3D T1-weighted sequence were obtained: before motor training (time 0), at the end of training (two weeks) (time 2), and three months later (time 3). Fifteen subjects (group A) were trained with goal-directed motor sequences, and 16 (group B) with non purposeful motor actions of the right hand. At time 1 vs. time 0, the whole sample of subjects had GM volume increase in regions of the temporo-occipital lobes, inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and middle frontal gyrus, while at time 2 vs. time 1, an increased GM volume in the middle temporal gyrus was seen. At time 1 vs. time 0, compared to group B, group A had a GM volume increase of the hippocampi, while the opposite comparison showed greater GM volume increase in the IPL and insula in group B vs. group A. Motor learning results in structural GM changes of different brain areas which are part of specific neuronal networks and tend to persist after training is stopped. The scheme applied during the learning phase influences the pattern of such structural changes.

  11. Motor learning in healthy humans is associated to gray matter changes: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Filippi

    Full Text Available We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM to: 1 map gray matter (GM volume changes associated with motor learning in young healthy individuals; 2 evaluate if GM changes persist three months after cessation of motor training; and 3 assess whether the use of different schemes of motor training during the learning phase could lead to volume modifications of specific GM structures. From 31 healthy subjects, motor functional assessment and brain 3D T1-weighted sequence were obtained: before motor training (time 0, at the end of training (two weeks (time 2, and three months later (time 3. Fifteen subjects (group A were trained with goal-directed motor sequences, and 16 (group B with non purposeful motor actions of the right hand. At time 1 vs. time 0, the whole sample of subjects had GM volume increase in regions of the temporo-occipital lobes, inferior parietal lobule (IPL and middle frontal gyrus, while at time 2 vs. time 1, an increased GM volume in the middle temporal gyrus was seen. At time 1 vs. time 0, compared to group B, group A had a GM volume increase of the hippocampi, while the opposite comparison showed greater GM volume increase in the IPL and insula in group B vs. group A. Motor learning results in structural GM changes of different brain areas which are part of specific neuronal networks and tend to persist after training is stopped. The scheme applied during the learning phase influences the pattern of such structural changes.

  12. Factors for Successful E-Learning: Does Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Julie; Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting employees' overall acceptance, satisfaction and future use of e-learning, specifically exploring the impact that age has on the intended future use of e-learning relative to the other potential predictors. Design/Methodology/Approach: The project developed an online survey and…

  13. Impairments in Learning Due to Motivational Conflict: Situation Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Nina K.; Grund, Axel; Hilckmann, Kristina; Fries, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although many theories mention distractions by conflicting alternatives as a problem for self-regulation, motivational conflicts are rarely considered when explaining impairments in learning. In two studies, we investigate the assumption of motivational interference theory that students show different amounts of impairments in learning depending…

  14. Learning from video modeling examples: Does gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, V.; Loyens, S.M.M.; van Gog, T.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer

  15. Learning from Video Modeling Examples: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer similarity hypothesis suggests that such…

  16. Learning from video modeling examples: does gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Hoogerheide (Vincent); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOnline learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the

  17. Student perceptions and learning outcomes of blended learning in a massive first-year core physiology for allied health subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Janelle; Meehan-Andrews, Terri; Weerakkody, Nivan; Hughes, Diane L; Rathner, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence shows that factors contributing to success in physiology education for allied health students at universities include not only their high school achievement and background but also factors such as confidence with their teachers and quality of their learning experience, justifying intensive and continued survey of students' perceptions of their learning experience. Here we report data covering a 3-yr period in a physiology subject that has been redesigned for blended and online presentation. Consistent with previous reports, we show that when we undertook a blended mode of delivery, students demonstrated better grades than traditional modes of teaching; however the absence of didactic teaching in this subject resulted in lower grades overall. Students have very strong positive attitudes to weekly quizzes (80% positive approval) but report ambivalent attitudes to online self-directed learning (61% negative perception), even though they had 2-h weekly facilitated workshops. Overwhelmingly, students who undertook the subject in a self-directed online learning mode requested more face-to-face-teaching (70% of comments). From these data, we suggest that there is a quantifiable benefit to didactic teaching in the blended teaching mode that is not reproduced in online self-directed learning, even when face-to-face guided inquiry-based learning is embedded in the subject. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Student notes as a mediating tool for learning in school subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2016-01-01

    -writing function as a tool for a shift in identity from school child to student?. Perceptions of note-writing by two male students and students notes from the school subject bussines economics are analysed. It is concluded that note-writing can function as a tool for learning. Writing notes often allow students...... discource language which must be considered learning subjects. It is concluded that.note writing can mediate between subject discourse language and everyday language, and thereby also function as a tool to identity shift....

  19. The Influence of Problem Based Learning Model toward Students’ Activities and Learning Outcomes on Financial Management Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Tantri Hardini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of problem based learning model toward students’ activities and achievement on Financial Management subject for undergraduate program students of Accounting Education. It was a quantitative research that used true experimental design. Samples of this study were undergraduate program students of Accounting Education in the year of 2014. Class A were control class and class B were experimental class. Data were analyzed by using t-test in order to determine the differences of learning outcomes between control class and experimental class. Then, questionnaires were distributed to gather students’ activities information in their students’ learning model. Findings show that there is an influence of Problem Based Learning model toward students’ activities and learning outcomes on Financial Management subject for undergraduate program students of Accounting Education since t-count ≥ t-table. It is 6.120 ≥ 1.9904. Students’ learning activities with Problem Based Learning model are better than students who are taught by conventional learning model.

  20. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  1. The Relationship between Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Effectiveness of Undergraduate Chemistry Peer Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, J. R.; Barnard, R. A.; Peterson, L. J.; Coppola, B. P.

    2018-01-01

    Use of peer instruction and facilitation has surged in undergraduate education at large colleges and universities in recent years. Studies on peer instruction have been directed primarily at student learning gains and affective outcomes among the facilitators. For peer instructors, the relationship between their teaching effectiveness and their…

  2. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Pariente, Jérémie; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Payoux, Pierre; Péran, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Purpose AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also in healthy population. This binding; thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in healthy and pathological populations in white matter. Methods We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized PET-MRI registration method and an approach based on intensity histogram using several indexes. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matters using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. Results White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms was not decisive to discriminate groups, and indexes based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample in two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey but also in white matter. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using SUVr approach. Although it is not better than standard SUVr to discriminate AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. PMID:24573658

  3. A matter of timing: harm reduction in learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sophie Helene; Sartorius, Alexander; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2014-11-03

    Learned helplessness has excellent validity as an animal model for depression, but problems in reproducibility limit its use and the high degree of stress involved in the paradigm raises ethical concerns. We therefore aimed to identify which and how many trials of the learned helplessness paradigm are necessary to distinguish between helpless and non-helpless rats. A trial-by-trial reanalysis of tests from 163 rats with congenital learned helplessness or congenital non-learned helplessness and comparison of 82 rats exposed to inescapable shock with 38 shock-controls revealed that neither the first test trials, when rats showed unspecific hyperlocomotion, nor trials of the last third of the test, when almost all animals responded quickly to the stressor, contributed to sensitivity and specificity of the test. Considering only trials 3-10 improved the classification of helpless and non-helpless rats. The refined analysis allows abbreviation of the test for learned helplessness from 15 trials to 10 trials thereby reducing pain and stress of the experimental animals without losing statistical power.

  4. Transferring and generalizing deep-learning-based neural encoding models across subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Shi, Junxing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-08-01

    Recent studies have shown the value of using deep learning models for mapping and characterizing how the brain represents and organizes information for natural vision. However, modeling the relationship between deep learning models and the brain (or encoding models), requires measuring cortical responses to large and diverse sets of natural visual stimuli from single subjects. This requirement limits prior studies to few subjects, making it difficult to generalize findings across subjects or for a population. In this study, we developed new methods to transfer and generalize encoding models across subjects. To train encoding models specific to a target subject, the models trained for other subjects were used as the prior models and were refined efficiently using Bayesian inference with a limited amount of data from the target subject. To train encoding models for a population, the models were progressively trained and updated with incremental data from different subjects. For the proof of principle, we applied these methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from three subjects watching tens of hours of naturalistic videos, while a deep residual neural network driven by image recognition was used to model visual cortical processing. Results demonstrate that the methods developed herein provide an efficient and effective strategy to establish both subject-specific and population-wide predictive models of cortical representations of high-dimensional and hierarchical visual features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  6. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  7. The Work of the Prince's Teaching Institute--Insisting that Established Subjects Matter to All Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Prince's Teaching Institute (PTI), which has evolved out of the Summer Schools for English Literature and History which The Prince of Wales inaugurated in 2002, now provides a variety of courses in the major subjects of the secondary curriculum. In partnership with Cambridge University it enables teachers to update and extend their subject…

  8. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging identifies deficits in white matter microstructure in subjects with type 1 diabetes that correlate with reduced neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodl, Christopher T; Franc, Daniel T; Rao, Jyothi P; Anderson, Fiona S; Thomas, William; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2008-11-01

    Long-standing type 1 diabetes is associated with deficits on neurocognitive testing that suggest central white matter dysfunction. This study investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a type of magnetic resonance imaging that measures white matter integrity quantitatively, could identify white matter microstructural deficits in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes and whether these differences would be associated with deficits found by neurocognitive tests. Twenty-five subjects with type 1 diabetes for at least 15 years and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects completed DTI on a 3.0 Tesla scanner and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Fractional anisotropy was calculated for the major white matter tracts of the brain. Diabetic subjects had significantly lower mean fractional anisotropy than control subjects in the posterior corona radiata and the optic radiation (P < 0.002). In type 1 diabetic subjects, reduced fractional anisotropy correlated with poorer performance on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Drawing Test and the Grooved Peg Board Test, both of which are believed to assess white matter function. Reduced fractional anisotropy also correlated with duration of diabetes and increased A1C. A history of severe hypoglycemia did not correlate with fractional anisotropy. DTI can detect white matter microstructural deficits in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes. These deficits correlate with poorer performance on selected neurocognitive tests of white matter function.

  10. The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) on Intermediate Financial Accounting Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Nunuk Suryanti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to know the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Model comparing to Drill Model on Intermediate Financial Accounting subject. The research was a quasi-experimental research. Population was four classes of Accounting Education students in the year of 2014/2015 at Faculty of Educational Science and Teaching of Riau Islamic University (UIR). Sample was taken by using purposive sampling. Then, it used Problem Based Learning (PBL) at experimental class and Drill Model a...

  11. Design to learn: customizing services when the future matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ariely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based customization tools can be used to design service encounters that maximize customers' utility in the present or explore their tastes to provide more value in the future, where these two goals conflict with each other. Maximizing expected customer satisfaction in the present leads to slow rates of learning that may limit the ability to provide quality in the future. An emphasis on learning can lead to unsatisfied customers that will not only forego purchasing in the current period, but, more seriously, never return if they lose trust in the service provider's ability to meet their needs. This paper describes service design policies that balance the objectives of learning and selling by characterizing customer lifetime value as a function of knowledge. The analysis of the customization problem as a dynamic program yields three results. The first result is the characterization of customization policies that quantify the value of knowledge so as to adequately balance the expected revenue of present and future interactions. The second result is an analysis of the impact of operational decisions on loyalty, learning, and profitability over time. Finally, the quantification of the value of knowing the customer provides a connection between customer acquisition and retention policies, thus enhancing the current understanding of the mechanisms connecting service customization, value creation, and customer lifetime value.

  12. Why the Personal Competencies Matter. Connect: Making Learning Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This issue in the "Connect" series is a field report that discusses how a student's personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--propel learning and other forms of goal attainment. These personal competencies are personal to the individual in their shape, size, and effect, but they are enhanced by…

  13. Effect of Subjective Norms Mediation to Entrepreneurship Intention at Entrepreneurship Learning in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Mustofa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This type of research is quantitative research with the help of Smart PLS 3.0 application. The population in this study are all students of marketing program of SMK Negeri Boyolali on entrepreneuship learning. Through the sampling formula Issac and Michael obtained as many as 175 student samples. Sampling technique used proportionate stratified random sampling. Technical analysis used is structural equation model analysis. Testing hypothesis with significant level 5% obtained by coefficient of beta (original sample at specific indirect effects equal to 0,105. It shows that entrepreneuship learning has positive predictive properties of entrepreneurship intention (EI through students' subjective norms. The value of t-count is 2,844, the value of t-table is 1.96 then t-count > t-table (2,844> 1,96. It shows that student EI is significantly influenced by entrepreneuship learning through students' subjective norms. While the value of coefficient of determination (r-square obtained coefficient of determination for subjective norms (SN variable shows that the amount of contribution, contribution given by entrepreneurship learning (EL variables 9.3% and the value of coefficient of determination for EI variable shows that the amount of contribution, contribution given by variable SN 37.8%. So this research is well used in the development of economic learning innovation, especially entrepreneurship subjects.

  14. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours - Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees' well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  15. Evaluating the relationship between white matter integrity, cognition, and varieties of video game learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nicholas R; O'Connell, Margaret A; Nashiro, Kaoru; Smith, Evan T; Qin, Shuo; Basak, Chandramallika

    2017-01-01

    Many studies are currently researching the effects of video games, particularly in the domain of cognitive training. Great variability exists among video games however, and few studies have attempted to compare different types of video games. Little is known, for instance, about the cognitive processes or brain structures that underlie learning of different genres of video games. To examine the cognitive and neural underpinnings of two different types of game learning in order to evaluate their common and separate correlates, with the hopes of informing future intervention research. Participants (31 younger adults and 31 older adults) completed an extensive cognitive battery and played two different genres of video games, one action game and one strategy game, for 1.5 hours each. DTI scans were acquired for each participant, and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted using the JHU atlas. Behavioral results indicated that better performance on tasks of working memory and perceptual discrimination was related to enhanced learning in both games, even after controlling for age, whereas better performance on a perceptual speed task was uniquely related with enhanced learning of the strategy game. DTI results indicated that white matter FA in the right fornix/stria terminalis was correlated with action game learning, whereas white matter FA in the left cingulum/hippocampus was correlated with strategy game learning, even after controlling for age. Although cognition, to a large extent, was a common predictor of both types of game learning, regional white matter FA could separately predict action and strategy game learning. Given the neural and cognitive correlates of strategy game learning, strategy games may provide a more beneficial training tool for adults suffering from memory-related disorders or declines in processing speed, particularly older adults.

  16. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  17. Procedural Memory: Computer Learning in Control Subjects and in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomas-Antérion

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We used perceptual motor tasks involving the learning of mouse control by looking at a Macintosh computer screen. We studied 90 control subjects aged between sixteen and seventy-five years. There was a significant time difference between the scales of age but improvement was the same for all subjects. We also studied 24 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. We observed an influence of age and also of educational levels. The PD patients had difficulties of learning in all tests but they did not show differences in time when compared to the control group in the first learning session (Student's t-test. They learned two or four and a half times less well than the control group. In the first test, they had some difficulty in initiating the procedure and learned eight times less well than the control group. Performances seemed to be heterogeneous: patients with only tremor (seven and patients without treatment (five performed better than others but learned less. Success in procedural tasks for the PD group seemed to depend on the capacity to initiate the response and not on the development of an accurate strategy. Many questions still remain unanswered, and we have to study different kinds of implicit memory tasks to differentiate performance in control and basal ganglia groups.

  18. A Teaching Elixir, Learning Chimera or Just Fool's Gold? Do Learning Styles Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The idea of a personal style in learning has grown during the past decade to dominate teacher discourse in the UK. The theory supporting this idea is work in understanding cognitive and learning style. A recent review of learning styles for the Learning and Skills Development Agency in the UK has been widely publicised and is deeply critical of…

  19. Introducing e-learning/teaching in a physiology course for medical students: acceptance by students and subjective effect on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, E; Fauler, M; Geiler, S

    2013-12-01

    Retrieval of information has substantially changed within the last two decades. Naturally, this has also affected learning/teaching techniques, and methods that are commonly referred to as "e-learning" have become an important part in modern education. Institutions have to decide if (and how) to implement this new form of teaching but face the problem that little subject-specific research has been published for different teaching modes and methods. The present study compares a course module of the physiology laboratory course for medical students in the preclinical phase before and after the introduction of computer-aided course instructions (CACI). Students were provided with an online questionnaire containing Likert items evaluating workspace redesign, acceptance of course instructions, incentive to actively participate in the course, and subjective gain of knowledge. CACI was clearly preferred over the previously used paper workbook. However, the questionnaire also revealed that the gain in knowledge, as subjectively perceived by the students, had not improved, which is in agreement with several studies that neglected a beneficial effect of e-learning on learning success. We conclude that the CACI meet today's student's expectations and that introducing this system seems justified from this perspective.

  20. Learning a common dictionary for subject-transfer decoding with resting calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Atsunori; Hirayama, Jun-ichiro; Shikauchi, Manabu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin

    2015-05-01

    Brain signals measured over a series of experiments have inherent variability because of different physical and mental conditions among multiple subjects and sessions. Such variability complicates the analysis of data from multiple subjects and sessions in a consistent way, and degrades the performance of subject-transfer decoding in a brain-machine interface (BMI). To accommodate the variability in brain signals, we propose 1) a method for extracting spatial bases (or a dictionary) shared by multiple subjects, by employing a signal-processing technique of dictionary learning modified to compensate for variations between subjects and sessions, and 2) an approach to subject-transfer decoding that uses the resting-state activity of a previously unseen target subject as calibration data for compensating for variations, eliminating the need for a standard calibration based on task sessions. Applying our methodology to a dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during a selective visual-spatial attention task from multiple subjects and sessions, where the variability compensation was essential for reducing the redundancy of the dictionary, we found that the extracted common brain activities were reasonable in the light of neuroscience knowledge. The applicability to subject-transfer decoding was confirmed by improved performance over existing decoding methods. These results suggest that analyzing multisubject brain activities on common bases by the proposed method enables information sharing across subjects with low-burden resting calibration, and is effective for practical use of BMI in variable environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  2. The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL on Intermediate Financial Accounting Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Suryanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL Model comparing to Drill Model on Intermediate Financial Accounting subject. The research was a quasi-experimental research. Population was four classes of Accounting Education students in the year of 2014/2015 at Faculty of Educational Science and Teaching of Riau Islamic University (UIR. Sample was taken by using purposive sampling. Then, it used Problem Based Learning (PBL at experimental class and Drill Model at controlled class. Data was collected by using interview, observation, and tests (pre-test and post-test. Moreover, data were analyzed by using independent sample test. Findings show that there is no any difference of learning outcomes between students who taught by Problem Based Learning (PBL Model and Drill Model on Intermediate Financial Accounting.

  3. Can a multimedia tool help students' learning performance in complex biology subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Koseoglu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of multimedia-based biology teaching (Mbio and teacher-centered biology (TCbio instruction approaches on learners' biology achievements, as well as their views towards learning approaches. During the research process, an experimental design with two groups, TCbio (n = 22 and Mbio (n = 26, were used. The results of the study proved that the Mbio approach was more effective than the TCbio approach with regard to supporting meaningful learning, academic achievement, enjoyment and motivation. Moreover, the TCbio approach is ineffective in terms of time management, engaging attention, and the need for repetition of subjects. Additionally, the results were discussed in terms of teaching, learning, multimedia design as well as biology teaching/learning.

  4. Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Antonia; Rocca, Maria Assunta; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2009-11-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated morphological changes in cortical structures following motor and cognitive learning. In this study, we applied, for the first time, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess the short-term structural brain gray matter (GM) changes associated with cognitive learning in healthy subjects. Using a 3 T scanner, a 3D T1-weighted sequence was acquired from 32 students at baseline and after two weeks. Students were separated into two groups: 13 defined as "students in cognitive training", who underwent a two-week cognitive learning period, and 19 "students not in cognitive training", who were not involved in any teaching activity. GM changes were assessed using TBM and statistical parametric mapping. Baseline regional GM volume did not differ between the two groups. At follow up, compared to "students not in cognitive training", the "students in cognitive training" had a significant GM volume increase in the dorsomedial frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the precuneus (p<0.001). These results suggest that cognitive learning results in short-term structural GM changes of neuronal networks of the human brain, which are known to be involved in cognition. This may have important implications for the development of rehabilitation strategies in patients with neurological diseases.

  5. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  6. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S.; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E.; Keysers, Christian

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18)

  7. Experiential Learning Model on Entrepreneurship Subject to Improve Students’ Soft Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rifda Naufalin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject by using experiential learning model. It was expected that the learning model could upgrade students’ soft skills which were indicated by the higher confidence, result and job oriented, being courageous to take risks, leadership, originality, and future-oriented. It was a class action research using Kemmis and Mc Tagart’s design model. The research was conducted for two cycles. The subject of the study was economics education students in the year of 2015/2016.  Findings show that the experiential learning model could improve students’ soft skills. The research showed that there is increased at the dimension of confidence by 52.1%, result-oriented by 22.9%, being courageous to take risks by 10.4%, leadership by 12.5%, originality by 10.4%, and future-oriented by 18.8%. It could be concluded that the experiential learning model is effective model to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject. Dimension of confidence has the highest rise. Students’ soft skills are shaped through the continuous stimulus when they get involved at the implementation.

  8. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  9. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a 1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  11. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice; Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre; Pariente, Jeremie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    2014-01-01

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  12. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  13. Context matters when striving to promote active and lifelong learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joris J; Helmich, Esther; Teunissen, Pim W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2018-01-01

    WHERE DO WE STAND NOW?: In the 30 years that have passed since The Edinburgh Declaration on Medical Education, we have made tremendous progress in research on fostering 'self-directed and independent study' as propagated in this declaration, of which one prime example is research carried out on problem-based learning. However, a large portion of medical education happens outside of classrooms, in authentic clinical contexts. Therefore, this article discusses recent developments in research regarding fostering active learning in clinical contexts. Clinical contexts are much more complex and flexible than classrooms, and therefore require a modified approach when fostering active learning. Recent efforts have been increasingly focused on understanding the more complex subject of supporting active learning in clinical contexts. One way of doing this is by using theory regarding self-regulated learning (SRL), as well as situated learning, workplace affordances, self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. Combining these different perspectives provides a holistic view of active learning in clinical contexts. ENTRY TO PRACTICE, VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Research on SRL in clinical contexts has mostly focused on the undergraduate setting, showing that active learning in clinical contexts requires not only proficiency in metacognition and SRL, but also in reactive, opportunistic learning. These studies have also made us aware of the large influence one's social environment has on SRL, the importance of professional relationships for learners, and the role of identity development in learning in clinical contexts. Additionally, research regarding postgraduate lifelong learning also highlights the importance of learners interacting about learning in clinical contexts, as well as the difficulties that clinical contexts may pose for lifelong learning. However, stimulating self-regulated learning in undergraduate medical education

  14. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Teacher’s Knowledge of Students in Learning Mathematics on Limit of Function Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'rufi; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Juniati, Dwi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims at describing the profile of high school teacher’s Pedagogical Content Knowledge in learning mathematics from the perspective of teaching experience. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) covers teacher’s knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. The subject of this research was two high school mathematics teachers who have different teaching experience. The data were obtained through interview and observation then analyzed qualitatively. The focus of this research is the novice teacher’s PCK deals with knowledge of students. Knowledge of Student is defined as teacher’s knowledge about the students’ conception and misconception on limit of function material and teacher’s ability to cope with students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception. The result of this research shows that novice teacher’s ability in analyzing the cause of students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception was limited. Novice teacher tended to overcome the students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception by re-explaining the procedure of question completion which is not understood by the students.

  15. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  16. Improving Students' Transfer of Learning among Subject Areas through the Use of an Integrated Curriculum and Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidy, Tish; Moran, Michelle

    An intervention program sought to improve third- and fifth- grade students' ability to transfer learning among subject areas and to apply their learning to everyday occurrences. Surveys and interviews revealed the lack of student transference of knowledge among subject areas; teacher surveys and an interview with the curriculum director provided…

  17. Learned helplessness in the rat: effect of response topography in a within-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Cristiano Valerio; Gehm, Tauane; Hunziker, Maria Helena Leite

    2011-02-01

    Three experiments investigated learned helplessness in rats manipulating response topography within-subject and different intervals between treatment and tests among groups. In Experiment 1, rats previously exposed to inescapable shocks were tested under an escape contingency where either jumping or nose poking was required to terminate shocks; tests were run either 1, 14 or 28 days after treatment. Most rats failed to jump, as expected, but learned to nose poke, regardless of the interval between treatment and tests and order of testing. The same results were observed in male and female rats from a different laboratory (Experiment 2) and despite increased exposure to the escape contingencies using a within-subject design (Experiment 3). Furthermore, no evidence of helplessness reversal was observed, since animals failed to jump even after having learned to nose-poke in a previous test session. These results are not consistent with a learned helplessness hypothesis, which claims that shock (un)controllability is the key variable responsible for the effect. They are nonetheless consistent with the view that inescapable shocks enhance control by irrelevant features of the relationship between the environment and behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...

  19. DEVELOPING OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIAL BASED ON MOBILE LEARNING IN THE WAVE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rif’ati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced and modern era, technological sophistication led to learning which initially runs, in which teachers and students meet each other and communicate in the classroom, can be implemented through of information technology. Along with the development of information, where books and teachers who initially as a primary source of learning, are now beginning to experience growth from the internet. Mobile learning defined as mobile devices that are used in the learning process. The wave course is one of subject that must be taken by students of physics education in the third semester. This course emphasizes the concepts of wave were reviewed mathematically and the phenomenon that occurs in everyday life. Mobile learning developed in this study in the form of electronic teaching materials on subjects of waves. The aim of this study was to develop electronic teaching material in the form of mobile learning. The sample of this study is 80 students in the third semester students who are taking waves courses. The results show that mobile learning that has been developed has score 3.8 and included valid criteria. Pada era yang serba maju dan modern, kecanggihan teknologi menyebabkan pembelajaran yang awalnya berjalan satu arah, dimana guru dan siswa saling bertemu dan berkomunikasi di dalam kelas, dapat dilaksanakan melalui bantuan teknologi.informasi. Seiring dengan perkembangan informasi, buku dan guru yang awalnya sebagai sumber belajar utama, saat ini sudah mulai mengalami perkembangan dimana sumber belajar yang berasal dari internet sudah mulai sering dimanfaatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. Mobile larning didefinisikan sebagai perangkat mobile yang dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Mata kuliah gelombang sendiri merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib ditempuh oleh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan fisika semester 3. Mata kuliah ini menekankan pada konsep gelombang yang ditinjau secara matematis dan fenomenanya yang terjadi

  20. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  1. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Experiential learning model on entrepreneurship subject for improving students’ soft skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rifda Naufalin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject by using experiential learning model. It was expected that the learning model could upgrade students’ soft skills which were indicated by the higher confidence, result and job oriented, being courageous to take risks, leadership, originality, and future-oriented. It was a class action research using Kemmis and Mc Tagart’s design model. The research was conducted for two cycles. The subject of the study was economics education students in 2015/2016.  The result of the research showed that the experiential learning model could improve students’ soft skills. The research showed that there were increases at the dimension of confidence, (52.1%, result-oriented (22.9%, being courageous to take risks (10.4%, leadership (12.5%, originality (10.4%, and future-oriented (18.8%. It could be concluded that the experiential learning model was effective to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject. It also showed that the dimension of confidence had the highest rise. Students’ soft skills were shaped through the continuous stimulus when they got involved at the implementation.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan soft skills mahasiswa dalam mata kuliah kewirausahaan dengan menggunakan model experietial learning. Diharapkan dengan model pembelajaran ini terjadi peningkatan soft skills mahasiswa yang ditandai dengan peningkatan rasa percaya diri, berorientasi tugas dan hasil, berani mengambil resiko, kepemimpinan, keorisinilan, dan berorientasi masa depan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan menggunakan model desain menurut Kemmis dan Mc Tagart. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua siklus, yaitu siklus I dan siklus II. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kelas pendidikan ekonomi angkatan 2015/2016. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model experiential learning dapat meningkatkan soft skills

  3. The Influence of Teaching Methods and Learning Environment to the Student's Learning Achievement of Craft and Entrepreneurship Subjects at Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to explain the influence of teacher's teaching methods and learning environment to the learning achievement in class XI with the competency of accounting expertise to the subjects of craft and entrepreneurship, according to the students, the subject was very heavy and dull. The population in this research are students in class…

  4. What factors predict individual subjects' re-learning of words during anomia treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hayward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are addressing methodological approaches to treating anomia in persons with aphasia. What is missing from these studies are validated procedures for determining which words have the greatest potential for recovery. The current study evaluates the usefulness of several word-specific variables and one subject-specific measure in predicting success in re-learning problematic words. Methods: Two participants, YPR and ODH, presented with fluent aphasia and marked anomia. YPR’s Aphasia Quotient on the Western Aphasia Battery was 58.8; ODH’s AQ was 79.5. Stimuli were 96 pictures chosen individually for each participant from among those that they named incorrectly on multiple baselines. Subsequently, participants were presented with each picture and asked to indicate whether they could name it covertly, or “in their head.” Each subject completed a biweekly anomia treatment for these pictures. We performed separate statistical analyses for each subject. Dependent variables included whether each word was learned during treatment (Acquisition and the number of sessions required to learn each word (#Sessions. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association of (self-reported covert naming success with Acquisition, and linear regression models to assess the relationship between (self-reported covert naming success and #Sessions. Starting with the predictors of covert naming accuracy, number of syllables (#syllables, number of phonemes (#phonemes, and frequency, we used backwards elimination methods to select the final regression models. Results: By the end of 25 treatment sessions, YPR had learned 90.2% (37/41 of the covertly correct words but only 70.4% (38/54 of the covertly incorrect words. In the unadjusted analysis, covert naming was significantly associated with Acquisition, OR=3.89, 95% CI: (1.19, 12.74, p=0.025. The result remained significant after adjustment for #phonemes (the only other predictor

  5. Learning about Measurement Uncertainties in Secondary Education: A Model of the Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemer, Burkhard; Hellwig, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Estimating measurement uncertainties is important for experimental scientific work. However, this is very often neglected in school curricula and teaching practice, even though experimental work is seen as a fundamental part of teaching science. In order to call attention to the relevance of measurement uncertainties, we developed a comprehensive…

  6. Comparison the Application of PBL (Project Based Learning and PBL (Problem Based Learning Learning Model on Online Marketing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Dini Mardani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study are (1 the application of learning PjBL with PBL to improve study results students, (2 assessing the domain affective, cognitive, and psychomotor, (3 the difference study results use the PjBL with PBL to improve study results students. The research is research quantitative and including research apparent experiment (quasi eksperiment by taking sample class two classes X PM 1 as a class experiment and class X PM 2 as a class control. Research instruments used for data collection namely: (1 tests to pretes and postest used to determine the cognitive assessment, (2 sheets observation affective, (3 sheets of the process for the psychomotor. The trial research instruments use the validity and reabilitas. Analysis techniques data using: (1 test a prerequisite analysis consisting of normality test and the homogeneity (2 T test unpaired which ended with the help of computer programs spss. Based on the result of this research can be concluded that: (1 the application of PjBL (Project Based Learning and PBL (Problem Based Learning should be conducted well in accordance syntax learning, (2 assessing the cognitive students have a difference and class experiment having an average higher than class control, (3 assessing the results affective students have a difference and on the application of PjBL is better than PBL.

  7. The learning evaluations of the concept function in the mathematical subject I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Valle Castañeda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation must be one of the most complex tasks that teachers face today, both for the process itself and for having to issue an assessment about the achievements and deficiencies of the students. It is for them that techniques and instruments were developed, which allow the evaluation of the function concept in the Mathematics I subject´s. Methods of the theoretical level, of the empirical level such as the historical-logical analysis, the surveys, were used in the research carried out. The documentary analyses, as well as procedures such as the analysis - synthesis that made it possible to investigate the theoretical and practical fundament´s learning evaluation´s. The evaluation instruments presented allowed for the evaluation of the students in Mathematics I, less than one of the most important functions of the evaluation: the formative or educational function. These constituted a reference for the continuous improvement of student learning.

  8. Encourage student learning of hydraulic matters by the use of Arduino platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; Granja García, Javier; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for several purposes to anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. The hydraulic matters teach at the Agricultural Engineering School at the Technical University of Madrid deal with practical issues regarding the measurement of variables such as pressure, discharge, temperature and soil water content. Most of the data loggers available in the market for these variables at expensive and not always affordable. On the other hand, current students are eager to manage new technological devices thus, their skills could be oriented not only to the application of an electronic platform as Arduino to build low cost data loggers for different purposes, but to encourage their learning in the hydraulic matters improving their self esteem

  9. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the motivation to learn science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Schulze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study therefore explored the impact of six motivational factors for science learning in a sample of 380 Grade Nine boys and girls from three racial groups, in both public and independent schools. The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. Significant differences were identified between different groups and school types. The study is important for identifying the key role of achievement goals, science learning values and science self-efficacies. The main finding emphasises the significant role played by science teachers in motivating students for science in terms of the learning environments that they create. This has important implications for future research, aimed at a better understanding of these environments. Such insights are needed to promote scientific literacy among the school students, and so contribute to the improvement of science achievement in South Africa.

  10. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  12. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  13. Middle-School Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of the Engineering Design Process: A Look at Subject Matter and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research investigating six middle school teachers without engineering degrees as they taught an engineering unit on the engineering design process. Videotaped classroom sessions and teacher interviews were analyzed to understand the subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge the teachers used and developed as they…

  14. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  15. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  16. The Place of Subject Matter Knowledge in Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of South African Teachers Teaching the Amount of Substance and Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, Marissa; Bennett, Judith; Rhemtula, Mariam; Dharsey, Nadine; Ndlovu, Thandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two South African case studies designed to explore the influence of subject matter knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In the first case study on teaching the mole in two township schools, the findings illustrate that the participant teachers favoured procedural approaches at the expense of conceptual…

  17. White matter fibertracking in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bart D.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Nienke; Blaas, Jorik; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Akkerman, Erik M.; Majoie, Charles B.; van Amelsvoort, Therèse; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Linszen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of white matter pathology in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine whether white matter abnormalities found with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in previous schizophrenia studies are present in the early phase of the illness. DTI was performed at 3 T on 10

  18. Tract-specific analysis of white matter pathways in healthy subjects: a pilot study using diffusion tensor MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Abe, Osamu; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Naoto; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Goto, Masami; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    To date, very scant data is available regarding normal diffusion properties of white matter (WM) fibers. The present study aimed to initiate the establishment of a database of normal diffusion tensor metrics of cerebral WM fibers, including the uncinate fasciculus (UF), posterior cingulum (PC), fornix, and corticospinal tract (CST) for healthy adults using tract-specific analysis by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). We also attempted to clarify whether age and laterality exerted any effects on this study group. DTT of WM fibers were generated for 100 healthy subjects, then mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the tracts were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate age relationships. Paired t testing was used to compare hemispheric asymmetry. Interobserver correlation tests were also performed. Our results showed FA values for UF (right, 0.42 {+-} 0.03; left, 0.40{+-}0.03), PC (0.51 {+-} 0.06, 0.52 {+-} 0.06), fornix (0.37 {+-} 0.06, 0.38 {+-} 0.06), CST (0.70 {+-} 0.06, 0.69 {+-} 0.07), and MD values for UF (0.81 {+-} 0.03, 0.82 {+-} 0.04), PC (0.72 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.04), fornix (1.86 {+-} 0.32, 1.94 {+-} 0.37), and CST (0.72 {+-} 0.03, 0.74 {+-} 0.04). We identified a significant positive correlation between age and MD in the right UF and bilateral fornices, and a negative correlation between age and FA in bilateral fornices. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in FA of UF (right > left) and MD of CST (left > right). The results constitute a normative dataset for diffusion parameters of four WM tracts that can be used to identify, characterize, and establish the significance of changes in diseases affecting specific tracts. (orig.)

  19. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  20. Study on the effect of smart learning applied at a radiationtherapy subject on self directed learning, self learning efficacy, learning satisfaction of college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Goo; Park, Soo Jin; Kim, Yon Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this was to study and analyze smart learning the self directed learning, self efficacy, learning satisfaction about department of radiology in a college. For this study total students 102 in 3 classes were surveyed at the end of semester. The research data was analyzed using SPSS also self directed learning ,self learning efficacy, learning satisfaction analyzed t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient results were followings. First, Men is more higher than women in a self learning efficacy, self directed learning, learning satisfaction. Second, in a learning satisfaction smart learning ever heard in a first time group more satisfaction. Third, during the smart learning classes a students appeared a positive response. As a results, learning satisfaction will increase a learning when learners need a ability of self control planning and learning motivation by themselves in voluntarily and actively. Suggest to change a paradigm in a radiology classes so we have to improve a teaching skills this solution recommend is two way communication. In conclusion, smart learning applied for classes of college is meaningful as a new teaching, which can be change gradually learning satisfaction by teaching methods

  1. Study on the effect of smart learning applied at a radiationtherapy subject on self directed learning, self learning efficacy, learning satisfaction of college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Goo; Park, Soo Jin [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this was to study and analyze smart learning the self directed learning, self efficacy, learning satisfaction about department of radiology in a college. For this study total students 102 in 3 classes were surveyed at the end of semester. The research data was analyzed using SPSS also self directed learning ,self learning efficacy, learning satisfaction analyzed t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient results were followings. First, Men is more higher than women in a self learning efficacy, self directed learning, learning satisfaction. Second, in a learning satisfaction smart learning ever heard in a first time group more satisfaction. Third, during the smart learning classes a students appeared a positive response. As a results, learning satisfaction will increase a learning when learners need a ability of self control planning and learning motivation by themselves in voluntarily and actively. Suggest to change a paradigm in a radiology classes so we have to improve a teaching skills this solution recommend is two way communication. In conclusion, smart learning applied for classes of college is meaningful as a new teaching, which can be change gradually learning satisfaction by teaching methods.

  2. Concussion classification via deep learning using whole-brain white matter fiber strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunliang; Wu, Shaoju; Zhao, Wei; Li, Zhigang; Wu, Zheyang

    2018-01-01

    Developing an accurate and reliable injury predictor is central to the biomechanical studies of traumatic brain injury. State-of-the-art efforts continue to rely on empirical, scalar metrics based on kinematics or model-estimated tissue responses explicitly pre-defined in a specific brain region of interest. They could suffer from loss of information. A single training dataset has also been used to evaluate performance but without cross-validation. In this study, we developed a deep learning approach for concussion classification using implicit features of the entire voxel-wise white matter fiber strains. Using reconstructed American National Football League (NFL) injury cases, leave-one-out cross-validation was employed to objectively compare injury prediction performances against two baseline machine learning classifiers (support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF)) and four scalar metrics via univariate logistic regression (Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC), cumulative strain damage measure of the whole brain (CSDM-WB) and the corpus callosum (CSDM-CC), and peak fiber strain in the CC). Feature-based machine learning classifiers including deep learning, SVM, and RF consistently outperformed all scalar injury metrics across all performance categories (e.g., leave-one-out accuracy of 0.828–0.862 vs. 0.690–0.776, and .632+ error of 0.148–0.176 vs. 0.207–0.292). Further, deep learning achieved the best cross-validation accuracy, sensitivity, AUC, and .632+ error. These findings demonstrate the superior performances of deep learning in concussion prediction and suggest its promise for future applications in biomechanical investigations of traumatic brain injury. PMID:29795640

  3. Concussion classification via deep learning using whole-brain white matter fiber strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunliang; Wu, Shaoju; Zhao, Wei; Li, Zhigang; Wu, Zheyang; Ji, Songbai

    2018-01-01

    Developing an accurate and reliable injury predictor is central to the biomechanical studies of traumatic brain injury. State-of-the-art efforts continue to rely on empirical, scalar metrics based on kinematics or model-estimated tissue responses explicitly pre-defined in a specific brain region of interest. They could suffer from loss of information. A single training dataset has also been used to evaluate performance but without cross-validation. In this study, we developed a deep learning approach for concussion classification using implicit features of the entire voxel-wise white matter fiber strains. Using reconstructed American National Football League (NFL) injury cases, leave-one-out cross-validation was employed to objectively compare injury prediction performances against two baseline machine learning classifiers (support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF)) and four scalar metrics via univariate logistic regression (Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC), cumulative strain damage measure of the whole brain (CSDM-WB) and the corpus callosum (CSDM-CC), and peak fiber strain in the CC). Feature-based machine learning classifiers including deep learning, SVM, and RF consistently outperformed all scalar injury metrics across all performance categories (e.g., leave-one-out accuracy of 0.828-0.862 vs. 0.690-0.776, and .632+ error of 0.148-0.176 vs. 0.207-0.292). Further, deep learning achieved the best cross-validation accuracy, sensitivity, AUC, and .632+ error. These findings demonstrate the superior performances of deep learning in concussion prediction and suggest its promise for future applications in biomechanical investigations of traumatic brain injury.

  4. Mixed-method tutoring support improves learning outcomes of veterinary students in basic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77

  5. Learning of the subject: Methodology of investigation by means of a Site Web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Margarita Carbonell Cabarga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation are presented having as an objective: the design of a Web Site for the learning of Methodology of Investigation subject in Psychology Bachelor of the Municipal University of Sancti Spíritus. This study was carried out in students of psychology career who were facing first year. Methods of the theoretical and empiric level were applied as well as the Mathematical Statistic. In the diagnosis was possible to appreciate the ignorance regarding the use of the methodology in the therorical methodological design of an investigation, also the difficulties in the study of the subject and violations in the application of orientations from the professors at the time of doing the research papers, so an interactive Web Site was obtained and applied which allow the teaching of the subject. The site was validated by means of a quasi-experiment, the obtained information was processed with the use of the statistical inferentia, results were in general highly significant for the feasibility of the proposal.

  6. Improved children's motor learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by associating subjective error estimation and extrinsic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro de Carvalho da; Pereira-Monfredini, Carla Ferro; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed at assessing the interaction between subjective error estimation and frequency of extrinsic feedback in the learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by children. 10- to 12-year olds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups combining subjective error estimation and relative frequency of extrinsic feedback (33% × 100%). Analysis of performance was based on quality of movement pattern. Analysis showed superior learning of the group combining error estimation and 100% feedback frequency, both groups receiving feedback on 33% of trials achieved intermediate results, and the group combining no requirement of error estimation and 100% feedback frequency had the poorest learning. Our results show the benefit of subjective error estimation in association with high frequency of extrinsic feedback in children's motor learning of a sport motor pattern.

  7. Encouraging the learning of hydraulic engineering subjects in agricultural engineering schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2014-09-01

    Several methodological approaches to improve the understanding and motivation of students in Hydraulic Engineering courses have been adopted in the Agricultural Engineering School at Technical University of Madrid. During three years student's progress and satisfaction have been assessed by continuous monitoring and the use of 'online' and web tools in two undergraduate courses. Results from their application to encourage learning and communication skills in Hydraulic Engineering subjects are analysed and compared to the initial situation. Student's academic performance has improved since their application, but surveys made among students showed that not all the methodological proposals were perceived as beneficial. Their participation in the 'online', classroom and reading activities was low although they were well assessed.

  8. Dynamics of the teaching and learning of vocational subjects Technology Career in Business Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Villamar-Alvarado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenges we have to overcome are many companies to satisfy its internal, external, existing and potential customers, so it is necessary to develop profiles to identify factors affecting the current and future demand in the labor and business market. These requirements pose challenges to institutions of higher education in their conception of professional training, which must find more effective ways and teaching methods to ensure that professionals are prepared to work in the dynamic contemporary business world. To contribute to this endeavor a didactic conception of the dynamics of the teaching and learning of vocational subjects Career Technology Management Company, which is based on a training model of business administration become simulation method, is proposed.

  9. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision: a subject review--a rebuttal, literature review, and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowan, Merrill D

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAP/AAO/AAPOS) published a position paper entitled "Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia And Vision: A Subject Review," intended to support their assertion that there is no relationship between learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. The paper presents an unsupported opinion that optometrists (by implication) have said that vision problems cause learning disabilities and/or dyslexia and that visual therapy cures the conditions. The 1998 position paper follows two very similar and discredited papers published in 1972 and 1981. This article critically reviews and comments on the many problems of scholarship, the inconsistencies, and the false allegations the position paper presents. Perhaps the foremost problem is that the authoring committee has ignored a veritable mountain of relevant literature that strongly argues against their assertion that vision does not relate to academic performance. It is for this reason that an overview, drawn from more than 1,400 identified references from Medline and other database sources and pertinent texts that were reviewed, is incorporated into this current article. The AAP/AAO/AAPOS paper is also examined for the Levels of Evidence that their references offer in support of their position. The AAP/AAO/AAPOS paper contains errors and internal inconsistencies. Through highly selective reference choices, it misrepresents the great body of evidence from the literature that supports a relationship between visual and perceptual problems as they contribute to classroom difficulties. The 1998 paper should be retracted because of the errors, bias, and disinformation it presents. The public assigns great trust to authorities for accurate, intellectually honest guidance, which is lacking in this AAP/AAO/AAPOS position paper.

  10. A more randomly organized grey matter network is associated with deteriorating language and global cognition in individuals with subjective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Slot, Rosalinde E R; Dicks, Ellen; Prins, Niels D; Overbeek, Jozefien M; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Tijms, Betty M

    2018-03-30

    Grey matter network disruptions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with worse cognitive impairment cross-sectionally. Our aim was to investigate whether indications of a more random network organization are associated with longitudinal decline in specific cognitive functions in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 231 individuals with SCD who had annually repeated neuropsychological assessment (3 ± 1 years; n = 646 neuropsychological investigations) available from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (54% male, age: 63 ± 9, MMSE: 28 ± 2). Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from baseline 3D-T1 MRI scans and we computed basic network (size, degree, connectivity density) and higher-order (path length, clustering, betweenness centrality, normalized path length [lambda] and normalized clustering [gamma]) parameters at whole brain and/or regional levels. We tested associations of network parameters with baseline and annual cognition (memory, attention, executive functioning, language composite scores, and global cognition [all domains with MMSE]) using linear mixed models, adjusted for age, sex, education, scanner and total gray matter volume. Lower network size was associated with steeper decline in language (β ± SE = 0.12 ± 0.05, p organized grey matter network was associated with a steeper decline of cognitive functioning, possibly indicating the start of cognitive impairment. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Improve Outcomes Study subjects Chemistry Teaching and Learning Strategies through independent study with the help of computer-based media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharti, Gulmah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to see the improvement of student learning outcomes by independent learning using computer-based learning media in the course of STBM (Teaching and Learning Strategy) Chemistry. Population in this research all student of class of 2014 which take subject STBM Chemistry as many as 4 class. While the sample is taken by purposive as many as 2 classes, each 32 students, as control class and expriment class. The instrument used is the test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple choice with the number of questions as many as 20 questions that have been declared valid, and reliable. Data analysis techniques used one-sided t test and improved learning outcomes using a normalized gain test. Based on the learning result data, the average of normalized gain values for the experimental class is 0,530 and for the control class is 0,224. The result of the experimental student learning result is 53% and the control class is 22,4%. Hypothesis testing results obtained t count> ttable is 9.02> 1.6723 at the level of significance α = 0.05 and db = 58. This means that the acceptance of Ha is the use of computer-based learning media (CAI Computer) can improve student learning outcomes in the course Learning Teaching Strategy (STBM) Chemistry academic year 2017/2018.

  12. Discovery learning with hierarchy concept to improve analysis ability and study achievement hydrolysis subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuliatun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to applied Discovery Learning (DL by the support of hierarchy concept to improve analysis ability and chemistry study achievement in the Hydrolysis subject at eleventh-grade students of Science 1 of SMA N Karangpandan at the academic year of 2016/2017. This research is using Classroom Action Research which using two cycles. In each cycle has four steps of action, they are planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The research subject is the eleventh-grade students of science one which consists of 40 students. The data source is using teacher and students and the data were taken by interviewing, observing, documenting, testing, and using questionnaire. Data analysis technique is using descriptive qualitative analysis. Based on the research shows that the achievement of analysis cycle I am from 52,5% increase into 65% in the cycle II. Meanwhile, the rise in students’ achievement in cognitive aspect increase from 57,5% in cycle I to 75% in cycle II. Achievement in an affective aspect in cycle I am 90% become 92,5% in cycle II. Therefore, there is the increase meant of students number in this aspect although in cycle I all of the indicator has been reached.

  13. Gray matter changes in subjects at high risk for developing psychosis and first-episode schizophrenia: a voxel-based structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue eNakamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to use a voxel-based MRI method to investigate the neuroanatomical characteristics in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis compared with those of healthy controls and first-episode schizophrenia patients. Methods: This study included 14 subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, 34 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and 51 healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM with the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL tools to investigate the whole-brain difference in gray matter volume among the three groups. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the schizophrenia patients showed significant gray matter reduction in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significant difference in the gray matter volume between the ARMS and other groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that alteration of the anterior cingulate gyrus may be associated with development of frank psychosis. Further studies with a larger ARMS subjects would be required to examine the potential role of neuroimaging methods in the prediction of future transition into psychosis.

  14. Target size matters: target errors contribute to the generalization of implicit visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenthal, Maayan; Avraham, Guy; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior

    2016-08-01

    The process of sensorimotor adaptation is considered to be driven by errors. While sensory prediction errors, defined as the difference between the planned and the actual movement of the cursor, drive implicit learning processes, target errors (e.g., the distance of the cursor from the target) are thought to drive explicit learning mechanisms. This distinction was mainly studied in the context of arm reaching tasks where the position and the size of the target were constant. We hypothesize that in a dynamic reaching environment, where subjects have to hit moving targets and the targets' dynamic characteristics affect task success, implicit processes will benefit from target errors as well. We examine the effect of target errors on learning of an unnoticed perturbation during unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects played a Pong game, in which they had to hit a moving ball by moving a paddle controlled by their hand. During the game, the movement of the paddle was gradually rotated with respect to the hand, reaching a final rotation of 25°. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: The high-target error group played the Pong with a small ball, and the low-target error group played with a big ball. Before and after the Pong game, subjects performed open-loop reaching movements toward static targets with no visual feedback. While both groups adapted to the rotation, the postrotation reaching movements were directionally biased only in the small-ball group. This result provides evidence that implicit adaptation is sensitive to target errors. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. READINESS Of ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING CHARACTERS INTEGRATED LEARNING IN THE SCIENCE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hindarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many problems that arise in today's society are rooted in the issue of morality as a result of the marginalization of the values of character. To solve this problem, need to be enforced the values of good character on every member of the community, and the proper way is through the educational process, including through education in schools ranging from elementary education to higher education. To find out whether the teachers in elementary schools are ready to take this work, the research conducted to determine the readiness of teachers and the problems associated with its implementation. Through a questionnaire calculated in descriptive percentage on a sample of elementary school teachers who are spread in Semarang, Semarang District and Temanggung, it can be concluded that in teachers’ view it is very important to integrate the learning of characters in the lesson. However, they need guidance /examples to develop learning model with its features, which integrate the values of the characters in the science subject.Banyak persoalan yang timbul di masyarakat dewasa ini berakar pada persoalan moralitas sebagai akibat terpinggirkannya nilai-nilai karakter, Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, perlu ditegakkan lagi nilai nilai karakter yang baik pada setiap anggota masyarakat, dan cara yang tepat adalah melalui proses pendidikan, di antaranya melalui pendidikan di sekolah mulai dari pendidikan dasar sampai pendidikan tinggi. Untuk mengetahui apakah para guru pada Sekolah Dasar siap mengemban tugas ini, maka diadakan penelitian untuk mengetahui kesiapan para guru dan masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan pelaksanaannya. Melalui angket yang kemudian diolah secara deskriptive persentasi pada sampel guru SD yang tersebar di Kota Semarang, Kabupaten Semarang dan Kabupaten Temanggung, dapat diketahui bahwa para guru menganggap sangat penting untuk mengintegrasikan pembelajaran karakter dalam matapelajaran IPA. Namun demikian mereka membutuhkan bimbingan

  16. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  17. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Hiroaki Kawamichi; Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sho K Sugawara; Yuki H Hamano; Yuki H Hamano; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Hiroki C Tanabe; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  18. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  19. Learning Progressions as Tools for Assessment and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the teaching and learning side of the learning progressions literature, calling out for measurement specialists the knowledge most needed when collaborating with subject-matter experts in the development of learning progressions. Learning progressions are one of the strongest instantiations of principles from "Knowing…

  20. Learning sequences on the subject of energy. Secondary school stage 1. Lernsequenzen zum Thema Energie. Sekundarstufe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The ten learning sequences follow on one another. Each picks on a particular aspect from the energy field. The subject notebooks are self-contained and can therefore be used independently. Apart from actual data and energy-related information, the information for the teacher contains: - proposals for teaching - suggestions for further activities - sample solutions for the pupil's sheets - references to the literature and media. The worksheets for the pupils are different; it should be possible to use the learning sequences in all classes of secondary school stage 1. The multicoloured foils for projectors should motivate, on the one hand, and on the other hand should help to check the results of learning.

  1. Learning and Inferring "Dark Matter" and Predicting Human Intents and Trajectories in Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Shu, Tianmin; Todorovic, Sinisa; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-07-01

    This paper presents a method for localizing functional objects and predicting human intents and trajectories in surveillance videos of public spaces, under no supervision in training. People in public spaces are expected to intentionally take shortest paths (subject to obstacles) toward certain objects (e.g., vending machine, picnic table, dumpster etc.) where they can satisfy certain needs (e.g., quench thirst). Since these objects are typically very small or heavily occluded, they cannot be inferred by their visual appearance but indirectly by their influence on people's trajectories. Therefore, we call them "dark matter", by analogy to cosmology, since their presence can only be observed as attractive or repulsive "fields" in the public space. A person in the scene is modeled as an intelligent agent engaged in one of the "fields" selected depending his/her intent. An agent's trajectory is derived from an Agent-based Lagrangian Mechanics. The agents can change their intents in the middle of motion and thus alter the trajectory. For evaluation, we compiled and annotated a new dataset. The results demonstrate our effectiveness in predicting human intent behaviors and trajectories, and localizing and discovering distinct types of "dark matter" in wide public spaces.

  2. The evolution of the Krebs cycle: A promising subject for meaningful learning of biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Caetano; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-05-06

    Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. To enhance comprehension and motivate biology undergraduates for the contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions in an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide that contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since the early anaerobic condition of the Earth to increase oxygen in the atmosphere. The study guide is composed of three interrelated sections: (1) a problem, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students, (2) a text about life evolution, including early microorganisms and the emergence of the Krebs cycle, and (3) questions for debate. The activity consisted on individual reading and peer discussion based on this written material, under the guidance of the instructors. The questions were designed to foster debate in an ever-increasing level of complexity and to strengthen the main contextual aspects leading to emergence, evolving, and permanency of a complex metabolic pathway. Based on classroom observation, analysis of student's written responses, and individual interviews, we noticed they were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus to broaden the comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary approach as an important subject for learning purposes. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:288-296, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.

  4. Competitive debate classroom as a cooperative learning technique for the human resources subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. SANCHEZ PRIETO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an academic debate model as a cooperative learning technique for teaching human resources at University. The general objective of this paper is to conclude if academic debate can be included in the category of cooperative learning. The Specific objective it is presenting a model to implement this technique. Thus the first part of the paper shows the concept of cooperative learning and its main characteristics. The second part presents the debate model believed to be labelled as cooperative learning. Last part concludes with the characteristics of the model that match different aspects or not of the cooperative learning.

  5. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  6. US Medical Student Performance on the NBME Subject Examination in Internal Medicine: Do Clerkship Sequence and Clerkship Length Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenli; Cuddy, Monica M; Swanson, David B

    2015-09-01

    Prior to graduation, US medical students are required to complete clinical clerkship rotations, most commonly in the specialty areas of family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology (ob/gyn), pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery. Within a school, the sequence in which students complete these clerkships varies. In addition, the length of these rotations varies, both within a school for different clerkships and between schools for the same clerkship. The present study investigated the effects of clerkship sequence and length on performance on the National Board of Medical Examiner's subject examination in internal medicine. The study sample included 16,091 students from 67 US Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited medical schools who graduated in 2012 or 2013. Student-level measures included first-attempt internal medicine subject examination scores, first-attempt USMLE Step 1 scores, and five dichotomous variables capturing whether or not students completed rotations in family medicine, ob/gyn, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery prior to taking the internal medicine rotation. School-level measures included clerkship length and average Step 1 score. Multilevel models with students nested in schools were estimated with internal medicine subject examination scores as the dependent measure. Step 1 scores and the five dichotomous variables were treated as student-level predictors. Internal medicine clerkship length and average Step 1 score were used to predict school-to-school variation in average internal medicine subject examination scores. Completion of rotations in surgery, pediatrics and family medicine prior to taking the internal medicine examination significantly improved scores, with the largest benefit observed for surgery (coefficient = 1.58 points; p value internal medicine subject examination performance. At the school level, longer internal medicine clerkships were associated with higher scores on the internal medicine

  7. The development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter to train science literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisak; Ibrahim, M.; Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter that are feasible (valid, practical, and effective) to train students’ science literacy. This research used 4D development model and tested on 15 students of biology education 2016 the State University of Surabaya with using one group pretest-posttest design. Learning devices developed include (a) Semester Lesson Plan (b) Lecture Schedule, (c) Student Activity Sheet, (d) Student Textbook, and (e) testability of science literacy. Research data obtained through validation method, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results were analyzed descriptively quantitative and qualitative. The ability of science literacy was analyzed by n-gain. The results of this research showed that (a) learning devices that developed was categorically very valid, (b) learning activities performed very well, (c) student’s science literacy skills improved that was a category as moderate, and (d) students responses were very positively to the learning that already held. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it is concluded that the development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter was feasible to train students literacy science skills.

  8. Neurofeedback Training Effects on Inhibitory Brain Activation in ADHD: A Matter of Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Adamo, Nicoletta; Holtmann, Martin; Ruf, Matthias; Banaschewski, Tobias; Hohmann, Sarah; Brandeis, Daniel

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback training (NF) is a promising non-pharmacological treatment for ADHD that has been associated with improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms as well as changes in electrophysiological measures. However, the functional localization of neural changes following NF compared to an active control condition, and of successful learning during training (considered to be the critical mechanism for improvement), remains largely unstudied. Children with ADHD (N=16, mean age: 11.81, SD: 1.47) were randomly assigned to either slow cortical potential (SCP, n=8) based NF or biofeedback control training (electromyogram feedback, n=8) and performed a combined Flanker/NoGo task pre- and post-training. Effects of NF, compared to the active control, and of learning in transfer trials (approximating successful transfer to everyday life) were examined with respect to clinical outcome and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes during inhibitory control. After 20 sessions of training, children in the NF group presented reduced ADHD symptoms and increased activation in areas associated with inhibitory control compared to baseline. Subjects who were successful learners (n=9) also showed increased activation in an extensive inhibitory network irrespective of the type of training. Activation increased in an extensive inhibitory network following NF training, and following successful learning through NF and control biofeedback. Although this study was only powered to detect large effects and clearly requires replication in larger samples, the results suggest a crucial role for learning effects in biofeedback trainings. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Caffeine and d-amphetamine in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects: Differential Outcomes on Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Reward Learning, and Salivary Paraxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy M; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Fang, Wendy B; Ferré, Sergi; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. Data were obtained on measures of cardiovascular effects, subjective drug effects (ARCI, VAS, DEQ), and a probabilistic reward-learning task sensitive to dopamine modulation. Levels of salivary caffeine and the primary caffeine metabolite paraxanthine were obtained on placebo and caffeine dosing days. Cardiovascular results revealed main effects of dose for diastolic blood pressure and heart rate; follow up tests showed that controls were most sensitive to 300 mg caffeine and 20 mg amphetamine; cocaine-dependent subjects were sensitive only to 300 mg caffeine. Subjective effects results revealed dose × time and dose × group interactions on the ARCI A, ARCI LSD, and VAS 'elated' scales; follow up tests did not show systematic differences between groups with regard to caffeine or d-amphetamine. Large between-group differences in salivary paraxanthine (but not salivary caffeine) levels were obtained under both caffeine doses. The cocaine-dependent group expressed significantly higher paraxanthine levels than controls under 150 mg and 3-4 fold greater levels under 300 mg at 90 min and 150 min post caffeine dose. However, these differences also covaried with cigarette smoking status (not balanced between groups), and nicotine smoking is known to alter caffeine/paraxanthine metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes. These preliminary data raise the possibility that adenosine antagonists may affect cocaine-dependent and non-dependent subjects differently. In conjunction with previous preclinical and

  10. Introducing e-Learning/Teaching in a Physiology Course for Medical Students: Acceptance by Students and Subjective Effect on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, E.; Fauler, M.; Geiler, S.

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval of information has substantially changed within the last two decades. Naturally, this has also affected learning/teaching techniques, and methods that are commonly referred to as "e-learning" have become an important part in modern education. Institutions have to decide if (and how) to implement this new form of teaching but…

  11. Learning and Cognition: The Interplay between The Subject and The Group Understanding The Processes of Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak Meltofte; Fast, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between learning, epistemology, and intersubjectivity in the context of problem-based learning and project-oriented work at a university level. It aims to show how the collaboration of students in a group over a long period of time can put emphasis on the knowledge-practice discussion, and…

  12. Learning and Cognition - The interplay between the Subject and the Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak; Fast, Alf Michael

    2017-01-01

    emphasis on the knowledge - practice discussion, and thereby on some of the values required to progress in science as a field and to develop knowledge. This article focuses on how to describe the dialectical interplay between the individual’s learning and the groups’ learning process, in the development......, and the contradictions that appear in learning contexts. The grounds for the development of an intersubjectivity, which is required in the engagement of interaction, seems therefore as an important part of learning. The article will look upon those questions and themes from a broad phenomenological and dialectical...

  13. Learning and memory and its relationship with the lateralization of epileptic focus in subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fuentes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : In medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, previous studies addressing the hemispheric laterality of epileptogenic focus and its relationship with learning and memory processes have reported controversial findings. Objective : To compare the performance of MTLE patients according to the location of the epileptogenic focus on the left (MTLEL or right temporal lobe (MTLER on tasks of episodic learning and memory for verbal and visual content. Methods : One hundred patients with MTLEL and one hundred patients with MTLER were tested with the following tasks: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Logical Memory-WMS-R to evaluate verbal learning and memory; and the Rey Visual Design Learning Test (RVDLT and the Visual Reproduction-WMS-R to evaluate visual learning and memory. Results : The MTLEL sample showed significantly worse performance on the RAVLT (p < 0.005 and on the Logical Memory tests (p < 0.01 than MTLER subjects. However, there were no significant between-group differences in regard to the visual memory tests. Discussion : Our findings suggest that verbal learning and memory abilities are dependent on the structural and functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, while visual abilities are less dependent on the right temporal lobe.

  14. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K. Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees. PMID:29379452

  15. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  16. Encouraging Students to Learn Non-Core Subjects in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Pedersen, Annette; Nielsen, Annegrethe

    2015-01-01

    traditional didactics and strengthen the awareness of the study activities that the students carry out themselves. Our analysis consequently highlights a variety of student learning behavior. The learning opportunities provided by the educational design seemed to engage one group of students while a large...

  17. Associations of Subjective Immersion, Immersion Subfactors, and Learning Outcomes in the Revised Game Engagement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Paul A.; Bowers, Clint

    2018-01-01

    Serious Educational Video Games (SEGs) play a large role in education for both children and adults. However, the budget for SEGs is typically lower than traditional entertainment video games, bringing with it the need to optimize the learning experience. This article looks at the role game immersion plays in improving learning outcomes, using the…

  18. STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF MATTER AND HOW IT IMPAIRS BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Montagna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is widely known that misconceptions impairs student’s learning. IUBMB proposed a concept inventory which defines biochemistry’s teaching scope. Even though it is known that many of them are subject of misconceptions by students, we collected informal data suggesting a deeper and most pervasive misconception related to the students’ perceptions about what is and is not a molecule through their classroom statements and tests. We hypothesize that students’ impairments on biochemistry learning possibly come from failure to assume that names are related to well defined molecules indicating lack of matter’s representative levels of integration. Objectives The present work aims to detect in freshmen students’ misconceptions about the chemical nature of main small and macromolecules which potentialy impairs biochemistry learning. Materials and methods: A list of assertions about real life situations involving and citing main biomolecules – ATP, DNA, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, enzyme, hormon, vitamin – were mixed with other containing vague common terms – toxin, transgenic, healthy, unwanted elements, chemical compound – not suggesting hazardous situations in order to capture students’ impressions. More than 150 students from five courses in three different higher education institutions answered true or false on 35 assertions. Results and discussion: More than 70% of students had more than 80% error in this task designed to be not tricky, misleading or with unpreviously studied concepts. Results suggests students do not understand compounds as molecules but as entities unrelated to real life situations; on the other hand vague terms triggers a negative perception not necessarily related to harm or hazardous situations. We suggest that it is originated by poor scientific literacy from previous scholarity as well as lack of criteria on media vehicles about the topics here cited. Conclusion: We conclude that many

  19. The influence of subjective norm on intention to use of learning management system among Malaysian higher education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghi-Zadeh, Sousan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of learning management system by universities has been increasingly growing. However, the results of several studies have revealed that students do not fully use the information systems. The present study proposes a model which investigates the influence of three constructs of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and subjective norm on behavior intention to use of learning management system. The sample size was 216 Malaysian undergraduate students. The results of the study revealed that the proposed model accounts for 31.1 % variance of behavior intention to use.

  20. Teaching and Learning using Software “Let’s Reading” for Malay Language Subjects for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wahida Md Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of teaching and learning that is active and can attract many students to learn. Especially those with learning difficulties who require special methods for helping their learning process to make it more interesting. Therefore, this study is more focused on teaching and learning courseware ‘Let’s Reading’ methods using reading method called syllables have features that can help students with learning disabilities to learn Malay Language. The respondents comprised of six students with learning disabilities moderate levels studying in a secondary school in Kuala Lumpur. A monitoring form adaptation course from Davis et al. (2007 and (Sidek et al., 2014 with some modifications has been used as an instrument to evaluate the study. The findings were analyzed using quatitative methods. In addition, the oral test is carried out before and after the use of the software is run. The study found software has been developed according to the development ASSURE model is able to attract pupils with learning disabilities to learn Malay Language. In addition, these children also showed improvements in reading. Proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang aktif dan pelbagai dapat menarik minat murid untuk belajar. Terutamanya murid bermasalah pembelajaran yang memerlukan kaedah khusus bagi membantu proses pembelajaran mereka agar lebih menarik. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan yang lebih tertumpu kepada pengajaran dan pembelajaran menggunakan perisian kursus ‘Jom Bacalah’ yang menggunakan kaedah membaca menggunakan kaedah sebut suku kata yang mempunyai ciri-ciri yang dapat membantu murid bermasalah pembelajaran untuk belajar Bahasa Melayu. Responden kajian terdiri daripada enam murid bermasalah pembelajaran aras sederhana yang sedang belajar di sebuah sekolah menengah di Kuala Lumpur. Satu borang pemantauan kursus adaptasi daripada kajian Davis et al. (2007 dan Sidek et al. (2014 dengan sedikit pengubahsuaian telah digunakan sebagai instrumen bagi

  1. Up-to-date subject matter of world research in the field of materials for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    New approach to the problem of composition of present-day materials, which are working in high temperatures assumes that their microstructure becomes a subject of analysis-not an object-as it was before. Nowadays many industrial and university laboratories deal with these problems, individually or in the cooperation, in framework of the different types of projects, financed by the international organizations. In the report, research realized over the last 20 years in USA, Europe and japan have been reviewed. This research focused on the working in high temperatures steels as a constructional materials for pipes and other units of the power plants. According to the newest achievement in this domain we could expect that the ferritic and ferro-martensitic alloy steels will become new generation of the high-temperature creep-resisting steels (author)

  2. What matters to the rich and the poor? Subjective well-being, financial satisfaction, and postmaterialist needs across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the importance of financial satisfaction versus postmaterialist needs for subjective well-being (SWB). Using the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether financial satisfaction and postmaterialist needs (pertaining to autonomy, social support, and respect) were universal predictors of the different components of SWB across the world, and whether their effects were moderated by national affluence. Results showed that financial satisfaction was the strongest predictor of life evaluation, whereas respect was the strongest predictor of positive feelings. Both measures predicted negative feelings to some extent. Multilevel analyses also revealed moderating effects of societal wealth. The association between financial satisfaction and SWB and that between postmaterialist needs and SWB were stronger in richer nations compared with poorer ones. This suggests that developed economies should continue to focus on both material and psychological aspects, and not disregard economic gains, as both measures are essential to well-being.

  3. Improving Learning Outcomes in Office Automation Subjects Through Development of Video-Based Media Learning Operating Microsoft Publisher 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Mastumasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce instructional media video-based operate Microsoft Publisher 2010 which is validated by experts for student at class X of Office Administration in SMKN 1 Malang through experimental class and control class. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D through 8 steps, namely: (1 research and information gathering early, (2 planning, (3 product development, (4 validation expert, (5 product revision, (6 the trial court (small groups, (7 the revision of the product, and (8 field trials (large group. Results of validation by material experts, media experts and 12 students, the media is expressed very valid and can be used. Based on t test, it is known that a significant difference between the average student learning outcomes experimental class and control class, so that learning media can be said to be effective for use in the learning process.

  4. Warping similarity space in category learning by human subjects: the role of task difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Pevtzow, Rachel; Harnad, Stevan

    1997-01-01

    In innate Categorical Perception (CP) (e.g., colour perception), similarity space is "warped," with regions of increased within-category similarity (compression) and regions of reduced between-category similarity (separation) enh ancing the category boundaries and making categorisation reliable and all-or-none rather than graded. We show that category learning can likewise warp similarity space, resolving uncertainty near category boundaries. Two Hard and two Easy texture learning tasks were ...

  5. COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TYPE STAD IN TEACHING ISLAMIC EDUCATION SUBJECT (PAI AT SMPN 3 LENGAYANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulvia Evi Trinova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available SMPN 3 Lengayang has applied STAD as a type of cooperative learning to improve students’ passiveness. The learning is initiated by forming study groups and assigning tasks to be discussed together. However, in fact the learning is not effective that the students still can not understand the materials properly. It is noticable that the tasks given have been done by one student only, meanwhile the others are less serious and rely on those who are willing to do the group work. This is a field reasearch which describes the implementation of STAD in teaching PAI qualitatively. Data collection techniques used are in the form of observation, interviews, and documentation. As the result; 1 the planning of STAD strategy in teaching PAI at SMPN 3 Lengayang does not yet fulfill the requirement such as in organizing teaching materials (systematic/systematic demands with unsuitable time allocation, and detail of learning scenario (strategy step / method at each stage not clearly illustrated. 2 the implementation of STAD type in teaching PAI at SMPN 3 Lengayang is not fully implemented from the six STAD type cooperative learning steps, namely on teamwork and quiz, and 3 the evaluation in STAD type co-operative learning at SMPN 3 Lengayang is a written test or in the form of quiz. In addition, a test through a special quiz for individual assessment while group assessment is taken from group work. Especially the group with the highest score is given an additional mark.

  6. WHY ADULTS LEARN: INTERPRETING ADULTS’ REASONS TO PARTICIPATE IN EDUCATION IN TERMS OF ECCLES’ SUBJECTIVE TASK VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological research shows that subjective task value, a basic component of expectancyvalue theory as outlined by Eccles, predicts task choice (e.g., going to graduate school. However, Eccles’ approach has not been used to investigate adult learning so far. Therefore, the present study investigated a specific form of subjective task value and task choice, namely adults’ subjective task value of participation in education. Based on expectancy-value theory, qualitative content analyses of 16 interviews with adult learners (aged between 21 and 67 from varying age groups and educational backgrounds show a differentiation of positive value according to points of reference and a revised conceptualisation of cost as an independent component of subjective task value with four subcomponents. Apparently people estimate positive value and cost separately at first and only later weigh these components against each other to arrive at an overall evaluation of subjective task value, which, in turn, predicts participation in education. Moreover, results suggest a distinction between anticipated subjective task value prior to participation and subjective task value based on experience (i.e., in hindsight. Benefits of using expectancy-value theory for future research on adults’ participation in education are discussed.

  7. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  8. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivation Matters? The Relationship among Different Types of Learning Motivation, Engagement Behaviors and Learning Outcomes of Undergraduate Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand predictors of different learning outcomes among various student background characteristics, types of learning motivation and engagement behaviors. 178 junior students were surveyed at a 4-year research university in Taiwan. The scales of motivation, engagement and perceived learning outcomes were adapted…

  10. Differential response to gepirone but not to chlordiazepoxide in malnourished rats subjected to learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L M M; Nascimento, A B; Almeida, S S

    2008-01-01

    The learned helplessness (LH) paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W) and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old) were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS) and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning). The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 +/- 2.2 vs 4.4 +/- 0.8 s) and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.

  11. Differential response to gepirone but not to chlordiazepoxide in malnourished rats subjected to learned helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.M Camargo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The learned helplessness (LH paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128 or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning. The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.8 s and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.

  12. Encouraging Students to Learn Non-Core Subjects in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Pedersen, Annette; Nielsen, Annegrethe

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our project was to enhance nursing student’s motivation to work and acquire transferable knowledge within nursing education. Parts of the curriculum have shown to be of low immediate interest of the students who feel the topics to be irrelevant for their professional development...... as nurses. In order to obtain our goal a range of different IT based educational designs were implemented with the intent of scaffolding the student’s learning. The project was designed as a 2-year action research project and a variety of data was collected to document the process, including students......’ and teachers’ experiences as expressed in interviews, observations of teaching and learning related behavior and data logging. This paper focus on how our educational intervention integrating IT based designs affects the students’ learning processes. The research question is: how (if at all) do the students...

  13. Diagnosing as the shadow side of the idea of the learning subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    This presentation focuses on a discussion of these issues in a Danish school context in which the increasing use of diagnosis is analyzed as resulting from the ideas of normality that are associated with being a learner in school. I argue that diagnosis in schools can be seen as the shadow side...... of the way in which learning is articulated and managed through schools’ requirements for pupils. This presentation is based on my research into school psychology records and journals for teachers during the period 2000–2010. Learning and diagnosis, I argue, constitute two different, but parallel, ways...

  14. [Public Health as an Applied, Multidisciplinary Subject: Is Research-Based Learning the Answer to Challenges in Learning and Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, A; Schilling, I; Voss, M

    2017-03-01

    Public health education aims at enabling students to deal with complex health-related challenges using appropriate methods based on sound theoretical understanding. Virtually all health-related problems in science and practice require the involvement of different disciplines. However, the necessary interdisciplinarity is only partly reflected in the curricula of public health courses. Also theories, methods, health topics, and their application are often taught side-by-side and not together. For students, it can become an insurmountable challenge to integrate the different disciplines ("horizontal integration") and theories, methods, health topics, and their application ("vertical integration"). This situation is specific for education in public health but is representative for other interdisciplinary fields as well. Several approaches are available to achieve the horizontal integration of different disciplines and vertical integration of theories, methods, health topics, and their application. A curriculum that is structured by topics, rather than disciplines might be more successful in integrating different disciplines. Vertical integration can be achieved by research-based learning. Research-based learning places a student-led research project at the centre of teaching. Students choose a topic and a research question, raise their own questions for theories and methods and will hopefully cross the seeming chasm between science and practice. Challenges of research-based learning are enhanced demands on students, teachers and curriculum design. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Science That Matters: Exploring Science Learning and Teaching in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Angela; Smith, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To help support primary school students to better understand why science matters, teachers must first be supported to teach science in ways that matter. In moving to this point, this paper identifies the dilemmas and tensions primary school teachers face in the teaching of science. The balance is then readdressed through a research-based…

  16. Analyzing Learning about Conservation of Matter in Students while Adapting to the Needs of a School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucerain, Marina; Schwartz, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    We probed the impact of two teaching strategies, "guided inquiry" and "argumentation," on students' conceptual understanding of the conservation of matter. Conservation of matter is a central concept in middle school science curriculum and a prerequisite upon which rests more complex constructs in chemistry. The results indicate that guided…

  17. Sensory Responsiveness and the Effects of Equal Subjective Rewards on Tactile Learning and Memory of Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Kuritz-Kaiser, Anthea; Menzel, Randolf; Erber, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    In tactile learning, sucrose is the unconditioned stimulus and reward, which is usually applied to the antenna to elicit proboscis extension and which the bee can drink when it is subsequently applied to the extended proboscis. The conditioned stimulus is a tactile object that the bee can scan with its antennae. In this paper we describe the…

  18. Can a Multimedia Tool Help Students' Learning Performance in Complex Biology Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseoglu, Pinar; Efendioglu, Akin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of multimedia-based biology teaching (Mbio) and teacher-centered biology (TCbio) instruction approaches on learners' biology achievements, as well as their views towards learning approaches. During the research process, an experimental design with two groups, TCbio (n = 22) and Mbio (n =…

  19. The Role of Learner Subjectivity in Second Language Sociolinguistic Competency: Western Women Learning Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Meryl

    1996-01-01

    Examines the intersection of learner identity, social position, and second-language acquisition. The article, which focuses on a case study of a white woman learning Japanese in Japan, presents a conversation between the learner and her professor to show the dynamic coconstruction of identity and sociolinguistic proficiency within conversational…

  20. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  1. Subjective Estimates of Job Performance after Job Preview: Determinants of Anticipated Learning Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Shapiro, Stacey; Beier, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    When people choose a particular occupation, they presumably make an implicit judgment that they will perform well on a job at some point in the future, typically after extensive education and/or on-the-job experience. Research on learning and skill acquisition has pointed to a power law of practice, where large gains in performance come early in…

  2. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  3. Fronto-striatal grey matter contributions to discrimination learning in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Callaghan, C.; Moustafa, A.A.; de Wit, S.; Shine, J.M.; Robbins, T.W.; Lewis, S.J.G.; Hornberger, M.

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination learning deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well-established. Using both behavioral patient studies and computational approaches, these deficits have typically been attributed to dopamine imbalance across the basal ganglia. However, this explanation of impaired learning in

  4. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  5. EFL oral skills behaviour when implementing blended learning in a content-subject teachers’ professional development course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez Narvaez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of technology in educational settings (Murray, 2014; Zandi, Thang, & Krish, 2014 encourages teachers to refocus their professional development by centering their efforts on becoming proficient in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in language lessons (Chen, Chen, & Tsai, 2009. As such, this qualitative action research project intended to describe content-subject teachers’ EFL oral behavior when blended learning was implemented in a professional development course and to determine the influence of blended learning in EFL oral skill behavior. The participants were seven content-subject teachers from a private school in Huila, Colombia. Data were gathered via in-depth interviews, class observations, video recording analysis, teachers’ reflection, students’ artifacts, and a survey. Data were collected during the implementation of an English blended course in which 12 lessons were divided into six face-to-face sessions and six online meetings. The findings suggest that EFL oral skill behavior is connected with use of vocabulary, use of body language, pronunciation and intonation patterns, production of chunks of language, monitoring oral production and, motivation and engagement. In addition, blended learning influenced participants’ oral production.

  6. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP-type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well…

  7. The Effects of Augmented Verbal Information Feedback in the Motor Skill Learning of Totally Blind Subjects Fourteen to Twenty-one Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Daniel P.

    This study examined the effects of Knowledge of Results, Knowledge of Performance and a combination of the two in the learning of a novel motor task by totally blind subjects. Thirty-three totally blind subjects tossed a velcro ball dart at a target while receiving augmented verbal information feedback. Each subject completed three learning…

  8. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vyawahare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student′s perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India′s undergraduate dental students learning experiences. Aim: This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students′ viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT. Study Design: The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3 rd and 4 th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. Results: They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1 The instructor; 2 the patient; 3 the learning process; and 4 the learning environment. Conclusion: The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  9. The effect of subjective awareness measures on performance in artificial grammar learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchei, Ivan I; Moroshkina, Nadezhda V

    2018-01-01

    Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none. Decision-strategy-attribution participants demonstrated better grammar learning and longer response times compared to controls. They also exhibited a conservative bias. Grammaticality by itself was a stronger predictor of strings endorsement in decision-strategy-attribution group compared to other groups. Confidence ratings and post-decision wagering only affected the response times. These results were supported by an additional experiment that used a balanced chunk strength design. We conclude that a decision-strategy-attribution procedure may force participants to adopt an analytical decision-making strategy and rely mostly on conscious knowledge of artificial grammar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyawahare, S; Banda, N R; Choubey, S; Parvekar, P; Barodiya, A; Dutta, S

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3rd and 4th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  11. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  12. Learning to live with pollution: the making of environmental subjects in a Chinese industrialized village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lora-Wainwright, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, Y.; van Rooij, B.

    2012-01-01

    It is often assumed that, when citizens do not oppose pollution, it is due to their ignorance of its effects or to structural barriers to change. This article argues that a sense that pollution is inevitable is also a major obstacle. We outline the gradual formation of environmental subjects who

  13. Comprehensive understanding of mole concept subject matter according to the tetrahedral chemistry education (empirical study on the first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, D. W.; Mulyani, S.; van Pée, K.-H.; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to apprehend: (1) the shape of tetrahedral chemistry education which is called the future of chemistry education, (2) comprehensive understanding of chemistry first-year students of Technische Universität Dresden according to the chemistry education’s tetrahedral shape on mole concept subject matter. This research used quantitative and qualitative; paper and pencil test and interview. The former was conducted in the form of test containing objective test instrument. The results of this study are (1) learning based on tetrahedral shape of chemistry education put the chemical substance (macroscopic), symbolic representation (symbol), and its process (molecular) in the context of human beings (human element) by integrating content and context, without emphasis on one thing and weaken another, (2) first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden have comprehensively understood the mole concept associated with the context of everyday life, whereby students are able to find out macroscopic information from statements that are contextual to human life and then by using symbols and formulas are able to comprehend the molecular components as well as to interpret and analyse problems effectively.

  14. The organization of interaction of subjects of educational process when using platforms of distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Mukhametzyanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within research in article the special attention is paid to the organization of distance training by means of the specialized local tool information systems oriented to provision of a certain set of educational services on the Internet. On the basis of the carried-out analysis advantages of platforms of distance training are noted: availability, a personifitsirovannost, a modularity on structure, usability, etc. Characteristics «the subject - subject» interactions are described in case of remote form of education: an active position trained in the course of activities, equality of persons training and trained, the joint problem resolution, game, dialogue, work in microgroups, admissibility of coexistence and acceptance of the opposite points of view. Specifics of process of interaction of subjects of educational process in higher education institution of physical culture on the basis of use of the Moodle platform, performed with participation of students athletes, teachers, the trainer, the staff of department of information technologies, managerial control are considered. Feature of such interaction is caused by need students athletes to combine sport and training in the conditions of long sports trainings and participation in competitions in the cities remote from educational institution. The accurate list of functions of each of subjects in the scheme of interaction is provided. In tabular option the example of a matrix of elements of the training remote rate for students of different forms of education (internal, correspondence and full-time according to the individual training plan which implementation is impossible without harmonious work of all subjects involved in educational process is given. The schemes «the subject-subject» of interaction in case of distance training in higher education institution of physical culture with use of the Moodle platform are described. So for example, for students athletes of full-time courses

  15. Learning where to look: electrophysiological and behavioral indices of visual search in young and old subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looren de Jong, H; Kok, A; Woestenburg, J C; Logman, C J; Van Rooy, J C

    1988-06-01

    The present investigation explores the way young and elderly subjects use regularities in target location in a visual display to guide search for targets. Although both young and old subjects show efficient use of search strategies, slight but reliable differences in reaction times suggest decreased ability in the elderly to use complex cues. Event-related potentials were very different for the young and the old. In the young, P3 amplitudes were larger on trials where the rule that governed the location of the target became evident; this was interpreted as an effect of memory updating. Enhanced positive Slow Wave amplitude indicated uncertainty in random search conditions. Elderly subjects' P3 and SW, however, seemed unrelated to behavioral performance, and they showed a large negative Slow Wave at central and parietal sites to randomly located targets. The latter finding was tentatively interpreted as a sign of increased effort in the elderly to allocate attention in visual space. This pattern of behavioral and ERP results suggests that age-related differences in search tasks can be understood in terms of changes in the strategy of allocating visual attention.

  16. Gender still matters: Employees’ acceptance levels towards e-learning in the workplaces of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Joo Yoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the integration of virtual training and development in workplace learning, this study examined technology acceptance level differences towards e-learning between genders in the South Korean workplace. This study is one of the first to examine this issue in the workplace of South Korea, and it was situated in a food service company in South Korea due to its high training needs and dispersed workplaces. Of the 172 valid datasets (112 female employees and 60 male employees analyzed, the study found that males have a higher performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and intention to use e-learning than females in integrating e-learning. In addition, males were more strongly affected by social influences than females. The findings reaffirm the importance of considering gender differences when integrating e-learning into learning in the workplace.

  17. The Role of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens during Infancy: Context Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a 2-dimensional (2D) screen and 3-dimensional (3D) object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emot...

  18. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F; Hirsch, Sharon L; Stein, Mark A

    2007-01-15

    Central dopaminergic activity is critical to the functioning of both motor and cognitive systems. Based on the therapeutic action of dopaminergic agents in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD symptoms may be related to a reduction in central dopaminergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity, as reflected by plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), may be related to dimensional aspects of ADHD in adults. Subjects were 30 healthy volunteer and 39 personality disordered subjects, in whom morning basal pHVA concentration and a dimensional measure of childhood ADHD symptoms (Wender Utah Rating Scale: WURS) were obtained. A significant inverse correlation was found between WURS Total score and pHVA concentration in the total sample. Among WURS factor scores, a significant inverse relationship was noted between pHVA and history of "childhood learning problems". Consistent with the dopaminergic dysfunction hypothesis of ADHD and of cognitive function, pHVA concentrations were correlated with childhood history of ADHD symptoms in general and with history of "learning problems" in non-ADHD psychiatric patients and controls. Replication is needed in treated and untreated ADHD samples to confirm these initial results.

  19. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  20. Classifying depression patients and normal subjects using machine learning techniques and nonlinear features from EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifard, Behshad; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosing depression in the early curable stages is very important and may even save the life of a patient. In this paper, we study nonlinear analysis of EEG signal for discriminating depression patients and normal controls. Forty-five unmedicated depressed patients and 45 normal subjects were participated in this study. Power of four EEG bands and four nonlinear features including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), higuchi fractal, correlation dimension and lyapunov exponent were extracted from EEG signal. For discriminating the two groups, k-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression as the classifiers are then used. Highest classification accuracy of 83.3% is obtained by correlation dimension and LR classifier among other nonlinear features. For further improvement, all nonlinear features are combined and applied to classifiers. A classification accuracy of 90% is achieved by all nonlinear features and LR classifier. In all experiments, genetic algorithm is employed to select the most important features. The proposed technique is compared and contrasted with the other reported methods and it is demonstrated that by combining nonlinear features, the performance is enhanced. This study shows that nonlinear analysis of EEG can be a useful method for discriminating depressed patients and normal subjects. It is suggested that this analysis may be a complementary tool to help psychiatrists for diagnosing depressed patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elementary school students’ strategic learning and quality of strategy use: Does task type matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Jonna; Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated what types of learning patterns and strategies elementary school students use to carry out ill- and- well-structured tasks. Specifically, it was investigated which and when learning patterns actually emerge with respect to students’ task solutions. The present study uses

  2. Compensation Still Matters: Language Learning Strategies in Third Millennium ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarami, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina J.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media play enormous roles in much of the learning, communication, socializing, and ways of working for "Net-Generation" learners who are growing up in a wired world. Living in this digital era may require different ways of communicating, thinking, approaching learning, prioritizing strategies, interpersonally communicating, and…

  3. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships : does culture matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on

  4. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships : does culture matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on

  5. When Culture and Learning Styles Matter: A Canadian University with Middle-Eastern Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke-Westcott, Tracey; Johnson, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Transnational branch campuses of universities are a growing phenomenon, particularly in the Middle-East. The cultures of home institutions and host countries are often foreign to each other. The result is a cultural and learning style gap between faculty and students impacting students' learning and teachers' effectiveness. A pilot study of the…

  6. Elementary School Students' Strategic Learning: Does Task-Type Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Jonna; Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated what types of learning patterns and strategies elementary school students use to carry out ill- and well-structured tasks. Specifically, it was investigated which and when learning patterns actually emerge with respect to students' task solutions. The present study uses computer log file traces to investigate how…

  7. On the relationships among work characteristics and learning-related behavior : Does age matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, Annet H.; Taris, Toon W.; Jansen, Paul; Kompier, Michiel A. J.; Houtman, Irene L. D.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    2010-01-01

    This 3-wave longitudinal study examined (a) the causal direction of the relationships among psychosocial work characteristics (e.g., job demands, job control, and supervisor support) and indicators of learning-related behavior (e.g., motivation to learn and active problem solving), and (b) whether

  8. Why segmentation matters: experience-driven segmentation errors impair “morpheme” learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    We ask whether an adult learner’s knowledge of their native language impedes statistical learning in a new language beyond just word segmentation (as previously shown). In particular, we examine the impact of native-language word-form phonotactics on learners’ ability to segment words into their component morphemes and learn phonologically triggered variation of morphemes. We find that learning is impaired when words and component morphemes are structured to conflict with a learner’s native-language phonotactic system, but not when native-language phonotactics do not conflict with morpheme boundaries in the artificial language. A learner’s native-language knowledge can therefore have a cascading impact affecting word segmentation and the morphological variation that relies upon proper segmentation. These results show that getting word segmentation right early in learning is deeply important for learning other aspects of language, even those (morphology) that are known to pose a great difficulty for adult language learners. PMID:25730305

  9. Why segmentation matters: Experience-driven segmentation errors impair "morpheme" learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S; Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2015-09-01

    We ask whether an adult learner's knowledge of their native language impedes statistical learning in a new language beyond just word segmentation (as previously shown). In particular, we examine the impact of native-language word-form phonotactics on learners' ability to segment words into their component morphemes and learn phonologically triggered variation of morphemes. We find that learning is impaired when words and component morphemes are structured to conflict with a learner's native-language phonotactic system, but not when native-language phonotactics do not conflict with morpheme boundaries in the artificial language. A learner's native-language knowledge can therefore have a cascading impact affecting word segmentation and the morphological variation that relies upon proper segmentation. These results show that getting word segmentation right early in learning is deeply important for learning other aspects of language, even those (morphology) that are known to pose a great difficulty for adult language learners. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Participating learning: an experience for youth training in Brazil as social subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Maria RODRIGUES DE MATOS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that youth involvement in groups, in this case the public policies that reflect the environment is a fertile opportunity to form social subjects. In this sense, it also shows that non-formal education is, outside of school is an effective tool for behavior change among youth, and in Brazil this kind of public investment contributes significantly to improve the youth level in many ways, particularly in implementing the National Environmental Education Policy, including with respect to the far-reaching policy decisions. The areas of participation, called councils, commissions, conferences, are spaces that primarily exist to perform the role of educator or educational structures space. The existence of these structures such as councils, groups, committees and networks is urgently needed. However, not enough to exert its educational role. It is essential to continuous development and ongoing activities, reflection and action.

  12. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Menoth Mohan

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs. Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs, and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  13. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  14. Disciplinary Identity as Analytic Construct and Design Goal: Making Learning Sciences Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.

    2017-01-01

    Bent Flyvbjerg (2001), in his book "Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again," argues that social science's aims and methods are currently, and perhaps always will be, ill suited to the type of cumulative and predictive theory that characterizes inquiry and knowledge generation in the natural…

  15. Learning to Be Affected: Matters of Pedagogy in "The Artists' Soup Kitchen"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie; Zaliwska, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Expanding on the robust contributions by feminist new materialist scholars this essay focuses on two concepts--affect and rhythm--in order to elaborate on matters of pedagogy and a politics of attunement. If one of the key challenges that arises from feminist new materialism is that the human can no longer be taken for granted, then this prompts…

  16. Policy Matters: De/Re/Territorialising Spaces of Learning in Victorian Government Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to augment an emerging interest in education policy research in enactment theorising, to explicitly consider the role and contribution of materiality in this theorising. Guided by the notion of policy "matters," the article takes as its empirical context a major policy initiative, the Building the Education Revolution…

  17. Engaging Students On-Line:Does Gender Matter in Adoption of Learning Material Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norziani Dahalan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Education is reforming with the birth of the internet. Learning is not solely based on classroom basis but also through on-line. The revolution of Internet has transformed teaching via face-to-face into virtual teaching. The expansion of teaching deliveries suggests that we need interactive mechanism to accommodate course material for on-line students. However, creating on-line materials requires the conception of on-line instructional design. A suitable online material design will allow learners to engage with learning. Learners will have opportunities to develop their own understanding. In addition, suitable learning material will strengthen learner’s knowledge construction from their short-term memory to long-term memory. The purpose of this paper is to discover the learning material design approach based on gender by evaluating lecturer’s adoption of online material design using Keller’s ARCS model. The sample consisting of 30 lecturers from distance education learning reveals that gender differs in their adoption of learning material design specifically on getting attention of the student. The result also shows that relevance and satisfaction contribute to gender differences in learning material adoption. Limitations of the study and practical implications of these findings discussed.

  18. Timing matters: The impact of immediate and delayed feedback on artificial language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Opitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, we used event-related potentials (ERP to investigate the role of immediate and delayed feedback in an artificial grammar learning task. Two groups of participants were engaged in classifying non-word strings according to an underlying rule system, not known to the participants. Visual feedback was provided after each classification either immediately or with a short delay of one second. Both groups were able to learn the artificial grammar system as indicated by an increase in classification performance. However, the gain in performance was significantly larger for the group receiving immediate feedback as compared to the group receiving delayed feedback. Learning was accompanied by an increase in P300 activity in the ERP for delayed as compared to immediate feedback. Irrespective of feedback delay, both groups exhibited learning related decreases in the feedback-related positivity (FRP elicited by positive feedback only. The feedback-related negativity (FRN, however, remained constant over the course of learning. These results suggest, first, that delayed feedback is less effective for artificial grammar learning as task requirements are very demanding, and second, that the FRP elicited by positive prediction errors decreases with learning while the FRN to negative prediction errors is elicited in an all-or-none fashion by negative feedback throughout the entire experiment.

  19. The Role of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens during Infancy: Context Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zack

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a 2-dimensional (2D screen and 3-dimensional (3D object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emotional responsiveness and infant outcomes during a transfer of learning task. Fifty 15-month-old infants and their mothers participated in this semi-naturalistic teaching task. Mothers were given a 3D object, and a static image of the object presented on a touch screen. Mothers had 5 minutes to teach their infant that a button on the real toy works in the same way as a virtual button on the touch screen (or vice versa. Overall, 64% of infants learned how to make the button work, transferring learning from the touch screen to the 3D object or vice versa. Infants were just as successful in the 3D to 2D transfer direction as they were in the 2D to 3D transfer direction. A cluster analysis based on emotional responsiveness, the proportion of diverse maternal verbal input, and amount of maternal structuring resulted in two levels of interactional quality: high quality and moderate quality. A logistic regression revealed the level of interactional quality predicted infant transfer. Infants were 19 times more likely to succeed and transfer learning between the touch screen and real object if they were in a high interactional quality dyad, even after controlling for infant activity levels. The present findings suggest that interactional quality between mother and infant plays an important role in making touch screens effective teaching tools for infants’ learning.

  20. The Role of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens during Infancy: Context Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a two-dimensional (2D) screen and three-dimensional (3D) object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emotional responsiveness and infant outcomes during a transfer of learning task. Fifty 15-month-old infants and their mothers participated in this semi-naturalistic teaching task. Mothers were given a 3D object, and a static image of the object presented on a touch screen. Mothers had 5 min to teach their infant that a button on the real toy works in the same way as a virtual button on the touch screen (or vice versa). Overall, 64% of infants learned how to make the button work, transferring learning from the touch screen to the 3D object or vice versa. Infants were just as successful in the 3D to 2D transfer direction as they were in the 2D to 3D transfer direction. A cluster analysis based on emotional responsiveness, the proportion of diverse maternal verbal input, and amount of maternal structuring resulted in two levels of interactional quality: high quality and moderate quality. A logistic regression revealed the level of interactional quality predicted infant transfer. Infants were 19 times more likely to succeed and transfer learning between the touch screen and real object if they were in a high interactional quality dyad, even after controlling for infant activity levels. The present findings suggest that interactional quality between mother and infant plays an important role in making touch screens effective teaching tools for infants' learning.

  1. A Matter of Time: Faster Percolator Analysis via Efficient SVM Learning for Large-Scale Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John T; Rocke, David M

    2018-05-04

    Percolator is an important tool for greatly improving the results of a database search and subsequent downstream analysis. Using support vector machines (SVMs), Percolator recalibrates peptide-spectrum matches based on the learned decision boundary between targets and decoys. To improve analysis time for large-scale data sets, we update Percolator's SVM learning engine through software and algorithmic optimizations rather than heuristic approaches that necessitate the careful study of their impact on learned parameters across different search settings and data sets. We show that by optimizing Percolator's original learning algorithm, l 2 -SVM-MFN, large-scale SVM learning requires nearly only a third of the original runtime. Furthermore, we show that by employing the widely used Trust Region Newton (TRON) algorithm instead of l 2 -SVM-MFN, large-scale Percolator SVM learning is reduced to nearly only a fifth of the original runtime. Importantly, these speedups only affect the speed at which Percolator converges to a global solution and do not alter recalibration performance. The upgraded versions of both l 2 -SVM-MFN and TRON are optimized within the Percolator codebase for multithreaded and single-thread use and are available under Apache license at bitbucket.org/jthalloran/percolator_upgrade .

  2. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP–type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well documented, both in traditional lecture halls and SCALE-UP–type classrooms. However, few studies have carefully analyzed student outcomes when comparable active learning–based instruction takes place in a traditional lecture hall and a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared student perceptions and performance between sections of a nonmajors biology course, one taught in a traditional lecture hall and one taught in a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Instruction in both sections followed a flipped model that relied heavily on cooperative learning and was as identical as possible given the infrastructure differences between classrooms. Results showed that students in both sections thought that SCALE-UP infrastructure would enhance performance. However, measures of actual student performance showed no difference between the two sections. We conclude that, while SCALE-UP–type classrooms may facilitate implementation of active learning, it is the active learning and not the SCALE-UP infrastructure that enhances student performance. As a consequence, we suggest that institutions can modify existing classrooms to enhance student engagement without incorporating expensive technology. PMID:27909018

  3. Renewables (Energy): A Subject-Based Aspect Report by Education Scotland on Provision in Scotland's Colleges on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Education Scotland publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013," specifies that Education Scotland will produce a number of subject-based aspect reports each year. These reports complement, in a subject-specific context, the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in Education…

  4. [Neurological and neuropsychological comparison between subjects with learning disorder and those suffering from learning difficulties when eeg abnormalities are detected at pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsetti, L; Viberti, B; Ariano, C; Isocrono, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare data and investigate the points of overlap between the two clinical conditions. The hypothesis is to observe a similar cognitive and neuropsychological profile in LD children and subjects with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The present study consists of a descriptive analysis of 35 children who have been tested for suspected learning disorder (LD). The diagnostic protocol includes a detailed cognitive and neuropsychological evaluation, as well as logopedic and neuropsychomotor assessment. Children carried neurological visit, EEG in waking and encephalic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In this study, anamnestic data and the results of some of the neuropsychological tests were administrated to children and subsequently were analyzed. Depending on EEG report (positive or negative), subjects were split in two subsample: subjects with "pure" LD and subjects who showed significant paroxysmal abnormalities at the EEG. This comparison shows that the profile of the two subsamples matches for many aspects. The only statistically significant differences are the increased impairment of meta-phonological skills and reading speed in children with EEG abnormalities. On the other hand, children with "pure" LD are inclined to manifest more frequently difficulties in highly-modularized processes, such as counting. In conclusion, the substantial overlap of the two profiles causes a reflection about the difficulty in making differential diagnosis in children who show a suspected LD, in absence of an accurate neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigation. The study did not find out useful markers to select subjects who should carry EEG and encephalic NMR. Our team established to keep EEG in waking in the diagnostic protocol, for all children with LD diagnosis. Only in case of abnormalities at the track, we prescribed EEG in sleeping and encephalic NMR.

  5. Experimenting on how to create a sustainable gamified learning design that supports adult students when learning through designing learning games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2014-01-01

    digital learning games (small games) in cross‐disciplinary subject matters. The experiment has focused on creating a game‐based learning design that enables the students to implement the learning goals into their games, and on making the game design process motivating and engaging. Another focus......This paper presents and discusses the first iteration of a design‐based research experiment focusing on how to create an overall gamified learning design (big Game) facilitating the learning process for adult students by letting them be their own learning designers through designing their own...... of the study has been to create a sustainable learning design that supports the learning game design process and gives teachers the ability to evaluate whether the students have been successful in learning their subject matter through this learning game design process. The findings are that this initial...

  6. Service-Learning Instructional Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the design of "service-learning" experiences to engage college students in the real-world application of course subject matter. Service learning is an educational approach that combines community service, academic coursework, and work-based applied learning. Based on data gathered during a series of recent interviews…

  7. Work station learning activities: a flexible and scalable instrument for integrating across basic subjects in biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Soltero, Rocío; Learte, Ana Isabel R; Sánchez, Ana Mª; Gal, Beatriz

    2017-11-29

    Establishing innovative teaching programs in biomedical education involves dealing with several national and supra-national (i.e. European) regulations as well as with new pedagogical and demographic demands. We aimed to develop and validate a suitable instrument to integrate activities across preclinical years in all Health Science Degrees while meeting requirements of national quality agencies. The new approach was conceived at two different levels: first, we identified potentially integrative units from different fields according to national learning goals established for each preclinical year (national quality agency regulations). Secondly, we implemented a new instrument that combines active methodologies in Work Station Learning Activities (WSLA), using clinical scenarios as a guiding common thread to instruct students from an integrated perspective. We evaluated students' perception through a Likert-type survey of a total of 118 students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor's Degree in Medicine. Our model of integrated activities through WSLA is feasible, scalable and manageable with large groups of students and a minimum number of instructors, two major limitations in many medical schools. Students' perception of WSLA was positive in overall terms. Seventy nine percent of participants stated that WSLA sessions were more useful than non-integrated activities. Eighty three percent confirmed that the WSLA methodology was effective at integrating concepts covered by different subjects. The WSLA approach is a flexible and scalable instrument for moving towards integrated curricula, and it can be successfully adapted to teach basic subjects in preclinical years of Health Science degrees. WSLA can be applied to large groups of students in a variety of contexts or environments using clinical cases as connecting threads.

  8. Impact of Cooperative Learning Approaches on Students’ Academic Achievement and Laboratory Proficiency in Biology Subject in Selected Rural Schools, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyayu Molla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cooperative learning methods on students’ academic achievement and laboratory proficiency in biology subject. Quasi-experimental control group interrupted time series design was employed. Data pertaining to these variables were collected from 369 students and 18 biology teachers in three schools. A series of biological tests and semistructured questionnaire were used to collect data. Multivariate analysis (two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the test scores exposed by teaching methods, and semistructured questionnaire was administered to comprehend factors that hamper the successive execution of CL. Hence, multivariate analysis revealed that there was no significant (P>0.05 difference in the pretest score of the learner academic performance; however, there were significant differences (P<0.01 in the posttest results by teaching methods, but not by schools. Correspondingly, there were significant differences in the pretest P<0.05 and posttest (P<0.01 results of the students’ laboratory proficiency by teaching methods. The results exemplify that there was significant learning gain obtained via CLAD followed by cooperative discussion group (CDG. The result from the questionnaire survey showed that the number of students, lack of laboratory equipment, and so on hamper consecutive execution of CL.

  9. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-04-05

    Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on power distance. This study was conducted to validate the influence of five feedback characteristics on students' perceived learning value of feedback in an Indonesian clerkship context. We asked clerks in Neurology (n = 169) and Internal Medicine (n = 132) to assess on a 5-point Likert scale the learning value of the feedback they received. We asked them to record whether the feedback provider (1) informed the student what went well, (2) mentioned which aspects of performance needed improvement, (3) compared the student's performance to a standard, (4) further explained or demonstrated the correct performance, and (5) prepared an action plan with the student to improve performance. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. A total of 250 students participated in this study, 131 from Internal Medicine (response rate 99%) and 119 from Neurology (response rate 70%). Of these participants, 225 respondents (44% males, 56% females) completed the form and reported 889 feedback moments. Students perceived feedback as more valuable when the feedback provider mentioned their weaknesses (β = 0.153, p learning value of feedback. No gender differences were found for perceived learning value. In Indonesia, we could validate four out of the five characteristics for effective feedback. We argue that our findings relate to culture, in particular to the levels of individualism and power distance. The recognized characteristics of what constitutes effective feedback should be validated across cultures.

  10. Lessons Learned from 2 Decades of Modelling Forest Dead Organic Matter and Soil Carbon at the National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C.; Kurz, W. A.; Metsaranta, J.; Bona, K. A.; Hararuk, O.; Smyth, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) is a forest carbon budget model that operates on individual stands. It is applied from regional to national-scales in Canada for national and international reporting of GHG emissions and removals and in support of analyses of forest sector mitigation options and other scientific and policy questions. This presentation will review the history and continuous improvement process of representations of dead organic matter (DOM) and soil carbon modelling. Early model versions in which dead organic matter (DOM) pools only included litter, downed deadwood and soil, to the current version where these pools are estimated separately to better compare model estimates against field measurements, or new pools have been added. Uncertainty analyses consistently point at soil C pools as large sources of uncertainty. With the new ground plot measurements from the National Forest Inventory, and with a newly compiled forest soil carbon database, we have recently completed a model data assimilation exercise that helped reduce parameter uncertainties. Lessons learned from the continuous improvement process will be summarised and we will discuss how model modification have led to improved representation of DOM and soil carbon dynamics. We conclude by suggesting future research priorities that can advance DOM and soil carbon modelling in Canadian forest ecosystems.

  11. Work-related learning and skill development in Europe: Does initial skill mismatch matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; Künn-Nelen, Annemarie; de Grip, Andries

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides more insight into the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyze the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill development and consider

  12. College Seniors' Plans for Graduate School: Do Deep Approaches Learning and Holland Academic Environments Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors attending…

  13. Service Matters: Single Service Point as a Collaborative and Professional Learning Initiative for Service Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Marianne; Bourbous, Vicki; Liston, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Changes and innovations in higher education learning and teaching acted as a catalyst for rethinking the way in which service was delivered to library clients at Australian Catholic University. The Single Service Point was piloted at one campus library in 2014 to develop a best practice approach to service delivery. The merging of cultures within…

  14. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  15. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  16. It's the situation that matters : Affective involvement in context-oriented learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fechner, Sabine; van Vorst, H.; Kölbach, E.; Sumfleth, E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the evaluation of affective variables in contextbased learning (cbl) environments. Although the majority of studies in the field have shown positive effects on attitude, the need to investigate specific elements of cbl tasks has become evident. On the basis of prior research

  17. Does It Matter? Analyzing the Results of Three Different Learning Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernish, William N.; DeFranco, Agnes L.; Lindner, James R.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing diversity of learners and their preferences coupled with increasing usage of the computer and Internet prompted the need for testing and verifying the ways that knowledge can be delivered and learned effectively. This research addresses these concerns by comparing the results of a college course, hospitality human resource…

  18. Workplace learning a sensitive matter? Employees ideas on workplace leraning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dellen, T.; Greveling, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this report the Dutch outcomes of a comparative study done by the research network ‘Competence Development as Workplace Learning’ of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Education and the Research Hub for Lifelong Learning are presented. The idea behind the study can be found on the website of the

  19. Approximating Literacy Practices in Tutorials: What Is Learned and What Matters for Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James V.; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley; Peterson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the learning of preservice teachers associated with the features of a literacy tutorial experience. Our qualitative study focused on the close inspection of the experiences of 7 focus cases out of the 19 preservice teachers enrolled in our program across a one-semester tutorial experience. Through our research we…

  20. Work-related learning and skill development in Europe: Does initial skill mismatch matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; Künn, Annemarie; de Grip, Andries

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides more insight into the relevance of the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyse the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill

  1. Does Gender Matter? Collaborative Learning in a Virtual Corporate Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcsik, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how gender identity construction in virtuality and actuality affect collaborative learning in a corporate community of practice. As part of a virtual ethnographic design, participants were employees from a major American corporation who were interested specifically in social networking applications. The…

  2. Exploring Human Capital with Primary Children: What We Learn in School "Does" Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Suiter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    At an early age, young children often wonder why they must go to school. They may see the connection between practice and their ability to kick a soccer ball or to play a musical instrument, but seldom know the answer to the question, "Why is school important?" Elementary teachers can give young children the opportunity to learn that…

  3. Why the Kantian ideal survives medical learning curves, and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, B

    2006-09-01

    The "Kantian ideal" is often misunderstood as invoking individual autonomy rather than rational self legislation. Le Morvan and Stock's otherwise insightful discussion of "Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal"--for example--draws the mistaken inference that that ideal is inconsistent with the realities of medical practice. But it is not. Rationally to be a patient entails accepting its necessary conditions.

  4. COMMUNITTY HEALTH II – SUBJECT THAT PROMOTES THE LEARNING- SERVING-COMUNITTY INTERACTION AIMING THE PROMOTION OF HEALTH, CARE AND COMFORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onã Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the context of the teaching and learning process, the communication between the fields of study and their subjects is important, once such integration reflects on the formation and the learning-serving-community triad. This pedagogical basis figures in the syllabi of the subjects Community Health II and its Training Course, offered by the Nursing Program. Objective: Reporting the teaching and learning process for the academic subject Community Health II, as being an inclusive part of learning-serving-community triad, with regards of developing care for the health of individuals, family and community, according to the reports of the experiences of this author during the training course. Methodological Description: It was reported the events dealing with the data experienced by the author over the second term of 2012. The following places were used in that report. In the academic environment and in the training course which took place in one of the administrative regions of Distrito Federal. The pedagogical theoretical basis was made on Paulo Freire. Data were collected from the studied subjects, legislation, theoretical and practical meetings, communication materials on the virtual environment among other sources. Results and discussion: this experience revealed that the subject CH-II presents an interdisciplinary, multiprofessional and inclusive view of learning-serving-community triad. The participants mediated by the problematization contributed for the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge using reflections, debates, and discussions according to the Pedagogy of Autonomy. The teaching and learning methods permitted the development of independence, competencies and abilities contained in the political project. Conclusion: The training course experienced in the environment of CH-II was an unique experience, generating benefits to all the people involved in the process, besides the resignification of their practices

  5. Why Not Start with Quarks? Teachers Investigate a Learning Unit on the Subatomic Structure of Matter with 12-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the second in a series of studies exploring the acceptance of the subatomic structure of matter by 12-year-olds. The studies focus on a novel learning unit introducing an atomic model from electrons down to quarks, which is aimed to be used at an early stage in the physics curriculum. Three features are fundamental to the…

  6. Disrupted subject-specific gray matter network properties and cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes patients with and without proliferative retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinkerken, Eelco; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Klein, Martin; Moll, Annette C.; Snoek, Frank J.; Scheltens, Philip; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Tijms, Betty M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, especially with concomitant microvascular disease, such as proliferative retinopathy, have an increased risk of cognitive deficits. Local cortical gray matter volume reductions only partially explain these cognitive dysfunctions, possibly because volume

  7. The causes of variation in learning and behavior: Why individual differences matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eSauce

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically-oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between causation and causes of variation (with its origins in the field of genetics reveal the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its associability provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this new light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris Water Maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships.

  8. Does the Learning Channel Really Matter? : Insights from Commercial Online ICT-training

    OpenAIRE

    Syynimaa, Nestori

    2017-01-01

    Evolving ICT has provided new options to participate to training. Online participation has been found to be cost effective, helping people to deal with the time and cost pressures they are facing on their jobs. Previous studies conducted in higher education sector indicates that student satisfaction or learning outcomes does not differ between online and classroom participants. However, little is known what is the situation in commercial ICT-training. This paper studied course fee...

  9. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China

  10. What is the teachers’ role when students learn through design of learning games in a scaffolded gamified learning environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    The aim of this research project is to create a reusable and flexible gamified learning design where the students are learning subject matters through the design of digital learning games. The students are their own learning designers forming teams that create games. The teams also peer review...... how the use of pre-build learning games in education can be taken a step further into the building of learning games while implementing subject matters from curriculum, not only focussing on the creative game design process. The aim of the form of this learning design is to scaffold the novice....../ play test each others games as a way to qualify the learning taking place around as well as inside the games they are building. The discussion is focusing on how the chosen pedagogical approach is framed within the gamified environment as well as on how the teachers can guide and scaffold the learning...

  11. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  12. Vicarious birth experiences and childbirth fear: does it matter how young canadian women learn about birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women's confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during primary and secondary education, as an alternative to mass-mediated information about birth, can be evaluated as an approach to reduce young women's childbirth fear.

  13. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  14. Initial validation of a virtual-reality learning environment for prostate biopsies: realism matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiard, Gaelle; Selmi, Sonia-Yuki; Promayon, Emmanuel; Vadcard, Lucile; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2014-04-01

    A virtual-reality learning environment dedicated to prostate biopsies was designed to overcome the limitations of current classical teaching methods. The aim of this study was to validate reliability, face, content, and construct of the simulator. The simulator is composed of (a) a laptop computer, (b) a haptic device with a stylus that mimics the ultrasound probe, (c) a clinical case database including three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes and patient data, and (d) a learning environment with a set of progressive exercises including a randomized 12-core biopsy procedure. Both visual (3D biopsy mapping) and numerical (score) feedback are given to the user. The simulator evaluation was conducted in an academic urology department on 7 experts and 14 novices who each performed a virtual biopsy procedure and completed a face and content validity questionnaire. The overall realism of the biopsy procedure was rated at a median of 9/10 by nonexperts (7.1-9.8). Experts rated the usefulness of the simulator for the initial training of urologists at 8.2/10 (7.9-8.3), but reported the range of motion and force feedback as significantly less realistic than novices (P=0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Pearson r correlation coefficient between correctly placed biopsies on the right and left side of the prostate for each user was 0.79 (Prealism and scoring system used.

  15. The University as power or counter-power? May 1968 and the emergence of a new learning subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The events of May 68 in France constituted a moment of questioning of the power and of the social role of the University. Two of the philosophers who contributed the most to that questioning were Althusser and Foucault. Their thoughts on the way in which power, discourse and social institutions are articulated played a major role in awakening the students’ political consciousness and in opening the doors of the University to social movements that had been, until then, left out of academic discourse. Their positions on the events triggered passionate reactions that ended up changing the institutions of higher education from the inside. The Faure law, issued in the aftermath of the protests, on November 12, 1968, finally acknowledged that higher education should be available to mature students. Taking into account the points of contiguity between conceptual apparatuses of these authors, this paper intends to offer a reflection on the power-effects of the scientific discourse issued by the University and on how its power was contested in a period of deep ideological and political fractures, leading to a paradigmatic shift that democratized the institution and to the emergence of a new learning subject.

  16. Reinforcement-Learning-Based Robust Controller Design for Continuous-Time Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-07-01

    The design of stabilizing controller for uncertain nonlinear systems with control constraints is a challenging problem. The constrained-input coupled with the inability to identify accurately the uncertainties motivates the design of stabilizing controller based on reinforcement-learning (RL) methods. In this paper, a novel RL-based robust adaptive control algorithm is developed for a class of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input constraints. The robust control problem is converted to the constrained optimal control problem with appropriately selecting value functions for the nominal system. Distinct from typical action-critic dual networks employed in RL, only one critic neural network (NN) is constructed to derive the approximate optimal control. Meanwhile, unlike initial stabilizing control often indispensable in RL, there is no special requirement imposed on the initial control. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop optimal control system and the estimated weights of the critic NN are proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, the derived approximate optimal control is verified to guarantee the uncertain nonlinear system to be stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the present approach.

  17. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in a coral reef ecosystem subjected to anthropogenic pressures (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) using multi-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, Marc; Cuet, Pascale; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-05-01

    La Saline fringing reef is the most important coral reef complex of La Réunion Island (southwestern Indian Ocean; 21°07'S, 55°32'E). This ecosystem is subjected to anthropogenic pressures through river inputs and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The goal of this study was to characterize the pool of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in different water bodies of La Saline fringing reef ecosystem using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrofluorometry. From EEMs, we identified the different fluorophores by the peak picking technique and determined two fluorescence indices issued from the literature: the humification index (HIX) and the biological index (BIX). The main known fluorophores were present within the sample set: humic-like A, humic-like C, marine humic-like M, tryptophan-like T1 and T2, and tyrosine-like B1 and B2. In some samples, unknown fluorophores ("U") were also detected. The surface oceanic waters located beyond the reef front displayed a typical oligotrophic marine signature, with a dominance of autochthonous/biological material (presence of peaks: T1>B1>A>T2>M>C; HIX: 0.9±0.4; BIX: 2.3±1.1). In the reef waters, the autochthonous/biological fingerprint also dominated even though the content in humic substances was higher (same relative distribution of peaks; HIX: 1.6±0.6; BIX: 1.0±0.1). Sedimentary and volcanic SGD showed very different patterns with a strong terrestrial source for the former (A>T1>C>B1 and A>C>B1; HIX: 9.8±2.0; BIX: 0.8±0.0) and a weak terrestrial source for the latter (A>B1>U3>B2>C and A>U4>C; HIX: 2.4±0.3; BIX: 0.9±0.0). In the Hermitage River, both humic substances and protein-like material were abundant (T1>A>U5>B1>C>B2; HIX: 2.3; BIX: 1.4). We provide evidences for the presence of anthropogenic DOM in some of these water bodies. Some oceanic samples (presence of peaks U1 and U2) were likely contaminated by oil-derived PAHs from ships navigating around the reef front, whereas the Hermitage River was

  18. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  19. Integrated approach to e-learning enhanced both subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, W B; Tagamolila, V; Toh, Y P; Cheng, Z R

    2015-03-01

    Various meta-analyses have shown that e-learning is as effective as traditional methods of continuing professional education. However, there are some disadvantages to e-learning, such as possible technical problems, the need for greater self-discipline, cost involved in developing programmes and limited direct interaction. Currently, most strategies for teaching amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide depend on traditional teaching methods. We implemented a programme that utilised an integrated approach to e-learning. The programme consisted of three sessions of supervised protected time e-learning in an NICU. The objective and subjective effectiveness of the approach was assessed through surveys administered to participants before and after the programme. A total of 37 NICU staff (32 nurses and 5 doctors) participated in the study. 93.1% of the participants appreciated the need to acquire knowledge of aEEG. We also saw a statistically significant improvement in the subjective knowledge score (p = 0.041) of the participants. The passing rates for identifying abnormal aEEG tracings (defined as ≥ 3 correct answers out of 5) also showed a statistically significant improvement (from 13.6% to 81.8%, p e-learning can help improve subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG.

  20. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  1. Knowledge, language and subjectivities in a discourse community: Ideas we can learn from elementary children about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Lori Ann

    2000-10-01

    paradigmatic language by drawing on stories of personal experience as well as canonical scientific argument. As had the varied knowledge paths and sources, the use of both language forms contributed to a broader and richer scientific discourse. Finally, in studying students' written discourse through their journals, I found that students had expanded views of science as they incorporated many aspects of their subjective selves including self and human elements, thinking, emotions, etc. in their writing and drawing. The enactment of knowledge, language and subjectivities in these discourse communities was unique, rich and meaningful highlighting a broader, more accessible vision of science. I advocate that knowledge, language and subjectivities should be central concepts in the practices of science communities as demonstrated in these classrooms. In establishing and integrating these concepts, the use of alternative and traditional modes of expression should be supported as both necessary and complementary. Students and teachers must also jointly construct classroom discourse norms, talk and writing in specific ways in order to provide a safe, comfortable and meaningful learning environment. Many teachers, students and scientists would benefit from broader visions of science, which enrich scientific knowledge and practice and engage and value participants from many backgrounds.

  2. Interaction matters: Strategies to promote engaged learning in an online introductory nutrition course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Jinan; Grace Lin, Meng-Fen; Stewart, Maria; Fialkowski, Marie K

    2015-06-01

    Fostering interaction in the online classroom is an important consideration in ensuring that students actively create their own knowledge and reach a high level of achievement in science courses. This study focuses on fostering interaction in an online introductory nutrition course offered in a public institution of higher education in Hawai'i, USA. Interactive features included synchronous discussions and polls in scheduled sessions, and social media tools for sharing of information and resources. Qualitative student feedback was solicited regarding the new course features. Findings indicated that students who attended monthly synchronous sessions valued live interaction with peers and the instructor. Issues identified included technical difficulties during synchronous sessions, lack of participation on the part of fellow students in discussion and inability to attend synchronous sessions due to scheduling conflicts. In addition, few students made use of the opportunity to interact via social media. While students indicated that the interactive components of the course were valuable, several areas in which improvement may be made remain. Future studies may explore potential solutions to issues identified with new features to further promote interaction and foster learning in the course. Recommendations for instructors who are interested in offering online science courses in higher education are provided.

  3. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. TH-CD-207A-07: Prediction of High Dimensional State Subject to Respiratory Motion: A Manifold Learning Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W; Sawant, A; Ruan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of high dimensional imaging systems (e.g. volumetric MRI, CBCT, photogrammetry systems) in image-guided radiotherapy provides important pathways to the ultimate goal of real-time volumetric/surface motion monitoring. This study aims to develop a prediction method for the high dimensional state subject to respiratory motion. Compared to conventional linear dimension reduction based approaches, our method utilizes manifold learning to construct a descriptive feature submanifold, where more efficient and accurate prediction can be performed. Methods: We developed a prediction framework for high-dimensional state subject to respiratory motion. The proposed method performs dimension reduction in a nonlinear setting to permit more descriptive features compared to its linear counterparts (e.g., classic PCA). Specifically, a kernel PCA is used to construct a proper low-dimensional feature manifold, where low-dimensional prediction is performed. A fixed-point iterative pre-image estimation method is applied subsequently to recover the predicted value in the original state space. We evaluated and compared the proposed method with PCA-based method on 200 level-set surfaces reconstructed from surface point clouds captured by the VisionRT system. The prediction accuracy was evaluated with respect to root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) for both 200ms and 600ms lookahead lengths. Results: The proposed method outperformed PCA-based approach with statistically higher prediction accuracy. In one-dimensional feature subspace, our method achieved mean prediction accuracy of 0.86mm and 0.89mm for 200ms and 600ms lookahead lengths respectively, compared to 0.95mm and 1.04mm from PCA-based method. The paired t-tests further demonstrated the statistical significance of the superiority of our method, with p-values of 6.33e-3 and 5.78e-5, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed approach benefits from the descriptiveness of a nonlinear manifold and the prediction

  5. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  6. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  7. Improving the Students' Activity and Learning Outcomes on Social Sciences Subject Using Round Table and Rally Coach of Cooperative Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Sumarmi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to analyze increasing students' learning activity and learning outcomes. Student activities which were observed include the visual, verbal, listening, writing and mental visual activity; (2) to analyze the improvement of student learning outcomes using "Round Table" and "Rally Coach" Model of…

  8. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Methods on 7th Level “The Structure of Matter and Properties” Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KOÇ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research are to determine the effectiveness of Student Teams-Achievement Division (STAD and Reading-Writing-Application (RWA methods of cooperative learning model on academic achievement at the unit of 7th Level “The Structure of Matter and Properties” and students’ views related to methods. The sample of this research are 102 students from two different secondary school in Ağrı. As data collecting tools, Pre-Knowledge Test (PKT, Academic Achievement Test (AAT and Scale Methods Views (SMV is used. For the analysis of the obtained data, one-way variance analysis (ANOVA was used for pre- test and analysis covariance (ANCOVA for academic achievement test because of significant differences in the groups’ pre- test. Descriptive statistics for students’ views about methods are used. It was found that RWA and STAD have similar effects on students’ academic achievement and students instructed with these techniques are more successful than students instructed with teacher centered instruction.

  9. The Integration of Environmental Education in Science Materials by Using "MOTORIC" Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarjita, I. Wayan; Ardi, Muhammad; Rachman, Abdul; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    The research of the integration of Environmental Education in science subject matter by application of "MOTORIC" Learning models has carried out on Junior High School Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. "MOTORIC" learning model is an Environmental Education (EE) learning model that collaborate three learning approach i.e.…

  10. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    evaluation was based on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), a modified Alzheimer Diseases Assessment Scale for global cognitive functions, and compound Z scores for memory, executive functions, speed and motor control. WMH were rated according to the Fazekas scale; the number of lacunes was assessed...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter......OBJECTIVES: In cerebral small vessel disease, white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes are both related to cognition. Still, their respective contribution in older people remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the topographic distribution of lacunes and determine whether...

  11. Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs. PMID:26286657

  12. Construction of Multi-Year Time-Series Profiles of Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter Concentrations Using Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannimpullath R. Renosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-sedimentary numerical models have been widely employed to derive suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal and estuarine waters. These hydro-sedimentary models are computationally and technically expensive in nature. Here we have used a computationally less-expensive, well-established methodology of self-organizing maps (SOMs along with a hidden Markov model (HMM to derive profiles of suspended particulate inorganic matter (SPIM. The concept of the proposed work is to benefit from all available data sets through the use of fusion methods and machine learning approaches that are able to process a growing amount of available data. This approach is applied to two different data sets entitled “Hidden” and “Observable”. The hidden data are composed of 15 months (27 September 2007 to 30 December 2008 of hourly SPIM profiles extracted from the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. The observable data include forcing parameter variables such as significant wave heights ( H s and H s 50 (50 days from the Wavewatch 3-HOMERE database and barotropic currents ( U b a r and V b a r from the Iberian–Biscay–Irish (IBI reanalysis data. These observable data integrate hourly surface samples from 1 February 2002 to 31 December 2012. The time-series profiles of the SPIM have been derived from four different stations in the English Channel by considering 15 months of output hidden data from the ROMS as a statistical representation of the ocean for ≈11 years. The derived SPIM profiles clearly show seasonal and tidal fluctuations in accordance with the parent numerical model output. The surface SPIM concentrations of the derived model have been validated with satellite remote sensing data. The time series of the modeled SPIM and satellite-derived SPIM show similar seasonal fluctuations. The ranges of concentrations for the four stations are also in good agreement with the corresponding satellite data. The high accuracy of the

  13. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  14. 數位學習領域主題分析之研究 Subject Analysis on the Field of E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fu Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 近年來數位化資訊技術應用於教與學情況已成為趨勢,各國紛紛將數位學習的推動列為國家重要政策,對數位學習領域之研究發展極為重視。本研究採廣義數位學習定義之檢索策略,蒐集2000~2009年間合計2,125篇數位學習領域SSCI期刊文獻,以自動化內容探勘工具CATAR進行剖析,再分別以共現字及書目對進行研究主題分析,藉此歸納數位學習領域的研究主題架構。本研究歸納結果,除幫助研究人員檢視自己的領域專長、掌握數位學習各研究主題發展脈絡、做為學者專家選定研究主題之參考,更有助於瞭解國際間數位學習領域的研究發展現況。With the digital development and the global trend of information technology applying teaching and learning in recent years, every country around the world regards the promotion of e-learning as a very important policy of the country. They lay special emphasis on the development of the subject research in e-learning. The present study adopts the search strategy of generalized definition of e-learning and collects 2,125 SSCI periodical literature in total on e-learning field from the years of 2000 till 2009. They are analyzed with automatic context exploration tool CATAR to proceed to dissection. Then they are respectively analyzed with co-occurrence words and bibliographic coupling to proceed to the research subject analysis. Thus it can integrate the frames of research subjects of e-learning field. Not only can the results of the present study help the researchers to look into their own field specialty, to master the development situation of research subject dimensions and to make reference to the scholars and experts to determine their research subjects, but it can also help understand the research development status of international e-learning field.

  15. [Changes in phospholipids of the brain grey and white matter during in vitro autolysis in rats subjected to acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribanov, G A; Leshchenko, D V; Golovko, M Iu

    2004-01-01

    The development of autolysis in grey brain matter of albino rats was accompanied by desintegration of aminophospholipids with parallel increase of glycerophosphates (GLP) and phosphatidic acids (PA) on early stages of incubation and lysophospholipids (LPL) on later stages. Acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia decreased the level of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) with simultaneous accumulation of PA. Previous hypoxia altered the character of autolytic reorganizations of phospholipids. Oscillatory reciprocal reorganizations in the system PE > PS (phosphatidylserine) were observed at early stage (1 h) and at late stages of autolysis (24 h). At the same time increased transformation of phosphatidylcholines (PC) into sphingomyelins (SM) with simultaneous accumulation GLP was registered. During autolysis of brain white matter of control rats opposite oscillatory reorganizations of PE, PC, SM, PA with reduction of PE and simultaneous increase of LPL and PA level after 1 hour of incubation were observed. Reciprocal reactions of biotransformation in system PS > PE were revealed at 4th hour. Previous hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia reduced the level of total phospholipids as well as PS at simultaneous increase of LPL. Acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia increased autolytic transformations in system PC > SM and induced hydrolysis of PE, PC into LPL at late stages of autolysis.

  16. Influence Cooperative Learning Method and Personality Type to Ability to Write The Scientific Article (Experiment Study on SMAN 2 Students Ciamis Learning Indonesian Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.

  17. Student Learning-Game Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents new knowledge about how students can implement learning and game elements into analogue and digital learning games as a means of learning and teaching curriculum‐based subject matter. The purpose of the analysis is to identify what learning‐game design elements were used...... in four learning games created by students, to investigate how these elements were em83 ployed, to determine what learning trajectories emerged in the two digital game tools and to offer reflections and suggestions regarding the learning processes students experienced when building the various learning...... trajectories for specific learning goals into the digital games. The article examines how specific features in the two digital game tools, Scratch and RGBMaker, afford creation of learning trajectories in various ways, enabling deep learning and gameplay processes for the players of the games. According...

  18. Efforts in Improving Teachers’ Competencies Through Collaboration between Teacher Forum on Subject Matter (MGMP and Pre-Service Teacher Training Institution (LPTK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Purwoko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to improve high school chemistry teacher’s competency in terms of classroom instruction. This goal is achieved through the workshop and continuous assistance activities that enable teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in developing learning scenarios that reflect scientific methods (brain-based learning in the classroom instruction. The effect of teachers’ competence improvement was measured by a survey of student’s perception on the classroom teaching-learning process, using Likert-scale questionnaire. The first poll was conducted before the program was started, and the second one was after the program completion. The first observation shows that only 18% of students perceive that the chemistry learning process in the classroom are “good,” while the rest (82% say that it is “fair”. However, the second poll shows that there are 45% of students who perceive that the learning process is “good”; interestingly, there are 35%, and 20% of respondents say “excellent” and “fair,” respectively. Furthermore, data analyses using chi-square test conclude that the continuous teacher assistance activity significantly improves teachers’ competencies. This article describes detailed of collaboration program and the results of improvement of chemistry teachers’ competence in north Lombok regency. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New

  19. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  20. PECULIARITIES OF USING THE METHODOLOGY DISTANCE LEARNING OF THE SUBJECT «ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS» FOR STUDENTS STUDYING BY CORRESPONDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Olena V. Slobodianiuk

    2010-01-01

    A great part of the distance course of the subject «Engineering and Computer Graphics» (ECG) placed in Internet looks as an electronic manual. But the distance training process has a complicated structure and combines not only studying theoretical material but also collaboration between students and a teacher, a work in group. The methodology distance learning of ECG is proposed. This methodology developed and researched on Faculty the engineering and computer graphics of Vinnitsa National Te...

  1. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE LEARNING SET USING SCIENTIFIC APPROACH AND PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL ON LEARNING OUTCOMES OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SUBJECT OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Triyuni

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to produce the scientific approach for science learning using a problem solving model on the topic of heat and temperatureon the junior high school learning outcome. The curriculum used during the study was curriculum 2013 (valid, practical and effective). The development of the learning setfollowed the four-D model which was reduced to three-D model (without dissemination). The study was tested in Class VIIA, VIIB, and VIIC in SMP Negeri 5 Academic Year 2015/2016. The data...

  3. An Investigation of Strategies for Integrated Learning Experiences and Instruction in the Teaching of Creative Art Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nompula, Yolisa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the integrating possibilities within each creative arts subject. The objective was to optimize the limited teaching time, generally allocated to each art subject in schools, by developing a pedagogical strategy for its successful implementation. While the study was limited to South African schools, the results have global…

  4. Peer-Assisted Learning Programme: Supporting Students in High-Risk Subjects at the Mechanical Engineering Department at Walter Sisulu University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala Qonda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the students who enroll at the Walter Sisulu University (WSU in South Africa are not equipped with the necessary academic/learning skills to cope with the university environment, especially in Mechanical Engineering. The Department of Higher Education and Training (2013, p. 17, further states that “students’ support is crucial to ensure that students adapt to the demands of college life and that they can meet the demands of college programmes”. Particularly in South Africa, the school environment might also contribute to poor student performance as a result of insufficient student support, and a lack of facilities and resources. In order to address this gap, a Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL programme was implemented to provide support targeting high-risk subjects for at-risk students in Mechanical Engineering at WSU. The programme therefore is pro-active and student-driven in that senior students assist junior students with their academic work and learning processes. The programme is designed to encourage collaborative and cooperative learning approaches during group sessions and active student engagement to support student learning (Laal & Laal, 2012. The programme requires substantial resources and time commitments. It is important from an operational, learning, and student perspective to understand in what ways the PAL programme assists students (if at all. Eliciting the experiences of students also helps the department to design interventions from a student-centred perspective using the lens of learning theories.  This qualitative case study explores the student experience of the Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL programme. Open-ended questionnaires/survey from 20 first-year students elicited their perceptions and experiences of the PAL programme. Responses were analysed thematically. Findings indicated that the students had useful insights that may contribute to revising the programme. Aspects mentioned were improved study

  5. Effects of Jigsaw Cooperative Learning and Animation Techniques on Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding and Their Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacop, Ataman; Doymus, Kemal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of jigsaw cooperative learning and computer animation techniques on academic achievements of first year university students attending classes in which the unit of chemical bonding is taught within the general chemistry course and these students' learning of the particulate nature of matter of this unit. The sample of this study consisted of 115 first-year science education students who attended the classes in which the unit of chemical bonding was taught in a university faculty of education during the 2009-2010 academic year. The data collection instruments used were the Test of Scientific Reasoning, the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations, the Chemical Bonding Academic Achievement Test, and the Particulate Nature of Matter Test in Chemical Bonding (CbPNMT). The study was carried out in three different groups. One of the groups was randomly assigned to the jigsaw group, the second was assigned to the animation group (AG), and the third was assigned to the control group, in which the traditional teaching method was applied. The data obtained with the instruments were evaluated using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and MANCOVA. The results indicate that the teaching of chemical bonding via the animation and jigsaw techniques was more effective than the traditional teaching method in increasing academic achievement. In addition, according to findings from the CbPNMT, the students from the AG were more successful in terms of correct understanding of the particulate nature of matter.

  6. Self-compassion matters: The relationships between perceived social support, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among LGB individuals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu-Demirtaş, Ezgi; Kemer, Gülşah; Pope, Amber L; Moe, Jeffry L

    2018-04-01

    Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001). A sample of 291 LGB individuals (67 lesbian, 128 gay, and 96 bisexual) completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale. The results of SEM for the hypothesized mediator model revealed that self-compassion mediated the relationships between perceived social support from family and significant others and subjective well-being, explaining the 77% of the variance in subjective well-being. Implications for the literature base on LGB well-being are discussed, with a focus on the cross-cultural applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. PENGEMBANGAN APLIKASI MOBILE LEARNING BERBASIS KEBUDAYAAN NASIONAL (BIMAYANA UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN MATA KULIAH AKUNTANSI KEUANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Koerniawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is developing mobile learning BIMAYANA for learning financial accounting with valid criteria. This study is a Research and Development. The development of research using a modification of the 4D model into 3D with the define (definition, design (planning, and development (development. mobile learning BIMAYANA financial accounting subject first tested the validation by media experts, subject matter experts and also questionnaire responses of college students. Retrieved scoring average 85.2% validation of subject matter experts, media expert validation 89.2%, 85.2% votes college student responses, so a decent media mobile learning BIMAYANA is used with very good category

  8. Characterization and sources of colored dissolved organic matter in a coral reef ecosystem subject to ultramafic erosion pressure (New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martias, Chloé; Tedetti, Marc; Lantoine, François; Jamet, Léocadie; Dupouy, Cécile

    2018-03-01

    The eastern lagoon of New Caledonia (NC, Southwest Pacific), listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, hosts the world's second longest double-barrier coral reef. This lagoon receives river inputs, oceanic water arrivals, and erosion pressure from ultramafic rocks, enriched in nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). The aim of this study was to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as to determine its main sources and its possible relationships (through the use of Pearson correlation coefficients, r) with biogeochemical parameters, plankton communities and trace metals in the NC eastern lagoon. Water samples were collected in March 2016 along a series of river/lagoon/open-ocean transects. The absorption coefficient at 350nm (a 350 ) revealed the influence of river inputs on the CDOM distribution. The high values of spectral slope (S 275-295 , >0.03m -1 ) and the low values of specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA 254 , CDOM in surface waters. The application of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) on excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) allowed the identification of four CDOM components: (1) one humic- and one tyrosine-like fluorophores. They had terrestrial origin, exported through rivers and undergoing photo- and bio-degradation in the lagoon. These two fluorophores were linked to manganese (Mn) in southern rivers (r=0.46-0.50, n=21, pCDOM sources in the NC eastern lagoon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptions of the use of intelligent information access systems in university level active learning activities among teachers of biomedical subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Fernando; Morales-Botello, María Luz; Rubio, Margarita; Hernando, Asunción; Muñoz, Rafael; López-Fernández, Hugo; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; de la Villa, Manuel; Maña, Manuel; Gachet, Diego; Buenaga, Manuel de

    2018-04-01

    Student participation and the use of active methodologies in classroom learning are being increasingly emphasized. The use of intelligent systems can be of great help when designing and developing these types of activities. Recently, emerging disciplines such as 'educational data mining' and 'learning analytics and knowledge' have provided clear examples of the importance of the use of artificial intelligence techniques in education. The main objective of this study was to gather expert opinions regarding the benefits of using complementary methods that are supported by intelligent systems, specifically, by intelligent information access systems, when processing texts written in natural language and the benefits of using these methods as companion tools to the learning activities that are employed by biomedical and health sciences teachers. Eleven teachers of degree courses who belonged to the Faculties of Biomedical Sciences (BS) and Health Sciences (HS) of a Spanish university in Madrid were individually interviewed. These interviews were conducted using a mixed methods questionnaire that included 66 predefined close-ended and open-ended questions. In our study, three intelligent information access systems (i.e., BioAnnote, CLEiM and MedCMap) were successfully used to evaluate the teacher's perceptions regarding the utility of these systems and their different methods in learning activities. All teachers reported using active learning methods in the classroom, most of which were computer programs that were used for initially designing and later executing learning activities. All teachers used case-based learning methods in the classroom, with a specific emphasis on case reports written in Spanish and/or English. In general, few or none of the teachers were familiar with the technical terms related to the technologies used for these activities such as "intelligent systems" or "concept/mental maps". However, they clearly realized the potential applicability of such

  10. Gender, Complexity, and Science for All: Systemizing and Its Impact on Motivation to Learn Science for Different Science Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert

    2018-01-01

    The present study is based on a large cross-cultural study, which showed that a systemizing cognition type has a high impact on motivation to learn science, while the impact of gender is only indirect thorough systemizing. The present study uses the same structural equation model as in the cross-cultural study and separately tests it for physics,…

  11. Motivation, Empowerment, and Innovation: Teachers' Beliefs about How Participating in the Edmodo Math Subject Community Shapes Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust, Torrey

    2017-01-01

    Educators around the world participate in virtual communities, social media sites, and online networks in order to gain support and ideas for improving their practice. Many researchers have explored how and why teachers participate in these online spaces; however, there is limited research on how participation might impact teaching and learning.…

  12. Learning effect of isokinetic measurements in healthy subjects, and reliability and comparability of Biodex and Lido dynamometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Søndergaard, K; Zachariassen, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the learning effect during a set of isokinetic measurements, to evaluate the reliability of the Biodex System 3 PRO dynamometer, and to compare the Biodex System 3 PRO and the Lido Active dynamometers on both extension and flexion over the elbow and the knee a...

  13. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  14. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  15. Attitudes towards mathematics as a subject and mathematics learning and instruction in a trans-disciplinary engineering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Misfeldt, Morten; Timcenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student attitudes and preferences in learning and teaching of mathematics in engineering studies that transcend the division between technical, scientific and artistic disciplines. For observing such attitudes, we have developed a model that relates the attitude towards...... by a teacher. We propose that these findings inspire reforming mathematical education for such engineering students....

  16. The use of PowerPoint presentations in the teaching of vocational subjects: The preferences of medical high school students and their relationship to learning styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Dragana P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In medical vocational high schools teachers frequently use PowerPoint presentations. The study presented in this paper has sought to identify, on the one hand, the preferences of students of medical vocational high schools regarding PowerPoint presentations in the instruction of vocational subjects, and on the other, students' dominant learning styles, and also as to establish whether the differences in preferences were based on learning styles. In this cross-sectional study, responses from 170 students of three medical high schools were obtained using the questionnaire designed by Chan and Denner. The data were processed using the methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. The values obtained for Cronbach's alpha indicate that the questionnaire was reliable. In all three schools, PowerPoint presentations are used in the teaching of most vocational subjects. According to the findings, students prefer teaching that uses PowerPoint presentations, finding it more interesting than teaching that involves teachers writing on the board. On the other hand, students' responses indicate that PowerPoint presentations don't lead to greater classroom participation. The findings show that dominant learning styles contribute to differences in student preferences for classes in which teachers use PowerPoint presentations, but also indicate the need for further research.

  17. An Experiment on How Adult Students Can Learn by Designing Engaging Learning Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2014-01-01

    worth investigating as a motivational learning strategy. As meaning can be constructed through the manipulation of materials, which facilitates reflection and new ways of thinking, the use of learning games in education is taken one step further into the building of learning games in collaborative...... enables the students to be the designers of their own learning, by allowing them to create their own digital learning games, while implementing learning goals from cross-disciplinary subject matters (Figure 1). Another focus has been to create a learning design that scaffolds the students’ own learning-game......This article presents and discusses the first iteration of a design-based research experiment focusing on how to create a motivating gamified learning design, one that facilitates a deep learning process for adult students making their own learning games. Using games for learning has attracted...

  18. Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Buhl, Mie

    into account. Our discussion of the potential for developing digital learning application from a collaborative approach is based on the visual design products, interviews and written reports, as well as shared experiences from the stakeholders in the project. Results: The project revealed three digital visual......=pdf Dunleavy, M. & Dede, C. (2014). Augmented reality teaching and learning. in. J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. Elen & M.J. Bishop (eds), The handbook og research for educational communications and technology New York: Springer http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1116077.files....../DunleavyDedeARfinal.pdf Rasmussen, H. (2015). Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design. Risk and opportunities for visual arts education in Europe. Proceedings, InSEA conferene, Lisbon, Portugal...

  19. Collaboration Between Art Teacher Students and Communication and Digital Media Students Promoting Subject Specific Didactics in Digital Visual Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Skov, Kirsten

    . Student art teachers and teacher trainers took part in the design process performed by communication students. The project took its point of the departure in the act of Danish teacher education where student teachers must be educated in the practical use of digital visual media for art practices aiming......, drawing or video. Thus, the project suggested the development of a visual learning design for achieving augmented reality (AR) experiences in urban environments and sharing them on social media. The purpose was to explore adequate approaches to work with digital media in visual arts education based...... on practices and reflective processes. The theoretical framework for our discussion of the empirical project draws on current discussions of learning designs and digital media in visual arts education (Peppler 2010, Rasmussen 2015, Buhl & Ejsing-Duun, 2015; Buhl, 2016). Methodology The choice of empirical...

  20. Investigating the Effectiveness of Case-based Learning Instruction on Students’ Understanding the Subject of Reaction Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Ünal SÜMEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of case-based learning related to reaction rate on students’ conceptual understanding and conceptual change. In this respect, a class of 11th grade students in an Anatolian High School in the center of Izmir city was chosen randomly as experimental group (n=26 and another as control group (n=22. Reaction rate unit was taught to the experimental group within case-based learning method, and to the control group through activities defined in Chemistry curriculum. Comprehension Test developed by Cakmakci (2005 was utilized as data collecting instrument. The Comprehension Test was applied simultaneously to both experimental and control groups before and after the teaching. The data collected via the Comprehension Test was analyzed in terms of both quantity and quality. As a result of the study, it was noted that there was a significant difference between the groups after the instruction in favor of the experimental group. Also, it was determined that case-based learning was more effective in promoting conceptual change and assuring higher level of conceptual understanding for students.

  1. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  2. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  3. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  4. An investigation of strategies for integrated learning experiences and instruction in the teaching of creative art subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolisa Nompula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the integrating possibilities within each creative arts subject. The objective was to optimize the limited teaching time, generally allocated to each art subject in schools, by developing a pedagogical strategy for its successful implementation. While the study was limited to South African schools, the results have global relevance and significance in the ongoing global trendsetting and discourse on arts education. In South Africa the previous National Curriculum Statement (NCS, 2002 integrated music, dance, drama and visual arts where possible, while the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS, 2011 offers two elective art subjects in the senior phase (Grades 7-9, each taught separately an hour per week during school hours and one hour per week after school, thereby attempting to extend the teaching time. This qualitative enquiry used documentary analyses, teacher interviews, and student group discussions for the collection of data. Pre-determined and emergent codes based on grounded theory showed that it is possible to integrate theory with practice within one art subject by teaching theoretical work in the context of practical work, thus optimizing the limited time allocated to arts and culture education in school timetables.

  5. Designing for Motivation: Design-Considerations for Spaced-Repetition-Based Learning Games on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Florian; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Learning games are an ideal vessel for many kinds of learning content. Playful interaction with the subject matter makes the human mind more receptive and thus learning itself more effective. Well designed games also come with an addictive game-play that makes users want to play the game over and over. This is intended in fun games but it can be…

  6. [Learning how to learn for specialist further education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, G; Lütcke, B; St Pierre, M; Hüttl, S

    2017-02-01

    The world of medicine is becoming from year to year more complex. This necessitates efficient learning processes, which incorporate the principles of adult education but with unchanged periods of further education. The subject matter must be processed, organized, visualized, networked and comprehended. The learning process should be voluntary and self-driven with the aim of learning the profession and becoming an expert in a specialist field. Learning is an individual process. Despite this, the constantly cited learning styles are nowadays more controversial. An important factor is a healthy mixture of blended learning methods, which also use new technical possibilities. These include a multitude of e‑learning options and simulations, which partly enable situative learning in a "shielded" environment. An exemplary role model of the teacher and feedback for the person in training also remain core and sustainable aspects in medical further education.

  7. Helping Your Child Learn Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1996-01-01

    By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our Nation's modern economy.

  8. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  9. What Do We Know about Mathematics Teaching and Learning of Multilingual Adults and Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Ríordáin, Máire; Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The significant role of language in mathematics teaching and learning is not a new phenomenon. Given the growth of cultural and economic migration, the increasing international focus on education for economic development and the widespread use of English as a language for learning, we have become acutely aware of the importance of language in…

  10. How Student Game Designers Design Learning into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examined how to support students in creating learning designs for specific learning goals in analogue and digital games as a means of learning. The study also explored the learning trajectories that emerged in the digital games created by the student learning-game designers....... The DBR study was developed through three iterations over two years, involving teachers and students in co-design processes. Together with the teachers, an overall learning design supported the learning process for students by inviting them to be their own learning designers as they designed digital...... learning games for specific learning goals in cross-disciplinary subject matters. The findings were that the students succeeded in developing and implementing specific learning goals in their games. The students also developed learning trajectories through the games by designing various learning...

  11. Eco-Dialogical Learning and Translanguaging in Open-Ended 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Where Place, Time, and Objects Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongping; Schmidt, Matthew; Hu, Ying; Liu, Min; Hsu, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships between design, learning, and translanguaging in a 3D collaborative virtual learning environment for adolescent learners of Chinese and English. We designed an open-ended space congruent with ecological and dialogical perspectives on second language acquisition. In such a space,…

  12. Material Matters for Learning in Virtual Networks: A Case Study of a Professional Learning Programme Hosted in a Google+ Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Aileen; Swinney, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on Actor-Network Theories (ANT) to explore how material components functioned to create gateways and barriers to a virtual learning network in the context of a professional development module in higher education. Students were practitioners engaged in family learning in different professional roles and contexts. The data…

  13. Material matters for learning in virtual networks: a case study of a professional learning programme hosted in a Google+ online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Ackland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw on Actor–Network Theories (ANT to explore how material components functioned to create gateways and barriers to a virtual learning network in the context of a professional development module in higher education. Students were practitioners engaged in family learning in different professional roles and contexts. The data comprised postings in the Google+ community, email correspondence, meeting notes, feedback submitted at the final workshop and post-module evaluation forms. Our analysis revealed a complex set of interactions, and suggests multiple ways human actors story their encounters with non-human components and the effects these have on the learning experience. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more holistic understanding of the components and dynamics of social learning networks in the virtual world and consider the implications for the design of online learning for continuous professional development (CPD.

  14. From Turnover-Oriented to Functional Soil Organic Matter Pools: a Lesson Learned from Stable Isotope Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Globally soils contain three times the amount of carbon (C) stored in the atmosphere, and 68% of this is stored in soil below 30cm. Changes to the size of the soil C stocks could significantly impact the net terrestrial-atmosphere CO2 exchange and thus either mitigate or increase concentrations of CO2. Yet we are currently unable to conduct reliable predictions of the direction and magnitude of soil C stock changes, since current soil C models fail to accurately capture the current understanding of how soil organic matter (SOM) forms and persists, and (2) the vertical movement and deep soil processing of SOM. We propose shifting soil C modelling approaches from a turnover-oriented approach to a more functional-oriented approach, where measurable SOM pools with specific function in soils, with respect to their physical structure (soluble versus particulate), microbial accessibility (free versus mineral or aggregate protection) and ability to transfer along the soil profile (through water flow or by mass transport) are represented. We will present experimental evidence from a number of studies conducted in the past few years using stable isotope tracing in support of incorporating a dissolved organic matter (DOM)-microbial path and a physical transfer of particulate organic matter path in SOM models. We will also show how, through the DOM-microbial path, fresh plant inputs quickly result in the formation of new mineral-associated organic matter.

  15. Subjective safety and self-confidence in prehospital trauma care and learning progress after trauma-courses: part of the prospective longitudinal mixed-methods EPPTC-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häske, David; Beckers, Stefan K; Hofmann, Marzellus; Lefering, Rolf; Grützner, Paul A; Stöckle, Ulrich; Papathanassiou, Vassilios; Münzberg, Matthias

    2017-08-14

    Prehospital trauma care is stressful and requires multi-professional teamwork. A decrease in the number of accident victims ultimately affects the routine and skills and underlines the importance of effective training. Standardized courses, like PHTLS, are established for health care professionals to improve the prehospital care of trauma patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the subjective safety in prehospital trauma care and learning progress by paramedics in a longitudinal analysis. This was a prospective intervention trial and part of the mixed-method longitudinal EPPTC-trial, evaluating subjective and objective changes among participants and real patient care as a result of PHTLS courses. Participants were evaluated with pre/post questionnaires as well as one year after the course. We included 236 datasets. In the pre/post comparison, an increased performance could be observed in nearly all cases. The result shows that the expectations of the participants of the course were fully met even after one year (p = 0.002). The subjective safety in trauma care is significantly better even one year after the course (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that (ABCDE)-structure is decisive (p = 0.036) as well as safety in rare and common skills (both p < 0.001). Most skills are also rated better after one year. Knowledge and specific safety are assessed as worse after one year. The courses meet the expectations of the participants and increase the subjective safety in the prehospital care of trauma patients. ABCDE-structure and safety in skills are crucial. In the short term, both safety in skills and knowledge can be increased, but the courses do not have the power to maintain knowledge and specific subjective safety issues over a year. German Clinical Trials Register, ID DRKS00004713 , registered 14. February 2014.

  16. cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in hippocampus mediates cyclooxygenase 2-induced learning/memory deficits of rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Kuang, Shengnan; Li, Huan; Ran, Dongzhi; Yang, Junqing

    2017-05-30

    To investigate the mechanism of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in learning and memory impairments in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), meloxicam was used intragastrically to inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase 2. Moreover, cyclooxygenase 2 over-expressing or RNA interfere lentivirus was injected intraventricularly to increase or decrease the enzyme's expression, respectively. The body weights and sucrose consumption were used to analyze depressive behaviors, while the Morris water maze and step-down-type passive avoidance tests were carried out to evaluate the learning-memory functions. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured to estimate inflammation and the contents of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were used to measure the levels of the second messenger. Changes in cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA levels were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the expression of cyclooxygenase 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prostaglandins receptor 3 (EP3), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated CREB were estimated using immunohistochemical staining or western blotting. The results showed that CUMS led to significant depressive-like behaviors and learning and memory dysfunctions. Also, the cAMP levels decreased significantly, while levels of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins E2 increased significantly. The expressions of PKA, BDNF, phosphorylated CREB/CREB declined and cyclooxygenase 2 was increased. Meloxicam and cyclooxygenase 2 RNA interfere lentivirus reversed the changes caused by CUMS while cyclooxygenase 2-overexpressing lentivirus worsened these abnormalities. The findings also showed that CUMS increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression, which can cause learning and memory impairments, mainly through activating the hippocampal neuronal cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathways.

  17. Comparing the Internet Usage of Pre-service Language Teachers With Teachers of Other Subjects: Distance Learning vs. On-Campus Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Firat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers play a crucial role in helping individuals gain adequate Internet competency, which requires teachers themselves to be Internet-literate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Internet use of the distance and on-campus pre-service teachers of language and other disciplines by multiple parameters. A total of 789 teacher candidates participated in this survey. The findings show that the candidate teachers in on-campus and distance-learning programs have an average level of Internet usage adequacy and that the younger candidate teachers and those in higher classes use the Internet more frequently. Pre-service foreign language teachers have been found to have a moderate level of Internet usage frequency, adequacy and technology ownership in comparison with the other preservice teacher groups.

  18. A Spiking Neural Network Methodology and System for Learning and Comparative Analysis of EEG Data From Healthy Versus Addiction Treated Versus Addiction Not Treated Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doborjeh, Maryam Gholami; Wang, Grace Y; Kasabov, Nikola K; Kydd, Robert; Russell, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a method utilizing spiking neural networks (SNN) for learning, classification, and comparative analysis of brain data. As a case study, the method was applied to electroencephalography (EEG) data collected during a GO/NOGO cognitive task performed by untreated opiate addicts, those undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opiate dependence and a healthy control group. the method is based on an SNN architecture called NeuCube, trained on spatiotemporal EEG data. NeuCube was used to classify EEG data across subject groups and across GO versus NOGO trials, but also facilitated a deeper comparative analysis of the dynamic brain processes. This analysis results in a better understanding of human brain functioning across subject groups when performing a cognitive task. In terms of the EEG data classification, a NeuCube model obtained better results (the maximum obtained accuracy: 90.91%) when compared with traditional statistical and artificial intelligence methods (the maximum obtained accuracy: 50.55%). more importantly, new information about the effects of MMT on cognitive brain functions is revealed through the analysis of the SNN model connectivity and its dynamics. this paper presented a new method for EEG data modeling and revealed new knowledge on brain functions associated with mental activity which is different from the brain activity observed in a resting state of the same subjects.

  19. Science of learning is learning of science: why we need a dialectical approach to science education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-06-01

    Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.

  20. PCK: How Teachers Transform Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; van Driel, Jan; Hulshof, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Review of book on the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), including chapters reviewing an extensive body of research on the knowledge base for teaching, especially science, and the application of PCK to the design of elementary and secondary school science teacher-education programs. (PKP)

  1. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  2. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  3. Is there an agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists' job descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Kim, Yong-Wook; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Tae-Young; Weon, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    To determine the agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists' job descriptions. The main tasks of physical therapists were classified, and university courses related to the main tasks were also classified. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of credits for the classified courses out of the total credits of major subjects, exam items related to the classified courses out of the total number of exam items, and universities that offer courses related to the Korean physical therapist licensing examination among the surveyed universities. The proportions of credits for clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis-related courses out of the total number credits for major subjects at universities were relatively low (2.06% and 2.58%, respectively). Although the main tasks of physical therapists are related to diagnosis and evaluation, the proportion of physiotherapy intervention-related items (35%) was higher than that of examination and evaluation-related items (25%) on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination. The percentages of universities that offer physical therapy diagnosis and clinical decision making-related courses were 58.62% and 68.97%, respectively. Both the proportion of physiotherapy diagnosis and evaluation-related items on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, and the number of subjects related to clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis in the physical therapy curriculum, should be increased to ensure that the examination items and physical therapy curriculum reflect the practical tasks of physical therapists.

  4. Mobile NBM - Android medical mobile application designed to help in learning how to identify the different regions of interest in the brain's white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rola, Iskander; Zapirain, Begoña García

    2014-07-18

    One of the most critical tasks when conducting neurological studies is identifying the different regions of interest in the brain's white matter. Currently few programs or applications are available that serve as an interactive guide in this process. This is why a mobile application has been designed and developed in order to teach users how to identify the referred regions of the brain. It also enables users to share the results obtained and take an examination on the knowledge thus learnt. In order to provide direct user-user or user-developer contact, the project includes a website and a Twitter account. An application has been designed with a basic, minimalist look, which anyone can access easily in order to learn to identify a specific region in the brain's white matter. A survey has also been conducted on people who have used it, which has shown that the application is attractive both in the student (final mean satisfaction of 4.2/5) and in the professional (final mean satisfaction of 4.3/5) environment. The response obtained in the online part of the project reflects the high practical value and quality of the application, as shown by the fact that the website has seen a large number of visitors (over 1000 visitors) and the Twitter account has a high number of followers (over 280 followers). Mobile NBM is the first mobile application to be used as a guide in the process of identifying a region of interest in the brain's white matter. Although initially not many areas are available in the application, new ones can be added as required by users in their respective studies. Apart from the application itself, the online resources provided (website and Twitter account) significantly enhance users' experience.

  5. Developing Students' Referencing Skills: A Matter of Plagiarism, Punishment and Morality or of Learning to Write Critically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Just as plagiarism is viewed poorly in the academic community, so is plagiarism viewed poorly in student writing, with a range of sanctions and penalties applying for not displaying academic integrity. Yet learning to cite effectively to progress one's argument, position or understandings is a skill that takes time to develop and hone. This paper…

  6. Does the Curriculum Matter in Peer Mentoring? From Mentee to Mentor in Problem-Based Learning: A Unique Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Peer mentoring has been used for many years by the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine to integrate new students into the academic and social culture of the institution. In 2001, an unusual situation arose. A problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was introduced and the first cohort in this programme was mentored by senior traditional curriculum…

  7. It's All a Matter of Perspective: Viewing First-Person Video Modeling Examples Promotes Learning of an Assembly Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, Tamara; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Mayer, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner's (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed a video showing how to assemble an 8-component…

  8. Cognitive deficits are a matter of emotional context: inflexible strategy use mediates context-specific learning impairments in OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the interplay between cognitive deficits and emotional context in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP). Specifically, this study examines whether the inflexible use of efficient learning strategies in an emotional context underlies impairments in probabilistic classification learning (PCL) in OCD, and whether PCL impairments are specific to OCD. Twenty-three participants with OCD, 30 participants with SP and 30 healthy controls completed a neutral and an OCD-specific PCL task. OCD participants failed to adopt efficient learning strategies and showed fewer beneficial strategy switches than controls only in an OCD-specific context, but not in a neutral context. Additionally, OCD participants did not show any explicit memory impairments. Number of beneficial strategy switches in the OCD-specific task mediated the difference in PCL performance between OCD and control participants. Individuals with SP were impaired in both PCL tasks. In contrast to neuropsychological models postulating general cognitive impairments in OCD, the present findings suggest that it is the interaction between cognition and emotion that is impaired in OCD. Specifically, activated disorder-specific fears may impair the flexible adoption of efficient learning strategies and compromise otherwise unimpaired PCL. Impairments in PCL are not specific to OCD.

  9. Students’ Perception of the Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Science Subjects in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegede Samuel Akingbade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated students’ perception of the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the teaching and learning of science subjects in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of all secondary school students in public and private secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample was 400 students selected from both public and private secondary schools in the state using the multi-stage sampling. The only instrument used in collecting relevant data for the study was a questionnaire consisting of two sections A and B. Section A consisted of personal biodata of the respondents, while section B consisted of 22 items which elicited information on the application of ICT in schools for learning science. Four research questions were raised and two hypotheses tested. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts and percentages as well as inferential statistics of t-test. The results showed that apart from the computer, which is available in most schools, the other identified ICT equipment were not available. The findings also showed that there is no significant difference in the availability of ICT facilities in public and private secondary schools, and that students in private schools are more exposed to ICT than their counterparts in public schools.

  10. Teachers’ Learning Design Practice for Students as Learning Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2018-01-01

    that simultaneously scaffold students’ subject-related inquiry, agency, reflection and learning. Research studies have documented that this approach constitutes arenas that support students’ deep learning and mastery of both transdisciplinary and subject matter, along with their acquisition of digital literacy and 21......This paper contributes with elements of an emerging learning design methodology. The paper takes as its starting point the theory of Students as Learning Designers, which was developed by Sørensen and Levinsen and based on more than a decade of research-and-development projects in Danish primary...... schools (first to 10th grade). The research focussed on information and communication technology (ICT) within the Scandinavian tradition of Problem Oriented Project Pedagogy (POPP), Problem Based Learning (PBL) and students’ production. In recent years, the projects that provide the grounding...

  11. Using Dark Matter Haloes to Learn about Cosmic Acceleration: A New Proposal for a Universal Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2011-01-01

    Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit or overpredict the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy or a modified gravity implement a modified Press-Schechter formalism, which relates the linear overdensities to the abundance of dark matter haloes at the same time. We critically examine the universality of the Press-Schechter formalism for different cosmologies, and show that the halo abundance is best correlated with spherical linear overdensity at 94% of collapse (or observation) time. We then extend this argument to ellipsoidal collapse (which decreases the fractional time of best correlation for small haloes), and show that our results agree with deviations from modified Press-Schechter formalism seen in simulated mass functions. This provides a novel universal prescription to measure linear density evolution, based on current and future observations of cluster (or dark matter) halo mass function. In particular, even observations of cluster abundance in a single epoch will constrain the entire history of linear growth of cosmological of perturbations.

  12. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  13. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  14. Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

  15. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Jancke L; Brugger E; Brummer M; Scherrer S; Alahmadi N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. METHODS: 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The con...

  16. Learning and Motivational Processes When Students Design Curriculum‐Based Digital Learning Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2016-01-01

    This design‐based research (DBR) project has developed an overall gamified learning design (big Game) to facilitate the learning process for adult students by inviting them to be their own learning designers through designing digital learning games (small games) in cross‐disciplinary subject...... matters. The DBR project has investigated and experimented with which elements, methods, and processes are important when aiming at creating a cognitive complex (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001) and motivating learning process within a reusable game‐based learning design. This project took place in a co......, or programming provide a rich context for learning, since the construction of artefacts, in this case learning games, enables reflection and new ways of thinking. The students learned from reflection and interaction with the tools alone as well as in collaboration with peers. After analysing the students...

  17. Learning and Motivational Processes When Students Design Curriculum-Based Digital Learning Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research (DBR) project has developed an overall gamified learning design (big Game) to facilitate the learning process for adult students by inviting them to be their own learning designers through designing digital learning games (small games) in cross-disciplinary subject...... matters. The DBR project has investigated and experimented with which elements, methods, and processes are important when aiming at creating a cognitive complex (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001) and motivating learning process within a reusable game-based learning design. This project took place in a co......, or programming provide a rich context for learning, since the construction of artefacts, in this case learning games, enables reflection and new ways of thinking. The students learned from reflection and interaction with the tools alone as well as in collaboration with peers. After analysing the students...

  18. Professional Identitites, Subjectivity, and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen fremlægger en livshistorisk tilgang til forskning i professionsidentitet og professionelles læring. På baggrund af empiriske studier i en række professioner opstilles en søgemodel for samspillet mellem arbejde, teorifelt og de professionelles subjektive engagement. Der præsenteres analys......Artiklen fremlægger en livshistorisk tilgang til forskning i professionsidentitet og professionelles læring. På baggrund af empiriske studier i en række professioner opstilles en søgemodel for samspillet mellem arbejde, teorifelt og de professionelles subjektive engagement. Der...

  19. The Design and Applied of Learning Management System via Social Media on Internet: Case Study of Operating System for Business Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Pimploi Tirastittam; Sawanath Treesathon; Amornrath Ongkawat

    2015-01-01

    Learning Management System (LMS) is the system which uses to manage the learning in order to grouping the content and learning activity between the lecturer and learner including online examination and evaluation. Nowadays, it is the borderless learning era so the learning activities can be accessed from everywhere in the world and also anytime via the information technology and media. The learner can easily access to the knowledge so the different in time and distance is...

  20. Implementation of project based learning on the Prakerin subject of vocational high school students of the building engineering to enhance employment skill readiness of graduates in the construction services field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugandi, Machmud

    2017-09-01

    Implementation of the Prakerin subject in the field of Building Engineering study program in vocational high school (VHS) are facing many issues associated to non-compliance unit of work in the industry and the expected competencies in learning at school. Project Based Learning (PBL) is an appropriate model learning used for Prakerin subject to increase student competence as the extension of the Prakerin implementation in the construction industry services. Assignments based on the selected project during their practical industry work were given to be completed by student. VHS students in particular field of Building Engineering study program who has been completed Prakerin subject will have a better job readiness, and therefore they will have an understanding on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes and good vision on the construction project in accordance with their experience during Prakerin work in the industry.

  1. Evaluation of a deep learning approach for the segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kuijf, Hugo J; Mendrik, Adriënne M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Pluim, Josien P W; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) in MRI of older patients is widely described in the literature. Although brain abnormalities and motion artefacts are common in this age group, most segmentation methods are not evaluated in a setting that includes these items. In the present study, our tissue segmentation method for brain MRI was extended and evaluated for additional WMH segmentation. Furthermore, our method was evaluated in two large cohorts with a realistic variation in brain abnormalities and motion artefacts. The method uses a multi-scale convolutional neural network with a T 1 -weighted image, a T 2 -weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image and a T 1 -weighted inversion recovery (IR) image as input. The method automatically segments white matter (WM), cortical grey matter (cGM), basal ganglia and thalami (BGT), cerebellum (CB), brain stem (BS), lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (lvCSF), peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (pCSF), and WMH. Our method was evaluated quantitatively with images publicly available from the MRBrainS13 challenge ( n  = 20), quantitatively and qualitatively in relatively healthy older subjects ( n  = 96), and qualitatively in patients from a memory clinic ( n  = 110). The method can accurately segment WMH (Overall Dice coefficient in the MRBrainS13 data of 0.67) without compromising performance for tissue segmentations (Overall Dice coefficients in the MRBrainS13 data of 0.87 for WM, 0.85 for cGM, 0.82 for BGT, 0.93 for CB, 0.92 for BS, 0.93 for lvCSF, 0.76 for pCSF). Furthermore, the automatic WMH volumes showed a high correlation with manual WMH volumes (Spearman's ρ  = 0.83 for relatively healthy older subjects). In both cohorts, our method produced reliable segmentations (as determined by a human observer) in most images (relatively healthy/memory clinic: tissues 88%/77% reliable, WMH 85%/84% reliable) despite various degrees of

  2. Study of a multitrophical integrated aquatic system for the teaching-learning of the subjects physics, chemistry and biology in the bachelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Eva; Espinosa, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    In Mexico exist due to the lack of water in the City, which is where the College of Sciences and Humanities Orient (at UNAM) is located. This is because a point of view from the Chemical, Physics and Biology subjects is important to find learning strategies that motivate students to seek solutions to problems such as these. As Science Mentors, students were asked to propose water treatment from the homes they live in. From these investigations the students concluded that it was necessary to study in depth the wetlands like Multi-trophic Aquatic System that allow the treatment of gray water, so that a prototype of Micro-scale Multitrophic Aquatic System was set up in the laboratory, where the pH was measured , The concentration of oxygen, phosphates, from a Chemical perspective. As for the subject of Biology, we worked on the search for mycorrhizal fungi associated with the growth of plants for the purification of water. In physics we worked the sedimentation system. Artificial wetlands are man-made zones in which, in a controlled manner, mechanisms for the removal of contaminants present in wastewater, occurring in natural wetlands through physical, biological and chemical processes, are constructed mechanically and Is waterproofed to prevent losses of water to the subsoil, the use of substrates different from the original land for rooting the plants and their selection that will colonize the wetland benefit the recovery of water. The present project aims to structure an Artificial Wetland to carry out didactic strategies, activities with students, as well as work on research projects in the sciences of Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Through the application of chemical, biological and physical concepts and processes, so that students of the different semesters of the College of Sciences and Humanities Plantel Oriente, appropriate the relevant knowledge in the area of experimental sciences, developing thinking skills and achieve Significant learning, which are

  3. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  4. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  5. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  6. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

  7. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  9. Research Suggestions in the Design of a Global Graduate Business Program Delivered by Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puderbaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…

  10. The Film as Visual Aided Learning Tool in Classroom Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinay Gazi, Zehra; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of the visual aided learning on pre-service teachers' co-construction of subject matter knowledge in teaching practice. The study revealed the examination of film as an active cognizing and learning tool in classroom management course within teacher education programme. Within the framework of action…

  11. A Study of Informal Learning among University of Wyoming Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabut, Stanley A.

    2013-01-01

    University of Wyoming Extension educators are often hired because of their subject matter expertise; yet, they must still develop education skills as well as learn to use various and ever-changing technologies. This research was conducted to understand what impact guided instruction on informal learning concepts and methods had on UW Extension…

  12. Paediatric musculoskeletal matters (pmm)--collaborative development of an online evidence based interactive learning tool and information resource for education in paediatric musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola; Rapley, Tim; Jandial, Sharmila; English, Christine; Davies, Barbara; Wyllie, Ruth; Foster, Helen E

    2016-01-05

    We describe the collaborative development of an evidence based, free online resource namely 'paediatric musculoskeletal matters' (pmm). This resource was developed with the aim of reaching a wide range of health professionals to increase awareness, knowledge and skills within paediatric musculoskeletal medicine, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and referral to specialist care. Engagement with stakeholder groups (primary care, paediatrics, musculoskeletal specialties and medical students) informed the essential 'core' learning outcomes to derive content of pmm. Representatives from stakeholder groups, social science and web development experts transformed the learning outcomes into a suitable framework. Target audience representatives reviewed the framework and their opinion was gathered using an online survey (n = 74) and focus groups (n = 2). Experts in paediatric musculoskeletal medicine peer reviewed the content and design. User preferences informed design with mobile, tablet and web compatible versions to facilitate access, various media and formats to engage users and the content presented in module format (i.e. Clinical assessment, Investigations and management, Limping child, Joint pain by site, Swollen joint(s) and Resources). We propose that our collaborative and evidence-based approach has ensured that pmm is user-friendly, with readily accessible, suitable content, and will help to improve access to paediatric musculoskeletal medicine education. The content is evidence-based with the design and functionality of pmm to facilitate optimal and 'real life' access to information. pmm is targeted at medical students and the primary care environment although messages are transferable to all health care professionals involved in the care of children and young people.

  13. Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Adler-Wiebe, Marija; Roschka, Sybille; Lotze, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Motor rehabilitation after brain damage relies on motor re-learning as induced by specific training. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can alter cortical excitability and thereby has a potential to enhance subsequent training-induced learning. Knowledge about any priming effects of NIBS on motor learning in healthy subjects can help to design targeted therapeutic applications in brain-damaged subjects. To examine whether complex motor learning in healthy subjects can be enhanced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to primary motor or sensory cortical areas. Eighteen young healthy subjects trained eight different arm motor tasks (arm ability training, AAT) once a day for 5 days using their left non-dominant arm. Except for day 1 (baseline), training was performed after applying an excitatory form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) to either (I) right M1 or (II) S1, or (III) sham stimulation to the right M1. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions I, II, or III. A principal component analysis of the motor behaviour data suggested eight independent motor abilities corresponding to the 8 trained tasks. AAT induced substantial motor learning across abilities with generalisation to a non-trained test of finger dexterity (Nine-Hole-Peg-Test, NHPT). Participants receiving iTBS (to either M1 or S1) showed better performance with the AAT tasks over the period of training compared to sham stimulation as well as a bigger improvement with the generalisation task (NHPT) for the trained left hand after training completion. Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities.

  14. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  15. The Role of Age and Gender in the Relationship between (Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control) and Adoption of E-Learning at Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating factors that effect on adaption e-learning among students in Jordanian universities. Two models of e-learning that are observed among adopting institutions are: E-learning as a supplement to traditional classroom model have been introduced by the respondents in this research. The paper takes a…

  16. Intervención docente y aprendizaje en asignaturas fundamentales de la Enfermería Teaching intervention and learning in fundamental subjects of Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Martha Marín Laredo

    2008-08-01

    . For such a reason, the necessity arose of evaluating the students' learning process of the subjects "Basic Elements of Nursery" and "Nursery in Public Health" that are being studied in the 2º. Semester of the career and that are fundamental in the formation of both nurses and male nurses. This way, the character that acquires the educational intervention during the process of the nursery students' learning was evaluated. The quantitative and qualitative results are constituted in reflection elements and analysis to impact in changes in the educational intervention, because it is a systematized reflection of what happens in the process of formation of the Nursery career.

  17. Perceptions of health equity and subjective social status among baccalaureate nursing students engaged in service-learning activities in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Jarvis, Sarah; Sparacino, Patricia; Kuo, Devina; Genz, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure undergraduate students' knowledge of social determinants of health, health equity, and subjective social status (SSS). A cross-sectional semi-structured survey was administered to 68 racially/ethnically diverse freshman students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program in O'ahu, Hawai'i. Students ranked the impact of 13 issues on Hawai'i residents' health and described how well the health care system addressed these issues. A 10-rung ladder was used to rank SSS; students marked an "X" on the ladder rung where they stand in society and explained what they would need to "move up or down" the ladder. The students identified three key issues that adversely impact health: substance abuse, diet/nutrition, and cancer. Sixty-nine percent of students stated that social determinants of health impact Hawai'i residents' health either "quite a bit" or "very much", while only 31% felt that the health care system adequately addressed these determinants. Students who ranked high on the ladder (rungs 6-10) cited family as the reason. The students who ranked low on the ladder (rungs 3-5) credited their position to lack of money. Students' perceptions of social determinants of health and health equity align with findings from public health studies in Hawai'i. These concepts were integrated into the 4-year nursing school curricula and findings inform future research and service-based learning activities conducted by the students. While findings presented here focus on nursing students in Hawai'i, this educational innovation could be replicated with students in other undergraduate health sciences programs.

  18. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  19. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  20. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  1. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  2. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  3. Teaching Place Value Concepts to First Grade Romanian Students: Teacher Knowledge and its Influence on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Madalina

    2011-01-01

    Researchers (Ball, 2003; Ma, 1999; Schulman, 1986) have long investigated how a teacher's subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge impact on students' learning of mathematics. In an attempt to account for the relationship between teacher knowledge and student learning, this study examined four Romanian first grade teachers' knowledge about…

  4. The Integration of Synchronous Communication Technology into Service Learning for Pre-Service Teachers' Online Tutoring of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Liao, Chen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Chen-Feng

    2011-01-01

    To well prepare pre-service teachers for their future teaching, researchers and teacher-educators have been employing information and communication technology to improve pre-service teachers' learning of subject-matter knowledge, pedagogies, classroom-management skills, and so on. This study illustrates a service-learning project we conducted to…

  5. APPLICATION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL INDEX CARD MATCH TYPE IN IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING RESULTS ON COMPOSITION AND COMPOSITION FUNCTIONS OF FUNCTIONS INVERS IN MAN 1 MATARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrir Syahrir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of student response in learning mathematics caused by passive of student in process of learning progress so that student consider mathematics subject is difficult subject to be understood. The research is Classroom Action Research (PTK using 2 cycles, then the purpose of this research is how the implementation of cooperative learning type of index card match in improving student learning outcomes on the subject matter of composition function and inverse function in MAN 1 Mataram. While the results of the analysis in the study showed that there is in cycle I obtained classical completeness 78.79% with the average score of student learning outcomes 69.78 and the average value of student learning responses with the category Enough, then in cycle II shows that classical thoroughness 87 , 89% with mean score of student learning result 78,94 and average value of student learning response with good category. So it can be concluded that the implementation of Model Cooperative Learning Type Index Card Match can improve student learning outcomes on the subject matter of composition function and inverse function.

  6. The MOBO City: A Mobile Game Package for Technical Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Faranak Fotouhi-Ghazvini; Rae Earnshaw; David Robison; Peter Excell

    2009-01-01

    In this research we produced a mobile language learning game that is designed within a technical context. After conceptual analysis of the subject matter i.e. computer’s motherboard, the game was designed. The action within the game is consistent to the theme. There is a story, simplifying and exaggerating real life. Elements of control, feedback and sense of danger are incorporated into our game. By producing an engaging learning experience, vocabularies were learned incidentally. Deliberate...

  7. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly…

  8. Stitching Circuits: Learning about Circuitry through E-Textile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Glosson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Central to our understanding of learning is the relationship between various tools and technologies and the structuring of disciplinary subject matter. One of the staples of early science education curriculum is the use of electrical circuit toolkits to engage students in broader discussions of energy. Traditionally, these concepts are introduced…

  9. Reasoning by Argumentation. Social Studies Learning Milestone 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, James F.

    This paper is concerned with the importance of argumentation in the classroom, especially in relation to the social sciences. Issues of argument and argument evaluation are considered. The paper analyzes the nature of such reasoning and indicates its importance in subject matter learning. Three situations are described in the paper in which…

  10. Students' use of Facebook for peer-to-peer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    are using Facebook groups to help each other with all kinds of school-related matters, including issues relating directly to academic subjects. Based on the findings from the study, the paper concludes that there is an educational potential of Facebook groups in supporting peer-to-peer learning between...

  11. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  12. Developing Models for Embodied Learning with Live Interactive Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Live simulations may offer a natural form of multimodal learning through embodied action, which can be engaging to a variety of learners and provide a platform for inclusion of special needs learners across the classroom. In this approach to interactive learning, the subject matter is embedded...... learning design is available that provides for interactive and embodied learning, which appeals to the segment of boys that are often difficult to motivate with ordinary uni-modal teaching methods. The paper will present preliminary results from an action research project carried out in collaboration...

  13. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  14. Learning about technology: Family vs. peer pairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Patricia; Padilla, Michael; Hertel, Barbara; Olstad, Roger

    Recently a number of institutions have begun sponsoring nondeficit science and/or technology learning experiences for parents and their middle school-aged children which are intended to be enriching rather than remedial or compensatory in purpose. Very little research documenting the effects of parental involvement in the education of older children has been reported, however.The intent of this article was to present two studies designed to determine whether middle school-aged children's attitudes and content achievement are different when they take a technology course with their parents (parent-child treatment) or with their peers (child-child treatment). The first study focused on learning about communications technology (primarily telegraphs, telephones and radios); the second study focused on microcomputers.Results indicate that parents have little affect in helping their children learn the subject matter of technology courses. Likewise, parents do not affect children's attitudes toward computers. Both results were attenuated by the fact that the students in the studies were high achievers who were interested in and motivated to learn the subject matter, regardless of treatment. Significant differences were noted for computer literacy favoring the parent-child group, however. Parents also seemed to effect children's attitudes toward the subject matter of the courses.Further research needs to be done with less appealing course content or with less motivated students to fully determine the effect of parent-child and child groupings in science and technology courses.

  15. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on Local Wisdom of Bali for Physical Education, Sport and Health Subject in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, I. K.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the

  16. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  17. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  18. General informatics teaching with B-Learning teaching model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen The Dung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning (B-learning, a combination of face-to-face teaching and E-learning-supported-teaching in an online course, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools have been studied in recent years. In addition, the use of this teaching model is effective in teaching and learning conditions in which some certain subjects are appropriate for the specific teaching context. As it has been a matter of concern of the universities in Vietnam today, deep studies related to this topic is crucial to be conducted. In this article, the process of developing online courses and organizing teaching for the General Informatics subject for first-year students at the Hue University of Education with B-learning teaching model will be presented. The combination of 60% face-to-face and 40% online learning.

  19. It Doesn't Matter, But: Examining the Impact of Ambient Learning Displays on Energy Consumption and Conservation at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study reports an intervention to initiate environmental learning and facilitate pro-environmental behaviour. The purpose was to examine the impact of ambient learning displays on energy consumption and conservation at the workplace, more specifically the evaluation of learning outcome and behaviour change. Using a quasi-experimental design,…

  20. It doesn’t matter, but: examining the impact of ambient learning displays on energy consumption and conservation at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an intervention to initiate environmental learning and facilitate pro-environmental behaviour. The purpose was to examine the impact of ambient learning displays on energy consumption and conservation at the workplace, more specifically the evaluation of learning outcome and

  1. A Study of the Subject Categorization of the MIS-related Journals in the ISI Databases Using Topical Features in the Text Content and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed and discussed that the MIS-related journals under the ISI subject category of IS&LS are simultaneously given with subject category Management, using methods of topic modeling, journal clustering and subject category prediction. In the experiment of journal clustering, all journals under subject category Management and other journals also having similar topical features can be gathered into a cluster, and “management” is their common and the most distinct topic. Because the journals belonged to this cluster are almost same to those in the MIS clusters generated by the previous studies, we considered it as the MIS cluster in this study. In the second experiment, we used the classification and regression tree (CART technique to predict assignment of subject category with that the journals in the original subject category Management and in the MIS cluster produced in this study as positive examples, respectively. The trees generated by the two tests both used the occurring probabilities of the topic “management” as the main classification rule. However, in the latter test, we did not only obtain a simpler classification tree but also had a result with less predicting errors. This means that if all journals in the MIS cluster could be given with subject category Management, the retrieval results can be more effective and complete.

  2. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  3. Student Peer Review as a Tool for Efficiently Achieving Subject-Specific and Generic Learning Outcomes: Examples in Botany at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Sofija Pekic

    2007-01-01

    Several teachers at the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Belgrade recognised the need to improve teaching methods in order to actively involve students in the teaching process, help them learn more effectively, and reduce the low exam pass rate. This led to a purpose-designed course on improving academic skills, after which the author…

  4. Peer-Assisted Learning Programme: Supporting Students in High-Risk Subjects at the Mechanical Engineering Department at Walter Sisulu University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makola, Qonda

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the students who enroll at the Walter Sisulu University (WSU) in South Africa are not equipped with the necessary academic/learning skills to cope with the university environment, especially in Mechanical Engineering. The Department of Higher Education and Training (2013, p. 17), further states that "students' support is…

  5. Bioinformatics Approach Based Research of Profile Protein Carbonic Anhydrase II Analysis as a Potential Candidate Cause Autism for The Variation of Learning Subjects Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka A. F. Ningrum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the needs of learning variations on Biotechnology courses using bioinformatics approaches. One example of applied use of bioinformatics in biotechnology course is the analysis of protein profiles carbonic anhydrase II as a potential cause of autism candidate. This research is a qualitative descriptive study consisted of two phases. The first phase of the data obtained from observations of learning, student questionnaires, and questionnaires lecturer. Results from the first phase, namely the need for variations learning in Biotechnology course using bioinformatics. Collecting data on the second stage uses three webserver to predict the target protein and scientific articles. Visualization of proteins using PyMOL software. 3 based webserver which is used, the candidate of target proteins associated with autism is carbonic anhydrase II. The survey results revealed that the protein carbonic anhydrase II as a potential candidate for the cause of autism classified metaloenzim are able to bind with heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in autistic patients high that affect metabolism. This prediction of protein candidate cause autism is applied use to solve the problem in society, so that can achieve the learning outcome in biotechnology course.

  6. Promoting Self-Directed Learning in Developing or Poorly Defined Subject Areas: A Problem-Based Course in Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.

    A new problem-based course in molecular biology, genetics, and cancer for first-year veterinary students was developed at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University (New York). The course was developed out of a desire to foster student-centered and lifelong learning and to integrate basic and clinical science knowledge despite a lack…

  7. The Role of Cooperative Learning Type Team Assisted Individualization to Improve the Students' Mathematics Communication Ability in the Subject of Probability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinungki, Georgina Maria

    2015-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematics can not be separated from its role in all aspects of life. Communicating ideas by using mathematics language is even more practical, systematic, and efficient. In order to overcome the difficulties of students who have insufficient understanding of mathematics material, good communications should be built in…

  8. Perspectives on learning through research on critical issues-based science center exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia G.

    2004-07-01

    Recently, science centers have created issues-based exhibitions as a way of communicating socioscientific subject matter to the public. Research in the last decade has investigated how critical issues-based installations promote more robust views of science, while creating effective learning environments for teaching and learning about science. The focus of this paper is to explore research conducted over a 10-year period that informs our understanding of the nature of learning through these experiences. Two specific exhibitions - Mine Games and A Question of Truth - provide the context for discussing this research. Findings suggest that critical issues-based installations challenge visitors in different ways - intellectually and emotionally. They provide experiences beyond usual phenomenon-based exhibitions and carry the potential to enhance learning by personalizing subject matter, evoking emotion, stimulating dialogue and debate, and promoting reflexivity. Critical issues-based exhibitions serve as excellent environments in which to explore the nature of learning in these nonschool settings.

  9. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  10. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  11. Enhancing Study Motivation and Efficacy among First-year Students Using Minute Papers in the Interdisciplinary Subject of Yakugaku Nyumon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kouya; Ikeda, Koji; Ueda, Kumiko; Habu, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Norihiko; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Wada, Akimori; Koyama, Junko; Kodama, Noriko; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Active learning in higher education is important for learning efficacy and motivation. Accordingly, lectures that integrate strategies toward active learning, such as minute papers, debates, and collaborative learning, have become widely adopted. Minute papers facilitate communication among both teachers and students, and can be used as a tool for reviewing lectures. In the present study, we examined the effect of using minute papers on learning efficacy and motivation. To enhance the curriculum of the interdisciplinary course Yakugaku Nyumon, which consists of an omnibus lecture series and problem-based learning, minute papers with exercises were provided to applicants. In a follow-up questionnaire, students who used minute papers (S-USE) responded that they had a better understanding of the relationships, ranging from basic to clinical subject matter, than students who did not use such papers (S-NON). Using the Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS) model questionnaire to measure study motivation, S-USE scored higher for some questionnaires than S-NON. This finding indicates that minute papers promoted learning motivation among students taking the Yakugaku Nyumon course. In regular examinations, the average score of S-USE was also statistically higher than that of S-NON. These results demonstrate that minute papers possibly encouraged students to actively review the lectures, thereby increasing both learning efficacy and motivation. This study shows that through promoting active, self-learning, minute papers are suitable for improving curricular strategies in subjects that rely on passive learning methods.

  12. Reflexões sobre a subjetividade na gestão a partir do paradigma da organização que aprende Reflections about subjectivity in administration from learning organization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Uribe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estabelece correlações entre subjetividade e gestão organizacional a partir do paradigma da organização que aprende, de Peter Senge. Os principais eixos analíticos do mesmo são o conceito de aprendizagem organizacional, como processo que articula a aprendizagem individual e social, através da comunicação, e o conceito de liderança, visto como capacidade social de moldar o futuro que depende da disseminação de qualidades e atitudes que dependem de características de natureza individual ou subjetiva.Correlations were established between subjectivity and organizational administration from Peter Senge's learning organization model. Their principal analytical issues comes from organization learning concept that articulates individual and social learning by communication and from the leadership concept considered as a social capacity to model the future dependent on attitudes and skills of individual or subjective nature.

  13. The Effect of Concept Mapping on the Learning Levels of Students in Taking the Course of "Nursing Care of Patients With Glandular Diseases Subject" in Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghakhani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Studies show that traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, do not lead to in-depth learning. Concept maps have been used for a long time by researchers and teachers to facilitate learning. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of concept mapping on the learning levels of students in nursing care of patients with glandular diseases subject in Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design, 28 nursing students were selected and divided into two groups: the experimental and the control groups. After administration of pre-test, the students in the experimental group participated in classes on designing concept maps. Next, lessons on glands and nursing were presented to the students in the experimental and control groups through concept maps and lectures, respectively. At the end of the semester, the learning levels of the students in both groups were evaluated by the post-test. Results The means of the scores of the students as determined by results of the pre-test revealed insignificant statistical difference between the two groups. However, the learning level of the students in the experimental group was significantly higher (P < 0.05. As a metacognitive intervention, concept mapping can contribute to in-depth learning of nursing students. Conclusions According to the findings, it is recommended that concept mapping should be used for teaching and evaluation. Further studies are needed to compare the effect of concept mapping with those of other metacognition approaches on different types of learners.

  14. Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jaatinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1 make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2 point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125 during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353. The key findings were that a for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method

  15. "My favourite subject is maths. For some reason no-one really agrees with me": student perspectives of mathematics teaching and learning in the upper primary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The levels of engagement in mathematics experienced by students during the middle years of schooling (Years 5 to 8 in New South Wales) has been of concern in Australia for some years. Lowered engagement in school has been attributed to factors such as inappropriate teaching strategies, curricula that is unchallenging and irrelevant, and cultural and technological conditions that continue to evolve (Sullivan et al. Australian Journal of Education 53(2):176-191, 2009). There is currently a gap in this field of research in terms of a lack of longitudinal studies conducted in an Australian context that feature students' voices and their perceptions of mathematics teaching and learning during the middle years. As part of a qualitative longitudinal case study spanning 3 school years, 20 students in their final year of primary school (aged between 11 and 12 years) were asked to provide their views on mathematics teaching and learning. The aim of the study was to explore the students' perspectives of mathematics teaching and learning to discover pedagogies that engage the students. During focus group discussions and individual interviews the students discussed qualities of a "good" mathematics teacher and aspects of "good" lessons. These were found to resonate well with current Australian quality teaching frameworks. The findings of this study indicate that students in the middle years are critically aware of pedagogies that lead to engagement in mathematics, and existing standards and frameworks should be used as a starting point for quality teaching of mathematics.

  16. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  17. Learning within a product development working practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bang Mathiasen, John

    2012-01-01

    The subject matter chosen for this PhD, learning within a Product Development (PD) working practice, might give rise to wonder given that I have a theoretical education within supply chain management, achieved practical experience as senior supply chain manager and finally, conducted a great many lectures dealing with supply chain management. Offhand, it may seem an odd choice, but my practical experience, briefly illustrated in the below, triggered the decision to study learni...

  18. Why Geography Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to learn geography, yet most Americans leave school functionally illiterate in geography. Geography is fundamental to student maturation, the process of true education, and it is a springboard to every other science and humanities subject. Knowledge of maps and geographical information is crucial to the examination of economic,…

  19. What Influences Chinese Adolescents’ Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents’ attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents’ online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying. PMID:28458649

  20. What Influences Chinese Adolescents' Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents' attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents' online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying.

  1. Potholes and obstacles on the learning path. An experimental analysis of a GI-curriculum using GI-activities as teaching subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, F.I.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a small survey was held among teaching staff of the Master of Geo-information curriculum at Wageningen University. The objective was to find out if an overview of entry and exit mastery levels per teaching subject would provide a basis for judging the quality of the curriculum. Findings

  2. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  3. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  4. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  5. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  7. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  8. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. "It Didn't Seem Like Race Mattered": Exploring the Implications of Service-learning Pedagogy for Reproducing or Challenging Color-Blind Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sarah; Paul, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    Prior research measuring service-learning program successes reveals the approach can positively affect students' attitudes toward community service, can increase students' motivation to learn and ability to internalize class material, and can change their view of social issues. Studies also suggest that college students sometimes enter and leave a…

  10. Fostering Self-Reflection and Meaningful Learning: Earth Science Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, Julie A.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the analysis of teachers’ journal reflections during an inquiry-based professional development program. As a part of their learning experience, participants reflected on what they learned and how they learned. Progress of subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge was assessed though surveys and pre- and posttests. We found that teachers have difficulties reflecting on their learning and posing meaningful questions. The teachers who could describe how they reasoned from evidence to understand a concept had the highest learning gains. In contrast those teachers who seldom or never described learning a concept by reasoning from evidence showed the smallest learning gains. This analysis suggests that learning to reflect on one’s learning should be an integral part of teachers’ professional development experiences.

  11. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  12. E-Learning and Further Education: How do Individual Learning Paths support Personal Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Haack

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The MOPEM project includes two fixed scenarios that have been defined to convey the idea of "learning paths". Our aim in this paper is to demonstrate the contexts and conditions for flexible learning paths that can be tailored to meet individual needs. The concept of this kind of specialised path is to enable learners to individualise the learning process and to adjust it to their personal needs. We will outline the background and pro- vide examples to explain the concept of learning stations which we use in our four courses: Online Marketing, CRM Systems, Business Communications and Event Marketing. This idea of "freely" combining subject matter naturally leads to the ques- tion of multi-applicability for the learning blocks in various educational contexts. The answers to this question are interest- ing not only in terms of the feasibility of learning paths from a content and didactic point of view, but also with regard to the economic viability of E-Learning or Blended Learning Systems, which ultimately require technical implementation. In addition we will present some first thoughts on the design of a prototype "Content Pool". It would, however, only make sense to develop and implement this within the scope of a follow-up project.

  13. Among Paulas, Martas, Pedros, Anas... in order to understand the complex subjects/knowledge relations in the context of historical learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Eloisa Caimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We comprehend the learning room as a space where teachers and students knowledge cross it other, permeated by the idiosyncrasies from the society that surrounds the school. This study aims know the pedagogical practice of two teachers in the history teaching for the formers years of the fundamental school, to comprehend as the work that they develop interfere in the student’s historical knowledge construction. The study of case method of survey had the contribution of the teachers of two municipal schools from Londrina. The data, collected through the observation inside the learning room and semi structured interviews with the teachers, were analyzed from the theoretical assumptions announced by Isabel Barca, Hilary Cooper and Keity Barton. We concluded that there are similarities and differences on the teacher’s practice and the students behavior in both classrooms. From a general view, the work with the history is based, nearly exclusively, in the didactical book reading and in the demand to the students retain the information from it. There’s a silence in front of the questions raised by the students about the content and the mechanisms that permit the students to comprehend that the past can have many interpretations are inexistent.

  14. The experiment of cooperative learning model type team assisted individualization (TAI) on three-dimensional space subject viewed from spatial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manapa, I. Y. H.; Budiyono; Subanti, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of TAI or direct learning (DL) on student’s mathematics achievement viewed from spatial intelligence. This research was quasi experiment. The population was 10th grade senior high school students in Alor Regency on academic year of 2015/2016 chosen by stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected through achievement and spatial intelligence test. The data were analyzed by two ways, ANOVA with unequal cell and scheffe test. This research showed that student’s mathematics achievement used in TAI had better results than DL models one. In spatial intelligence category, student’s mathematics achievement with high spatial intelligence has better result than the other spatial intelligence category and students with high spatial intelligence have better results than those with middle spatial intelligence category. At TAI, student’s mathematics achievement with high spatial intelligence has better result than those with the other spatial intelligence category and students with middle spatial intelligence have better results than students with low spatial intelligence. In DL model, student’s mathematics achievement with high and middle spatial intelligence has better result than those with low spatial intelligence, but students with high spatial intelligence and middle spatial intelligence have no significant difference. In each category of spatial intelligence and learning model, mathematics achievement has no significant difference.

  15. Matters of Cost: Part I. Jones Learns about Balance Sheets: Part II. A Look at Budgetary Control: Part III. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…

  16. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  17. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  18. Learning to be a doctor while learning anatomy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results from a longitudinal study following a cohort of medical students. Semistructured interviews are conducted every year, in which the students tell about their experiences learning medicine, their daily life, and their social activities in relation to university. The aim...... of the study is to analyze how medical students develop their professional competencies, values, and attitudes. This article focuses on the medical student's professional development in relation to the process of studying and learning anatomy. We analyze interviews conducted while the students...... are in their third and fifth semester. Anatomy plays a significant role in the medical student's educational process, on both a cognitive and emotional level. It seems that students in learning the subject matter adapt to fundamental values in the medical profession and are thus transformed into real medical...

  19. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  20. The search for dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nigel; Spooner, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Experiments housed deep underground are searching for new particles that could simultaneously solve one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics and reveal what lies beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Physicists are very particular about balancing budgets. Energy, charge and momentum all have to be conserved and often money as well. Astronomers were therefore surprised and disturbed to learn in the 1930s that our own Milky Way galaxy behaved as if it contained more matter than could be seen with telescopes. This puzzling non-luminous matter became known as ''dark matter'' and we now know that over 90% of the matter in the entire universe is dark. In later decades the search for this dark matter shifted from the heavens to the Earth. In fact, the search for dark matter went underground. Today there are experiments searching for dark matter hundreds and thousands of metres below ground in mines, road tunnels and other subterranean locations. These experiments are becoming more sensitive every year and are beginning to test various new models and theories in particle physics and cosmology. (UK)

  1. Nuclear interactions and hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, Mihai; Pop, Amalia; Stoicea, Gabriel; Berceanu, Ionela; Moisa, Dorin; Petris, Mariana; Simion, Victor; Aiftimiei, Cristina; Cruceru, Ilie; Ciobanu, Mircea; Catanescu, Vasile; Caragheorgheopol; Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    The new generation of heavy ion accelerators and complex experimental devices, developed in the last two decades, give access to new information concerning the dynamics of nuclear collisions and allow to obtain and study in the laboratory the nuclear matter under extreme conditions of density and temperature. Of special interest is the intermediate energy region where the reactions are dominated by the competition between the mean field and nucleon-nucleon interaction. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reaction studies are probed at different instants of a nuclear collision. One can learn about the transport properties of nuclear matter in pure nucleonic regime and understand the modification of the nucleon-nucleon cross section due to various in-medium effects: density effects, effective mass, quantum effects, three-body interactions. With increasing energy, fast particle emission associated with direct nucleon-nucleon collisions in the first steps of the reaction come into play too. At higher energy, flow measurements are crucial tests of the influence of medium effects by probing the elastic part of the nucleon-nucleon collisions. On the other side, at higher incident energies, the characteristics of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) can be studied if local thermal and chemical equilibrium turns out to be established. Understanding of the properties of the nuclear matter in extreme conditions is a fundamental goal. The EoS is also an essential ingredient in the description of the massive stars leading to supernova explosion and neutron star formation. Experimental studies of such aspects needs experimental devices of high complexity which can detect and identify event by event all products coming out from heavy ion interactions at intermediate, relativistic and ultra-relativistic energies, having as complete as possible information on their mass, charge, velocity vector. CHIMERA and FOPI are such devices for intermediate and relativistic energy, respectively. Our

  2. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and the…

  3. An Integrative Experiential Learning Project in the Undergraduate Branding Course: Creating a Marketing Department Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Georgiana; Corrigan, Hope Bober

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a selective approach to curriculum integration that consists of linking the subject matter of a new course with knowledge and skills acquired in two or more completed courses to create a deeper and richer learning experience. Benefits and challenges of the selective approach and an example of implementing an integrative…

  4. Four Social Neuroscience On-Going Requisites for Effective Collaborative Learning and the Altruistic Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Understandings from the field of social neuroscience can help educators cultivate collaborative students who get excited about learning from one another. To facilitate a collaborative atmosphere, educators first need to be able to show concern for their students beyond the subject matter. They also can help students understand how being social…

  5. Learning Movement Culture: Mapping the Landscape between Physical Education and School Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Movement Culture as an approach to support teachers in exploring the integration of Sport as a medium for learning within Physical Education. By avoiding the need to draw clearly defined lines between Physical Education and Sport, Movement Culture embraces both. It acknowledges the need for subject matter in Physical…

  6. Effects of tutor-related behaviours on the process of problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the behavioural effects of tutors in terms of subject-matter expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence on students' learning process and on their final achievement. The extent of students' learning at each PBL phase was estimated by tracking the number of relevant concepts recalled at the end of each learning phase, while student achievement was based on students' ability to describe and elaborate upon the relationship between relevant concepts learned. By using Analysis of Covariance, social congruence of the tutor was found to have a significant influence on learning in each PBL phase while all of the tutor-related behaviours had a significant impact on student achievement. The results suggest that the ability of tutors to communicate informally with students and hence create a less threatening learning environment that promotes a free flow exchange of ideas, has a greater impact on learning at each of the PBL phases as compared to tutors' subject-matter expertise and their ability to explain concepts in a way that is easily understood by students. The data presented indicates that these tutor-related behaviours are determinants of learning in a PBL curriculum, with social congruence having a greater influence on learning in the different PBL phases.

  7. Lessons Learned in Evaluating a Multisite, Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategy: Design and Challenges of the Evaluation of Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Taylor, Bruce G; Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Valle, Linda Anne; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the multisite, longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design of the evaluation of the Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Relationships initiative, and discusses challenges faced in conducting this evaluation. Health departments in 4 communities are partnering with middle schools in high-risk, urban communities to implement 2 models of teen dating violence (TDV) prevention over 4 years. Schools were randomized to receive either the Dating Matters comprehensive strategy or the "standard of care" strategy (an existing, evidence-based TDV prevention curriculum). Our design permits comparison of the relative effectiveness of the comprehensive and standard of care strategies. Multiple cohorts of students from 46 middle schools are surveyed in middle school and high school, and parents and educators from participating schools are also surveyed. Challenges discussed in conducting a multisite RCT include site variability, separation of implementation and evaluation responsibilities, school retention, parent engagement in research activities, and working within the context of high-risk urban schools and communities. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approaches to these challenges in the hopes of informing future research. Despite multiple challenges, the design of the Dating Matters evaluation remains strong. We hope this paper provides researchers who are conducting complex evaluations of behavioral interventions with thoughtful discussion of the challenges we have faced and potential solutions to such challenges.

  8. Superdense matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section we shall discuss how to use weak coupling methods in order to explore .... quark chemical potential to be larger than the strange quark mass. ..... We would like to conclude by summarizing some of the things we have learned ...

  9. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  10. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  11. The MOBO City: A Mobile Game Package for Technical Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Fotouhi-Ghazvini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research we produced a mobile language learning game that is designed within a technical context. After conceptual analysis of the subject matter i.e. computer’s motherboard, the game was designed. The action within the game is consistent to the theme. There is a story, simplifying and exaggerating real life. Elements of control, feedback and sense of danger are incorporated into our game. By producing an engaging learning experience, vocabularies were learned incidentally. Deliberate vocabulary learning games were also added to our package to help students solve their common errors.

  12. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M A; Romero, Juan I; Holubiec, Mariana I; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  13. It doesn't matter what you say: FMRI correlates of voice learning and recognition independent of speech content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Belin, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test. To investigate "pure" voice learning, i.e., independent of sentence meaning, we presented German sentence stimuli to non-German speaking listeners. To disentangle stimulus-invariant and stimulus-dependent learning, during the test phase we contrasted a "same sentence" condition in which listeners heard speakers repeating the sentences from the preceding study phase, with a "different sentence" condition. Voice recognition performance was above chance in both conditions although, as expected, performance was higher for same than for different sentences. During study phases activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was related to subsequent voice recognition performance and same versus different sentence condition, suggesting an involvement of the left IFG in the interactive processing of speaker and speech information during learning. Importantly, at test reduced activation for voices correctly classified as "old" compared to "new" emerged in a network of brain areas including temporal voice areas (TVAs) of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), as well as the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG), the right medial frontal gyrus, and the left caudate. This effect of voice novelty did not interact with sentence condition, suggesting a role of temporal voice-selective areas and extra-temporal areas in the explicit recognition of learned voice identity

  14. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  15. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  16. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  18. Concepts of matter in science education

    CERN Document Server

    Sevian, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together a wide collection of ideas, reviews, analyses and new research on particulate and structural concepts of matter, Concepts of Matter in Science Education informs practice from pre-school through graduate school learning and teaching and aims to inspire progress in science education. The expert contributors offer a range of reviews and critical analyses of related literature and in-depth analysis of specific issues, as well as new research. Among the themes covered are learning progressions for teaching a particle model of matter, the mental models of both students and teachers of the particulate nature of matter, educational technology, chemical reactions and chemical phenomena, chemical structure and bonding, quantum chemistry and the history and philosophy of science relating to the particulate nature of matter. The book will benefit a wide audience including classroom practitioners and student teachers at every educational level, teacher educators and researchers in science education.

  19. Kaons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    1997-02-01

    The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Does the subjective quality of life of children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) agree with their parents' proxy reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsika, V; Coccossis, M; Vlassopoulos, M; Papaeleftheriou, E; Sakellariou, K; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Kokkevi, A; Skevington, S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate agreement between child-parent proxy reports on quality of life (QoL) in children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and in a control group of typically developing children. One hundred and sixteen children aged 8-14 years with SpLD, and 312 same age typically developing children with their parents (one or both), respectively, completed the child and parent versions of the KINDL(R) questionnaire. Values were analyzed with ANOVA and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Significant mean differences were found between children with SpLD and their mother's proxy ratings. So, mothers reported significantly lower scores in the dimension of everyday functioning in school, but significantly higher scores regarding the child's physical and emotional well-being. For typically developing children, significant differences between children and parents' proxy ratings were found in physical well-being and self-esteem with both parents reporting higher scores. Concerning ICC, correlations were few and low in the SpLD group but more robust in the typically developing child-parent proxy ratings with values ranging from 0.22 to 0.46. In the case of SpLD, the child's problem area, which is reflected in the KINDL(R) dimension of everyday functioning in school, seems to be an issue of controversial value that may be differentially perceived by children and their mothers. Further, it can be argued that as mothers seemed to perceive in a more negative way the child's QoL at school, they were at the same time attempting to counterbalance their reactions by overestimating the child's physical and emotional well-being. Besides differences, there is a tendency even low for mothers and children with SpLD to converge toward similar perceptions regarding the child's physical and emotional well-being and satisfaction with friends that is showing some rather common understanding of the child's overall well-being and his